Page 1


Academic Calendar, 2012–2013 History of Bard A Selective Chronology Presidents of Bard College Images of Bard

iii 1 6 8 9

Learning at Bard Mission Curriculum Academic Programs and Concentrations Specialized Degree Programs Academic Requirements and Regulations


Division of the Arts Art History Dance Film and Electronic Arts Music Photography Studio Arts Theater and Performance

29 29 40 42 50 58 61 64

Division of Languages and Literature Literature Written Arts Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Literatures Division of Science, Mathematics, and Computing Biology Chemistry Computer Science Mathematics Physics Psychology Additional Courses in the Sciences

16 16 17 22 23

69 70 95 98

116 117 124 126 130 136 139 148 i

Division of Social Studies Anthropology Economics Economics and Finance Historical Studies Philosophy Political Studies Religion Sociology

149 149 157 164 164 181 189 198 205

Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations Africana Studies American Studies Asian Studies Classical Studies Environmental and Urban Studies Experimental Humanities French Studies Gender and Sexuality Studies German Studies Global and International Studies Human Rights Irish and Celtic Studies Italian Studies Jewish Studies Latin American and Iberian Studies Medieval Studies Middle Eastern Studies Mind, Brain, and Behavior Russian and Eurasian Studies Science, Technology, and Society Social Policy Spanish Studies Theology Victorian Studies Multidisciplinary Studies

211 211 212 213 214 215 218 218 219 219 220 220 225 225 226 227 228 229 229 230 231 232 233 233 234 234

The Bard College Conservatory of Music


ii Contents International Programs and Study Abroad Additional Study Opportunities and Affiliated Institutes Additional Study Opportunities Independent Work Study Away Specialized Programs Professional Education Affiliated Programs and Institutes On campus In the United States and abroad Community Programs and Services


246 246 247 248 249 251 255 258

Civic Engagement


College Life Campus Facilities Student Activities and Services Residence Life Program Safety and Security

267 268 276 282 284

Graduate Programs Bard Center for Environmental Policy Bard College Conservatory of Music Graduate Conducting Program Graduate Vocal Arts Program Bard Graduate Center: Decorative Arts, Design History, Material Culture Bard MBA in Sustainability Center for Curatorial Studies and Art in Contemporary Culture International Center of Photography–Bard Program in Advanced Photographic Studies Longy School of Music of Bard College Master of Arts in Teaching Program Milton Avery Graduate School of the Arts


Levy Economics Institute of Bard College

285 285 286

286 286

The Bard Center Fellows of the Bard Center Institute for Writing and Thinking Bard Fiction Prize Distinguished Scientist Lecture Series Intergenerational Seminars Leon Levy Endowment Fund Cultural Programs

292 292 294 295



Finances Financial Aid Fees, Payment, and Refunds

302 302 309

Scholarships, Awards, and Prizes


Faculty Faculty and Faculty Emeritus of Bard College Faculty of the Bard College Conservatory of Music Faculty of the Language and Thinking Program Faculty of the Graduate Programs Faculty of the Affiliate Programs Distinguished Prizes, Grants, and Fellowships


295 295 296 296

330 348 352 354 359 364

Honorary Degrees and Bard College Awards


Boards and Administration


Bard Campus Map


Travel to Bard





287 288 288 289


Academic Calendar 2012–2013 Summer 2012 August 11, Saturday

Arrival date, financial clearance, and orientation for firstyear students

August 13, Monday – August 29, Wednesday

Language and Thinking Program workshop for first-year students

Fall Semester 2012 August 29, Wednesday

Arrival date and financial clearance for transfer students

August 29, Wednesday – August 30, Thursday

Orientation for transfer students

August 30, Thursday – August 31, Friday

Matriculation days, and advising and registration for new students

September 1, Saturday

Arrival date and financial clearance for all returning students

September 3, Monday

First day of classes

September 19, Wednesday

Drop/add period ends

October 8, Monday – October 9, Tuesday

Fall break

October 12, Friday – October 14, Sunday

Family Weekend

October 26, Friday

Moderation papers due

November 9, Friday

Last day to withdraw from a course

November 21, Wednesday – November 25, Sunday

Thanksgiving recess

November 28, Wednesday

Advising day

December 3, Monday

Senior Projects due for students graduating in December


iv Academic Calendar December 6, Thursday

Course registration opens for spring 2012 semester

December 17, Monday – December 21, Friday

Completion days

December 21, Friday

Last day of classes

Intersession December 22, 2012, Saturday – January 25, 2013, Friday

Winter intersession (no classes for sophomores, juniors, and seniors)

January 5, Saturday

First-year students return for Citizen Science Program

January 6, Sunday – January 23, Wednesday

Citizen Science Program

Spring Semester 2013 January 23, Wednesday

Arrival date and financial clearance for new first-year and transfer students

January 24, Thursday – January 25, Friday

Academic orientation, advising, and registration for new first-year and transfer students

January 26, Saturday

Arrival date and financial clearance for all returning students

January 28, Monday

First day of classes

February 13, Wednesday

Drop/add period ends

March 22, Friday

Moderation papers due

March 23, Saturday – March 31, Sunday

Spring recess

April 12, Friday

Last day to withdraw from a course

April 29, Monday – April 30, Tuesday

Advising days

May 1, Wednesday

Senior Projects due for students graduating in May

May 8, Wednesday

Course registration opens for fall 2013 semester

May 15, Wednesday – May 21, Tuesday

Completion days

May 21, Tuesday

Last day of classes

May 23, Thursday

Baccalaureate service and Senior Dinner

May 25, Saturday


History of Bard

The Bard College of today reflects in many ways its varied past. Bard was founded as St. Stephen’s College in 1860, a time of national crisis. While there are no written records of the founders’ attitude toward the Civil War, a passage from the College’s catalogue of 1943 applies also to the time of the institution’s establishment: “While the immediate demands in education are for the training of men for the war effort, liberal education in America must be preserved as an important value in the civilization for which the War is being fought. . . . Since education, like life itself, is a continuous process of growth and effort, the student has to be trained to comprehend and foster his own growth and direct his own efforts.” This philosophy molded the College during its early years and continues to inform its academic aims. Early Years: St. Stephen’s College was established by John Bard in association with leaders of the Episcopal Church in New York City. For its first 60 years, St. Stephen’s offered young men a classical curriculum in preparation for their entrance into the seminary. But even as a theologically oriented institution, St. Stephen’s challenged its students to be active participants in the direction of their intellectual paths over the four years of study. In support of this venture, John Bard donated part of his riverside estate, Annandale, to the College, along with the Chapel of the Holy Innocents, which is still in use. With the appointment in 1919 of Dr. Bernard Iddings Bell as warden, the College began a period of transition to a broader and more secular mission. Social and natural sciences augmented the classical curriculum, and the student body was recruited from a more diverse population. In 1928, a time of increasing financial uncertainty, St. Stephen’s became an undergraduate school of Columbia University—and a nonsectarian institution. Over the next decade, under the leadership of Dean Donald G. Tewksbury, Bard further integrated the classical and progressive educational traditions, in the process becoming the first college in the nation to give full academic status to the study of the creative and performing arts. In 1934, the name of the College was changed to Bard in honor of its founder. 1930s–1960s: Beginning in the mid-1930s and throughout the war years, the College was a haven for distinguished writers, artists, intellectuals, and scientists fleeing Europe. Among these émigrés were philosopher Heinrich Bluecher and his wife, the social critic Hannah Arendt; violinist Emil Hauser, founder of the Budapest String 1

2 History of Bard Quartet; precisionist painter Stefan Hirsch; labor economist Adolf Sturmthal; and Werner Wolff, a noted psychologist. Bard’s international outlook was reflected in a variety of programs and initiatives, as well as in its faculty. During the war, the College welcomed an elite group of soldiers who were to be trained in the French and German languages and cultures; and in the late 1940s, Eleanor Roosevelt was a frequent participant in Bard’s international student conferences. Bard underwent another “redefining” moment in 1944, when it opened its doors to women. The decision to become coeducational required Bard to end its association with Columbia, thus paving the way to its current status as an independent, nonsectarian liberal arts college. The same year marked the arrival of the first female faculty members. Barbara Dupee ’46 recalled those days in The Bardian (Spring 1998), particularly her encounters with novelist Mary McCarthy: “She was more like a student than a teacher in some ways. She would sit in what was called the Store, a place where you could get coffee, like a soda fountain. We were reading Russian novels . . . and Mary was always there, trying to finish the assigned reading. It was just madly lively.” In addition to McCarthy, the faculty of the postwar years included Saul Bellow, F. W. Dupee, Ralph Ellison, Anthony Hecht ’44, William Humphrey, and Theodore Weiss. This partial list indicates that Bard had assumed a place of eminence in the teaching of literature and writing and was attracting leading thinkers in the social sciences. The College also continued to demonstrate its commitment to global issues of education and democracy. In 1956, Bard provided a haven for 325 Hungarian student refugees after their participation in that country’s revolt against its Stalinist government. Gyula Nyikos, the chief English instructor for these students, said of Bard’s president at the time, “Jim Case didn’t open the doors; he flung them open.” The 1960s marked a period of significant growth for Bard. Under the stewardship of Reamer Kline, who served 14 years as president of the College, the number of students and faculty increased, as did campus facilities, and the curriculum was expanded, particularly in science and the visual arts. Bard also demonstrated an early commitment to civil rights. In 1962, Bard was among the first colleges to award an honorary degree to Martin Luther King Jr. 1975 to Present: In his preface to Reamer Kline’s 1982 history of the College, Leon Botstein, who became Bard’s 14th president in 1975, noted a common belief tying together Bard’s various incarnations as a training ground for Episcopal clergy, a progressive campus, and an outpost of European and American intellectualism. He wrote, “All are expressions of the one continuing conviction that by education, by leadership, and by means of institutions formed for the purpose, it is possible mightily to improve the quality of life—and to build a better society.” Under Botstein, Bard has continued to innovate, take risks, and broaden its global outlook in pursuit of these goals. He has overseen curricular innovation—including the nation’s first human rights major and the Language and Thinking Program, an intensive three-week presemester workshop for first-year students—and the

History of Bard 3 development of a new model for the liberal arts college as a central body surrounded by affiliated institutes and programs that strengthen core academic offerings. This model is flexible enough to include programs for research, graduate study, and community outreach, yet each satellite program is designed to enhance the undergraduate experience by offering students the opportunity to interact with leading artists, scientists, and scholars. Affiliated programs on campus and across the United States include Bard College at Simon’s Rock: The Early College (1979), in Great Barrington, Massachusetts; Milton Avery Graduate School of the Arts (1981); Levy Economics Institute of Bard College (1986); Center for Curatorial Studies (1990); Bard Graduate Center: Decorative Arts, Design History, Material Culture (1993) in Manhattan; Center for Environmental Policy (1999); Bard High School Early College (2001) in Manhattan, Queens, and Newark, New Jersey; Master of Arts in Teaching Program (2004); Bard College Conservatory of Music (2005); Hessel Museum of Art (2006); Hannah Arendt Center for Politics and Humanities (2008); Paramount Bard Academy in the Central Valley of California (2009); and Longy School of Music of Bard College (2012), in Cambridge, Massachusetts. A number of important initiatives developed within The Bard Center, which was established in 1978 to present artistic and intellectual programs. Bard Center Fellows and visiting scholars and artists give seminars and lectures to undergraduates and the public. Programs include the Distinguished Scientist Lecture Series, which has brought 45 Nobel laureates to Bard, and the Bard Fiction Prize, awarded to emerging writers who spend a semester in residence at the College. Also under the Bard Center auspices is the Institute for Writing and Thinking, which has had a major impact on the teaching of writing in high schools and colleges around the country. The Bard Music Festival, which each year illuminates the work and era of a specific composer, presented its first season in the summer of 1990. The Festival’s home since 2003 has been The Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts at Bard College, a venue designed by renowned architect Frank Gehry. Bard has also expanded its presence abroad under Botstein’s leadership, and furthered its efforts to promote freedom of inquiry internationally. In 1990, the College initiated the Program in International Education (PIE), which brings students from emerging democracies in Eastern and Central Europe, southern Africa, and Central Asia to Bard for one year of study. PIE also offers Bard students the opportunity to study at South Africa’s University of the Witwatersrand. This program is one of many overseen by the Institute for International Liberal Education, which was founded in 1998 to develop long-term collaborations between Bard and other leading institutions around the world. These partner campuses now include Smolny College, the first liberal arts program in Russia, which was founded in 1999 as a joint venture of Bard and St. Petersburg State University; Al-Quds University in the West Bank, which collaborated with Bard in 2009 to create the College for Liberal Arts and Sciences and a Master of Arts in Teaching Program; American University of Central Asia in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, where Bard established a dual-degree program in 2010; and the European College of Liberal Arts in Berlin, which became a Bard satellite institution, ECLA Bard, in 2011.

4 History of Bard During Botstein’s tenure, the range and distinction of Bard’s faculty have continued to grow. Noted writers and artists who spent time at the College include Nobel laureates Orhan Pamuk, José Saramago, and Isaac Bashevis Singer; writers Philip Roth, Toni Morrison, and Cynthia Ozick; filmmakers Arthur Penn and Adolfas Mekas; artists Roy Lichtenstein, Romare Bearden, Kenneth Noland, and Elizabeth Murray. Today, Bard and its on-campus affiliates boast eight recipients of MacArthur fellowships: poets John Ashbery (emeritus) and Anne Lauterbach, artist Judy Pfaff, journalist Mark Danner, choreographer Bill T. Jones, soprano Dawn Upshaw, musician George Lewis, and novelist Norman Manea. Other renowned and award-winning faculty members include writers Chinua Achebe (emeritus), Teju Cole, Daniel Mendelsohn, Francine Prose, Luc Sante, and Mona Simpson; poet Robert Kelly; composers Joan Tower and George Tsontakis; anthropologist John Ryle; photographers Stephen Shore and Gilles Peress; filmmakers Peter Hutton and Kelly Reichardt; journalist Ian Buruma; religious scholar Jacob Neusner; and Pulitzer Prize–winning biographer Elizabeth Frank. Bard alumni/ae have also been an influential force in the arts and in the physical, social, and political sciences—and in the life of the College. A short list includes actors Blythe Danner ’65, Chevy Chase ’68, and Adrian Grenier ’98; playwrights Nick Jones ’01 and Thomas Bradshaw ’02; dancer Arthur Aviles ’87; sculptor Rita McBride ’82; photographers Tim Davis ’01 and Lisa Kereszi ’95; groundbreaking artist Carolee Schneemann ’59; musicians/songwriters Richard M. Sherman ’49 and the late Robert B. Sherman ’49, Donald Fagen ’69 and Walter Becker ’71 (founders of Steely Dan), and Billy Steinberg ’72; scientists László Z. Bitó ’60, who was instrumental in developing a drug used to combat glaucoma, and George Rose ’63, an influential biochemist and biophysicist; journalist Matt Taibbi ’92; and environmental writer Elizabeth Royte ’81. Several recent graduates exemplify Bard’s emphasis on active engagement. As a student, Max Kenner ’01 began a project to bring higher education into New York State prisons. Today he oversees institutional initiatives for the College and serves as executive director of the Bard Prison Initiative, which enrolls more than 300 incarcerated students and has granted degrees to approximately 250 such students since 2005. Stephen Tremaine ’07 turned a student project to help rebuild New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina into a full-time initiative: Bard’s Early College in New Orleans Program, which brings college-level courses and teachers directly into public high schools. Other alumni/ae have assumed leadership positions with Bard’s graduate and affiliate programs, including Nayland Blake ’82, chair of the ICP-Bard Program in Advanced Photographic Studies; and Jonathan Cristol ’00, director of Bard’s Global and International Affairs Program in New York City. Recent Initiatives: Bard celebrated the 150th anniversary of its founding in 2010, and as part of the Commencement festivities, the Board of Trustees announced a comprehensive fund-raising campaign to support the core programs of the College and fund the endowment, capital projects, and annual operating expenses; the campaign

History of Bard 5 is scheduled to conclude in January 2015. New construction projects on campus include additions to Kline Commons and the Stevenson Gymnasium; the László Z. Bitó ’60 Conservatory Building, which is scheduled for completion in January 2013; a new residence hall in the Village Dorm complex; a music practice facility; and the Alumni/ae Center, which houses the Office of Development and Alumni/ae Affairs, alumni/ae meeting and exhibition spaces, and Two Boots Bard, a restaurant. In January 2011, Bard launched the first-of-its-kind Citizen Science Program, a two-and-a-half-week curriculum required for all first-year students. The January session, which focuses on the significance of science in everyday life, is part of a multipronged initiative aimed at improving science literacy throughout the College. These efforts include curricular innovations, expanded opportunities for student research with partners like Rockefeller University and the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, and upgraded facilities. The state-of-the-art Gabrielle H. Reem and Herbert J. Kayden Center for Science and Computation opened in 2007; the Center’s Lynda and Stewart Resnick Science Laboratories opened in 2009. The Center for Civic Engagement was established in 2011 to support and coordinate a wide range of initiatives that engage Bard students, faculty, and staff with critical issues facing society. The Center also sponsors lectures, conferences, and workshops; facilitates internship, volunteer, and service-learning opportunities; awards fellowships; and fosters partnerships with institutions around the globe. Also in 2011, the College opened its third Bard High School Early College campus in Newark, New Jersey, and announced the launch of Take a Stand, a program that supports social change through music. Take a Stand is an initiative of Bard, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, and the Longy School of Music. Bard and Longy merged in the spring of 2012, and the College is working with the Cambridge, Massachusetts, conservatory and preparatory school to develop new graduate programs in music and a music program for students at Bard Paramount Academy in Delano, California. Looking Ahead: Bard’s innovative Master of Business Administration in Sustainability Program is set to accept its first students in the fall of 2012. The two-year M.B.A. program, a collaboration of the Bard Center for Environmental Policy and the Levy Institute of Economics, will be based in New York City and provide a rigorous education in core business principles and in sustainable business practices, with a focus throughout on economics, environment, and social equity. Bard also has several new joint-degree programs with the Center for Environmental Policy and Master of Arts in Teaching Program that allow students to complete their undergraduate degree and an M.S. or M.A.T. degree in five years. Three additional joint-degree programs are planned. The new 3+2 initiatives, reflecting areas of particular academic strength and demand, include programs in domestic public policy and in international affairs that will lead to B.A. and M.P.A. degrees, and a program in cultural preservation and material culture, drawing on faculty at the College and at the Bard Graduate Center, which will lead to B.A. and M.A. degrees in art history.

6 History of Bard

Bard College: A Selective Chronology 1860—Bard College is founded as St. Stephen’s College by John Bard, in association with the Episcopal Church of New York City. Bard came from a family of physicians who played significant roles in the launching of Columbia University, New York Hospital, and New York City’s first free public library. 1866— The College grants degrees in the liberal arts and sciences, in addition to the preseminarian program. 1928— St. Stephen’s becomes an undergraduate college of Columbia University. 1929— Franklin Delano Roosevelt becomes a trustee and serves until 1933. 1934— The College is renamed to honor its founder. A new educational program is adapted, based on the Oxford tutorial. It includes a second-year assessment (Moderation) and a Senior Project—both pillars of the Bard education today. 1944—Bard ends its affiliation with Columbia in order to become coeducational. 1947—Radio station WXBC begins as a Senior Project. 1952— The innovative Common Course, designed by Heinrich Bluecher, is inaugurated. It is the forerunner of the current First-Year Seminar. 1956— Bard welcomes 325 Hungarian refugee students to participate in the Orientation Program, which provides instruction in English and introduction to life in the United States. 1960—The College celebrates its centennial year. Under President Reamer Kline, it undergoes a tremendous expansion in buildings, grounds, faculty and students, and core curricula. 1975— Leon Botstein takes office as the 14th president of the College and further expands the educational program by integrating the progressive tutorial system with the classical legacy of St. Stephen’s. 1978— The Bard Center is founded. 1979— Bard assumes responsibility for Simon’s Rock Early College in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. 1981— Bard launches its first affiliated graduate program, the Milton Avery Graduate School of the Arts, which offers a master of fine arts degree. The first Workshop in Language and Thinking is held for entering students. 1982— The Institute for Writing and Thinking is founded. 1986— The Jerome Levy Economics Institute is founded (now the Levy Economics Institute). Bard creates the Excellence and Equal Cost Scholarship Program. 1988— The Graduate School of Environmental Studies (now the Bard Center for Environmental Policy) offers a master of science in environmental studies. 1990—The Center for Curatorial Studies is founded. The literary journal Conjunctions makes its home at Bard. The Bard Music Festival presents its first season. 1991— The Program for International Education (PIE) brings young people from emerging democracies to study at Bard for a year. 1993— The Bard Graduate Center: Decorative Arts, Design History, Material Culture opens in New York City. 1998— The Institute for International Liberal Education is founded with a mission to advance the theory and practice of international liberal arts education.

Bard College: A Selective Chronology 7 1999— The Bard Prison Initiative is founded to bring new opportunities for higher education into the correctional system of New York State. Smolny College opens, a collaborative venture between Bard and Russia’s St. Petersburg State University. 2001— Bard and the New York City Department of Education launch Bard High School Early College, a four-year alternative school in downtown Manhattan. 2002—Bard offers the first full major in human rights at a U.S. college. 2003—The Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts, designed by architect Frank Gehry, opens. Bard and the International Center of Photography join forces to offer an M.F.A. degree in photography. 2004—The Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) Program welcomes its first class. 2005—The Bard College Conservatory of Music opens, offering a unique five-year dual-degree (B.M./B.A.) program. 2006—The Conservatory of Music initiates a graduate program in vocal performance (a graduate conducting program follows in 2010). The Center for Curatorial Studies inaugurates the Hessel Museum of Art. The West Point–Bard Exchange is launched. 2007—The Gabrielle H. Reem and Herbert J. Kayden Center for Science and Computation opens. The College launches the five-year, dual-degree (B.S./B.A.) Program in Economics and Finance. 2008—Bard High School Early College Queens opens in New York City. The Bard Urban Studies Program in New Orleans offers its first summer program. The Hannah Arendt Center for Politics and the Humanities is established. 2009—Bard partners with Al-Quds University in the West Bank on the College for Liberal Arts and Sciences and a Master of Arts in Teaching program. The Lynda and Stewart Resnick Science Laboratories is completed. Paramount Bard Academy opens in Delano, California. The parliament of reality, a permanent outdoor installation by renowned Danish-Icelandic artist Olafur Eliasson, is completed. 2010—The College establishes a partnership with American University of Central Asia. The MAT Program opens a campus at International Community High School in the Bronx. Bard graduates its largest class, 440 undergraduates. 2011—Citizen Science becomes part of the required curriculum for first-year students. The Center for Civic Engagement is established. Construction begins on the Bitó Conservatory Building. Bard High School Early College opens a third campus in Newark, New Jersey. 2012—The Longy School of Music merges with the College. Bard launches Take a Stand, in partnership with Longy and the Los Angeles Philharmonic. Bard assumes ownership of the European College of Liberal Arts in Berlin (ECLA Bard). Construction begins on an addition to the Stevenson Gymnasium and the Alumni/ae Center and Two Boots Bard. The M.B.A. in Sustainability Program welcomes its first students.

8 History of Bard

Presidents of Bard College* George Franklin Seymour Thomas Richey Robert Brinckerhoff Fairbairn Lawrence T. Cole Thomas R. Harris William Cunningham Rodgers Bernard Iddings Bell Donald George Tewksbury Harold Mestre Charles Harold Gray Edward C. Fuller James Herbert Case Jr. Reamer Kline Leon Botstein

1860–1861 1861–1863 1863–1898 1899–1903 1904–1907 1909–1919 1919–1933 1933–1937 1938–1939 1940–1946 1946–1950 1950–1960 1960–1974 1975–

*Holders of the office have been variously titled president, warden, or dean.

Top: Celebration in front of Aspinwall, c. 1920s Bottom: Blithewood, 1954 Images (above) courtesy of the Bard College Archive; Helen Tieger ’85, archivist.

Top: The Gabrielle H. Reem and Herbert J. Kayden Center for Science and Computation Bottom: The Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts at Bard College Photos: Peter Aaron ’68/Esto

Top: The Charles P. Stevenson Jr. Library complex comprises the original Hoffman Library and the connected Kellogg Library. Photo: Peter Aaron ’68/Esto. Bottom: Jim Ottaway Jr. Film Center at the Milton and Sally Avery Arts Center. Photo: Chris Kendall ’82.

Top: Robbins House residence hall Bottom: Village Dormitories Photos: Peter Aaron ’68/Esto

Top: Center for Curatorial Studies and Hessel Museum of Art. Photo: Chris Kendall ’82. Bottom: The parliament of reality, an installation by Olafur Eliasson. Photo: Peter Aaron ’68/Esto.

Top: Fisher Science and Academic Center at Bard College at Simon’s Rock: The Early College, Great Barrington, Massachusetts. Photo: Bill Tipper. Bottom: Bard High School Early College, Manhattan campus, New York City. Photo: Lisa Quiùones.

Top: The Bard Graduate Center: Decorative Arts, Design History, Material Culture, New York City. Photo: Don Hamerman. Bottom: The Bobrinskiy Palace at Smolny College, St. Petersburg, Russia. Photo: Sergey Grachev.

Learning at Bard

Bard is an independent, nonsectarian, residential college, located in New York’s Hudson Valley, about 90 miles north of New York City. The College provides a beautiful setting in which students pursue their academic interests and craft a rich cultural and social life. The campus covers more than 500 acres of fields and forested land bordering the Hudson River, about 90 miles north of New York City. It features such state-of-the-art facilities as the Gabrielle H. Reem and Herbert J. Kayden Center for Science and Computation, László Z. Bitó ’60 Conservatory Building, and Frank Gehry–designed Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts. Many facilities are clustered at the center of campus (the library, student center, dining hall, and most classrooms), while others are within easy walking or biking distance. There are approximately 1,900 undergraduates at the Annandale campus, representing all regions of the country. Twelve percent of the student body is international, representing approximately 50 countries. Undergraduates share the campus with the students and faculty of several graduate programs—the Bard Center for Environmental Policy, Center for Curatorial Studies, Master of Arts in Teaching Program, Milton Avery Graduate School of the Arts, and programs in vocal arts and conducting—which present lectures, concerts, and exhibitions that are open to the entire College community. Affiliated programs and facilities, such as the Field Station, Levy Economics Institute, Bard College Conservatory of Music, and Hannah Arendt Center for Politics and Humanities, also enrich the undergraduate experience.

Academic Mission Since its founding in 1860, Bard College has combined a firm commitment to a liberal arts and sciences education with a readiness to innovate. This approach has enhanced the undergraduate experience with compatible intellectual and artistic ventures at Bard’s Hudson Valley campus and at affiliated institutions around the world. Bard seeks to provide a challenging academic program; a supportive environment that fosters a collaborative exchange of ideas in the classroom, studio, and laboratory; and access to world-class scholarship and research. The past three decades have been a particularly vibrant time at the College. Bard has strengthened its core mission of excellence in undergraduate education, grown rapidly in size, and broadened its scope and ambitions. As highlighted by President Leon Botstein on the occasion of its 150th anniversary, Bard now has five dimensions, 16

The Curriculum 17 each of which supports the others: the undergraduate program, graduate education, the arts, international education, and the reform of secondary education. Bard’s expanding system of affiliated programs, partnerships, and centers of scholarship— recent additions include a liberal arts college in the West Bank, a music school in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and an early college program in New Orleans—reflects this broader mission, and provides new opportunities for student engagement with critical global issues and with leading scholars, artists, and experts in a diverse array of fields. Choice, flexibility, and rigor are the hallmarks of the Bard education, which is a transformative synthesis of the liberal arts and progressive traditions. The liberal arts tradition at Bard is evident in the common curriculum for first-year students, including the First-Year Seminar and Citizen Science Program, and in general courses that ground students in the essentials of inquiry and analysis and present a serious encounter with the world of ideas. The progressive tradition is reflected in Bard’s tutorial system and interdisciplinary curriculum, which emphasize independent and creative thought, and the skills required to express those thoughts with power and effect. Students are encouraged to be actively engaged throughout the four years of their undergraduate experience and to help shape, in tandem with faculty advisers, the subject matter of their education.

The Curriculum The undergraduate curriculum creates a flexible system of courses that gives coherence, breadth, and depth to the four years of study and helps students become knowledgeable across academic boundaries and able to think critically within a discipline or mode of thought. The pillars of the Bard education are the structure of the first year, including the First-Year Seminar; the program- and concentration-based approach to study; Moderation; the concept of distribution by modes of thought; and the Senior Project. Students move from the Lower College (first and second years), which focuses on general education and introduces the content and methodology of the academic and artistic areas in which students may specialize, to the Upper College (third and fourth years), which involves advanced study of particular subjects and more independent work.

Structure of the First Year All first-year students participate in a common curriculum—the Language and Thinking Program at Bard College, Citizen Science, First-Year Seminar, and firstyear advising—and also take elective courses.

18 Learning at Bard The Language and Thinking Program is an intensive introduction to the liberal arts and sciences with a particular focus on writing. It is attended by all incoming Bard students during the last three weeks of August. Students read extensively, work on a variety of projects in writing and other formats, and meet throughout the day in small groups and in one-on-one conferences with faculty. The work aims to cultivate habits of thoughtful reading and discussion, clear articulation, accurate self-critique, and productive collaboration. Satisfactory completion of the program is required for matriculation into the College. Students who fail to meet this requirement are required to defer matriculation for a full academic year. Citizen Science, a two-and-a-half-week program that takes place during the January intersession, seeks to promote science literacy and introduce students to methods of evaluating scientific evidence. Teaching occurs in three distinct classroom modules: laboratory experimentation, computer-based modeling, and problem-based learning. For the past two years, the program has focused on the critical theme of infectious disease and the impact that infectious disease outbreaks and subsequent management can have on global society. The First-Year Seminar introduces important intellectual, cultural, and artistic ideas that serve as a basis for the liberal arts education. These ideas are presented in the context of a historic tradition and on as broad a scale as feasible within a framework that emphasizes precise, analytical thinking through class discussions and frequent writing assignments. The heart of the yearlong course is a series of core texts that focus on the theme “Quaestio mihi factus sum: Self and Society in the Liberal Arts.� Core texts for the fall semester include works by Plato, Virgil, Augustine, Dante, Shakespeare, and Galileo. Core texts for the spring semester include works by Rousseau, Montaigne, Kant, Shelley, Marx, Turgenev, Nietzsche, Du Bois, Woolf, and Arendt. Guest lectures, panel presentations, and films supplement readings and discussions. First-Year Advising All first-year students are assigned an academic adviser, with whom they meet at strategic points during each semester: before registration; two weeks into the semester, when course selection is final; shortly before midterm; two weeks after midterm; and just prior to registration for the next semester. The advising system is intended to help students begin the process of selecting a program in which to major, meet the requirements of that program, prepare for professional study or other activities outside of or after college, and satisfy other interests. First-Year Electives allow students to explore fields in which they know they are inter-

ested and to experiment with unfamiliar areas of study. Students select three elective courses in each semester of the first year (the fourth course is the First-Year Seminar).

Program and Concentration Approach to Study A liberal arts education offers students both breadth and depth of learning. At Bard, the primary sources of breadth are the First-Year Seminar and the distribution requirements. The primary source of depth is the requirement that each student major in

The Curriculum 19 a stand-alone academic program, possibly in conjunction with a non-stand-alone field of study, or concentration, or with another program in a joint major. A program is a sequenced course of study designed by faculty (and sometimes by students in conjunction with faculty) to focus on a particular area of knowledge or a particular approach to an area. The course of study begins at the introductory level and moves in progressive stages toward the development of the ability to think and/or create, innovatively and reflectively, by means of the formal structures that the discipline provides. A concentration is a cluster of related courses on a clearly defined topic. A student may moderate into a concentration, but only in tandem with his or her Moderation into a program. With a curriculum based on programs rather than more traditionally defined departments, the faculty are encouraged to rethink boundaries between divisions and disciplines and to examine the content of their courses in terms of how the courses interact with one another. This more flexible framework allows students to create interdisciplinary plans of study. Many programs and concentrations, such as Asian studies and human rights, are interdisciplinary in nature and can take advantage of the faculty and offerings of the entire College. For example, the Asian Studies Program may draw from courses in history, literature, art history, and economics. The requirements for Moderation and graduation differ from program to program and are summarized in the individual descriptions that appear in this catalogue. All students must declare a major in a program in order to moderate from the Lower College to the Upper College and become a candidate for the bachelor of arts degree. A student who decides to pursue a double major—say, physics and philosophy—must satisfy the requirements of both programs and complete two Senior Projects. A student who pursues a joint major moderates into two programs, ideally in a joint Moderation, and completes course requirements for both programs and a single, unified Senior Project. A student who pursues study in a concentration must moderate (in conjunction with moderating into a program), fulfill all course requirements, and produce a Senior Project that combines the interdisciplinary theories and methods of the concentration with the disciplinary theories and methods of the program.

Moderation Moderation is undertaken in the second semester of the sophomore year. Through this process students make the transition from the Lower College to the Upper College and establish their major in a program. (Transfer students entering with the equivalent of two full years of credit should, if possible, moderate during the first semester of residence, but in no case later than the second.) Each student prepares two Moderation papers, the first assessing his or her curriculum, performance, and experience in the first two years, and the second identifying his or her goals and proposed study plan for the final two years. The student also submits a sample of work he or she has done in the program—for example, a long

20 Learning at Bard paper written for a course. The work is reviewed by a board of three faculty members, who also evaluate the student’s past performance, commitment, and preparedness in the field; make suggestions for the transition from the Lower to the Upper College; and approve, deny, or defer promotion of the student to the Upper College.

Distribution Requirements The distribution requirements at Bard are a formal statement of the College’s desire to achieve an equilibrium between breadth and depth, between communication across disciplinary boundaries and rigor within a mode of thought. In order to introduce the student to a variety of intellectual and artistic experiences and to foster encounters with faculty members trained in a broad range of disciplines, each student is required to take one course in each of the nine categories listed below. No more than two requirements may be fulfilled within a single disciplinary program. High school Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate courses may not be used to satisfy the requirements. Non-native speakers of English are exempted from the Foreign Language, Literature, and Culture requirement. • •

• • • • • • •

Analysis of Arts (a course in the analysis of nonverbal art) Foreign Language, Literature, and Culture (a course focused on language acquisition and/or the analysis of literature or culture via an engagement with a nonEnglish language) History (a course focused on historical analysis) Humanities (a course focused on the analysis of primary texts in philosophy, religion, or social thought) Laboratory Science (a laboratory course in the physical or life sciences) Literature in English (a course focused on the literary analysis and explication of texts in English, in either the original or translation) Mathematics and Computing (a course in mathematics, computing, statistics, or logic; all courses require passing the Q-test, a mathematical skills evaluation exam) Practicing Arts (a studio course in the visual or performing arts, or creative writing) Social Science (a course in an empirical social science other than history)

In addition, all students must fulfill a “Rethinking Difference” requirement. Courses with this designation focus on the study of difference in the context of larger social dynamics; they may consider the contexts of globalization, nationalism, and social justice, as well as differences of race, religion, ethnicity, class, gender, and/or sexuality. A single course may simultaneously fulfill both the “Rethinking Difference” requirement and another distribution requirement.

Senior Project The Senior Project is an original, individual, focused project growing out of the student’s cumulative academic experiences. Students have great flexibility in choosing

The Curriculum 21 the form of their project. For example, a social studies project might be a research project, a close textual analysis, a report of findings from fieldwork, or a photographic essay, while a science project might be a report on original experiments, an analysis of published research findings, or a contribution to theory. Preparation for the Senior Project begins in the junior year. Students consult with advisers, and pursue course work, tutorials, and seminars directed toward selecting a topic, choosing the form of the project, and becoming competent in the analytical and research methods required by the topic and form. Students in some programs design a Major Conference during their junior year, which may take the form of a seminar, tutorial, studio work, or field or laboratory work. One course each semester of the student’s final year is devoted to completing the Senior Project. The student submits the completed project to a board of three professors, who conduct a Senior Project Review. Written projects are filed in the library’s archives; samples of each arts project appear with a statement by the student in Word and Image, an online publication.

Academic Courses The courses offered in the undergraduate program are described in this catalogue under the four divisional headings and the interdivisional programs and concentrations heading. Courses that are required by, recommended for, or related to another program are cross-listed in the course descriptions. For example, Art History 258, Manet to Matisse, is cross-listed as a course in the French Studies Program. Courses numbered 100 through 199 are primarily, though not exclusively, for firstyear students; 200-level courses are primarily for Lower College students; and 300and 400-level courses are designed for Upper College students. Every semester, approximately 550 courses are offered, about a fifth as tutorials (often student designed) and the rest as seminars, studio courses, lectures, Senior Projects, and independent studies. The average class size is 18 in the Lower College and 12 in the Upper College. Most courses in the Lower College meet twice weekly for 80 minutes each session, although instructors may vary the length and frequency of meetings according to their estimation of a class’s needs. Many seminar courses in the Upper College meet once a week for two hours and 20 minutes. Laboratory courses usually meet three times a week (two two-hour seminars or lectures and a laboratory session). Introductory language courses customarily have four one-hour sessions each week, intensive language courses have five two-hour sessions each week, and immersion language courses have five three-hour sessions each week. Most tutorials meet once a week for one hour. All courses carry 4 credits unless otherwise noted. There are several 2-credit seminars; intensive language courses carry 8 credits and immersion language courses 12 credits. A normal course load is 16 credits each semester. To receive more than 18 credits, a student must be certified by the registrar’s office as having had a 3.6

22 Learning at Bard average or higher in the preceding semester and cumulatively. Exceptions must be approved by the dean of studies.

Academic Programs and Concentrations Undergraduate students can earn a bachelor of arts degree in one of approximately 35 stand-alone programs in the following academic divisions: The Arts; Languages and Literature; Science, Mathematics, and Computing; Social Studies; and Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations. They may moderate into a concentration, or cluster of related courses, in conjunction with Moderation into a program. The programs and concentrations currently offered are listed alphabetically below, along with their home division. Concentrations are indicated by the letter “C.� Program/Concentration Africana Studies C American Studies Anthropology Art History Asian Studies Biology Chemistry Classical Studies Computer Science Dance Economics Economics and Finance Environmental and Urban Studies (EUS) Experimental Humanities C Film and Electronic Arts Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Literatures Arabic Chinese French German Greek Italian Japanese Latin Russian Spanish

Home Division Interdivisional Interdivisional Social Studies The Arts Interdivisional Science, Mathematics, and Computing Science, Mathematics, and Computing Interdivisional Science, Mathematics, and Computing The Arts Social Studies Social Studies Interdivisional Interdivisional The Arts Languages and Literature

Language instruction is also offered in Hebrew (through Jewish Studies) and Sanskrit (Religion)

French Studies Gender and Sexuality Studies (GSS)


Interdivisional Interdivisional

Specialized Degree Programs 23 Program/Concentration German Studies Global and International Studies (GIS) Historical Studies Human Rights Irish and Celtic Studies (ICS) Italian Studies Jewish Studies Latin American and Iberian Studies (LAIS) Literature Mathematics Medieval Studies Middle Eastern Studies Mind, Brain, and Behavior (MBB) Music Philosophy Photography Physics Political Studies Psychology Religion Russian and Eurasian Studies (RES) Science, Technology, and Society (STS) Social Policy Sociology Spanish Studies Studio Arts Theater and Performance Theology Victorian Studies Written Arts


Home Division Interdivisional Interdivisional


Social Studies Interdivisional Interdivisional


Interdivisional Interdivisional Interdivisional


Languages and Literature Science, Mathematics, and Computing Interdivisional Interdivisional Interdivisional The Arts Social Studies The Arts Science, Mathematics, and Computing Social Studies Science, Mathematics, and Computing Social Studies Interdivisional




Interdivisional Social Studies Interdivisional The Arts The Arts Interdivisional Interdivisional Languages and Literature


Specialized Degree Programs In addition to the bachelor of arts degree, Bard College offers two five-year, dual-degree undergraduate programs: •

The Program in Economics and Finance offers a B.S. degree in economics and finance and a bachelor of arts degree in another field in the liberal arts or sciences other than economics (see page 164).

24 Learning at Bard •

The Bard College Conservatory of Music offers a bachelor’s degree in music and a B.A. in another field in the liberal arts or sciences other than music (see page 235).

Preprofessional undergraduate and joint-degree options (for example, prelaw and engineering) are also available. For more information, see the “Additional Study Opportunities and Affiliated Institutes” chapter in this catalogue. Bard and its affiliates also offer the following graduate degrees: M.A., M.Phil., and Ph.D. in decorative arts, design history, and material culture; M.A. in curatorial studies; M.B.A. in sustainability; M.S. in environmental policy and in climate science and policy; M.A.T.; M.F.A.; and M.Music. For more information, see

“Graduate Programs.”

New York State HEGIS* Codes Enrollment in other than registered or otherwise approved programs may jeopardize a student’s eligibility for certain student aid awards. The following undergraduate and graduate degree programs have been registered for Bard College by the New York State Education Department. Degree Program



1001 1599 4902 2201 2204 1004 4901

B.A. B.A. B.A. B.A. B.S. B.Music B.A./B.S./B.P.S.

1003 1099 0420 1001 1004 0506 0803

M.A./M.Phil./Ph.D. M.A. M.S. M.F.A. M.Music M.B.A. M.A.T.


Arts Languages and Literature Science, Mathematics, and Computing Social Studies Economics and Finance Conservatory of Music Returning to College Graduate

Decorative Arts, Design History, Material Culture Curatorial Studies Environmental / Climate Science Policy Fine Arts Music Sustainability Teaching * Higher Education General Information Survey

Academic Requirements and Regulations 25

Academic Requirements and Regulations Bachelor’s Degree Requirements Candidates for a bachelor of arts degree from Bard must meet the following requirements:

1. Completion, by entering first-year students, of the two-semester First-Year Seminar. A student who enters in the second semester of the first year must complete that semester of the seminar. A student who transfers into the College as a sophomore or junior is exempt from the seminar. 2. Completion, by entering first-year students, of the January Citizen Science Program. A student who transfers into the College after the second semester of the first year is exempt from the program. 3. Promotion to the Upper College through Moderation 4. Completion of the requirements of the program into which they moderate 5. Completion of the courses necessary to satisfy the distribution requirements 6. Semester hours of academic credit: • 124, for students who matriculated prior to the fall of 2011 • 128, for students who matriculate after the fall of 2011 • 160, for students in five-year, dual-degree programs (156, for Conservatory students who enrolled before the fall of 2011) At least 64 credits must be earned at the Annandale-on-Hudson campus of Bard College. At least 40 credits must be outside the major division; the First-Year Seminar counts for 8 of the 40 credits. 7. Enrollment as full-time students for not less than two years at the Annandale-on-Hudson campus of Bard College or at a program directly run by Bard College 8. Completion of an acceptable Senior Project A student who fulfills the above Bard College requirements also fulfills the requirements of the Regents of the University of the State of New York and of the New York State Education Department.

Evaluation and Grades Every student receives a criteria sheet in every course. The criteria sheets contain midterm and final grades and comments by the instructor about the student’s performance. Grading System The academic divisions regularly use a letter grading system, although in some instances a pass/fail option may be requested. Students must submit a request before the end of the drop/add period to take a course pass/fail. Professors may accommodate requests at their own discretion. An honors grade (H)

26 Learning at Bard in the Arts Division is the equivalent of an A. Unless the instructor of a course specifies otherwise, letter grades (and their grade-point equivalents) are defined as follows. (The grades A+, D+, and D- are not used at Bard.) A, A– (4.0, 3.7) B+, B, B– (3.3, 3.0, 2.7) C+, C (2.3, 2.0) C–, D (1.7, 1.0) F

Excellent work Work that is more than satisfactory Competent work Performance that is poor, but deserving of credit Failure to reach the standard required in the course for credit

Incomplete (I) Status All work for a course must be submitted no later than the date of the last class of the semester, except in extenuating medical or personal circumstances beyond a student’s control. In such situations, and only in such situations, a designation of Incomplete (I) may be granted by the professor at the end of the semester to allow a student extra time to complete the work of the course. It is recommended that an incomplete status not be maintained for more than one semester, but a professor may specify any date for the completion of the work. In the absence of specification, the registrar will assume that the deadline is the end of the semester after the one in which the course was taken. At the end of the time assigned, the I will be changed to a grade of F unless another default grade has been specified. Requests for grade changes at later dates may always be submitted to the Faculty Executive Committee. Withdrawal (W) from Courses After the drop/add deadline, a student may withdraw from a course with the written consent of the instructor (using the proper form, available in the Office of the Registrar). Withdrawal from a course after the withdrawal deadline requires permission from the Faculty Executive Committee. In all cases of withdrawal, the course appears on the student’s criteria sheet and grade transcript with the designation of W. Registration (R) Credit Students who wish to explore an area of interest may register for an R credit course (in addition to their regular credit courses), which will be entered on their record but does not earn credits toward graduation. To receive the R credit, a student’s attendance must meet the requirements of the instructor.

Academic Deficiencies The Faculty Executive Committee determines the status of students with academic deficiencies, with attention to the following guidelines: A warning letter may be sent to students whose academic work is deficient but does not merit probation. • A first-semester student who receives a C– and a D or lower will be placed on academic probation. • Students other than first-semester students who receive two grades of C– or lower will be placed on probation. •

Academic Requirements and Regulations 27 A student who has failed to make satisfactory progress toward the degree may be required to take a mandatory leave of absence. Factors taken into account include grades, failure to moderate in the second year, and the accumulation of incompletes and withdrawals. A student on mandatory leave of absence may return to the College only after having complied with conditions stated by the Faculty Executive Committee. • To be removed from probation, a student must successfully complete at least three courses (12 credits) with no grade lower than a C during the next semester, and fulfill any other stipulations mandated by the Faculty Executive Committee. • A student who is on probation for two successive semesters may be dismissed from the College. • A student who receives three Fs or two Fs and two Ds may be dismissed from the College. •

Decisions about a student’s status are made at the discretion of the Faculty Executive Committee, taking into consideration the student’s entire record and any recommendations from the student’s instructors and advisers and relevant members of the administration. Academic dismissal appears on a student’s transcript.

Plagiarism and Academic Dishonesty To plagiarize is to “steal and pass off as one’s own the ideas, words, or writings of another.” This dictionary definition is quite straightforward, but it is possible for students to plagiarize inadvertently if they do not carefully distinguish between their own ideas or paper topics and those of others. The Bard faculty regards acts of plagiarism very seriously. Listed below are guidelines to help students avoid committing plagiarism. •

• • • •

All work submitted must be the author’s. Authors should be able to trace all of their sources and defend the originality of the final argument presented in the work. When taking notes, students should record full bibliographical material pertaining to the source and should record the page reference for all notes, not just quotations. All phrases, sentences, and excerpts that are not the author’s must be identified with quotation marks or indentation. Footnotes, endnotes, and parenthetical documentation (“in-noting”) must identify the source from which the phrases, sentences, and excerpts have been taken. All ideas and data that are not the author’s must also be attributed to a particular source, in either a footnote, endnote, or in-note (see above). Bibliographies must list all sources used in a paper. Students who have doubts as to whether they are providing adequate documentation of their sources should seek guidance from their instructor before preparing a final draft of the assignment.

28 Learning at Bard Penalties for Plagiarism / Academic Dishonesty

Students who are found to have plagiarized or engaged in academic dishonesty will be placed on academic probation. Additional penalties are as follows: • • •

Failure in the course in which plagiarism or dishonesty occurs Denial of the degree, in cases involving a Senior Project Expulsion from the College for a second offense

The following penalties may be imposed on a student who writes a paper or part of a paper for another student (even if this is done during a formal tutoring session): • •

Loss of all credit for that semester and suspension for the remainder of that semester Expulsion for a second offense

Any student accused of plagiarism, academic dishonesty, or writing for another’s use may submit a written appeal to the Faculty Executive Committee. The findings of this body are final. Students may not submit the same work, in whole or in part, for more than one course without first consulting with and receiving consent from all professors involved.

Withdrawal from the College and Rematriculation Students in good academic standing who find it necessary to withdraw from the College may apply for rematriculation. They must submit an application for rematriculation to the dean of students, stating the reasons for withdrawal and the activities engaged in while away from Bard. A student who leaves Bard for medical reasons must also submit a physician’s statement that he or she is ready to resume a full-time academic program. Students in good academic standing who wish to withdraw for a stated period of time (one semester or one academic year) may maintain their status as degree candidates by filing in advance a leave of absence form approved by the dean of students. Such students may rematriculate simply by notifying the dean of students of their intention to return by the end of the semester immediately preceding the semester for which they intend to return. A student dismissed for academic reasons may apply for readmission after one year’s absence from Bard by writing to the dean of the college. The student’s record at Bard and application for readmission are carefully reviewed; the student must have fulfilled requirements specified by the Faculty Executive Committee at the time of dismissal.

Learning at Bard

Bard is an independent, nonsectarian, residential college, located in New York’s Hudson Valley, about 90 miles north of New York City. The College provides a beautiful setting in which students pursue their academic interests and craft a rich cultural and social life. The campus covers more than 500 acres of fields and forested land bordering the Hudson River, about 90 miles north of New York City. It features such state-of-the-art facilities as the Gabrielle H. Reem and Herbert J. Kayden Center for Science and Computation, László Z. Bitó ’60 Conservatory Building, and Frank Gehry–designed Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts. Many facilities are clustered at the center of campus (the library, student center, dining hall, and most classrooms), while others are within easy walking or biking distance. There are approximately 1,900 undergraduates at the Annandale campus, representing all regions of the country. Twelve percent of the student body is international, representing approximately 50 countries. Undergraduates share the campus with the students and faculty of several graduate programs—the Bard Center for Environmental Policy, Center for Curatorial Studies, Master of Arts in Teaching Program, Milton Avery Graduate School of the Arts, and programs in vocal arts and conducting—which present lectures, concerts, and exhibitions that are open to the entire College community. Affiliated programs and facilities, such as the Field Station, Levy Economics Institute, Bard College Conservatory of Music, and Hannah Arendt Center for Politics and Humanities, also enrich the undergraduate experience.

Academic Mission Since its founding in 1860, Bard College has combined a firm commitment to a liberal arts and sciences education with a readiness to innovate. This approach has enhanced the undergraduate experience with compatible intellectual and artistic ventures at Bard’s Hudson Valley campus and at affiliated institutions around the world. Bard seeks to provide a challenging academic program; a supportive environment that fosters a collaborative exchange of ideas in the classroom, studio, and laboratory; and access to world-class scholarship and research. The past three decades have been a particularly vibrant time at the College. Bard has strengthened its core mission of excellence in undergraduate education, grown rapidly in size, and broadened its scope and ambitions. As highlighted by President Leon Botstein on the occasion of its 150th anniversary, Bard now has five dimensions, 16

The Curriculum 17 each of which supports the others: the undergraduate program, graduate education, the arts, international education, and the reform of secondary education. Bard’s expanding system of affiliated programs, partnerships, and centers of scholarship— recent additions include a liberal arts college in the West Bank, a music school in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and an early college program in New Orleans—reflects this broader mission, and provides new opportunities for student engagement with critical global issues and with leading scholars, artists, and experts in a diverse array of fields. Choice, flexibility, and rigor are the hallmarks of the Bard education, which is a transformative synthesis of the liberal arts and progressive traditions. The liberal arts tradition at Bard is evident in the common curriculum for first-year students, including the First-Year Seminar and Citizen Science Program, and in general courses that ground students in the essentials of inquiry and analysis and present a serious encounter with the world of ideas. The progressive tradition is reflected in Bard’s tutorial system and interdisciplinary curriculum, which emphasize independent and creative thought, and the skills required to express those thoughts with power and effect. Students are encouraged to be actively engaged throughout the four years of their undergraduate experience and to help shape, in tandem with faculty advisers, the subject matter of their education.

The Curriculum The undergraduate curriculum creates a flexible system of courses that gives coherence, breadth, and depth to the four years of study and helps students become knowledgeable across academic boundaries and able to think critically within a discipline or mode of thought. The pillars of the Bard education are the structure of the first year, including the First-Year Seminar; the program- and concentration-based approach to study; Moderation; the concept of distribution by modes of thought; and the Senior Project. Students move from the Lower College (first and second years), which focuses on general education and introduces the content and methodology of the academic and artistic areas in which students may specialize, to the Upper College (third and fourth years), which involves advanced study of particular subjects and more independent work.

Structure of the First Year All first-year students participate in a common curriculum—the Language and Thinking Program at Bard College, Citizen Science, First-Year Seminar, and firstyear advising—and also take elective courses.

18 Learning at Bard The Language and Thinking Program is an intensive introduction to the liberal arts and sciences with a particular focus on writing. It is attended by all incoming Bard students during the last three weeks of August. Students read extensively, work on a variety of projects in writing and other formats, and meet throughout the day in small groups and in one-on-one conferences with faculty. The work aims to cultivate habits of thoughtful reading and discussion, clear articulation, accurate self-critique, and productive collaboration. Satisfactory completion of the program is required for matriculation into the College. Students who fail to meet this requirement are required to defer matriculation for a full academic year. Citizen Science, a two-and-a-half-week program that takes place during the January intersession, seeks to promote science literacy and introduce students to methods of evaluating scientific evidence. Teaching occurs in three distinct classroom modules: laboratory experimentation, computer-based modeling, and problem-based learning. For the past two years, the program has focused on the critical theme of infectious disease and the impact that infectious disease outbreaks and subsequent management can have on global society. The First-Year Seminar introduces important intellectual, cultural, and artistic ideas that serve as a basis for the liberal arts education. These ideas are presented in the context of a historic tradition and on as broad a scale as feasible within a framework that emphasizes precise, analytical thinking through class discussions and frequent writing assignments. The heart of the yearlong course is a series of core texts that focus on the theme “Quaestio mihi factus sum: Self and Society in the Liberal Arts.� Core texts for the fall semester include works by Plato, Virgil, Augustine, Dante, Shakespeare, and Galileo. Core texts for the spring semester include works by Rousseau, Montaigne, Kant, Shelley, Marx, Turgenev, Nietzsche, Du Bois, Woolf, and Arendt. Guest lectures, panel presentations, and films supplement readings and discussions. First-Year Advising All first-year students are assigned an academic adviser, with whom they meet at strategic points during each semester: before registration; two weeks into the semester, when course selection is final; shortly before midterm; two weeks after midterm; and just prior to registration for the next semester. The advising system is intended to help students begin the process of selecting a program in which to major, meet the requirements of that program, prepare for professional study or other activities outside of or after college, and satisfy other interests. First-Year Electives allow students to explore fields in which they know they are inter-

ested and to experiment with unfamiliar areas of study. Students select three elective courses in each semester of the first year (the fourth course is the First-Year Seminar).

Program and Concentration Approach to Study A liberal arts education offers students both breadth and depth of learning. At Bard, the primary sources of breadth are the First-Year Seminar and the distribution requirements. The primary source of depth is the requirement that each student major in

The Curriculum 19 a stand-alone academic program, possibly in conjunction with a non-stand-alone field of study, or concentration, or with another program in a joint major. A program is a sequenced course of study designed by faculty (and sometimes by students in conjunction with faculty) to focus on a particular area of knowledge or a particular approach to an area. The course of study begins at the introductory level and moves in progressive stages toward the development of the ability to think and/or create, innovatively and reflectively, by means of the formal structures that the discipline provides. A concentration is a cluster of related courses on a clearly defined topic. A student may moderate into a concentration, but only in tandem with his or her Moderation into a program. With a curriculum based on programs rather than more traditionally defined departments, the faculty are encouraged to rethink boundaries between divisions and disciplines and to examine the content of their courses in terms of how the courses interact with one another. This more flexible framework allows students to create interdisciplinary plans of study. Many programs and concentrations, such as Asian studies and human rights, are interdisciplinary in nature and can take advantage of the faculty and offerings of the entire College. For example, the Asian Studies Program may draw from courses in history, literature, art history, and economics. The requirements for Moderation and graduation differ from program to program and are summarized in the individual descriptions that appear in this catalogue. All students must declare a major in a program in order to moderate from the Lower College to the Upper College and become a candidate for the bachelor of arts degree. A student who decides to pursue a double major—say, physics and philosophy—must satisfy the requirements of both programs and complete two Senior Projects. A student who pursues a joint major moderates into two programs, ideally in a joint Moderation, and completes course requirements for both programs and a single, unified Senior Project. A student who pursues study in a concentration must moderate (in conjunction with moderating into a program), fulfill all course requirements, and produce a Senior Project that combines the interdisciplinary theories and methods of the concentration with the disciplinary theories and methods of the program.

Moderation Moderation is undertaken in the second semester of the sophomore year. Through this process students make the transition from the Lower College to the Upper College and establish their major in a program. (Transfer students entering with the equivalent of two full years of credit should, if possible, moderate during the first semester of residence, but in no case later than the second.) Each student prepares two Moderation papers, the first assessing his or her curriculum, performance, and experience in the first two years, and the second identifying his or her goals and proposed study plan for the final two years. The student also submits a sample of work he or she has done in the program—for example, a long

20 Learning at Bard paper written for a course. The work is reviewed by a board of three faculty members, who also evaluate the student’s past performance, commitment, and preparedness in the field; make suggestions for the transition from the Lower to the Upper College; and approve, deny, or defer promotion of the student to the Upper College.

Distribution Requirements The distribution requirements at Bard are a formal statement of the College’s desire to achieve an equilibrium between breadth and depth, between communication across disciplinary boundaries and rigor within a mode of thought. In order to introduce the student to a variety of intellectual and artistic experiences and to foster encounters with faculty members trained in a broad range of disciplines, each student is required to take one course in each of the nine categories listed below. No more than two requirements may be fulfilled within a single disciplinary program. High school Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate courses may not be used to satisfy the requirements. Non-native speakers of English are exempted from the Foreign Language, Literature, and Culture requirement. • •

• • • • • • •

Analysis of Arts (a course in the analysis of nonverbal art) Foreign Language, Literature, and Culture (a course focused on language acquisition and/or the analysis of literature or culture via an engagement with a nonEnglish language) History (a course focused on historical analysis) Humanities (a course focused on the analysis of primary texts in philosophy, religion, or social thought) Laboratory Science (a laboratory course in the physical or life sciences) Literature in English (a course focused on the literary analysis and explication of texts in English, in either the original or translation) Mathematics and Computing (a course in mathematics, computing, statistics, or logic; all courses require passing the Q-test, a mathematical skills evaluation exam) Practicing Arts (a studio course in the visual or performing arts, or creative writing) Social Science (a course in an empirical social science other than history)

In addition, all students must fulfill a “Rethinking Difference” requirement. Courses with this designation focus on the study of difference in the context of larger social dynamics; they may consider the contexts of globalization, nationalism, and social justice, as well as differences of race, religion, ethnicity, class, gender, and/or sexuality. A single course may simultaneously fulfill both the “Rethinking Difference” requirement and another distribution requirement.

Senior Project The Senior Project is an original, individual, focused project growing out of the student’s cumulative academic experiences. Students have great flexibility in choosing

The Curriculum 21 the form of their project. For example, a social studies project might be a research project, a close textual analysis, a report of findings from fieldwork, or a photographic essay, while a science project might be a report on original experiments, an analysis of published research findings, or a contribution to theory. Preparation for the Senior Project begins in the junior year. Students consult with advisers, and pursue course work, tutorials, and seminars directed toward selecting a topic, choosing the form of the project, and becoming competent in the analytical and research methods required by the topic and form. Students in some programs design a Major Conference during their junior year, which may take the form of a seminar, tutorial, studio work, or field or laboratory work. One course each semester of the student’s final year is devoted to completing the Senior Project. The student submits the completed project to a board of three professors, who conduct a Senior Project Review. Written projects are filed in the library’s archives; samples of each arts project appear with a statement by the student in Word and Image, an online publication.

Academic Courses The courses offered in the undergraduate program are described in this catalogue under the four divisional headings and the interdivisional programs and concentrations heading. Courses that are required by, recommended for, or related to another program are cross-listed in the course descriptions. For example, Art History 258, Manet to Matisse, is cross-listed as a course in the French Studies Program. Courses numbered 100 through 199 are primarily, though not exclusively, for firstyear students; 200-level courses are primarily for Lower College students; and 300and 400-level courses are designed for Upper College students. Every semester, approximately 550 courses are offered, about a fifth as tutorials (often student designed) and the rest as seminars, studio courses, lectures, Senior Projects, and independent studies. The average class size is 18 in the Lower College and 12 in the Upper College. Most courses in the Lower College meet twice weekly for 80 minutes each session, although instructors may vary the length and frequency of meetings according to their estimation of a class’s needs. Many seminar courses in the Upper College meet once a week for two hours and 20 minutes. Laboratory courses usually meet three times a week (two two-hour seminars or lectures and a laboratory session). Introductory language courses customarily have four one-hour sessions each week, intensive language courses have five two-hour sessions each week, and immersion language courses have five three-hour sessions each week. Most tutorials meet once a week for one hour. All courses carry 4 credits unless otherwise noted. There are several 2-credit seminars; intensive language courses carry 8 credits and immersion language courses 12 credits. A normal course load is 16 credits each semester. To receive more than 18 credits, a student must be certified by the registrar’s office as having had a 3.6

22 Learning at Bard average or higher in the preceding semester and cumulatively. Exceptions must be approved by the dean of studies.

Academic Programs and Concentrations Undergraduate students can earn a bachelor of arts degree in one of approximately 35 stand-alone programs in the following academic divisions: The Arts; Languages and Literature; Science, Mathematics, and Computing; Social Studies; and Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations. They may moderate into a concentration, or cluster of related courses, in conjunction with Moderation into a program. The programs and concentrations currently offered are listed alphabetically below, along with their home division. Concentrations are indicated by the letter “C.� Program/Concentration Africana Studies C American Studies Anthropology Art History Asian Studies Biology Chemistry Classical Studies Computer Science Dance Economics Economics and Finance Environmental and Urban Studies (EUS) Experimental Humanities C Film and Electronic Arts Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Literatures Arabic Chinese French German Greek Italian Japanese Latin Russian Spanish

Home Division Interdivisional Interdivisional Social Studies The Arts Interdivisional Science, Mathematics, and Computing Science, Mathematics, and Computing Interdivisional Science, Mathematics, and Computing The Arts Social Studies Social Studies Interdivisional Interdivisional The Arts Languages and Literature

Language instruction is also offered in Hebrew (through Jewish Studies) and Sanskrit (Religion)

French Studies Gender and Sexuality Studies (GSS)


Interdivisional Interdivisional

Specialized Degree Programs 23 Program/Concentration German Studies Global and International Studies (GIS) Historical Studies Human Rights Irish and Celtic Studies (ICS) Italian Studies Jewish Studies Latin American and Iberian Studies (LAIS) Literature Mathematics Medieval Studies Middle Eastern Studies Mind, Brain, and Behavior (MBB) Music Philosophy Photography Physics Political Studies Psychology Religion Russian and Eurasian Studies (RES) Science, Technology, and Society (STS) Social Policy Sociology Spanish Studies Studio Arts Theater and Performance Theology Victorian Studies Written Arts


Home Division Interdivisional Interdivisional


Social Studies Interdivisional Interdivisional


Interdivisional Interdivisional Interdivisional


Languages and Literature Science, Mathematics, and Computing Interdivisional Interdivisional Interdivisional The Arts Social Studies The Arts Science, Mathematics, and Computing Social Studies Science, Mathematics, and Computing Social Studies Interdivisional




Interdivisional Social Studies Interdivisional The Arts The Arts Interdivisional Interdivisional Languages and Literature


Specialized Degree Programs In addition to the bachelor of arts degree, Bard College offers two five-year, dual-degree undergraduate programs: •

The Program in Economics and Finance offers a B.S. degree in economics and finance and a bachelor of arts degree in another field in the liberal arts or sciences other than economics (see page 164).

24 Learning at Bard •

The Bard College Conservatory of Music offers a bachelor’s degree in music and a B.A. in another field in the liberal arts or sciences other than music (see page 235).

Preprofessional undergraduate and joint-degree options (for example, prelaw and engineering) are also available. For more information, see the “Additional Study Opportunities and Affiliated Institutes” chapter in this catalogue. Bard and its affiliates also offer the following graduate degrees: M.A., M.Phil., and Ph.D. in decorative arts, design history, and material culture; M.A. in curatorial studies; M.B.A. in sustainability; M.S. in environmental policy and in climate science and policy; M.A.T.; M.F.A.; and M.Music. For more information, see

“Graduate Programs.”

New York State HEGIS* Codes Enrollment in other than registered or otherwise approved programs may jeopardize a student’s eligibility for certain student aid awards. The following undergraduate and graduate degree programs have been registered for Bard College by the New York State Education Department. Degree Program



1001 1599 4902 2201 2204 1004 4901

B.A. B.A. B.A. B.A. B.S. B.Music B.A./B.S./B.P.S.

1003 1099 0420 1001 1004 0506 0803

M.A./M.Phil./Ph.D. M.A. M.S. M.F.A. M.Music M.B.A. M.A.T.


Arts Languages and Literature Science, Mathematics, and Computing Social Studies Economics and Finance Conservatory of Music Returning to College Graduate

Decorative Arts, Design History, Material Culture Curatorial Studies Environmental / Climate Science Policy Fine Arts Music Sustainability Teaching * Higher Education General Information Survey

Academic Requirements and Regulations 25

Academic Requirements and Regulations Bachelor’s Degree Requirements Candidates for a bachelor of arts degree from Bard must meet the following requirements:

1. Completion, by entering first-year students, of the two-semester First-Year Seminar. A student who enters in the second semester of the first year must complete that semester of the seminar. A student who transfers into the College as a sophomore or junior is exempt from the seminar. 2. Completion, by entering first-year students, of the January Citizen Science Program. A student who transfers into the College after the second semester of the first year is exempt from the program. 3. Promotion to the Upper College through Moderation 4. Completion of the requirements of the program into which they moderate 5. Completion of the courses necessary to satisfy the distribution requirements 6. Semester hours of academic credit: • 124, for students who matriculated prior to the fall of 2011 • 128, for students who matriculate after the fall of 2011 • 160, for students in five-year, dual-degree programs (156, for Conservatory students who enrolled before the fall of 2011) At least 64 credits must be earned at the Annandale-on-Hudson campus of Bard College. At least 40 credits must be outside the major division; the First-Year Seminar counts for 8 of the 40 credits. 7. Enrollment as full-time students for not less than two years at the Annandale-on-Hudson campus of Bard College or at a program directly run by Bard College 8. Completion of an acceptable Senior Project A student who fulfills the above Bard College requirements also fulfills the requirements of the Regents of the University of the State of New York and of the New York State Education Department.

Evaluation and Grades Every student receives a criteria sheet in every course. The criteria sheets contain midterm and final grades and comments by the instructor about the student’s performance. Grading System The academic divisions regularly use a letter grading system, although in some instances a pass/fail option may be requested. Students must submit a request before the end of the drop/add period to take a course pass/fail. Professors may accommodate requests at their own discretion. An honors grade (H)

26 Learning at Bard in the Arts Division is the equivalent of an A. Unless the instructor of a course specifies otherwise, letter grades (and their grade-point equivalents) are defined as follows. (The grades A+, D+, and D- are not used at Bard.) A, A– (4.0, 3.7) B+, B, B– (3.3, 3.0, 2.7) C+, C (2.3, 2.0) C–, D (1.7, 1.0) F

Excellent work Work that is more than satisfactory Competent work Performance that is poor, but deserving of credit Failure to reach the standard required in the course for credit

Incomplete (I) Status All work for a course must be submitted no later than the date of the last class of the semester, except in extenuating medical or personal circumstances beyond a student’s control. In such situations, and only in such situations, a designation of Incomplete (I) may be granted by the professor at the end of the semester to allow a student extra time to complete the work of the course. It is recommended that an incomplete status not be maintained for more than one semester, but a professor may specify any date for the completion of the work. In the absence of specification, the registrar will assume that the deadline is the end of the semester after the one in which the course was taken. At the end of the time assigned, the I will be changed to a grade of F unless another default grade has been specified. Requests for grade changes at later dates may always be submitted to the Faculty Executive Committee. Withdrawal (W) from Courses After the drop/add deadline, a student may withdraw from a course with the written consent of the instructor (using the proper form, available in the Office of the Registrar). Withdrawal from a course after the withdrawal deadline requires permission from the Faculty Executive Committee. In all cases of withdrawal, the course appears on the student’s criteria sheet and grade transcript with the designation of W. Registration (R) Credit Students who wish to explore an area of interest may register for an R credit course (in addition to their regular credit courses), which will be entered on their record but does not earn credits toward graduation. To receive the R credit, a student’s attendance must meet the requirements of the instructor.

Academic Deficiencies The Faculty Executive Committee determines the status of students with academic deficiencies, with attention to the following guidelines: A warning letter may be sent to students whose academic work is deficient but does not merit probation. • A first-semester student who receives a C– and a D or lower will be placed on academic probation. • Students other than first-semester students who receive two grades of C– or lower will be placed on probation. •

Academic Requirements and Regulations 27 A student who has failed to make satisfactory progress toward the degree may be required to take a mandatory leave of absence. Factors taken into account include grades, failure to moderate in the second year, and the accumulation of incompletes and withdrawals. A student on mandatory leave of absence may return to the College only after having complied with conditions stated by the Faculty Executive Committee. • To be removed from probation, a student must successfully complete at least three courses (12 credits) with no grade lower than a C during the next semester, and fulfill any other stipulations mandated by the Faculty Executive Committee. • A student who is on probation for two successive semesters may be dismissed from the College. • A student who receives three Fs or two Fs and two Ds may be dismissed from the College. •

Decisions about a student’s status are made at the discretion of the Faculty Executive Committee, taking into consideration the student’s entire record and any recommendations from the student’s instructors and advisers and relevant members of the administration. Academic dismissal appears on a student’s transcript.

Plagiarism and Academic Dishonesty To plagiarize is to “steal and pass off as one’s own the ideas, words, or writings of another.” This dictionary definition is quite straightforward, but it is possible for students to plagiarize inadvertently if they do not carefully distinguish between their own ideas or paper topics and those of others. The Bard faculty regards acts of plagiarism very seriously. Listed below are guidelines to help students avoid committing plagiarism. •

• • • •

All work submitted must be the author’s. Authors should be able to trace all of their sources and defend the originality of the final argument presented in the work. When taking notes, students should record full bibliographical material pertaining to the source and should record the page reference for all notes, not just quotations. All phrases, sentences, and excerpts that are not the author’s must be identified with quotation marks or indentation. Footnotes, endnotes, and parenthetical documentation (“in-noting”) must identify the source from which the phrases, sentences, and excerpts have been taken. All ideas and data that are not the author’s must also be attributed to a particular source, in either a footnote, endnote, or in-note (see above). Bibliographies must list all sources used in a paper. Students who have doubts as to whether they are providing adequate documentation of their sources should seek guidance from their instructor before preparing a final draft of the assignment.

28 Learning at Bard Penalties for Plagiarism / Academic Dishonesty

Students who are found to have plagiarized or engaged in academic dishonesty will be placed on academic probation. Additional penalties are as follows: • • •

Failure in the course in which plagiarism or dishonesty occurs Denial of the degree, in cases involving a Senior Project Expulsion from the College for a second offense

The following penalties may be imposed on a student who writes a paper or part of a paper for another student (even if this is done during a formal tutoring session): • •

Loss of all credit for that semester and suspension for the remainder of that semester Expulsion for a second offense

Any student accused of plagiarism, academic dishonesty, or writing for another’s use may submit a written appeal to the Faculty Executive Committee. The findings of this body are final. Students may not submit the same work, in whole or in part, for more than one course without first consulting with and receiving consent from all professors involved.

Withdrawal from the College and Rematriculation Students in good academic standing who find it necessary to withdraw from the College may apply for rematriculation. They must submit an application for rematriculation to the dean of students, stating the reasons for withdrawal and the activities engaged in while away from Bard. A student who leaves Bard for medical reasons must also submit a physician’s statement that he or she is ready to resume a full-time academic program. Students in good academic standing who wish to withdraw for a stated period of time (one semester or one academic year) may maintain their status as degree candidates by filing in advance a leave of absence form approved by the dean of students. Such students may rematriculate simply by notifying the dean of students of their intention to return by the end of the semester immediately preceding the semester for which they intend to return. A student dismissed for academic reasons may apply for readmission after one year’s absence from Bard by writing to the dean of the college. The student’s record at Bard and application for readmission are carefully reviewed; the student must have fulfilled requirements specified by the Faculty Executive Committee at the time of dismissal.

Division of the Arts

The Division of the Arts offers programs in art history, dance, film and electronic arts, music, photography, studio arts, and theater. Theoretical understanding and practical skills alike are developed through production and performance in all disciplines. In the course of their program studies, students in the arts also develop aesthetic criteria that can be applied to other areas of learning. Students may undertake the arts for different reasons—as a path to a vocation or an avocation, or simply as a means of cultural enrichment. Working with a faculty adviser, the student plans a curriculum with his or her needs and goals in mind. As a student progresses to the Upper College, the course work increasingly consists of smaller studio discussion groups and seminars in which active participation is expected. Advisory conferences, tutorials, and independent work prepare the student for the Senior Project. This yearlong independent project may be a critical or theoretical monograph, a collection of essays, or, for a large proportion of students, an artistic work, such as an exhibition of original paintings, sculpture, or photography; performances in dance, theater, or music; dance choreography or musical composition; or the making of a short film with sound. In designing their Senior Project topics, students may have reason to join their arts studies together with a complementary field or discipline, including programs or concentrations in other divisions. Plans for such integrated or interdivisional projects are normally created on an individual basis with the adviser.

Art History

Faculty: Laurie Dahlberg (director), Susan Aberth*, Noah Chasin, Betsy L. Chunko, Teju Cole, Diana H. DePardo-Minsky, Patricia Karetzky, Susan Merriam*, Julia Rosenbaum, Tom Wolf** * on sabbatical, fall 2012

to look at and write about works of art, particularly in introductory courses. Bard’s proximity to New York City allows for visits to museums and galleries; courses are frequently designed in conjunction with current exhibitions. In addition, the art and architecture of the Hudson Valley provide a fruitful resource for original research. The program maintains close contact with local institutions so that students can study original documents and work as volunteer interns during the summer or January intersession. Advanced students may also work with faculty at the Center for Curatorial Studies

** leave of absence, spring 2013

Overview: The Art History Program offers the opportunity to explore visual art and culture through courses across a broad range of periods and societies, and through close student-teacher contact. The program emphasizes learning how


30 The Arts on campus and at The Bard Graduate Center: Decorative Arts, Design History, Material Culture in New York City. Requirements: Students intending to major in art history should work with their adviser to develop individual study plans that reflect their interests and meet the program’s distribution requirements, which give the student the chance to encounter a wide range of artistic practices across cultures and time. Students need a total of four art history courses to moderate, including either Perspectives in World Art I or II (Art History 101, 102). Moderated students are required to take at least one program course per semester thereafter. Course requirements for graduation include (in addition to Art History 101 or 102): one course in studio arts, film, or photography; Art Criticism and Methodology (Art History 385), typically taken in the junior year; one non–Western civilization art history course; one course each covering the ancient to 1400 C.E. period, the 1400 to 1800 C.E. period, and the period from 1800 to the present; and at least two 300-level art history seminars (in addition to Art History 385). Note that one course may satisfy both the seminar and period requirements, but no course may satisfy more than two requirements. Before undertaking the Senior Project—a major thesis that examines an original art historical issue—the student is encouraged to demonstrate reading knowledge of a language other than English. Each May, seniors give a short presentation of their topics in an informal colloquium. Recent Senior Projects in Art History: “The Light and the Glass: An Exploration of Contemporary Photographers Using Antiquarian Processes” “Mártires y Comandantes: Tracing Historical Memory in the Murals of El Salvador” “Modernity and Marginality: Scandinavian Landscape Painting, 1880–1895” “Unrealized Visions: The Architectural Document as a Record of Rupture”

Perspectives in World Art I, II Art History 101, 102 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES This two-semester course examines painting, sculpture, architecture, and other cultural artifacts from the Paleolithic period through the present. Works from Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas are studied chronologically, in order to provide a more integrated historical context for their production.

History of Photography Art History 113 / Photography 113 cross-listed: sts This survey of photography, from its earliest manifestations to the 1970s, considers the medium’s applications as art, science, historical record, and document.

History of Design and the Decorative Arts Art History 114 A survey of the decorative arts from the rococo period to postmodernism. Students explore the evolution of historical styles as they appear in furniture, interiors, fashion, ceramics, metalwork, and graphic and industrial design. Objects are evaluated in their historical contexts, and formal, technical, and aesthetic questions are also considered.

The Classical Tradition in Western Architecture Art History 115 cross-listed: classical studies, eus This lecture-based course traces classicism in public architecture from its beginnings in ancient Greece to its presence in contemporary America, in order to understand its evolving political iconography, both democratic and dictatorial. The central section of the course focuses on the Italian Renaissance’s revival and reinvention of the classical vocabulary through the birth of archaeology, the writing of architectural treatises, and the adaptation of classical types to Christian functions.

Survey of African Art Art History 122 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, LAIS This introductory course surveys the vast array of art forms created on the African continent

Art History 31 from the prehistoric era to the present, as well as arts of the diaspora in Brazil, the Americas, Haiti, and elsewhere. In addition to sculpture, masks, architecture, and metalwork, students examine beadwork, textiles, jewelry, house painting, pottery, and other decorative arts.

Survey of 20th-Century Art Art History 123 A survey of the major movements of modern art, beginning with postimpressionism in the late 19th century and moving through fauvism, expressionism, cubism, futurism, constructivism, Dadaism, surrealism, abstract expressionism, pop art, and minimalism. Painting and sculpture are emphasized.

Japanese Arts of the Edo Period Art History 124 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES Students examine various painting styles that characterize the period 1615–1868, when Japan and its capital at Edo (now Tokyo) underwent dramatic changes. Contemporary developments in architecture, textiles, ceramics, and literature are also studied in order to understand the art in its cultural and historical context.

Modern Architecture: 1850 to 1950 Art History 125 A survey of modern architecture from its emergence in Western Europe during the 19th century through the end of World War II. Particular attention is paid to the ways in which architects responded to formal and aesthetic developments in other arts as well as to broader technological, economic, and sociopolitical transformations.

Architecture since 1945 Art History 126 A survey of the major developments in architectural practice and debate since the end of World War II, with a focus on challenges aimed at the modernist discourses of the early 20th century. These challenges begin with New Brutalism and encompass regionalism, neorationalism, corporate modernism, and various permutations of these models.

Art of the Ancient Near East Art History 128 A survey of the art and culture of an area in the Near East known as Mesopotamia, “the land between the rivers.” In this region, corresponding to present-day Iraq, Syria, and Iran, the first urban societies arose. The class examines the art and architecture of these ancient societies in their social, political, and cultural contexts, with an emphasis on the use of art in the expression of authority and legitimacy, religious and ritual ideologies, and artistic interconnections such as those between Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, Turkey, and the Levant.

Introduction to Visual Culture Art History 130 An introduction to the discipline of art history and to visual artifacts more broadly defined. Participants learn ways to look at, think about, and describe art through writing assignments based on observation of works at museums and galleries. This course is designed for anyone with an interest, but no formal course work, in art history.

Medieval Manuscript Painting Art History 135 A survey of Western and Byzantine painting through manuscript illumination, from the late classical tradition of the Vatican Virgil to the courtly elegance of the Très Riches Heures of the Duke of Berry. The course concludes with an examination of the early printed books of the 15th century, block books such as the Biblia Pauperum, and the spread of movable type.

Survey of Islamic Art Art History 140 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES A survey of Islamic art in Iran, Syria, Egypt, Turkey, North Africa, Spain, China, India, Indonesia, and other regions, from the death of Muhammad in 632 C.E. until the present. Architectural monuments (their structural features and decoration) are studied, as are the decorative arts—pottery, metalwork, textile and carpet weaving, glass, jewelry, calligraphy, book illumination, and painting.

32 The Arts Survey of Latin American Art Art History 160 CROSS -LISTED: LAIS

Art and Nation Building Art History 209 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES

A broad overview of art and cultural production in Latin America. A survey of major preColumbian monuments is followed by an examination of the contact between Europe and the Americas during the colonial period, 19thcentury Eurocentrism, and the reaffirmation of national identity in the modern era.

This course explores the contribution of the visual arts to the conceptualization of an American national identity. Topics include the role of visual culture in constructing meanings of race, class, and gender; the importance of various genres of painting to national politics and culture; the emergence of American artistic institutions; and the relationship of American art making to European traditions.

Chinese Religious Art Art History 176 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, RELIGION A study of religious art and architecture in China through its various dynasties. Topics include the mystical arts of ancient Sichuan, the cosmological symbolism of the Ming Tang (Hall of Enlightenment), ancient Buddhist cave temples, the evolution of Confucianism into an institutional religion, and contemporary popular religion, among others.

Arts of Buddhism Art History 194 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, RELIGION Buddhism began in India around the sixth century B.C.E. with the meditations of the historic Buddha. Within 500 years the philosophy, responding to external forces, evolved into a religion incorporating new ideologies of eschatology of the Buddha of the Future and of paradisiacal cults. This course analyzes the development of Buddhist art from its earliest depictions as well as its transmission through Southeast and Central Asia to China and Japan.

Greek Art and Architecture Art History 201 CROSS -LISTED: CLASSICAL STUDIES The development of Greek sculpture, vase painting, and architecture is traced from the geometric period through the Hellenistic age. Topics include the development of the freestanding, life-sized nude from Egyptian sources; the depiction of myths and daily life in painting; and the political alliances and institutions that shaped Greek architecture.

Roman Art and Architecture Art History 210 CROSS -LISTED: CLASSICAL STUDIES This course traces the development of Roman art and architecture from the founding of the city in 753 B.C.E. to the transfer of the capital to the east by Constantine in 330 C.E. Lectures explore how Rome incorporated and synthesized the styles and achievements of conquered peoples (Etruscans, Greeks, Egyptians) to produce something entirely new that not only communicated the nature of the empire but also established a common artistic vocabulary throughout the Mediterranean basin.

Sightseeing: Vision and the Image in the Early Modern Period Art History 211 CROSS -LISTED: STS This course examines the complex relationship between theories of vision and the production and reception of images in European art and culture of the early modern period (1500–1750). Areas of study include optical devices such as the camera obscura, telescope, and “peep box”; perspective systems and their distortion; visions of the divine; the ways in which vision and imagery were associated with desire; evidentiary theory; and the representation of sight.

19th-Century Photography and Fine Art Art History 212 CROSS -LISTED: STS, VICTORIAN STUDIES The semester begins with the debate over realism in art that forms the backstory for the complicated reception of photography and then works forward to the pictorialist movement at

Art History 33 the end of the 19th century. Along the way, students address such topics as “passing” (how to make photographs that look like art); photography and art pedagogy; photography’s role in the “liberation” of painting; and the 20th-century repudiation of 19th-century photography’s art aspirations.

Leonardo’s Last Supper and the Reception of Renaissance Iconography Art History 216 CROSS -LISTED: ITALIAN STUDIES, STS This seminar situates Leonardo’s recently restored Last Supper within the Renaissance tradition of “Last Suppers” and depictions of the life of Christ. Various interpretations of the painting are studied, including Leo Steinberg’s Leonardo’s Incessant Last Supper and his controversial Sexuality of Christ in Renaissance Art and in Modern Oblivion.

Art of the Northern Renaissance Art History 219 A survey of painting in Flanders, the Netherlands, and Germany during the 15th and 16th centuries. The course first examines the innovations of Flemish and Dutch artists working abroad, then shifts to the emergence, in the north, of new forms of painting in the work of Hieronymus Bosch, Pieter Bruegel, Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein, Jan van Eyck, and Rogier van der Weyden.

Early Medieval Art and Architecture Art History 220 CROSS-LISTED: CLASSICAL STUDIES, MEDIEVAL STUDIES

An examination of art from the age of Constantine to 1000 C.E., including catacomb painting, the early Christian basilica and martyrium, the domed churches of the East, and Byzantine mosaics and icons. The class explores the contrasting aesthetic of the migrations, the “animal style” in art, the Sutton Hoo and Viking ship burials, the golden age of Irish art, the Carolingian “renaissance,” treasures of the Ottonian empire, and the art of the millennium.

Picturing Nature in Early Modern Northern Europe Art History 223 CROSS -LISTED: EUS Early modern artists, scientists, adventurers, and amateurs created a compelling visual record of the natural world. These artists and observers benefited from new technologies, including the microscope and telescope, and recording methods (printmaking). This course focuses primarily on images and environments from Germany, Austria, Belgium, and the Netherlands.

Roman Urbanism from Romulus (753 B.C.E.) to Rutelli (2000 C.E.) Art History 227 CROSS-LISTED: CLASSICAL STUDIES, ITALIAN STUDIES

Politicians and popes, from the Emperor Augustus to the current Italian government, have crafted Rome into a capital that suits their ideological aims. This course focuses on the commissioning of large-scale representational architecture, creation of public space, orchestration of streets, and continuing dialogue between past and present in the city of Rome.

Film among the Arts Art History 230 / Film 230 See Film 230 for a full course description.

The High Renaissance Art History 231 CROSS -LISTED: ITALIAN STUDIES A study of major painters and sculptors of the High Renaissance in Florence and Rome, focusing on the works of Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael. The class considers the origin and development of a monumental style in Italian art and concludes with an examination of the work of selected mannerist artists.

Italian Renaissance Architecture and Urbanism Art History 232 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, ITALIAN STUDIES This course follows the development of architecture and urbanism in Italy in the 15th and 16th centuries. Proceeding chronologically from

34 The Arts Florence to Rome and Venice, the lectures situate the architecture and ideas of Brunelleschi, Alberti, Leonardo, Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael, and Palladio (all were architects) within their political and theological context. The class also explores how the demands of the Counter Reformation modified architectural form and theory.

Vermeer Art History 233 A thematic examination of the 17th-century Dutch painter; topics discussed include the Delft School, domestic space, optics, sexuality, belief, and Vermeer’s reception. Enrollment is limited to 14, by permission of the instructor.

Travel and Exploration in 19th-Century Photography Art History 237 CROSS -LISTED: PHOTOGRAPHY, VICTORIAN

period to the present. With a focus on painting, photography, installation, video, and conceptual art, the class challenges received ideas about the artistic practice of African artists. Key figures studied include El Anatsui, Wangechi Mutu, Julie Mehretu, Yinka Shonibare, Nnenna Okore, William Kentridge, and Jelili Atiku.

Roma in Situ Art History 248 CROSS -LISTED: CLASSICAL STUDIES This course consists of two weeks of walking, looking, and learning in Rome, followed by class meetings to discuss secondary scholarship and present student research. In Rome, the first week focuses on the ancient city, while the second week focuses on postantique (Early Christian, Renaissance, Baroque, and contemporary) art and architecture. Prerequisite: completion of one of the following courses: Art History 210, Art History 227, or Latin 101, 201, or 301.


European and American travel photographs of landscapes, people, and architecture are examined, particularly as they reflect the photographers’ preconceptions and expectations as well as the inherent properties of the subject matter.

International Film Noir Art History 249 / Film 249

Rights and the City: Topics in Human Rights and Urbanism Art History 240 / Human Rights 240 cross-listed: eus, sts

A study of U.S. art, focusing on painting but also looking at sculpture, architecture, and decorative art, from the Colonial period through the end of the 19th century. Artists considered include John Singleton Copley, Winslow Homer, Thomas Eakins, and the painters of the Hudson River School. Several class trips take advantage of the splendid collections of U.S. art in the Hudson River Valley and New York City.

An exploration of the terrain of urban contexts, looking at cities from architectural, sociological, historical, and political positions. Organized thematically, the course addresses such issues as the consequences of cities’ developments in relation to their peripheries, debates around the public sphere, nomadic architecture and urbanism, informal settlements such as slums and shantytowns, surveillance and control in urban centers, refugees and the places they live, catastrophes and reconstruction, and sovereign areas within cities (the UN, war crimes tribunals).

Modern African Art Art History 244 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES This course looks at the visual arts of Africa and the African diaspora from the postcolonial

See Film 249 for a full course description.

19th-Century American Art Art History 250

Africa in the Americas Art History 253 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS, LAIS A survey of the diverse art forms created in the Americas that either address the presence of Africans or were made by individuals of African descent. The course also deals with postindependence Latin American art that focuses on the African diaspora, with a particular emphasis on the survival of African religious practices in the Caribbean, Brazil, and elsewhere.

Art History 35 Outsider Art Art History 255 The term “outsider art” is a problematic umbrella under which are grouped a variety of difficult-to-categorize artistic practices. This course examines the use of terminology such as outsider, naïve, and visionary, as well as groupings such as art brut, folk art, art of the insane, and popular culture. It includes a trip to the American Folk Art Museum in New York City.

The Art of the 1980s Art History 256 While iconic documents of the 1980s (Dallas, Miami Vice, Wall Street, the Brat Pack) dependably reemerge in the realm of popular culture, the serious art practices from this decade are less well known. The class looks at work by seminal painters, sculptors, and collectives—e.g., Schnabel, Sherman, Gonzalez-Torres, Polke, Leirner, Watts, Group Material—through the multivalent lenses of such intellectual movements as postmodernism, appropriation, deconstruction, and liberation theology.

Art in the Age of Revolution Art History 257 CROSS -LISTED: VICTORIAN STUDIES A survey of European painting from the prerevolutionary period (c. 1770) to realism (c. 1850). Topics include changing definitions of neoclassicism and romanticism; the impact of the French revolutions of 1789, 1830, and 1848; the Napoleonic presence abroad; the shift from history painting to scenes of everyday life; landscape painting as an autonomous art form; and attitudes toward race and sexuality. While the emphasis is on French art, time is also devoted to artists in Spain, Great Britain, and Germany.

Manet to Matisse Art History 258 CROSS -LISTED: FRENCH STUDIES, GSS A social history of European painting from 1860 to 1900, beginning with the origins of modernism in the work of Manet. Topics include the rebuilding of Paris under Napoleon III, changing attitudes toward city and country in impressionist and symbolist art, and the prominent place of women in modern life representations.

The Once and Future History of Sustainable Urbanism Art History 259 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, HUMAN RIGHTS This course looks at whether it is possible to retrofit existing cities to conform to a workable ethos of sustainability. What sorts of measures might urban designers and planners take to ensure that new cities embody the basic tenets of sustainable growth? Students contemplate these questions historically, theoretically, and in terms of platforms for innovation and action.

20th-Century Northern European Art Art History 262 The emphasis is on art from Austria and Germany —from Jugendstil through expressionism, Dadaism, Neue Sachlichkeit, Nazi and concentration camp art, and the post–World War II era—with brief forays into Scandinavian art. Artists studied include Wassily Kandinsky, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Paul Klee, and Egon Schiele. The course also looks at more recent artists, including Bernd and Hilla Becher, Joseph Beuys, Sigmar Polke, and Gerhard Richter.

Islam from Spain to Russia and China: Art, Philosophy, and Politics in the Medieval World Art History 264 This course examines the encounter of Islam with civilizations from Spain to Russia and China (800–1750), with particular emphasis on the political and philosophical dimensions of Islamic art in the premodern world, and on categories like the “West,” “Middle East” and “Far East.” Can we define these geographic categories as distinct cultural regions with clear intellectual borders? How does our understanding of these paradigms change when we think in terms of “trans-Mediterranean” and “transCaspian” artistic and political exchange?

Dada and Surrealism Art History 265 A survey of the two major artistic movements in post–World War I Europe. Lectures on earlier modernist movements in Paris, particularly cubism, are followed by a study of the iconoclastic art of Dadaists such as Marcel Duchamp,

36 The Arts Man Ray, and Hans Arp. The course concludes with the surrealist group, including Joan Miró, André Masson, Max Ernst, and René Magritte.

sionism, pop, minimalism, and conceptual art, with a particular focus on the intersection of art, theory, and contextual histories.

Revolution, Social Change, and Art in Latin America Art History 269 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, LAIS

El Greco to Goya: Spanish Art and Architecture Art History 286 CROSS -LISTED: LAIS

This course examines the role that Christian iconography played in the conquests of the 16th century and the radical new meanings that same iconography took as time went on. It also reviews the visual strategies employed in the presentation of the “heroes” of independence (Simón Bolivar, Miguel Hidalgo) and the ways in which art has contributed to the formation of national identities.

A survey of the complex visual culture of early modern Spain, with particular attention given to El Greco, Goya, Murillo, Velázquez, and Zurbarán. The class examines the formation of a distinct Spanish style within the context of European art and considers how Spanish artistic identity was a kind of hybrid, complicated both by Spain’s importation of foreign artists (Rubens, Titian) and by its relationship to the art and architecture of the colonies.

Religious Imagery in Latin America Art History 273 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, LAIS This course explores the varied visual manifestations of religious expression in Latin America after the Spanish Conquest. In addition to churches, statuary, and paintings, the class examines folk art traditions, African diasporic religions, and contemporary art and practices.

Winslow Homer to Jackson Pollock: The Rise of Modernism in America Art History 278 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES This course concentrates on early 20th-century artists and art movements in the United States. Topics include modernity and nationalism; the roles and representation of technology in art; exhibitions and cultural propaganda; artistic identity and gender roles; and public art, murals, and social activism.

The Golden Age and the Landslide: Art and Theory since 1945 Art History 283 Historian Eric Hobsbawm, in his seminal history of the 20th century, The Age of Extremes, coined the phrase “The Short Twentieth Century.” The class looks at the period spanning two of his subcategories—the Golden Age (1950–75) and the Landslide (1975–91)— through the lens of art and visual culture. Movements studied include abstract expres-

Rights and the Image Art History 289 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS An examination of the relationship between visual culture and human rights, using case studies that range in time from the early modern period (marking the body to register criminality, for example) to the present day (images from Abu Ghraib). Subjects addressed include evidence, disaster photography, advocacy images, censorship, and visibility and invisibility.

Arts in China Art History 290 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES This course begins with Neolithic painted pottery, the earliest expression of the Chinese aesthetic. Next, the early culture of the Bronze Age is reviewed, followed by the unification of China under the first emperor, the owner of 60,000 life-size clay figurines. In the fifth century, Buddhist art achieved expression in colossal sculptures carved from living rock and in paintings of paradise. Confucian and Taoist philosophy, literature, and popular culture are examined through the paintings of the later dynasties.

Chinese Landscape Painting Art History 291 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES The Chinese love of landscape can be traced to ancient times, when the mountains were con-

Art History 37 sidered the home of the immortals; such deep spiritual connotations maintained their vitality during the evolution of this most highly regarded of the pictorial arts. Through an analysis of the evolution of the Chinese landscape, the society’s rich poetic tradition, historical events, and cultural contexts are viewed.

From Ming to Post-Mao: Modern Chinese Art Art History 292 CROSS -LISTED: asian studies This course begins with the emergence of a modernist aesthetic in the 19th century (at the end of China’s last dynasty) and covers the formation of a nationalist modern movement, the political art that served the government under the Communist regime, and the impact of the opening of China to the West. A primary focus is the various ways in which artists respond to the challenges of contemporary life and culture.

East Meets West Art History 293 CROSS -LISTED: asian studies A consideration, through art, of the impacts Eastern and Western cultures have had on one another. Broad topics for discussion include the art of Buddhism and the Silk Road; medieval European borrowings from the East; travelers East and West; Arabs as transmitters of Asian technologies; concepts of heaven and hell; Western missionaries and the introduction of Western culture in India, China, and Japan; chinoiserie in European architecture, gardening and décor; and Japonisme—the influence of the Asian aesthetic on modern art movements.

The History of the Museum Art History 298 This course traces the transformation of early collecting and display practices into the first modern “survey” museum and considers the emergence of alternatives to this model. Topics include problems in contemporary museum practice (such as contested provenance); the museum as memory and memorial; collections as sites for producing knowledge; artists’ intervention in the museum; the virtual collection; and the logic and politics of display.

Text and Image: Writing about Art Art History 305 This seminar is intended for Upper College students who wish to develop interpretive skills and hone the craft of writing about visual art. The course begins with an overview of theories of intepretation and then considers popular forms of art writing, such as exhibition reviews, and academic writing based on research.

Photography and the Human Condition Art History 313 / Photography 313 This course focuses on social documentary photography—that is, photography aimed at exposing social conditions with the implicit or explicit hope of effecting social change, initiating social critique, or raising viewer consciousness. Students examine the channels through which such photography is seen—picture magazines, news media, books, and museum/exhibition spaces—in order to better understand the relationship of documentary photography to institutional power.

Beautiful by Design: The Decorative Arts and Material Culture in Late 19th- / Early 20th-Century America Art History 315 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES This seminar focuses on the work of Gilded Age painters, sculptures, designers, and landscapists through the lens of one of the great Gilded Age sites in the Hudson Valley—Vanderbilt Mansion. The class visits the mansion regularly, and each student works closely with specific objects in the collections.

Representing the Human-Animal Boundary in Early Modern Europe Art History 319 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, STS This course examines how animals and their representations shaped ideas about what it meant to be human in early modern Europe. While some philosophers and theologians during this time postulated the superiority of humans to animals, other thinkers expressed uncertainty about the status of humans—an uncertainty that is articulated in paintings, prints, sculpture, textiles, and decorative and food arts.

38 The Arts The “Animal Style” in Art Art History 321 CROSS -LISTED: ICS, MEDIEVAL STUDIES This seminar explores the character and diffusion of the “animal style”—a nonfigural and highly decorative art that displays a genius for pattern and fantasy. The class reviews the art of the Scythians and Sarmatians, who roamed the steppes of Central Eurasia; manifestations of this style in the La Tène civilization and among Germanic tribes; the treasures of Celtic Ireland and Anglo-Saxon England; and the art and influence of Viking culture in areas as widespread as Ireland and Russia.

Crossroads of Civilization: The Art of Medieval Spain Art History 323 CROSS -LISTED: LAIS, MEDIEVAL STUDIES The major focus of this course is on Visigothic art; Al-Andalus, the Islamic art of Spain; Asturian and Mozarabic art; and Romanesque art of the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela. Students investigate the patterns of exchange, appropriation, assimilation, and tension among Islamic, Judaic, and Christian traditions, and attempt to assess the effects of this cross-fertilization of cultures on the visual arts.

scapes of Giorgione, the enigmatic Venuses of Titian and Veronese, the pageantry of Venetian narrative cycles, and the special character of Venetian patronage and the city itself.

Villa Culture: Origins and Adaptations Art History 336 The villa or country house, as opposed to a working farm, embodies a city dweller’s idyllic interpretation of country life. Built more to embody an idea than fulfill a function, it encourages innovation in expressing the patron’s or architect’s views on the relationship between man and nature. The architecture of the Hudson Valley played a critical role in the development of the country house and landscape garden in the United States. This seminar studies local developments within the larger context of the history of villa architecture.

Seminar in Contemporary Art Art History 340 A consideration of the history of recent art, beginning with a survey of the minimalism of the 1960s and then focusing on artistic developments in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. The class meets in New York City every fourth week to view current exhibitions.

Italian Renaissance Sculpture Art History 330 CROSS -LISTED: ITALIAN STUDIES

Preserving Berlin Art History 341 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, GERMAN STUDIES

An examination of the ideas that inspired sculptors and the patrons who footed the bills; the relationship between artists, poets, and philosophers of the Renaissance; and the degree of influence exerted by patrons and their associates on the selection of content and the establishment of stylistic trends. The major sculptors of the Renaissance are studied, with an emphasis on Donatello, Ghiberti, Michelangelo, and Jacopo della Quercia.

This course addresses issues of preservation and display using the museums, monuments, and urban fabric of Berlin. In particular, the class looks at Museumsinsel, a cluster of museums built between 1824 and 1930; and at Kulturforum, a group of museums constructed near Potsdamer Platz in the 1950s. The Jewish Museum, Museum of Natural History, German Historical Museum, Museum of Contemporary Art, Holocaust Memorial, and the Reichstag and other buildings of historical significance are also examined.

Venetian Painting of the Renaissance Art History 331 An introduction to the major painters of the Venetian School: Gentile and Giovanni Bellini, Carpaccio, Giorgione, Tintoretto, Titian, and Veronese. Students investigate the development of independent easel painting, the poetic land-

Popular Arts in Modern India Art History 343 / Religion 343 See Religion 343 for a full course description.

Art History 39 Michelangelo: The Man, the Masterpieces, and the Myth Art History 345 CROSS -LISTED: ITALIAN STUDIES A study of the achievements of Michelangelo in sculpture, painting, architecture, and poetry in the context of the biographies of Vasari (1550, 1568) and Condivi (1553). Discussion also analyzes Michelangelo’s role in shaping his public image and creating the modern idea of the artist as isolated genius.

Encounters: Indigenous Arts, Peoples, and Identities Art History 347 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES Conquests of the New World set the stage for centuries-long cultural encounters between Europeans and native peoples. Focusing on North America, South America, and Australia, this course explores indigenous arts in the context of those encounters. The class examines cross-cultural notions of creativity and aesthetic value; networks of art production; collecting; institutional representations of indigenous art; and art repatriation.

Asian American Artists Seminar Art History 348 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES In recent years there has been increasing interest in artists of Asian ancestry who have worked in the United States. The relationship between the artistic traditions of their native lands and their subsequent immersion in American culture provides material for fascinating inquiries concerning biography, style, subject matter, and politics. Artists studied include Isamu Noguchi, Yayoi Kusama, and Mariko Mori, among others.

Women Artists of the Surrealist Movement Art History 349 This course examines the use of female sexuality in surrealist imagery and then juxtaposes it to the writing and work of Claude Cahun, Leonora Carrington, Leonor Fini, Dora Maar, Lee Miller, Meret Oppenheim, Dorothea Tanning, Toyen, Remedios Varo, and others. Issues explored include female subjectivity, cultural

identity, occultism, mythology, dream imagery, artistic collaboration, and the methodologies employed to interpret surrealism in general. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

Fin de Siècle: Seminar in Symbolism, Art Nouveau, and Arts and Crafts Art History 360 This seminar studies developments in the fine and decorative arts at the end of the 19th and the early 20th centuries in Europe and the United States. Topics explored include the antirealist reaction of artists such as van Gogh, Gauguin, and Beardsley; the development of the Arts and Crafts movement; photography at the turn of the century; and the relationship between the Arts and Crafts movement, Vienna Werkstätte, and Art Nouveau.

Women Artists Art History 367 CROSS -LISTED: GSS This seminar traces the history of women artists in the United States, beginning with the neoclassical sculptors of the 18th century and continuing with Mary Cassatt, women artists of the Arts and Crafts and suffrage movements, and Georgia O’Keeffe and her modernist contemporaries. The course concludes with a look at the legacy of these artists as reflected and transformed by the artists of the 1970s feminist movement.

Mexican Muralism Art History 375 CROSS -LISTED: LAIS An examination of the muralism movement’s philosophical origins in the decades following the Mexican Revolution; the murals of Orozco, Rivera, and Siqueiros, the Tres Grandes (“The Three Great Ones”); and the work of lesserknown Mexican muralists. Also considered is the muralism movement’s wide-ranging impact on murals executed under the WPA in the United States throughout the 1930s, in Nicaragua during the 1970s, and in urban Chicano communities. Prerequisite: Art History 101, 102, or 160, or permission of the instructor.

40 The Arts Contemporary Issues in Architecture and Urban Theory Art History 378 CROSS -LISTED: EUS The class examines how, through new research and methodological approaches, the conceptual parameters of architectural history have been expanded; canonical figures and their works have been recast in distinct terms; and overlooked or understudied architects, practices, and projects have opened up new problematics. Students also look at how new forms of architectural practice and new ideas of spatiality have emerged in response to such challenges.

Art Criticism and Methodology Art History 385 This seminar, designed primarily for art history majors, helps students develop the ability to think critically about a range of different approaches to the field of art history. Students read and discuss a variety of texts in order to become familiar with the discipline’s development. Methodologies such as connoisseurship, cultural history, Marxism, feminism, and postmodernism are analyzed.

Dance Faculty: Maria Q. Simpson (director), Jean Churchill, Leah Cox, Peggy Florin, Marjorie Folkman, Bill T. Jones, Lenore Latimer*, Amii LeGendre, Juliette Mapp, Paul Matteson, Aileen Passloff (emeritus), Stuart Singer, Nicole Smith, Gwen Welliver * leave of absence

In residence: New York Live Arts (Bill T. Jones/Arnie Zane Dance Company) Overview: The Bard Dance Program sees the pursuit of artistry and intellect as a single endeavor and the study of the body as a cognitive act, demanding both physical practice and exploration of the broader academic contexts in which the art form exists. The program fosters the discovery of a dance vocabulary that is meaningful to the dancer/choreographer and essential to his or her creative ambitions. This

discovery leads students to cultivate original choices that are informed by a full exploration of their surroundings and to find expression in new and dynamic ways. Through intensive technique and composition courses, onstage performance, and production experience, dance students are prepared to understand and practice the art of choreography and performance. In 2009, the Dance Program began a partnership with the Bill T. Jones / Arnie Zane Dance Company. In 2011, the Company merged with Dance Theater Workshop to become New York Live Arts. Bill T. Jones leads the organization as its executive artistic director and the Company continues as New York Live Arts’s company in residence. The partnership with Bard continues; artists from the Company and from New York Live Arts’s presenting season lead course work and events. Areas of Study: The Dance Program offers technique courses in ballet, modern dance, and world dance–flamenco, as well as courses in composition, dance history, dance science, performance and production, and dance repertory. Requirements: Prior to Moderation, students must take a minimum of four credits in technique and three credits in dance composition. All moderating students must submit choreography for consideration in one of the year’s two Moderation dance concerts. Each moderating student must present performance work for acceptance into the major. Once accepted, students may choose to concentrate in creative work, performance, or both. Once a student moderates, requirements for the major include two courses in technique per semester (including three ballet and one world dance and culture course); three levels of dance composition (if concentrating in performance, two levels); Dance 250, Anatomy for the Dancer; Dance 360, Dance History; a music course; two courses in practicing arts disciplines outside of dance; an additional history course outside of the Dance Program; and a writing and/or criticism course (e.g., Philosophy and the Arts). Additionally, attendance at Dance Workshop is required of all majors. Held each semester, the

Dance 41 workshops help students prepare for any one of four annual productions. For the Senior Project, students prepare choreography, performance, or other material of appropriate scope for public presentation. All Senior Projects include a 20- to 30-page paper that synthesizes interests in areas outside of dance where appropriate and relates these processes to the development of the specific work presented. Facilities: The Dance Program is located in The Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts, where facilities include two studios and a fully equipped, 200-seat theater. Courses: The Dance Program offers 100-level studio classes for first-year students and other beginning dancers; 200-level classes, which are open to all students at the intermediate level of technique; and 300-level classes, open to all students with the experience appropriate for an advanced-level course. All dance studio classes have live musical accompaniment. Tutorials arise out of a student’s interest in delving deeply into a subject that is not generally covered in the curriculum. Topics have included dance pedagogy, partnering technique, pointe work, and specific elements of dance history and dance science.

Introduction to Dance Dance 103, 104 An introduction to four very important aspects of dance: how to dance without becoming injured; how to develop an awareness of the body in space; how to move that body through space; and how to create dance with attention to rhythm, momentum, and balance.

Advanced Beginner Dance Dance 105, 106 Courses in modern dance and ballet for students with some experience. Fundamental issues of anatomical alignment are emphasized through the development of basic vocabulary.

First-Year Dance Studio Dance 110 A one-credit course intended for first-year students (of all levels of experience) interested in

becoming dance majors. Through investigations into dance improvisation and experiential anatomy, the class considers the structure of the moving body, its movement potential, and its wide range of physical expression. The history of modern dance is addressed, as is the current status of the art, both at Bard and in the larger dance world.

Dance Composition I, II, II Dance 117-118; 217-218; 317-318 Three levels of Dance Composition are required of all dance majors. The 100-level classes introduce the fundamentals of movement, including timing, energy, space, balance, and phrasing. Viewing other students’ work and learning to articulate constructive criticism serve to hone the dancer’s aesthetic eye. Classes at the 200 level address questions of phrase development, form, and relationship to sound/music. At the 300 level, composition classes address production elements in dance performance, including lighting, costumes, and sound.

Introduction to Contact Improvisation Dance 120 This class teaches basic concepts of contact improvisation, including spiral, C curve, counterbalance, and rolling point of contact. Time is dedicated for open “jamming” and watching others dance; students develop articulate watching as a strategy for stronger dancing. More advanced skills, such as extreme momentum use and jumping and catching, are also introduced.

Intermediate/Advanced Studios Dance 211-212, 311-312 Intensive technique studies are an essential part of the training of a serious dance student. Prospective and current dance majors must take two credits in dance technique each semester during their four years at Bard. Studio courses are open to interested and experienced nonmajors with permission of the instructor.

Contact Improvisation II Dance 222 This course continues the development of the underlying principles of contact improvisation—gathering information with the senses

42 The Arts and observing how the body composes a unique response. Its focus is on how dancers track, develop, and translate impulse into movement. Participants explore more challenging lifts and riskier use of momentum.

Flamenco Dance 243-244, 343-344, 443-444 Technique classes in flamenco, a dance and music that has been influenced by many different cultures, including Indian, Judaic, Cuban, Argentinean, and African.

Anatomy for the Dancer Dance 250 A study of the primary bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles relevant to dancing; the physiology of breathing; and the body as a complex physical system. Students learn ways to prevent injury and how to develop a full range of expression with safety and pleasure.

Choreographic Methods Dance 310 An in-depth look at the themes, choreographic techniques, and artistic processes used by the Bill T. Jones/Arnie Zane Dance Company. Selected works and their generation are studied as a springboard for class-based exercises and projects. Course work focuses on developing capable choreographers and dancers who are adept participants in a collaborative process.

Dance Repertory Dance 315-316 Taught by two choreographers, one in the fall and one in the spring, this studio offers students an opportunity to experience choreography that is made or re-created for them, thus providing insight into the compositional process. Open to junior and senior dance majors (and others by invitation from the instructor).

The Art of Performing Dance 330 This course uses both the solo and duet forms in dance to investigate performative intent and meaning. Students examine the importance of inner dialogue and off-stage preparation; their tools include theater improvisational games and

historic film footage of choreographers such as José Limón and Kurt Jooss.

Junior and Senior Seminar in Dance Dance 350 Utilizing both the technical and administrative personnel of the Bill T. Jones/Arnie Zane Dance Company, this course provides students with the resources they need to begin a professional practice. Students explore a range of jobs that allow for a continuing creative practice and learn how to interact with professionals in all aspects of the performing arts.

Dance History Dance 360 This course addresses the history of dance from the Renaissance to the present. It examines a range of ideas and theories about the human body, movement as personal and cultural practice, and the experience of looking at and responding to movement. Students consider many forms of concert and social dance and their intersections with the cultural circumstances in which they exist.

Interdisciplinary Composition Dance 418 This is a project-based class in which students from different arts programs cross back and forth between their “home” discipline into new art genres, in order to deepen and enhance the exploration of style, content, and craftsmanship. Prerequisite: experience in composition courses in the student’s major course of study.

Film and Electronic Arts Faculty: Peggy Ahwesh (director), Ben Coonley, Benj Gerdes, Jacqueline Susan Goss, Ed Halter, Peter Hutton, So Yong Kim, John Pruitt*, Kelly Reichardt, Richard Suchenski * on sabbatical, fall 2012 Overview: Critical thinking and creative work go hand in hand in the Film and Electronic Arts Program, which integrates various creative

Film and Electronic Arts 43 practices with the study of theory and criticism. For example, all filmmaking majors take courses in film history and video production, and a student writing a Senior Project in the history of film and electronic arts will have taken some kind of creative production workshop. Areas of Study: The program encourages interest in a wide range of expressive modes in film, video, and the expanding field of computerbased art. These include screenwriting, animation, narrative and non-narrative filmmaking, documentary, and interactive video. Regardless of a student’s choice of specialization, the program’s emphasis leans toward neither fixed professional formulas nor mere technical expertise, but rather toward imaginative engagement and the cultivation of an individual voice that has command over the entire creative process. For example, a student interested in narrative filmmaking would be expected to write an original script, shoot it, and then edit the film into its final form. Students are also expected to take advantage of Bard’s liberal arts curriculum by studying subjects that relate to their specialties. A documentarian might take courses in anthropology, an animator in painting, a screenwriter in literature, and a film critic in art history. Requirements: A student’s first year is devoted primarily to acquiring a historical and critical background. The focus in the sophomore year is on learning the fundamentals of production and working toward Moderation. Before Moderation each prospective major presents to the review board a completed 16mm film and videotape, a full-length script, or a 10-page historical/critical essay. In the Upper College, students choose one of two tracks: production (including screenwriting) or film history and criticism. The junior year is devoted mainly to deepening and broadening the student’s creative and critical awareness, and the senior year to a yearlong Senior Project, which can take the form of a creative work in film or video, a full-length screenplay, or an extended, in-depth historical or critical essay. Students majoring in the program are expected to complete the following courses prior to

Moderation: Film 113-114, History of Cinema (or any other introductory-level film history course); two 200-level production courses in film and video; a history course within the program; and one course in the division but outside the program. Upper College students are required to complete a Major Conference; a course outside the program related to proposed Senior Project work; Physics 118, Light and Color (or another related laboratory or social science course); and the Senior Seminar (noncredit). Recent Senior Projects in Film and Electronic Arts: “Decoy,” a feature-length script about a young American caught between rural tradition and an urbancentric social landscape “The Enigmatic Films of Nicholas Roeg” “The Inherent Possibility of Achieving a State of Balance with Nature: An Analysis of Terrence Malick’s The New World” “Persistance of Vision,” the untold story of the greatest animated film never made Facilities: The Jim Ottaway Jr. Film Center houses a 110-seat theater equipped with 16mm and 35mm film and video projection; performance space; shooting studio with control room; analog editing suite; computer lab; two seminar/ screening rooms; darkroom; editing suites for sound and video; studios for seniors; and a film archive. Visiting artist talks, screenings, symposia, and cosponsored events are regularly scheduled in the Film Center theater. For production classes, students take advantage of the resources of maintenance and equipment offices. The program also has a video study collection that consists of hundreds of titles, including features, documentaries, experimental and avant-garde films, and Senior Projects. Courses: In addition to regularly scheduled academic and production courses, the program offers advanced study on a one-to-one basis with a professor. Recent tutorials include Film Sound; Buñuel, Almodóvar, and the Catholic Church; and The Archive and Its (Dis)contents.

44 The Arts Introduction to Documentary Media Film 106 An introductory survey of the documentary, from the silent era to the digital age. Topics addressed include the origins of the documentary concept, direct cinema and cinema verité, propaganda, ethnographic media, the essay film, experimental documentary forms, media activism, fiction and documentary, and the role of technology. Vertov, Riefenstahl, Rouch, Flaherty, Pennebaker, Maysles, Wiseman, Marker, Spheeris, Moore, and Morris are among the filmmakers studied.

Modernism in East Asia Film 200 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES An exploration of the various permutations of modernism in the cinemas of East Asia from the 1920s to the present. Special attention is paid to the way directors from different traditions use formal innovations to meditate on the dramatic changes taking place in their societies and how the meaning of these strategies shifts over time. Prior course work in film, art history, and/or Asian studies preferred.

Photography for Filmmakers Film 109 / Photography 109

Introduction to the Moving Image Film 201-202

This course is designed to instruct film students in the importance of the camera in the construction of all photographic images, both moving and still. Weekly assignments are prompted by a thematic lecture from the history of photography. Emphasis is placed on the role of form and on the pressures, both conceptual and practical, in building a body of work. Students are expected to have their own digital cameras, even if only point-and-shoots.

This two-semester course introduces the basic problems (technical and theoretical) related to film production. Prequisite: a 100- or 200-level course in film history.

History of Cinema Film 113-114 This one-year sequence is designed to give the student a broad introduction to the history and aesthetics of film from a roughly chronological perspective. There are weekly screenings of films widely acknowledged as central to the evolution of the medium as well as reading assignments that provide both a narrative history and a strong encounter with the leading critical and theoretical issues of cinema.

Survey of Media Art Film 167 An introduction to the history of moving-image art made with electronic media, with a focus on avant-garde traditions. Topics include video art, guerrilla television, expanded cinema, feminist media, Net art, music video, microcinema, digital feature filmmaking, and video games.

Performance and Video Film 203 How does video technology mediate between on-screen performer and audience? How can artists interested in creating critical and selfreflexive media respond to video’s immediacy and “liveness”? How can performance artists use video playback devices, displays, projectors, and interactive elements to shape and enhance live art? This course explores the intersections of video and performance. Participants work on individual projects as they develop ways of using video’s most fundamental property, its ability to reproduce a stream of real-time synchronized images and sounds.

Narrative Film Workshop Film 205 This workshop considers multiple approaches to visual storytelling and narrative strategies as well as solutions for practical and aesthetic problems as they are encountered in the making of a film.

Introduction to Video Production Film 207 An introduction to various elements of video production, with an emphasis on video art and experimentation. In addition to camera and editing assignments designed to familiarize students with digital video technology and various aesthetic and theoretical concepts, participants

Film and Electronic Arts 45 complete a single-channel video piece. Class sessions consist of technology demonstrations, screenings, critiques, and discussions.

Introduction to Film Film 208 An introduction to filmmaking with a strong emphasis on mastering the 16mm Bolex camera. Students shoot six different assignments designed to address basic experimental, documentary, and narrative techniques. A wide range of technical and aesthetic issues is explored in conjunction with editing, lighting, and sound recording techniques.

Sound Design Workshop Film 209 Two parts postproduction (hands-on demonstrations, individual and collaborative sound projects, and critique) and one part theory (close analysis of audio and visual texts, discussions, and readings), this course examines the mutual influence of sound and picture in audiovisual perception. Students explore the process of building tracks on digital nonlinear editing systems, and in so doing investigate the technical, aesthetic, and sonic relationships between sound and image in the production of cinematic, electronic, and digital works.

Screenwriting I Film 211-212 The scriptwriting process is studied from idea through plot and outline to finished script, including character development and dramatic/ cinematic structure. Student work is analyzed throughout the course. Open to students with a demonstrable background in film or writing and a willingness to share their work.

Special Topics in the History of Cinema Film 213-214 This seminar offers an in-depth examination of a particular period, style, filmmaker, or national school of filmmaking. Weekly screenings of acknowledged and influential masterpieces and related lectures make up the bulk of the course, with supplementary reading.

Film and Modernism Film 219 An exploration of the relationship between a cinematic achievement labeled avant-garde and the major tenets of modernist art, both visual and literary. Many of the films studied were made by artists who worked in other media or whose work manifests a direct relationship with various artistic movements, such as surrealism, futurism, and constructivism. Certain films are related to parallel achievements in photography, poetry, and music. Readings include film criticism and other critical works that help to define modernism in general.

A History of American Independent Film Film 220 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES American independent cinema emerged as an avenue for innovative approaches to storytelling, generally dictated by low budgets and propelled by an alternative, critical view of American society. It has also been a more favorable arena for women directors and filmmakers of color. This course examines a wide range of cinematic voices and styles, from John Cassavetes and Melvin Van Peebles to Spike Lee, Shirley Clarke, and Kelly Reichardt.

Found Footage, Appropriation, and Pranks Film 221 A survey of the history of appropriation in experimental media from the found footage, cut-up, and collage films of the 1950s, through the Lettrists and situationists, and up to current artistic and activist production efforts such as culture jamming, game hacking, sampling, hoaxing, resistance, interference, and tactical media intervention. Issues regarding gender, identity, media and Internet politics, technology, copyright, and aesthetics are addressed. Students produce their own work in video, gaming, installation, collage, and/or audio through assignments and a final project.

American Graphic Film: Abstraction, Animation, and Collage Film 222 Most of the films under discussion in this survey course eschew dramatic narrative for

46 The Arts imagery that provides an “adventure of visual perception.” Topics include the intention behind the drive toward visual abstraction and the inherent tension within a photographic medium between the so-called real and the imagined. Filmmakers considered: Joseph Cornell, Harry Smith, John and James Whitney, Robert Breer, Pat O'Neill, Paul Sharits, Stan Brakhage, Jennifer Reeves, Mark Street, Eve Heller, Lewis Sklar, and others.

Graphic Cinema Workshop Film 223 This course explores the materials and processes available for production of graphic film or graphic film sequences. It consists of instruction in animation, rephotography, rotoscoping, and drawing on film. Films screened are primarily concerned with the visual.

Film among the Arts Film 230 / Art History 230 An intensive exploration of the ways in which cinema has been informed and enriched by developments in other arts. Attention is paid not only to the presence of other arts within the films, but also to new ways of looking at and thinking about cinema through its relationships to other media. Directors studied include Antonioni, Bergman, Duras, Eisenstein, Godard, Hitchcock, Hou Hsiao-hsien, Kubrick, Marker, Pasolini, Resnais, Syberberg, and Watkins, among others.

Documentary Film Workshop Film 231 A video production workshop for students interested in social issues, reportage, home movies, travelogues, and other forms of nonfiction film. Working in small crews and individually, students travel locally to a variety of locations to cover particular events, people, and natural phenomena. A final project is researched, shot, and edited during the second half of the semester.

Art and the Internet Film 233 CROSS -LISTED: STS This seminar examines the electronic networks of contemporary digital culture and its recent

past by exploring a variety of information systems, virtual communities, and online art projects. These various worlds are examined critically in readings from cultural theory, policy, history, and aesthetics. Students tackle several technologies as they apply to activities on the Internet, and design and mount an online project.

Video Installation Film 235 Since the beginning of video, artists have experimented with installation. Wolf Vostell and Nam June Paik used multiple monitors in the 1960s; Joan Jonas incorporated video with live performance; and Juan Downey and Steina Vasulka experimented with interactive laser discs. Through readings and screenings, the class examines these diffuse practices. Students are encouraged to explore high- and low-tech solutions to their audiovisual desires.

Survey of Japanese Cinema Film 238 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES A survey of Japanese cinema from silent films, with their extraordinary benshi performances, to recent Japanese cinema, as seen at international film festivals. Particular attention is paid to the golden age of Japanese cinema in the 1950s. Topics include the relationship of cinema to cultural traditions, modernization, and questions of nation and postmodernity.

Script to Screen Film 242 In this production workshop, students are given a script from which to work, with the goal of developing a comprehensive methodology for transforming the text to screen. Emphasis is placed on blocking the actors and on the use of the camera as narrator. Students explore the dramatic and narrative elements of film, consider motivation for both character and camera, and learn to make physical on film what is internal in the given text.

The Artist’s Joke and Practice Film 243 Dada, surrealism, situationism, and Fluxus all held humor central to their cultural practice. Since its beginning in the 1960s, video art has

Film and Electronic Arts 47 been a repository for these humorous or not-sohumorous interventions, forming a free-ranging rhizomatic archive of perceptual games, tricks of signification, performances, actions, interventions, and appropriations. This video production course investigates these past uses of humor with an eye toward the production of video work that resonates in today’s economy.

The Conversation Film 244 This production course investigates ways of approaching dialogue scenes. Students consider the impact of casting, camera movement, camera placement, and editing on a particular scene. Reworking a single scene over the course of a semester, students discover how their filmmaking choices support, undermine, or contradict what their characters are saying. Students should come to the first class with a short story scene that involves dialogue. Familiarity with Final Cut Pro is a prerequisite.

Video Strategies Film 247 An advanced production course centered on the basic aesthetic, theoretical, and technical issues of electronic media production. The course consists of technical instruction, readings, in-class screenings, and critiques of student projects.

Framing the Election Film 248 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES Fiction and documentary works like Haskell Wexler’s Medium Cool, TVTV’s Four More Years, Robert Altman’s Tanner ’88 and Nashville, and D. A. Pennebaker’s The War Room capture the complex narratives and legacies of election years over the last four decades. In this course, students process, frame, and produce some aspect of presidential politics in terms of their own personal experience.

International Film Noir Film 249 / Art History 249 Students look intensively at a number of key noir films, with a focus on visual style and the way in which these atmospheric, morally ambiguous crime dramas are related to, and comment upon, developments in the larger cul-

ture. Attention is paid to the roots of film noir in the visual arts (especially photography) and hard-boiled fiction, its changes over the course of the 1940s and 1950s, and its influence on subsequent filmmaking.

Postwar Italy and France in Film Film 251 A survey of two major cinematic schools in postwar Western Europe. Four moments of intense creative activity are considered: (1) the immediate postwar years in Italy, dominated by neorealists de Sica, Visconti, and Rossellini; (2) the mid-50s in France, when Tati and Bresson were most impressive as “classicists”; (3) the late ’50s and early ’60s of the French New Wave, with Godard, Truffaut, Varda, and others; and (4) the maturation of a number of key directors in Italy at roughly the same time, including Antonioni, Fellini, Olmi, and Pasolini.

Experimental Cinema since 1975 Film 255 Topics in this survey course include the influence and legacy of the ‘60s avant-garde; late structuralism and materialist film; the role of feminism and identity politics; the rethinking of avant-garde film’s relationship to narrative; punk, No Wave, and Cinema of Transgression; film, video, new media, and the convergence of technologies; live cinema and performance; appropriation and the remake; experimental forms of documentary; and possible futures for the experimental cinema.

Landscape and Media Film 307 Designed for junior film and video majors, this course compares film and painted representations of the American landscape to those of television and video. Students are required to complete a short film or video referencing these issues.

Contemporary Narrative Film 311 This seminar investigates a select group of prominent narrative filmmakers who are still active and whose reputation has emerged within the last 25 years or so. Screenings include works by Jim Jarmusch, David Lynch, Abbas Kiarostami, Aleksandr Sokurov, Peggy

48 The Arts Ahwesh, Claire Denis, Guy Maddin, Michael Haneke, Lars von Trier, Chantal Akerman, Peter Greenaway, and others.

Advanced Screenwriting Film 312 An intensive writing workshop in which students create a long-form screenplay that reflects a complex original idea. Weekly writing assignments and class critiques are at the core of the workshop, although issues such as adaptation, production-imposed practicalities, and the role of the marketplace are also discussed.

Production Workshop: Cinematography Film 317 This junior-level production workshop gives students working in film a more thorough understanding of a wide range of cinematic vocabularies and aesthetics unique to the language of film. Students finish short films that explore the qualities of the medium through extensive inclass exploration of film stocks, lighting techniques, and cinemagraphic strategies. The class visits a New York motion picture lab to better understand the photo/chemical implications of film in the age of digital imaging.

Film as Art: The Classical Theories Film 318 A survey devoted to the major theories of film from the so-called “classical period” (largely the first half of the 20th century), when critics and writer-filmmakers were trying to establish a groundwork for how to think of the relatively new medium of cinema as an expressive form worthy of serious consideration among its more established sister arts. Select film screenings support the written texts.

Film Aesthetics Seminar Film 319 Special film-related topics, both theoretical and practical, are studied in depth. The seminar is designed for students who have already taken a film course or who, through personal experience, have acquired some knowledge of the medium. Weekly screenings are held and a strong emphasis is placed on supplementary reading. Recent seminars: Reenactment, Avante-

Garde Film and the American Poet, Theater and Film, and Women’s Experimental Film.

Aesthetics of New Media Film 320 This course examines critical and philosophical approaches to thinking about what constitutes new media art. Students consider historical and contemporary examples of art made with new media, and work from related movements such as futurism, expanded cinema, and process art. Concepts include interactivity, appropriation, simulation, generative art, identity in networked culture, technological determinism, medium specificity, and relational aesthetics. Prerequisite: Upper College status, with prior course work in film or art history, or permission of the instructor.

Aesthetics of Gaming Film 323 An analysis of computer gaming through philosophy, history, cultural theory, and art. Topics addressed include the nature of games and their function in society; the qualities of humancomputer interaction; aesthetic theories of game design; “serious games,” game worlds, and virtual reality; and video game modification, machinima, and artist-made video games. Prerequisite: previous course work in film and electronic arts, art history, or philosophy.

Cinematic Adaptation Film 328 Is adaptation translation or response? This workshop takes on all kinds of inspirational forms—music, science, painting, literature, dance, philosophy, etc.—and uses them as the basis for cinematic adaptation. Through a series of exercises, students engage an outside work and translate it to film.

Interactive, Nonlinear Narrative: A Writing Workshop for Film, Video, and New Media Film 329 This workshop investigates various interactive strategies and then uses them to provoke linear narratives. Students create short interactive scripts using multiple lines of unique narrative

Film and Electronic Arts 49 inquiry and resolution. For the final project, students work in teams to create complex interactive worlds, the success of which is determined by the complexity of questions raised by the multimodal paths. Priority is given to film majors; a screenwriting course is strongly recommended as a prerequisite.

American Film Comedy, 1920–1945 Film 334 An in-depth study of a remarkable period when American cinema produced a number of enduring comic films, many of which still serve as models for contemporary practitioners. Students view works that bridge the medium’s transition from silence to sound. Recurrent themes present a theoretical investigation into the nature of comedy itself as well as the powerful role that classic theatrical form plays in shaping a cinematic counterpart.

Notes of the Cinematographer Film 336 “Provoke the unexpected. Expect it.” “Make the objects look as if they want to be there.” “Build your film on white, on silence, and on stillness.” Robert Bresson’s Notes on the Cinematographer contains 25 years of the French director’s memos, observations, and critiques of his own filmmaking. Using Notes as a guide, students produce short film or video works in response to specific “directives” chosen from Bresson’s book. Prerequisite: Film 201-202 or comparable experience shooting and editing film or video.

Analog Video Film 341 This workshop investigates the making of video art using the recently abandoned technologies of analog video. Students focus on the video signal as a carrier of luminance and chrominance that can be manipulated and degraded through a reexamination of closed-circuit performance and real-time processing and mixing.

Sound and Picture Editing Film 344 This course explores the principles and practices of sound design in motion pictures. Through analysis of existing narrative sound

works and through the student’s own sound creations, the class examines the mutual influence of sound and picture. Over the semester, students have the opportunity to thoroughly explore the editing process and discover how sound comes into play when making a cut.

Narrative Workshop: Directing Film 351 Students explore visual storytelling strategies through weekly video exercises. They work both individually and on crews, rotating positions on a class production team, including planning, shooting, and editing. Students also construct a sound design for each piece, without the use of music.

Propaganda in Film Film 352 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This course explores the nature of propaganda in film, how it differs in various political systems and periods, how it relates to literature, and how our perceptions change over time.

Auteur Studies Film 358 Students undertake a comparative study of major directors, with the focus and theme changing each time the course is offered. Priority is given to moderated film students.

Senior Seminar Film 405 This seminar, a requirement for all program majors, is an opportunity for students working on Senior Projects to share working methods, knowledge, skills, and resources. The course includes sessions with visiting film- and videomakers, who discuss their processes and techniques; a life-after-Bard skills workshop; a review of grant opportunities; and critiques of works in progress.

50 The Arts

Music Faculty: James Bagwell* (director), Thurman Barker, Robert Bielecki, Alexander Bonus, Leon Botstein, Teresa Buchholz, Michael Bukhman, John Esposito, Kyle Gann, Luis Garcia-Renart (emeritus), Christopher H. Gibbs*, Marka Gustavsson, Tomie Hahn, Erica Kiesewetter, Peter Laki, Erica Lindsay, Ilka LoMonaco, Blair McMillen, Rufus Müller, Marina Rosenfeld, Patricia Spencer, Erika Switzer, Richard Teitelbaum, Joan Tower*, George Tsontakis * on sabbatical, spring 2013 Overview: Performance, composition, and historical analysis are the primary focuses of the Bard Music Program. Students develop their talents as performers through lessons and in large and small ensembles. In addition to weekly rehearsals with an ensemble and in open concerts offered monthly, they present three or four full-length concerts by the end of their fourth year. Composers develop individual “voices” through an active schedule of rehearsing, taping, and performing their music with faculty, outside professional players, and fellow students. Electronic composers learn the use of a sophisticated electronic music studio and eventually present their pieces (live or on tape) to the Music Program and the Bard community. All senior music majors are eligible either to perform with or have a piece played by the American Symphony Orchestra at the annual Commencement concert. The music faculty believes that these activities take on depth when grounded in a knowledge of musical tradition. The Bard College Conservatory of Music (see page 235) offers a five-year program in which students pursue a simultaneous dual degree, a bachelor of music and a bachelor of arts in a field other than music. Music Program courses are open to Conservatory students, and the two programs may share some courses, workshops, faculty, and performance facilities. Areas of Study: Bard’s Music Program is equipped for specialization in four major areas: jazz (and related African American traditions), European classical music (including its younger,

American parallel), electronic music (starting with its early 20th-century experimental roots), and ethnomusicology. The music major explores the history and theory of one of these four areas through course work and also takes at least one music course in an area outside his or her specialization. The Music Program encourages diversity, provided the musician becomes sufficiently immersed in one tradition to experience the richness and complexity of a musical culture. Requirements: All music majors are expected to successfully complete three semesters of music theory and three semesters of music history, including at least one course above the 200 level each. Additionally, program majors must take one class in composition or an equivalent course involving personal musical creativity, and a performance class, accompanied by two semesters’ worth of private performance lessons (or an equivalent course involving regular public performance). About half of these requirements should be completed prior to Moderation. The Senior Project consists of two concerts from 30 to 60 minutes each; it may also take the form of an advanced research project in music history or theory. In the case of composers, one concert may be replaced by an orchestra work written for performance by the American Symphony Orchestra. Recent Senior Projects in Music: “A Prelude to Modernism and Rhapsodies in Red, White, and Blue,” two concerts that explore 20th-century Russian, German, and American nationalism through art songs “Deconstructing Fugue: A Critical Survey of Analytical Approaches and an Original Method of Analysis” “Study and Performance of Violin Works by Bach, Beethoven, Dvoˇrák, and Tchaikovsky” “To Die upon the Hand I Love So Well: A Senior Recital” Courses: Music Program offerings are grouped under the headings of workshops, ensembles, and courses. Special Projects are for music majors only. Workshops are project oriented, allowing a student to enroll repeatedly in the same workshop; courses cover specific material and one-time-only registration is anticipated.

Music 51 Workshops, ensembles, and courses are open to music majors and nonmajors alike, and a number of courses are specifically aimed at stimulating the interest and listening involvement of the general student population. Recent workshops include the following: The Art of Collaboration, Bach Arias, Chinese Music Ensemble, Classical Guitar, Composition, Contemporary Electronics, Early Music Vocal Performance, Electronic Performance, English and American Art Song, French Art Song, Harmony, Improvisation, Jazz Vocals, Jazz Improvisation, Musical Structure for Performers, Opera, Percussion Discussion, Production and Reproduction, Samba School, Sight Reading, Songwriting, 20th-Century Composition, and Voice and Vocal Repertoire for Singers and Pianists.

Bard College Orchestra Music 104 Bard College Symphonic Chorus Music 105 Bard College Community Chamber Music Program Music 106 Ensemble Music 107-108 Ensembles may be taken for one credit or no credit. If private lessons are taken in conjunction with an ensemble, one more credit may be added. Recent ensembles include Balinese Gamelan, Big Band, Chamber, Chamber Singers, Chinese Music, Electroacoustic, Jazz, Jazz Guitar, Jazz Vocal, Live Electronic Music, Percussion, Vocal, Wind and Brass Chamber.

Sound and Culture

Music 119 This course explores the ways auditory phenomena (sound, silence, noise, music) are conceived, produced, perceived, and organized by humans into meaningful (and often musical) forms and events. The ultimate goal is to develop a broader sense of what music is and enable students to appreciate today’s rapidly

evolving soundscape of mediated and multicultural musics.

Introduction to Music Theory

Music 122 An introduction to tonal music for nonmusic majors and potential music majors who have had little or no exposure to reading music. The course begins with basics of musical notation and progresses to the identification of scales, triads, and seventh chords. An ear-training component that allows for practical reinforcement of the aural concepts is presented.

Popular Music of the Non-Western World


What does it mean for a music to be “popular”? In different parts of the world, the production, consumption, and distribution of popular music is shaped by a society’s distinct ways of encountering and negotiating modernity. This course looks at popular music genres in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East, and explores issues related to the emergence of each one as well as their localized meanings.

Western Music for Nonmajors: History of the Keyboard Music 127 This course introduces students to the history of Western music through an exploration of the keyboard instruments (organ, harpsichord, piano) and their evolution over the centuries. Students also become acquainted with some of the great keyboard performers of the past and the present.

Introduction to World Music Music 140 A survey of various folk and traditional musics of the non-Western world. Music cultures are discussed individually, while a cross-cultural perspective is maintained in order to discern common underlying themes and processes as well as points of divergence. Discussion also includes issues such as cultural ownership, appropriation, and commodification—issues that have arisen as the countries where the

52 The Arts musics originate get more deeply implicated in the global economy.

Introduction to Ethnomusicology Music 185 CROSS -LISTED: ANTHROPOLOGY

Music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Music 141

This course introduces students to the history, scope of subject matter, theory, and methodology of ethnomusicology—the study of music in relation to other aspects of culture.

This course focuses on music from the last decade of Mozart’s life (more or less coinciding with his move to Vienna), although important earlier works are also studied. The operas receive special attention. The course, which fulfills a music history requirement for unmoderated music majors, is intended for the general music lover.

Origin of the String Quartets: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Schubert Music 169

Death Set to Music Music 190 This class considers key musical works that use death and mourning as subject matter. Works analyzed include the requiems of Mozart, Verdi, Brahms, Britten, and Hindemith; and Bach’s Johannes-Passion and Ich habe Genug (Cantata 82).

Students listen to the innovative work of Haydn as he developed—and defined—the classical features of the string quartet, and explore his influence on other composers. Mozart synthesized the European strands of common tonal practice into many perfect, operatically expressive examples; and Beethoven, Haydn’s most famous student, expanded the formal and expressive boundaries and, together with Schubert, built the foundation of German Romanticism, which found a specific and highly personal outlet in the string quartet.

Music Theory I and II Music 201-202

Jazz Harmony I and II Music 171-172

Jazz in Literature I and II Music 211-212 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES,

This two-semester introductory course helps students identify and understand the chords and chord progressions commonly used in jazz.

High/Low: “Popular” and “Serious” Music in Western Culture Music 183 As far back as the early Renaissance, distinctions were made as to what constituted popular and serious music. In this course, key works in Western classical music from the 16th through the 21st centuries are studied along with the popular music of the day. Careful attention is paid to critical reaction to these works, along with an examination of the cultural climate and trends that might have contributed to high/low distinctions.

Basic musical notation is the starting point, after which the class moves to scales and recognition of triads and seventh chords, and then to rhythmic performance. By the end of the course, students should possess the ability to write a hymn, song, or brief movement of tonal music. At all times the course emphasizes analysis of real music, and an ear-training component reinforces the theoretical knowledge with practical experience.


A two-semester course that explores jazzthemed short stories, novels, and plays, with the goal of scrutinizing the synergy of two great art forms—literature and jazz. The reading list includes Maya Angelou, James Baldwin, Donald Barthelme, Ralph Ellison, Langston Hughes, Toni Morrison, and Ann Petry.

Masterworks of Music Music 215 This course parallels Literature and Language of Music (Music 264-265) but offers a close examination of a handful of pieces. Works studied include, but are not limited to, Dufay’s L’homme armé Mass; Josquin’s L’homme armé Mass (super voces musicales); Monteverdi’s

Music 53 L’incoronazione di Poppea; Bach’s Brandenburg concertos; and Beethoven’s String Quartet in B flat, Op. 130. Students read a substantial amount of specialized literature on each work.

19th-Century Harmony Music 219 This course explores the Romantic era in terms of its most colorful characteristic: harmony. Works by Chopin, Field, Mendelssohn, Robert and Clara Schumann, Brahms, Liszt, and Scriabin are analyzed, as are excerpts of larger works by Berlioz, Wagner, Bruckner, and Mahler.

Music, Language, and Mind Music 220 A survey of recent work in musical cognition, with an emphasis on the connections between language and music. Among the questions addressed: Does the shared terminology we employ to refer to the basic elements of music and language—e.g., accent, rhythm, phrase, stress—point to underlying similarities in the two mental systems or does it obscure fundamental differences? Does the evidence offered by contemporary neuropsychological research indicate that linguistic and musical syntax make use of similar or distinct neural circuitry?

Music and Spectacle in Baroque Rome Music 222 CROSS -LISTED: ITALIAN STUDIES Musical patronage is examined through historical documents, works of art and architecture, the decorative arts, and music. The principal focus is Rome and Venice, with special emphasis on the music of Claudio Monteverdi. Forms of spectacle considered include festivals, chivalric combat, opera, and chamber entertainments. Recommended for music historians, cultural historians, art historians, and Italianists.

Music of China Music 226 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES Various forms of Chinese music are examined, with particular focus on instrumental genres. Also addressed: musical styles, concepts, and recurring themes in Chinese music history.

Renaissance Counterpoint Music 228 This course follows classical species counterpoint as outlined by Knud Jeppesen, based on the style of Palestrina. The freer styles of earlier composers, such as Josquin and Ockeghem, are also examined, and the class generalizes from contrapuntal concepts to such derivatives as the dissonant counterpoint of Charles Seeger and others. Students must be able to read music and have a basic knowledge of musical terminology (intervals, cadences).

The Faust Legend in Literature and Music Music 229 Students read versions of the Faust legend by Christopher Marlowe, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and Thomas Mann, and then examine their musical realizations by Schumann, Berlioz, Mendelssohn, Liszt, Gounod, Mahler, Boito, Busoni, and Mann/Schoenberg. No technical knowledge of music is required.

From “Honest Courtesans” to Singing Nuns: Women and Music in Early Modern Italy Music 231 The course focuses on female composers, lyricists, and performers of both sacred and secular music in Italy from the late Renaissance to the 18th century.

Introduction to Conducting Music 225

20th-Century Masters: Schoenberg, Stravinsky, Shostakovich Music 232

The development of physical gesture and rehearsal techniques are the primary goals of the course. Students also work on score reading, ear training, instrumental transposition, and historical performance practice. The repertoire includes both orchestral and choral works. Prerequisite: Music 201-202 or the equivalent.

Students consider major works by each of these composers, who together encapsulate much of the history, techniques, and aesthetics of 20thcentury Western art music. Arnold Schoenberg (1874–1951) carried Wagnerian harmony to what he considered its logical conclusion, the destruction of tonality. Igor Stravinsky (1882–1971), a

54 The Arts product of Russian imperial culture, assimilated everything from Tchaikovskian romanticism to serial technique. Dmitrii Shostakovich (1906– 1975) tried to balance creative expression with the demands of the Stalinist government.

Evolution of the Sonata Music 233 Sonata form, which began in the early 18th century, is the most important collective achievement in European music, and it continues to influence the way much music is written today. This course starts with the primitive binary forms of Kuhnau and Sammartini, and proceeds through works of C. P. E. Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Clementi, Dussek, Beethoven, Hummel, and Schubert.

Analyzing Beethoven Music 234 This course analyzes the development of Beethoven’s formal ideas, leading up to a detailed examination of the astonishing late piano sonatas and string quartets, still considered by some to be the most avante-garde music ever written. Prerequisite: Music 201-202 or the equivalent.

The Music of Claudio Monteverdi Music 235 Claudio Monteverdi (1567–1643) was the first great composer of the baroque period. This course considers his career in historic and artistic contexts. Students examine his productions in various genres: madrigal, opera (e.g., L’Orfeo and L’incoronazione di Poppea), masque, and sacred music.

The History and Literature of Electronic and Computer Music Music 238 Beginning with the history of such early electronic instruments as the theremin and the OndesMartenot, this course traces the development of electronic music from early musique concrète, elektronische musik, and tape music through the advent of live electronic music and computer music.

Expressions of National Identity in Music Music 251 Music is routinely associated with the country it comes from, yet the idea that a country should have a distinctive musical “voice” is relatively new: it arose in the 19th century, paralleling (but not identical to) political nationalism. This course explores a wide range of works that are linked to particular nations.

Pronunciation and Diction for Singers Music 254A, 254B This two-semester course offers an introduction to the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and to the practical aspects of performing or preparing Italian, French, German, and English vocal literature. The fall semester is devoted to the Italian and French languages, the spring to German, English, and Latin.

Analysis of the Classics of Modernism Music 255 This course analyzes several works that changed the way composing is considered: the cinematographic intercutting of Stravinsky’s Le Sacre du Printemps and the ironic Bach appropriations of his Symphony of Psalms; the textural overlayering of Ives’s Three Places in New England; the elegant mathematical proportioning of Bartók’s Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta; the delicate symmetries of Webern’s Symphonie, Op. 21; the tonal organization of Stockhausen’s Gruppen; and the compelling, multitempo climaxes of Nancarrow’s Study No. 36.

Production/Reproduction Music 257 This course focuses on the theory and practice of sound recording. Students learn the use of recording equipment, including digital tape recorders, mixing consoles, signal processing devices, and microphones. A/B listening tests are used to compare types of microphones, microphone placement, and recording techniques. Pro Tools software is available for digital editing and mastering to CD.

Music 55 Literature and Language of Music Music 264-265 A survey of selected works, ranging (in the first semester) from Gregorian chants in the Middle Ages to the early works of Beethoven (around 1800). The second semester surveys music from Beethoven to the present day. All works are placed in a broad historical context, with specific focus on stylistic and compositional traits. In addition, musical terminology, composers, and historical and theoretical methodology are described in relationship to the repertoire. Since students use scores in class discussions, basic skills in music reading are expected.

Jazz Repertory: American Song Music 266 This performance-based course is a survey of the major American popular song composers of the Tin Pan Alley era, whose work forms the core of the jazz repertoire. Composers studied include Gershwin, Berlin, Porter, Ellington, Warren, and Rodgers, among others. Students and the instructor perform the music studied in a workshop setting. Prerequisite: Music 171-172 or permission of instructor. Additional jazz repertory subjects have included bebop masters, John Coltrane, and Thelonious Monk.

Introduction to Opera Music 276 A survey of opera from Monteverdi to the present day. The focus is on a limited number of operas, including treatments of the Orpheus myth by Peri, Monteverdi, Gluck, and Glass; Handel’s Giulio Cesare; Purcell’s Dido and Aeneas; Mozart’s Don Giovanni; Beethoven’s Fidelio; Wagner’s Die Walküre; Verdi’s La Traviata; Berg’s Wozzeck; Stravinsky’s The Rake’s Progress; and Glass’s Einstein on the Beach. Classes also include video screenings and comparisons of different productions.

Musical Ethnography Music 287 CROSS -LISTED: ANTHROPOLOGY This course provides practical instruction in field research and analytical methods in ethnomusicology. Topics include research design;

grantsmanship; fieldwork; writing of field notes, interviews, and oral histories; survey instruments; textual analysis; audiovisual methods; archiving; performance as methodology; historical research; and the poetics, ethics, and politics of cultural representation. Students conceive, design, and carry out a limited research project over the course of a semester.

Advanced Analysis Seminar Music 302 Students make a thorough analysis of a maximum of three works from the 19th and 20th centuries. The emphasis is not on harmonic analysis, but on how networks of motives are used to generate overall structure—that is, the essence of large-scale compositional thinking. Music analyzed in class may include Beethoven’s Grosse Fuge, Morton Feldman’s “Turfan Fragments,” and Stravinsky’s Piano Concerto. Prerequisites: Music 255 or Harmony Workshop and permission of the instructor.

The Arithmetic of Listening Music 304 This introduction to the overtone series and the history of tuning teaches how tuning shapes the course of a culture’s music; traces the parallel development of music and the number series back 6,000 years, to the teachings of Pythagoras; shows how to discriminate the pitch subtleties that differentiate Indian music, Balinese music, and even the blues from conventional European tuning; analyzes music by American avantgardists; and sensitizes class members to aspects of listening that 20th-century Westerners have been trained to filter out.

Voice, Body, Machine: Women Artists and the Evolution of the ComposerPerformer Music 317 CROSS -LISTED: GSS This course explores the works and legacy of a diverse group of artists, mostly female, whose interdisciplinary practices challenged conventional ideas of performance, expression, and technology, and redefined the fields of experimental and electronic music during the last half-century. Artists studied include Pauline Oliveros, Yoko Ono, Joan La Barbara, Alison

56 The Arts Knowles, Maryanne Amacher, Eliane Radigue, Diamanda Galás, Laetitia Sonami, Terre Thaemlitz, and Kembra Pfahler.

Musical Electronics: Analog Synthesis and Processing Music 320 This course concentrates on the theory, design, and creative use of the basic components of analog electronic music systems. Students examine some of the original circuits used by Bode, Moog, Serge, Theremin, and others. Discussions cover voltage control techniques, synthesis, and processing. Class projects recreate some of the classic circuits and patches.

Charles Ives: Concord Sonata Music 322 This seminar offers an in-depth examination and analysis of one of the 20th century’s most extraordinary piano works: the Piano Sonata No. 2, “Concord, Mass., 1840–1860,” by Charles Ives (1874–1954). Prerequisite: a second-year music theory course.

Mahler and Fin de Siècle Vienna Music 324 This course explores the musical, cultural, and political world of fin de siècle Vienna with a thorough investigation of the music of Gustav Mahler. Students consider the genesis of his songs and symphonies, their literary and intellectual sources, and the initial reception of his works in Vienna. Mahler’s accomplishment is situated with regard to his older and younger musical contemporaries. The composer’s relationship to the artistic, intellectual, and political trends of his time is also considered.

Jazz: The Freedom Principle I, II, III Music 331, 332, 335 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, AMERICAN STUDIES

This three-part course is a study of the crosspollination between postbop in the late 1950s and free jazz. Employing a cultural approach, it examines the effects on music of the prevailing social climate from 1958 through the mid-1960s. The emphasis is on artists and composers such as Art Blakey, Ornette Coleman, John Coltrane, Miles Davis, Eric Dolphy, Charles Mingus,

Thelonious Monk, Max Roach, Horace Silver, and Cecil Taylor.

Studies in 19th-Century French Music Music 336 This seminar addresses selected aspects of 19th-century French music, from Berlioz to Fauré. Genres covered include opera, choral music, symphonic and chamber music, piano music, and art song. Special attention is paid to the historical context, including the 1830 and 1848 revolutions, the Second Empire, the Franco-Prussian war, and the Third Republic.

Twelve-Tone Analysis Music 339 Dominating the central 20th century, 12-tone music was a bold experiment in replacing tonality. Though it failed as a universal language, 12tone technique sparked dazzling innovations in musical texture, and in the right hands was capable of producing a thoughtful, counterintuitive beauty. This seminar investigates how the technique refined itself and spread into areas of rhythm, dynamics, and form—and how it eventually sowed the seeds of its own demise.

Introduction to Experimental Music Music 340 This course starts with Henry Cowell’s radical innovations early in the 20th century, but the primary focus is on the new forms developed in the ’60s and ’70s, including the text-based “event” pieces of the Fluxus movement; the music of Musica Elettronica Viva in Rome and Sonic Arts Union in New York; the minimalist works of La Monte Young, Steve Reich, and Philip Glass; and the improvisation-based techniques in the works of Anthony Braxton, George Lewis, and others.

Happy Endings: Comic Opera Music 343 This course explores comic operas—a genre that has proved a relative rarity among the greatest composers of the standard operatic repertoire. Participants look at the genre in relation to traditional theories of comedy from Aristotle to Freud, Bergson, and beyond. The course ultimately focuses on a limited number

Music 57 of operas; the musical and literary sources are considered for each.

extensively to access new developments in interface and enhancement technologies.

Introductory Psychoacoustics Music 345

Orchestration Music 353

This course begins with a description of the physiology and function of the ear and how auditory information is processed. It then focuses on sound localization and the technologies used in spatialization and 3-D audio as well as on auditory localization cues, binaural recording, spatial audio synthesis, sound for virtual realities, and immersive environments.

Students learn how to score for instrumental combinations, from small ensembles up to full orchestra. Live demonstrations of orchestral instruments; score study of orchestral literature; chord voicing and notation of bowings, breathing, articulations, and special orchestral effects; and the practice of basic conducting patterns and skills are covered.

Interactive Performance and Composition Using MAX/MSP Music 346

Arranging Techniques for Jazz Music 356

An introduction to computer programming for algorithmic composition, sound installations, interactive performance, and live sound processing, using the musician-friendly Max/MSP programming language. This is a hands-on course with several small assignments culminating in a final project of programming and composing and a presentation or performance. Prior experience with sequencers or MIDI software is helpful.


This study of jazz from 1952 to the early ’70s examines the extreme shifts in styles, from cool to hard bop to the avant-garde. Musicians associated with these styles, such as Stan Getz, Lee Konitz, Hank Mobley, Anthony Braxton, and Muhal Richard Abrams, are emphasized.

Electronic, Electroacoustic, and Computer Music Composition Music 352 Taking VR (Virtual Reality 3D sonic imaging and graphics, telepresence, and cyberspace) as a point of departure, this workshop examines the possibilities of individualizing sonic architectures for listeners and spaces. Scenarios are proposed for future sonic worlds, and cross-sensory explorations are investigated. Readings include selected excerpts spanning musical theory, acoustics, neuroscience, and the literature of the imagination. Internet sources are used

This course focuses on the various techniques used in jazz ensemble writing, from quintet to big band ensembles. Classic “drop-two” voicings and tertiary approaches are covered, as are more contemporary cluster, quartal, and line part writings. Myriad approaches to textural issues that arise in each particular instrumentation are examined, along with various approaches to section writing. This is an advanced seminar open to moderated Upper College music majors who have successfully completed Music 367, or by permission of the instructor.

Music and Tourism in Southeast Asia Music 357 CROSS -LISTED: ANTHROPOLOGY, ASIAN STUDIES When music interfaces with tourism, the result is a doubly potent medium of encounter. There is hardly a place on earth left untouched by the recreational geography of tourism, but the transformation of the general image of Southeast Asia over the past several decades is phenomenal, in large part owing to the annexation of music within the tourism enterprise. This course looks at the political economy of tourism as seen through an analysis of specific sites and analyzes the role of music in creating new local economies.

Sound/Art Workshop in Electroacoustic Composition and Interdisciplinarity Music 358 CROSS -LISTED: STS Across the contemporary artistic spectrum, electroacoustic sound and music are increasingly

58 The Arts in confrontation with the visual. Readings supplement compositional exercises, but the course is primarily an open format for the critique and exploration of ongoing student work, as well as for examining works from the field in the areas of video, animation, digital media, podcasting, and graphical/digital notation.

John Cage and His World Music 363 Long reviled as a charlatan and/or madman, John Cage has finally achieved recognition as one of the most influential composers and musical thinkers of the late 20th century. This course focuses primarily on an analysis of his music, encompassing such innovations as the prepared piano, chance, and indeterminacy. Also considered is the work of his teachers and those who influenced him, as well as his collaborators from the worlds of music, visual arts, dance, literature, politics, and religion.

Music of Japan Music 365 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES This course begins with the ancient repertories of Buddhist chant (shomyo) and court music (gagaku), the Zen-inspired shakuhachi (endblown bamboo flute) honkyoku and music for biwa (lute), shamisen, koto, and other traditional instruments. After exploring the impact of Western music on Japan, the class focuses on the combination of traditional Japanese instruments and forms with Western contemporary classical techniques, as exemplified by the work of Toru Takemitsu, Yuji Takahashi, Toshi Ichiyanagi, and others. Also explored are postwar experimental groups, key figures such as Yoko Ono and Takehisa Kosugi, and recent developments in “noise” music by Merzbow and Otomo Yoshihide.

Advanced Contemporary Jazz Techniques Music 366 This course introduces methods for the jazz improviser to deconstruct and reorganize the basic harmonic and rhythmic elements for a composition. Issues addressed include reharmonization, remetering, metric modulation, and variations in phrasing, tempo, and dynamics; that is, the arrangement and reorganization of

compositional elements. This is a performanceoriented class, and the repertoire includes jazz standards and compositions of the instructor. Open to moderated students who have successfully completed Music 171-172, Jazz Harmony I and II, and previous jazz repertory classes.

Jazz Composition Music 367 The strategies of jazz composition are explored, including basic modal harmony and melodic and rhythmic development.

Last Operas Music 371 This course examines the last operas of some of the greatest composers of musical theater to see what commonalities might emerge from operas written in very different times and places. Works studied include Monteverdi’s L’incoronazione di Poppea (1642), Mozart’s The Magic Flute (1791), Wagner’s Parsifal (1882), Verdi’s Falstaff (1893), Puccini’s Turandot (1924), Strauss’s Capriccio (1942), and Britten’s Death in Venice (1973).

Music of Debussy and Ravel Music 379 This course considers a broad selection of the composers’ works, including piano and chamber music as well as symphonic and stage works. Topics include innovation in the areas of harmony and timbre, and connections with literature and the visual arts.

Photography Faculty: Stephen Shore (director), David Bush, Laurie Dahlberg, Tim Davis, Barbara Ess, Larry Fink, An-My Lê, Gilles Peress, John Pilson, Luc Sante* * leave of absence, 2012–2013 Overview: A photographer’s growth is the product of the simultaneous development of three interdependent factors. The first is the conscious or intuitive understanding of the visual language of photography—that is, how the world

Photography 59 is translated into a photograph and how a photograph orders a segment of the world in the space and time that it shows. This is a photograph’s grammar. The second factor is the acquisition of technique. Without a technical foundation there is no possibility of expression; the broader the foundation, the greater the scope of expression. This is a photograph’s vocabulary. The third factor is the photographer’s work on his or her self. This entails overcoming visual and psychological preconceptions and conditioning, deepening and clarifying perceptions, opening emotions, and finding passions. This is a photograph’s content. The Photography Program instructs students in this three-part process and provides a historical and aesthetic framework for their development. Requirements: Photography students are expected to take and pass one studio course in photography each semester; Photography/Art History 113, History of Photography; at least one upper-level history of photography course; one additional art history course; and Physics 118, Light and Color. Moderation occurs at the end of the fourth semester: by that time photography majors should have earned at least 60 credits and taken Photography/Art History 113 and at least two semesters of photography studio classes. The student meets with a Moderation board, presenting two short papers and a portfolio of 30 prints, 8" x 10" or larger. The portfolio demonstrates to the Moderation board whether the student can see and think photographically, can communicate his or her perceptions and feelings in pictures, and possesses the technical skills required for expression. Courses: Following is a course of study for studio classes. First semester: Photography 101, Introduction to Photography, or Photography 103, Basic Photography. In the second through fourth semesters: Photography 105, Photographic Seeing; Photography 201, The View Camera; and Photography 203, Color Photography. In the fifth semester: Photography 305, Digital Imaging. In the sixth semester, a choice of Photography 301-302, Advanced Photography, or Photography 307, Advanced Digital Imaging. Students work on their Senior Project in the seventh and eighth semesters.

Introduction to Photography Photography 101 An introduction to the techniques and aesthetics of black-and-white photography as a means of self-expression. Systematic instruction in darkroom techniques and weekly criticism of individual work provide a solid understanding of the use of the camera as an expressive tool. Required materials include a camera (35mm or 2 1/4") with fully adjustable f-stops and shutter speeds and a handheld reflected light-exposure meter. No previous darkroom experience is required; admission by portfolio.

Basic Photography Photography 103 This course covers the same material as Photography 101 but is intended for beginning students with some photography experience. Admission by portfolio.

Introduction to Photography for Nonmajors Photography 104 An introduction to the techniques and aesthetics of black-and-white photography as a means of self-expression, including instruction in darkroom techniques and weekly criticism of individual work. The student must have a camera (35mm or 2 1/4") with fully adjustable f-stops and shutter speeds and a handheld reflected light-exposure meter. Open to Upper College students who have successfully moderated in disciplines other than photography.

Photographic Seeing Photography 105 Beyond the material technique of photography lies a visual technique. This involves learning to see the way a camera sees; learning how a photograph, by its nature, transforms the world in front of the camera. The first half of the semester is devoted to exploring this visual grammar and how it clarifies a photograph’s meaning and the photographer’s intent. In the second half, students pursue independent projects. Prerequisite: Photography 101 or 103.

60 The Arts Light Photography 106 Light is the coauthor of image. Light can be brazen or bland. It can dramatize or simply describe. The assignments alternate between real or natural light and artificial or created light and attempt to clarify their differences and similarities. Learning to control light broadens a photographer's perception of ambient options. Prerequisite: Photography 101 or 103.

Photography for Filmmakers Photography 109 / Film 109 See Film 109 for a full course description.

History of Photography Photography 113 / Art History 113 See Art History 113 for a full course description.

The View Camera Photography 201 View cameras, the first cameras, were the primary photographic tools for the first half of photography’s history. They offer unsurpassed clarity, tonality, and image control. Operation of the view camera and advanced darkroom techniques are demonstrated as the class explores the expressive potential of the conscious use of the camera’s precise control of the image. Students are supplied with 4" x 5" camera outfits. Prerequisite: Photography 105. Admission by portfolio.

Color Photography Photography 203 An introduction to the problem of rethinking photographic picture making through the medium of color photography. Technical areas explored include transparencies, color negatives, and type-C prints. Admission by portfolio.

graph communicates visual information. Students are supplied with 4” x 5” camera outfits. Prerequisite: Admission by portfolio and Photography 105.

Advanced Photography Photography 301-302 To prepare the student for ongoing independent work, this course emphasizes the exploration of visual problems by way of asking good questions of oneself and one’s work, seeing how other photographers and artists in other media have dealt with such questions, and “answering” the questions through individual projects. Prerequisites: Photography 201 and 203.

Digital Imaging Photography 305 An introduction to the use of Adobe Photoshop for image processing. The class first studies techniques for color management, scanning, image processing, and outputting. Students then pursue individual projects, which are critiqued in class. Prerequisite: instructor’s permission.

Advanced Digital Imaging Photography 307 In addition to learning various digital imaging techniques, students examine the ways in which digital imaging affects the creation and viewing of photographs. Issues central to photography in the digital era are considered, including the degree to which faith in the veracity of the photographic image has been altered by the seamless editing capabilities of digital photography and the interactive arenas of multimedia and the Internet. Prerequisite: Photography 305 or permission of the instructor.

Photography and the Human Condition Photography 313 / Art History 313

View Camera: Hudson Project Photography 205

See Art History 313 for a full course description.

The operation of the view camera and advanced darkroom techniques are demonstrated. After six weeks of technical and darkroom assignments and exposure to past documentary visual strategies, students engage in a project documenting the city of Hudson, New York, half an hour north of Bard, and explore how a photo-

The Portrait Photography 314 What constitutes the nature of likeness? Is it a matter of recording the physical characteristics of a person, or rendering the inner person in pictorial form? This course addresses these issues and traces developments in portraiture in

Studio Arts 61 the 19th and 20th centuries. Artists considered include Ingres, Nadar, Hill, Adamson, van Gogh, Picasso, Cameron, Man Ray, and Warhol.

Art and the Uses of Photography Photography 316 / Art 316 In this study of photography as a material or tool in art making, the emphasis is placed on developing ideas and using simple, direct photographic means to express them. Students create a body of work with snapshots, slides, laser Xeroxes, Polaroids, photocollage, and other basic forms. The class visits New York galleries and museums to consider the use of photographicbased work in contemporary art practice. Admission by interview and portfolio.

The Employment of Photography Photography 321 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This course addresses the many purposes to which photography is and has been put, outside the realm of art: the studio portrait and postmortem portrait, journalistic and scientific photography, forensic photography, “spirit” and kirlean photography, erotic photography, advertising photography, fumetti, and the many manifestations of the snapshot. Methods of production and reproduction—the carte de visite, the postcard, the Polaroid—are studied in their social and historical context.

Photography, History, and News Photography 328 CROSS -LISTED: ART HISTORY, STS This course considers war photography, tabloid photography, disaster coverage, photojournalism, propaganda, and the role of photography in preserving evidence of changes in daily life over the past two centuries. Special attention is given to objectivity, rhetoric, chance, and the ambiguity of the photographer’s position in a crisis.

Senior Seminar The senior seminar is required of all seniors majoring in photography. It meets weekly and carries no credit.

Studio Arts Faculty: Ken Buhler (director), Diana Al-Hadid, Laura Battle, James O. Clark, Daniella Dooling, Kenji Fujita, Arthur Gibbons**, Jeffrey Gibson, Nicola Lopez, Kristin Lucas, Medrie MacPhee, Lothar Osterburg, Judy Pfaff*, Lisa Sanditz, Joseph Santore, Julianne Swartz, Mickalene Thomas, Hap Tivey * leave of absence, 2012–2013 ** leave of absence, 2012–2014 Overview: The Studio Arts Program is available to the student who wishes to major in the program and the student who wishes to experience the visual arts and apply that experience to other disciplines. Visits to museums and galleries in New York City are a requirement of many courses and seminars. Requirements: The student who wishes to moderate into the program and graduate with a degree in studio arts must complete the following course components: two art history courses (one to be completed by the time of Moderation; it is also recommended that one be based in contemporary, post-1945 art); three studio courses from among Drawing I, II, III; Painting I, II, III; Printmaking I, II, III; Sculpture I, II, III; and Cybergraphics I, II, III; and Art 405-406, Senior Seminar. At the end of their fourth semester, students are asked to present a body of work to a group of three faculty members—determined by the program and including the student’s adviser—to assess the student’s work to date, clarify strengths and weaknesses, and discuss curricular and academic goals for the rest of the student’s Bard career. Moderated studio arts majors are eligible for the final workshop component of the Studio Arts Program, which consists of Level III studio classes in a variety of painting, drawing, sculpture, cybergraphics, and printmaking options. The content of each studio class and the degree of structure are up to the individual instructor. Admission is by portfolio. Facilities: The exhibition space in the Fisher Studio Arts Building permits an ambitious

62 The Arts schedule of exhibitions, which are an integral component of the program. In addition to open student exhibitions, Senior Project shows, and Moderation exhibitions, student work on particular themes is presented at student-curated and faculty-curated shows. Bard’s Center for Curatorial Studies is another on-campus site for exhibitions of contemporary art. The Bard College Exhibition Center, located in the village of Red Hook, consists of two buildings, each with approximately 16,000 square feet of gallery, studio, and class space. The Center gives seniors the opportunity to present their Senior Projects in a professional space dedicated solely to the exhibition of student work.

Cybergraphics I Art 100 An introduction to graphic creation using the computer as a compositional tool. The imaging potentials of a variety of graphic applications are discussed and demonstrated during the first half of the course; the second half focuses on individual projects. Basic computer skills are required; minimal ability in Adobe Photoshop or a comparable application is recommended.

Painting I Art 101-102 For students who have had no experience with painting or need a brush-up. Lectures, demonstrations, exercises, and assigned projects provide a basis in the fundamentals of painting. Students explore color mixing and paint handling and review various compositions/colororganizing principles as they relate to painting.

Sculpture I Art 105–106 This course introduces core ideas and practices of contemporary sculpture, and branches out into less traditional territories. The basic history of sculpture is studied through slides, emphasizing art made in the last 40 years. Some conventional sculpture-making practices—such as woodworking, metalworking, and casting— are introduced; installation and some alternative forms are also studied. Ways to give life to ideas through physical forms are explored, along with the ways in which materials and existing objects can generate unexpected ideas.

Drawing I Art 107–108 Drawing is the basis of visual intelligence. It enables us to envision and manipulate masses in space as light reveals them. This course examines perception, drawing from objects, the human figure, masterworks, and interior and exterior spaces. Students learn to critique each other’s work orally and in written form. Some drawings are made collaboratively and some explore scale, as assignments include drawings that are both very small and mural-sized.

Printmaking I Art 109–110 An in-depth introduction to all the basic—and some advanced—processes of intaglio, from drypoint and etching to aquatint, wiping, and printing. The class looks at classic and contemporary uses of intaglio by artists, and students apply the learned skills to projects of their own choosing.

Cybergraphics II Art 200 This course addresses advanced strategies for image creation and enhancement in graphics applications, using Photoshop, Illustrator, Flash, Maya, and Final Cut. Students create prints, text, and animation in the context of contemporary art issues, ranging from digital prints and process presentations to documentation.

Painting II Art 201 Designed for students who are serious about painting, especially from life. Issues discussed in Painting I serve as building blocks for complex figurative compositions. The focus is on the figure, color relations, and how the sensation of color interacting across the plane can create light and space. Prerequisites: Art 101-102 and drawing experience.

Sculpture II Art 206 This course focuses on how an artist’s process and the qualities inherent in specific materials combine to create works of art. Students explore notions of collecting and archiving, communal and recycled materials, collaborative installation, digital tools, physical computing, and per-

Studio Arts 63 formance as process. Recent courses have also addressed the artist’s process, casting techniques, and contemporary sculpture.

Drawing II Art 207, 208 Intended for the sophomore/junior level, these courses explore drawing materials ranging from traditional drawing media to collage and transfers. Color theory is examined and emphasized. Recent subjects explored in Drawing II include drawing from nature, mixed media, and the figure. Prerequisite: Art 101-102.

Printmaking II Art 209 Through a series of short assignments in the first half of the semester, students are exposed to more advanced techniques—e.g., multiple-plate registration, printing in color, and the use of different papers—and are encouraged to experiment in order to expand on familiar techniques. Students then take on more ambitious projects. Other themes explored in recent level II courses include intaglio and print techniques that cross over into drawing, sculpture, and other media. Prerequisite: Art 109-110.

Cybergraphics III: Digital Graphics / Text Art 300 Using computer software and digital printers, students examine various approaches to creating image/text combinations in the traditions of graphic novels, manga, and contemporary painting. Software instruction includes more complex strategies in Photoshop as well as introductions to Illustrator, Manga Studio, Poser, and Zaxwerks ProAnimator. Prerequisite: a basic understanding of Photoshop.

Painting III Art 301, 302 Intended for junior and senior studio art majors, and anyone who has completed Painting II, these courses simultaneously expand students’ vocabulary for painting and help them find their voice. Students explore alternative formats—such as shaped and multipaneled paintings—as well as alternative strategies to the static image and the juxtaposition of different styles and techniques.

Art in Conversation Art 303 This course consists of two alternating parts. The first takes place in New York City, where students visit galleries, museums, and studios. The second is a seminar on campus in which students learn how to present and document their work and develop portfolios. They also become familiar with the ins and outs of computer presentations, grant research, etc. Open to 10 students by permission of the instructor.

Light Art 304 An examination of light as a medium in the production of artwork. In individual and cooperative projects, students look at techniques for generating luminous structures with conventional hardware, film, video, fire, and theatrical sources. Works by Flavin, Turrell, Boltanski, Richter, Paik, and Viola figure prominently, but the class also explores ancillary contributions by a variety of artists in several fields.

Sculpture III Art 305 An advanced-level sculpture course that deals with all aspects of construction in a wide variety of materials, especially metals and plastics. Students address actual and illusionary movement, the dynamics of scale in relation to the body, light as transparency and reflection, and the communication of energy through the articulation of space. Open to eight qualified students.

Drawing III Art 307, 308 These courses explore drawing in its traditional and experimental forms, from the observed to the imagined. The goal is to help students locate ideas essential to their art and to develop those ideas in the process of drawing. In addition to assignments, students are expected to develop independent drawing projects in consultation with the professor. Prerequisites: Art 107-108 and Art 207 or 208.

64 The Arts Printmaking III: Photogravure Art 310 Photogravure, popularized in the 19th century, is a continuous-tone photographic intaglio process. A copper plate is etched gradually from the deepest shadows to the brightest highlights, producing a much wider range of tones than any other photographic process. As beautiful as photogravure can be, it is a difficult process to understand and master; this course, therefore, requires a great commitment in time and independent planning. Prerequisite: prior photo experience or a solid printmaking background.

Art and the Uses of Photography Art 316 / Photography 316

history, theory, and contemporary practice of theater and performance; hone their technical abilities as writers, performers, and directors; and create their own productions and performances under the mentorship of master artists and teachers. Students are encouraged to be cross-disciplinary thinkers and makers who explore the intersection of theater and performance with dance, music, the visual arts, film, and literature, as well as with the sciences and humanities. Students work side by side with a faculty of leading professional theater and performance artists; in addition, a wide range of visiting artists from this country and abroad bring a global perspective of cutting-edge theater and performance to the Bard campus.

See Photography 316 for a course description.

Senior Seminar Art 405-406 All studio arts majors engaged in Senior Projects meet for a weekly seminar/critique/discussion. The aim is to create a forum where students can exchange views and ideas. The seminar’s form and subject change from week to week but include writing assignments, group critiques, discussions of exhibitions on campus, and conversations with guest speakers.

Theater and Performance Faculty: Gideon Lester (director), Jorge Ignacio Cortiñas, Annie Dorsen, Miriam FeltonDansky, Jack Ferver, Lynn Hawley, Chiori Miyagawa, Jonathan Rosenberg, Elizabeth Smith, Naomi Thornton, Jean Ruth Wagner Overview: The Theater and Performance Program aims to develop innovative thinkers and artists who use great theatrical ideas from the past and present to imagine and instigate the theater of the future. Theater and performance are intrisically collaborative art forms, and collaboration and devised theater making are at the heart of Bard’s program. The Theater and Performance Program trains well-rounded theater makers who study the

Areas of Study: Theater and Performance offers courses in context, technique, and creative practice and research. Students who major in the program are expected to take classes in all three areas of study. Context courses include the history of theater and performance, contemporary practice, theories of theater and performance, dramatic literature, and world theater. Technique courses include skills-based classes in playwriting, directing, acting, voice, movement, dramatic structure, performance, and composition. Creative practice and research comprises productions, performance laboratories, master classes, and specialized workshops. Requirements: For students entering the College in the fall of 2012, the Theater and Performance curriculum emphasizes courses in context and technique, ensuring that a strong foundation is built in the first two years of study. The following courses are required before Moderation: Theater 145, Introduction to Theater and Performance: Revolutions in Time and Space; Theater 201, Introduction to Acting: The Actor and the Moment; Theater 207, Introduction to Playwriting: The Theatrical Voice; Theater 244, Introduction to Theater Making; and a theoretical or historical course drawn from elsewhere in the Arts Division. In addition, students participate in the creation and performance of a group-devised Moderation project.

Theater and Performance 65 After Moderation, students are required to take two courses from a menu of options in each of the three areas of study—context, technique, and creative practice and research (for a total of six courses). Students must also complete a Senior Project and a group-devised production or performance in combination with a written assignment, which carries the equivalent workload and credit of two courses. Facilities: The Theater and Performance Program is located in Bard’s Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts, designed by Frank Gehry. Facilities include studios, workshops, and two theaters, including the flexible Theater Two, which seats up to 200. Courses: Program courses emphasize the truly inclusive nature of theater, which encompasses performance, literature, design, history, artistic community, and intellectual rigor. Students are expected to acquire a solid familiarity with dramatic literature and to develop the ability to research the historical context and dramaturgy of a play and to write about it.

Acting for Nonmajors Theater 101 This course introduces scene preparation and beginning scene technique, with an emphasis on relaxation, breathing, and concentration. The new actor learns to make choices and implement them using sense memory and to integrate this work with the text. Group and individual exercises and improvisations. Texts include poems, monologues, stories, and scenes.

Acting Company Theater 103-104 In this course, which corresponds with Theater 303-304 (Directing Seminar), actors work with student directors on scenes for in-class presentation. Open to first-year students.

Movement for Actors Theater 121-122 Basic training is provided in movement, analysis, rhythm, development of technique, and confidence in space.

Theatrical Adaptation Theater 125 Adapting classic and contemporary fiction or biographies to a theatrical form is a creative process that integrates the original intention of the material with the writer’s imagination. Students read examples of successful adaptations and examine different approaches to, and styles of, writing. They adapt short stories into short plays and choose a significant person in history, research his or her biographical information, and write a play based on his or her life.

Introduction to Theater and Performance: Revolutions in Time and Space Theater 145 Class discussions are based on primary and secondary texts and modes of performance from 2,500 years of theater, starting with Aristotle and the Greek tragic playwrights and approaching the cutting edge of contemporary practice. Students investigate how great artists from across the centuries have controlled the experience of theatrical time and space, and explore such topics as the representation of reality on stage, the relationship between performance and audience, and the constantly evolving interplay of theater and democracy.

Introduction to Acting: The Actor and the Moment Theater 201 This course analyzes how an actor brings truth to the smallest unit of performance. The richness of the moment is created by the imaginative, physical, psychological, intellectual, and emotional qualities that the actor brings to it. Students explore ways to gain access to richly layered authenticity through games, improvisations, individual creations, and exercises in given circumstances. Prerequisite: students must have taken, or be enrolled in, Theater 145.

Introduction to Playwriting: The Theatrical Voice Theater 207 CROSS -LISTED: WRITTEN ARTS Through writing exercises based on dreams, visual images, poetry, social issues, found text, and music, students are encouraged to find their

66 The Arts unique language, style, and vision. The class learns elements of playwriting through writing a one-act play and through reading assignments and class discussions. Additionally, a group project explores the nature of collaborative work.

Playwriting II Theater 208

capacity and control, and resonance. Also emphasized is clarity of articulation and the use of vocal range and inflection. Intended for moderated and prospective theater majors.

Dramaturgy Theater 238

This course functions as a writers’ workshop. After writing a short play, students focus on developing a full-length play, with sections of the work-in-progress presented in class for discussion. Students grow as playwrights through exposure to diverse dramatic literature and by undertaking a short adaptation of either a class play or a short story. Prerequisite: Theater 207.

In this introductory course, students consider models of dramatic structure from Aristotle to Shakespeare, and analyze how that structure is useful to directors, playwrights, and actors. Also examined is the role of dramaturgy in historical practice. Weekly scene work and collaborative projects help students develop a coherent point of view. Prerequisite: one semester of theater history or permission of the instructor.

Scene Study Theater 209

Introduction to Theater Making Theater 244

This course, for students who have taken one semester of Introduction to Acting and would like to continue their study, moves from a gamesoriented curriculum into work with theatrical texts and the processes of scene study.

This course follows Introduction to Theater and Performance (Theater 145) as the second in a sequence of courses exploring the intellectual and creative methods of making theater. All students take turns working collaboratively as performers, directors, writers, dramaturgs, and designers. The work created in this class is presented at the end of the semester and serves as the Moderation project for students intending to major in the program.

Writing Political Theater Theater 212 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This workshop explores political expression in this theatrical genre. Students read political plays by internationally known authors— including Ken Saro Wiwa, Yoji Sakate, Caryl Churchill, Emily Mann, Athol Fugard, and Ariel Dorfman—and write several short plays and one longer play on issues of their political interest.

Physical Comedy Theater 215, 216 By embracing the archetypes of childhood and reclaiming the “internal response” without the diminishing filter of socialization, actors start to lose the inhibitions that block them from being purely expressive. Beginning with exercises in broad physicality, balance, rhythm, discovery, physical mask, and surprise, the class explores what is unique and funny about each individual.

Basic Vocal Technique Theater 234 This course is designed to develop an awareness of the importance of physical relaxation, breath

Speaking Shakespeare Theater 245 This course is intended for theater majors who wish to explore Shakespeare’s words as actors and are interested in developing their voices to express his complex thoughts and images. Participants concentrate on investigating soliloquies and sonnets, with a view to bringing Shakespeare’s language to life. Enrollment by approval of the instructor.

Great Theaters of the World: From Greece to the Enlightenment Theater 246 This course investigates selected periods in world theater, beginning with the massive communal festivals of ancient Greece and culminating in the philosophical upheavals of the Enlightenment. The class pays close attention to connections between drama, stagecraft, and modes of spectatorship; looks at changing notions of classicism;

Theater and Performance 67 and investigates how the theater has shored up political power and how the stage has served as a scale model for the known world.

Directing Seminar Theater 303-304 This class introduces students to fundamental practical and theoretical concepts in directing. The art and craft of the director involves the close analysis of texts, the conceptualizing of a production, the translation of the text into the language of the stage, and the work with collaborators, including actors and designers. The exploration in this class includes exercises examining the language of the stage, analytical and practical work on texts, and an examination of the work and writings of seminal directors.

Jacobean Theater; Japanese Theater; Musical Theater; New Works on Stage; Performance Art in Theory and Practice; Philosophies of Acting: Solo Performance; Stanislavsky, Brecht, and Grotowski; Shakespeare; Tennessee Williams; Theater of the Absurd; and Yiddish Theater.

Visual Imagination for the Modern Stage Theater 318 CROSS -LISTED: STUDIO ARTS As taught by leading theatrical designers and directors, this course examines the explosive prominence of visual ideas on the stage in the past 30 years, the emergence of a new form of collaboration between directors and designers, and the inclusion of new media on the stage.

Advanced Acting Theater 307

Devised Theater Lab Theater 331

This is a studio acting class in which students explore scenes from challenging plays of varied styles. Extensive rehearsal time outside of class is required. Prerequisite: Theater 201 and 209, or permission of the instructor.

Through practical exercises, including improvisations, games, and ensemble techniques, students learn how to generate ideas and research, shape, organize, and create new works for the stage. The course also examines how several contemporary artists and ensembles generate new works. Assignments include experiential essays, a research paper, and active participation in collaborative creations.

Advanced Scene Study Theater 308 Advanced individual exercises, scenes, and monologues—drawn from all dramatic literature. Prerequisite: Theater 201 or permission of the instructor.

Survey of Drama Theater 310 Survey of Drama courses, which study the major styles and periods in drama from a literary, stylistic, and performance perspective, are at the center of the Theater and Performance Program. They are practical courses, applying text to scene work. Recent Survey of Drama courses have included African American Theater; American Melodrama, Minstrelsy, and Vaudeville; Beckett; Birth of Tragedy and the Death of Tragedy; Black Comedy; BĂźchner and Strindberg; Chekhov and His Predecessors; Dangerous Theater; Dissent and Its Performance; Euripides and Nietzsche; Feminist Theater; French Neoclassicism; German Theater; The Greeks; Grotesque in Theater;

Voice in Performance Theater 340 This course addresses demands on the voice that occur in performance, such as speaking over underscoring and sustaining dialogue in fights or dances. Technical exercises are used to promote coordination of speech and movement.

Latino Theater and Performance Theater 343B CROSS -LISTED: ART HISTORY, LAIS This course explores the specific aesthetic strategies Latino theater and performance artists have found most useful when wrestling with issues such as immigration, territoriality, exile, human rights, and hybridity. The class culminates with a student-driven creative project that seeks a productive relationship between form and content.

68 The Arts Contemporary Women Playwrights Theater 343C CROSS -LISTED: GSS Through readings and discussions of plays, criticism, historical texts, and contemporary theater and performance, students in the course examine the roots of theater created by women, its practice today, and its relationship to feminism. Writers studied include Virginia Woolf, Caryl Churchill, Adrienne Kennedy, Maria Irene Fornes, Sarah Kane, Suzan-Lori Parks, Elfriede Jelinek, and Young Jean Lee, as well as works by performance artists such as Laurie Anderson and Karen Finley, and the choreographer Pina Bausch.

Avant-Garde Then / Avant-Garde Now Theater 351 This course examines the most radical and innovative theater and performance artists of the last 15 years, and their relationship to the central experimenters of the American avantgarde. The class considers the legacies of experimental artists such as John Cage, the Living Theatre, Richard Foreman, and Reza Abdoh. Also addressed are pressing themes in American experimental performance, including questions of authenticity and amateurism, spectatorship and participation, and digital and viral performance, among others.

Division of Languages and Literature The Division of Languages and Literature offers majors in the areas of literature; written arts; and foreign languages, cultures, and literatures. All students in the division are encouraged to study languages other than English; foreign language instruction currently offered at Bard includes Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Russian, Spanish, and ancient Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit. Interdisciplinary majors are also offered in Asian studies, classical studies, French studies, German studies, Italian studies, Jewish studies, Middle Eastern studies, Russian and Eurasian studies, and Spanish studies (see “Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations” in this catalogue). Bard students who make the study of literature the central focus of their work explore specific periods (such as medieval or Renaissance Europe), relations among national literatures (in forms such as lyric poetry or the novel), or literature within the context of culture, history, or literary theory. The Literature Program also invites interdisciplinary exploration in contexts such as Victorian, gender and sexuality, medieval, or Irish studies. Comparative studies of literature, other arts, and theories of literature are a regular part of course offerings. Students in the Written Arts Program take workshops and tutorials in prose fiction or poetry and study a foreign language, in addition to completing the same course requirements as literature majors. Those who choose foreign languages can explore a range of interests and develop courses of study that bring together work in culture, history, and other fields. Seniors must summon up imagination, knowledge, discipline, and independence for the Senior Project. Over the years, students have done translations of poetry and fiction; critical studies of traditional and contemporary literary figures and genres; and original work in critical theory. Many Senior Projects break new ground. With faculty permission, Senior Projects may take the form of a novel, poem sequence, play, or collection of short stories. Recent Senior Projects in Languages and Literature: “‘And She Is Also Me’: Discovering the Womanist Critique in the Poetry of Brooks, Clifton, and Giovanni” “Confrontations: Short Stories about the Natural World”

“Delinquent Palaces: The Imaginative Renegotiation of Domestic Space in the World of Emily Dickinson, Elizabeth Stoddard, and Marilynne Robinson” “Elizabeth Bishop and the Life of Her Poetics”


70 Languages and Literature “Euripides’ Ion: Threads of Self in the Web of the Cosmos” “Haruki Murakami’s The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle: The Power of Storytelling” “Revolutionary Ideologies and Poetic Realities: The Politics of Narrative Ambiguity in 20thCentury Russian and Mexican Fiction” “Translation of Bernard Werber’s Nos amis les Humains”

Literature Faculty: Deirdre d’Albertis** and Rebecca Cole Heinowitz (directors), Thomas Bartscherer, Alex Benson, Jonathan Brent, Anna Cafaro, Mary Caponegro, Nicole Caso**, Maria Sachiko Cecire, Teju Cole, Terence F. Dewsnap, Mika Endo, Peter Filkins, Elizabeth Frank****, Stephen Graham, Donna Ford Grover, Lianne Habinek***, Thomas Keenan, Robert Kelly*, Marina Kostalevsky, Benjamin La Farge, Ann Lauterbach, Nancy S. Leonard, Marisa Libbon, Joseph Luzzi, Norman Manea, Daniel Mendelsohn, Bradford Morrow, William Mullen, Matthew Mutter, Melanie Nicholson, Francine Prose, Joan Retallack, Susan Fox Rogers, Justus Rosenberg, Luc Sante*****, Mona Simpson, Benjamin Stevens, Karen Sullivan, Eric Trudel, Marina van Zuylen, Olga Voronina, Sara Pankenier Weld*****, Li-Hua Ying In residence: The Readers of Homer * on sabbatical, fall 2012 ** on sabbatical, spring 2013

cerned with painting, film, aesthetics, and representational practices across a range of fields. In 2011, the Readers of Homer joined Bard as Literary Organization in Residence. The group collaborates with students, faculty, and staff to offer readings on campus. Requirements: A student planning to major in the Literature Program should begin by taking Literature 103, Introduction to Literary Studies, and at least one of the sequence courses in English, U.S., or comparative literature. These courses focus on close readings of literary texts and frequent preparation of critical papers. To moderate, a student must take at least three additional courses in the Division of Languages and Literature. One of these courses may be a Written Arts course and one may be a language instruction course. No more than one writing workshop can count toward the Moderation requirements. For Moderation, the student submits a 10- to 12-page critical essay based on work for one of the sequence courses; the two short Moderation papers required of all students; and fiction or poetry if the student is a double major in the Written Arts Program. The first short paper reflects on the process that has led the student to this point in his or her studies; the second reflects on the student’s aspirations for work in the Upper College. The papers are evaluated by a board composed of the student’s adviser and two other members of the Literature Program faculty.

*** leave of absence, fall 2012 **** leave of absence, spring 2013 ***** leave of absence, 2012–2013

Overview: The Literature Program at Bard is free from the barriers that are often set up between different national literatures or between the study of language and the study of the range of intellectual, historical, and imaginative dimensions to which literature’s changing forms persistently refer. Literary studies are vitally engaged with interdisciplinary programs such as Asian, classical, medieval, and Victorian studies. An active connection with Bard’s arts programs is maintained through courses con-

After Moderation, the student chooses seminars at the 300 level and, often, tutorials in special topics as well. Students are encouraged to study a language other than English, and studyabroad programs are easily combined with a major in literature. To graduate, students must take a second sequence course from the same sequence as the first, although it need not be consecutive (for example, a student may take English Literature III and then English Literature I). The second sequence course must be taken prior to the start of the senior year. Students must also take at

Literature 71 least one course that focuses on literature written before 1800 and at least one course that focuses on literature written after 1800. This requirement is in addition to the two sequence courses described above. Students are also required to write a Senior Project in literature. Courses: Most writing-intensive courses and workshops in fiction, nonfiction, and poetry are listed under the Written Arts Program, beginning on page 95.

Introduction to Literary Studies Literature 103 The aim of this course is to develop the student’s ability to perform close readings of literature. By exploring the unfolding of sounds, rhythms, and meanings in a wide range of works—poems, short stories, plays, and novels—from a wide range of time periods and national traditions, students gain a familiarity with basic topics of literary study as well as what makes a piece of writing “literary” in the first place.

New Fiction Out of Africa Literature 120 / Africana Studies 120 The course focuses on some of the lesser known, more experimental, and adventurous writers of African origin—all born after the season of independence in the 1960s. Readings include the apocalyptic short fiction of Nigeria's Igoni Barrett, the surreal works of Kenya’s Waigwa Ndiangui, and Broken Glass by Republic of the Congo native Alain Mabanckou, among others.

The Odyssey of Homer Literature 125 / Classics 125 This course consists of an intensive reading of Homer’s Odyssey. It is designed to introduce first-year students to sophisticated techniques of reading and thinking about texts. Issues particular to the genre (the archaic Greek world, oral composition, the Homeric question) and to this particular text (“sequels,” epic cycle, the prominence of women, narrative closure) are considered.

Kafka: Prague, Politics, and the Fin de Siècle Literature 199 / German 199 See German 199 for a full course description.

Americans Abroad Literature 2002 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES The period after World War I was an exciting time for American artists who came of age and discovered their own Americanness from other shores. Students read writers of the so-called Lost Generation, including Ernest Hemingway, Gertrude Stein, and F. Scott Fitzgerald. The course also includes expatriate writers, such as Jean Toomer, Claude McKay, and Jessie Fauset, who are best known for their participation in the Harlem Renaissance.

Imagining the Environment in English Literature and Culture Literature 2006 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, STS In his 1884 lecture “The Storm Cloud of the Nineteenth Century,” social critic John Ruskin sounded an apocalyptic note when he described a “plague-wind” hovering over Great Britain that looks as if “it were made of dead men’s souls.” This course considers how ideas of environment were contested and consolidated in the 19th-century literary imagination. Readings: Ruskin, Malthus, Dickens, Dorothy and William Wordsworth, Darwin, Hardy, and Lawrence.

Imagining the Environment in East Asia Literature 2007 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, EUS, STS This course begins with the basic question of what it is to imagine environment and one’s relation to it. In response, environmental writings of East Asia are introduced, with a specific focus on Japan. Topics considered include moral and religious attitudes toward nature, literary responses to the natural and urban environment, the formation of a modern environmental ethics, the social impact of industrial pollution, the rise of overcrowded megacities, and the imagining of East Asia’s environmental future(s).

W. H. Auden Literature 2008 W. H. Auden (1907–1973) was arguably the greatest British (or Anglo-American) poet of the 20th century. Love, sexuality, the complexities of human relationships, history, art, politics, religion, and changes in ideological fashion all

72 Languages and Literature fell within the purview of his poetic invention. The class examines his works from start to finish, including his forays into opera and drama.

Representing Medicine and the Body Literature 2009 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, STS This course investigates conceptions and representations of the body in world literature and film. Topics discussed include medical beliefs and metaphors, such as “invading armies” of cancer and “high-risk groups”; gendered constructions of illness; and traditions of medicine in literature and history. Readings include stories and essays by Kafka, Mann, Proust, Chekov, Lu Xun, Mo Yan, Kenzaburo Oe, Wang Zhenhe, Daudet, Kushner, Sontag, Dumas fils, Foucault, Haraway, and others.

Survey of Linguisitics Literature 201 CROSS -LISTED: MBB This course considers key trends, moments, and thinkers in the history of thought about language. Topics include phonetics and phonology (the study of sound patterns), morphology (word formation and grammaticalization), and syntax (the arrangement of elements into meaningful utterance); sociolinguistics (the covariation of language with social and cultural factors); and comparative and historical linguistics. Prerequisite: completed or concurrent course work in a foreign language, or consent of the instructor.

American Indian Fictions Literature 2015 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS

This course examines the tradition of fiction through works by and about Indians. Authors include Sherman Alexie, Black Elk, Charles Brockden Brown, Willa Cather, James Fenimore Cooper, Louise Erdrich, Helen Hunt Jackson, Herman Melville, D’Arcy McNickle, N. Scott Momaday, Mary Rowlandson, Leslie Marmon Silko, and James Welch.

Metrical Verse Literature 202 Students learn how to read and write metrical verse through writing exercises in the principal meters (accentual/syllabic, accentual, syllabic, Anglo-Saxon alliterative, haiku, etc.) and forms (ballad, sonnet, blank verse, nonsense verse, ode, dramatic monologue, villanelle, sestina).

Literature, Language, and Lies: Reading Word by Word Literature 2020 Students read short stories by James, Cheever, Chekhov, Joyce, Mansfield, O’Connor, Beckett, and Bowles, as well as current issues of the New Yorker and New York Times, looking at the ways in which words are used to convey information and insight, transmit truth and beauty, and form and transform our vision of the world.

Mark Twain Literature 2021 Students in this seminar do individual research and make class presentations on Twain’s major works, including Innocents Abroad, Roughing It, Life on the Mississippi, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court, The Tragedy of Pudd’nhead Wilson, Letters from the Earth, and The Mysterious Stranger. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor and one U.S. literature sequence course or a course in either American studies or American history.

The Culture of Humanitarianism Literature 2025 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS

The class studies the creative artifacts of humanitarian aid to Africa by looking at novels and films that explore the complex relationship between American aid workers and African aid recipients. How do nationality, race, religious difference, and the legacy of colonialism inflect the politics of these representations? Authors include Paul Theroux, Maria Thomas, Dave Eggers, Russell Banks, and Uzodinma Iweala; films screened include Hotel Rwanda, The Constant Gardener, and Blood Diamond.

Literature 73 Introduction to Children’s and Young Adult Literature Literature 2026 What makes a work of children’s literature a classic? Who are these texts really for? In this course, students explore questions about what children can, do, and should read, and consider how the notion of childhood is constructed and reproduced through texts and images. Authors: Kenneth Grahame, J. M. Barrie, Francis Hodgson Burnett, Enid Blyton, Diana Wynne Jones, C. S. Lewis, Philip Pullman, and J. K. Rowling, among others.

Poe Literature 2028 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES Students read Edgar Allan Poe’s entire output of tales and poems, along with many of his essays, reviews, and letters. The emphasis is on the tension between Poe’s aesthetic idealism and his cadaverous materialism, his aspirations toward the absolute oneness represented by the love object and his obsession with the way love objects tend to go bad. Related topics: perversity, race, death, mourning, evidence, gradation, angels, and the divine.

The Medium and the Message: Focus on Language Literature 2029 In 1964, Marshall McLuhan famously asserted that “the medium is the message.” How should we read electronic literature, the digital humanities, or a Sn00ki tweet in light of this concept? This course examines the uses of language in traditional and new media, and considers areas of sociolinguistics such as race, class, and gender. Texts by McLuhan, Deborah Cameron, David Crystal, Lynda Mugglestone, and Peter Trudgill. Students also maintain a course blog.

Religion and the Secular in American and British Modernism Literature 2035 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, RELIGION, THEOLOGY

Can literature become a substitute for religion? Is poetic consciousness connected to religious consciousness? How does secularism impact the way writers think about the nature of lan-

guage or the experience of pain? This course examines the intricate relationship between religion and literature in modern culture. Texts: Willa Cather’s Death Comes for the Archbishop, Nathanael West’s Miss Lonelyhearts, T. S. Eliot’s Four Quartets, Jean Toomer’s Cane, stories by Flannery O’Connor, and poems by Wallace Stevens and W. B. Yeats.


The main task of this course is to articulate the special role that the novel plays in the development of a radical black literary tradition and of a nation headed toward civil war. Likely writers include Stowe, Douglass, Emerson, Melville, Jacobs, Delany, Brown, Wilson, and Webb. Narratives of both black and white writers are considered in the context of abolitionism, radical theology and moral theory, the Haitian Revolution and slave rebellion, and mid-19thcentury theories of the imagination.

Childhood and Children’s Literature in Japan Literature 2037 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES This course examines the ubiquity of the child figure in literary and cultural production in modern Japan. Texts considered include short fiction, fairy tales, animated films, manga, and other forms of media such as Japanese kamishibai (paper theater). Writers studied include Higuchi Ichiyo, Kawabata Yasunari, Oe Kenzaburo, and Yoshimoto Banana.

Ethical Life in Ancient Greek Literature and Philosophy Literature 2038 CROSS -LISTED: PHILOSOPHY Ethical life, as presented and analyzed in ancient Greek texts, is the object of inquiry in this course. Particular attention is paid to Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, the epics (Homer and Hesiod), tragedy and comedy, and Plato. Students also consult scholars such as Bernard Williams and Martha Nussbaum, who draw liberally from the whole spectrum of classical

74 Languages and Literature genres to argue for the urgent contemporary significance of ancient ethics.

Comparative Literature I, II, III Literature 204A, 204B, 204C CROSS -LISTED: CLASSICAL STUDIES, FRENCH STUDIES, GERMAN STUDIES In the first course of a three-semester sequence, students consider the ways in which ancient authors (or their characters) configured the relationship between poetic production and theoretical inquiry, and therewith gave birth to the practice of literary criticism in the West. Readings from Greek literature include works by Homer, Sappho, Pindar, Aristophanes, and Euripides; readings from the Latin corpus include selections by Virgil, Ovid, Horace, Catullus, Plautus, and Seneca. The second semester examines literature from the late 14th century through the 17th century, focusing on the emergence of the self as a concept fraught with tensions as well as possibilities, nature and civilization, history and literature, hero and antihero, believer and heretic. Authors include Boccaccio, Rojas, Cervantes, Calderón, Molière, and Inés de la Cruz. The third installment explores key issues in 19th- and early 20thcentury poetics, with readings from Kant, Schlegel, Goethe, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Poe, Gogol, Dostoevsky, Balzac, Woolf, Bergson, and Proust.

Representations of Tibet Literature 205 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS The popular image of Tibet has been shaped in large measure by missionaries’ accounts, European explorers’ travelogues, Hollywood movies, and the Tibetan exile community, including the Dalai Lama. This course examines the ways in which texts and images about a land with geographical, historical, and cultural ambiguities are created and interpreted. Readings include works by early explorers, Tibetans in exile and inside Tibet, contemporary Chinese writers, historians, and religion scholars.

Modern Arabic Literature in Translation Literature 2060 CROSS -LISTED: MES A survey of the history and texts of diverse and polycentric literary and artistic traditions of the Middle East and North Africa during the last two centuries. Works of fiction, poetry, visual art, autobiography, memoir, film, and historiography are explored, and the major literary, cultural, and philosophical currents that shaped the modern Arab world are considered. Authors studied include Naguib Mahfouz, Yusuf Idris, Mahmoud Darwish, and Hanan al-Shaykh.

Arab American Literature Literature 2061 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, MES A survey of Arab American literature, thought, art, and film. Writers include Kahlil Gibran, Ameen Rihani, Mikhail Naima, Samuel John Hazo, Etel Adnan, and Edward Said. The course is organized around four themes: representations of the Middle East in early American literature; key pioneers of Arab-American exchange; forms and modes of inscribing Arabness/ Muslimness, diaspora, and worldliness; and pre- and post- 9/11 images and imaginings.

America in the 1950s Literature 2063 This course pursues a deeper understanding of the social, cultural, and political issues of the 1950s, as it tracks the formal experiments in which writers of the time increasingly engaged. Topics include the constraints of suburban life, Cold War paranoia, counterculturalism, race, and gender. Authors include Salinger, Ellison, Bradbury, Miller, Nabokov, McCarthy, Wilson, Ginsberg, Kerouac, Hansberry, and Bellow. The literature is supplemented with occasional film screenings, including All That Heaven Allows and Invasion of the Body Snatchers.

Other Romanticisms Literature 2064 It is only in recent decades that studies of Romantic poetry have looked beyond the Big Six: Blake, Coleridge, Wordsworth, Shelley, Keats, and Byron. Yet between the 1780s and the 1830s, Britain witnessed an explosion of

Literature 75 writing by figures generally excluded from the canon, including women, proletarians, people of color, peasants, and those deemed insane. This course explores the works of this “other” Romantic tradition. Authors include George Crabbe, Robert Burns, Mary Prince, Thomas Beddoes, Letitia Elizabeth Landon, Isaac d’Israeli, and William Hazlitt.

Japanese Literature and the Question of Aesthetics Literature 2085 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES This course introduces students to major works of modern Japanese literature, while considering the question of aesthetic value and its evolving definition. Readings are organized around major themes and movements of 20th-century literary production, including realism and the confessional novel, literary modernism, women writers, proletarian literature, life writing, war literature, and testimony. Writers studied include Natsume Soseki, Tanizaki Jun’ichiro, Kawabata Yasunari, Kobayashi Takiji, Miyamoto Yuriko, Oe Kenzaburo, and Murakami Haruki. All readings in English.

Modern American Poets Literature 209 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES The first great modernist pioneers in English (Yeats, Pound, Eliot) created a schism in American poetry, dividing poets into two camps loosely characterized as “Mandarin” and “Demotic.” This course traces the Mandarin strain through works by Stevens, Moore, Williams, Stein, Crane, Auden, Robert Lowell, Bishop, Berryman, Roethke, Duncan, Merrill, and Plath; and the Demotic tradition through Sandburg, Masters, Lindsay, Hughes, Ginsberg, Kerouac, O’Hara, and Dylan.

Major American Poets Literature 210 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES American poetry found its voice in the first half of the 19th century when Emerson challenged American scholars to free themselves from tradition. For the next three generations most of the major poets, from Walt Whitman—in whose poems a distinctly American voice was first

heard—to Robert Frost acknowledged Emerson as a crucial inspiration. Readings: Eliot, Pound, Moore, Williams, Jeffers, Cummings, H. D., Crane, Stevens, and Frost.

Myth / Tale / Story Literature 2101 This course demonstrates the ways in which myths that were once sacred are secularized when they are recycled as literary art, and how many of the greatest modern stories have tapped into the great myths of the past. Between those myths and the modern short story lies the tale— the oral tradition of storytelling. The class explores these mysterious waters by reading Ovid, Apuleius, and classic fairy tales, and then traces the residual presence of myth in the work of modern masters.

Literature of the Harlem Renaissance Literature 2102 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, AMERICAN STUDIES

The class considers how black writers of the interwar period connected with broader American modernist, nativist, and pluralist trends; how pragmatist and Marxist philosophies influenced a formidable reconsideration of political and aesthetic representation; how various musical forms, as well as European and African art forms, provided varied cultural resources for emerging literary production.

Russian Laughter Literature 2117 CROSS -LISTED: RES The class examines how authors as distinct as Dostoevsky and Bulgakov create comic effects and utilize laughter for various artistic purposes. Also examined are some of the major theories of laughter developed by Hobbs, Bergson, Freud, Bakhtin, and others. Readings begin with an 18th-century satirical play by Denis Fonvisin and end with Venedikt Erofeev's contemplation on the life of a perpetually drunk philosopher in the former Soviet Union.

76 Languages and Literature African American Traditions I and II Literature 2137, 2139 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, AMERICAN STUDIES

This two-semester survey explores African American literature from the Colonial era to the Harlem Renaissance and examines the various forms—including poetry, autobiography, essay, novel, and play—and voices that African Americans have used to achieve literary and, consequently, social authority. Authors include Douglass, Chesnutt, Du Bois, Hopkins, Toomer, Hughes, McKay, Hurston, Locke, Schuyler, Thurman, Wright, Baldwin, Ellison, Baraka, Sanchez, Reed, and Morrison.

Cairo through Its Novels Literature 214 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, HUMAN RIGHTS, MES Cairo, the “City Victorious,” has long captivated the literary imagination. This survey of the modern Egyptian novel maps the changing cityscape of Egypt’s bulging metropolis over the course of the 20th century. From Naguib Mahfouz’s iconic alley to Sonallah Ibrahim’s apartment building to Hamdi Abu Golayyel’s multifamily tenement, readings provide a range of literary representations by Cairo’s writers. Literary texts are supplemented by theoretical and historical material, and the course is accompanied by a film series.

Domesticity and Power Literature 2140 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, GSS Many American women writers of the 19th and 20th centuries used domestic novels as insightful critiques of politics and society. Students read Catharine E. Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe’s handbook of housekeeping, The American Woman’s Home (1869), and the novels and short stories of Harriet Jacobs, Kate Chopin, Nella Larsen, Jessie Fauset, Frances E. W. Harper, Edith Wharton, and Willa Cather.

Medieval Dream Visions Literature 2144 CROSS -LISTED: MEDIEVAL STUDIES Students read (in modern English translations) poems about love, religion, society, and politics that were presented to their audiences as accounts of things observed in dreams. Works

studied include Dream of Scipio, Dream of the Rood, Dream of Rhonabwy, Romance of the Rose, Piers Plowman, Winner and Waster, Pearl, Book of the Duchess, Parliament of Fowls, and The Cuckoo and the Nightingale.

Victorian Essays and Detectives Literature 215 CROSS -LISTED: VICTORIAN STUDIES Students consider essays by Arnold, Ruskin, Pater, Mayhew, and Wilde that address Victorian issues such as crime, art, and science; and detective stories and novels by Collins, Conan Doyle, and other inventors of the detective genre. The syllabus emphasizes such pairings as Thomas Henry Huxley writing on the scientific method and Doyle’s A Study in Scarlet, Pater’s The Renaissance and Doyle’s The Sign of Four, and Wilde’s “De Profundis” and Sheridan Le Fanu’s “The Murdered Cousin.”

Infernal Paradises: Literature of Russian Modernism Literature 2153 CROSS -LISTED: RES An exploration of utopia as an intellectual, aesthetic, and spiritual concept. The course aims to demonstrate the continuity of the Russian literary tradition while revealing how innovative creative forms and resonant new voices contributed to an artistic revival in the 20th century, one that flourished under the harsh conditions of censorship, totalitarian oppression, and cultural isolation. Readings include works by Chekhov, Bely, Blok, Mayakovsky, Tsvetaeva, Zamyatin, Pasternak, Bunin, Nabokov, and Akhmatova.

Romantic Literature in English Literature 2156 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS A critical introduction to the literature produced in Britain at the time of the Industrial Revolution and Napoleonic wars. Emphasis is placed on the historical and social contexts of the works and specific ways in which historical forces and social changes shape the formal features of literary texts. Readings include works by Blake, Wordsworth, Helen Maria Williams, Burke, Wollstonecraft, Paine, Southey, Coleridge, Percy Shelley, Mary Shelley, Keats, and Clare.

Literature 77 Into the Whirlwind: Literary Greatness and Gambles under Soviet Rule Literature 2159 CROSS -LISTED: RES This course examines the fate of the literary imagination in Russia from the time of the Revolution to the Brezhnev period. Students look at the imaginative liberation in writers such as Babel, Mayakovsky, Mandelstam, and Bulgakov; the struggle with ideology and the terror of the 1930s in works by Olesha, Akhmatova, and Pilnyak, among others; and the hesitant thaw as reflected in Pasternak’s Dr. Zhivago. Readings conclude with Solzhenitsyn’s One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich and Erofeev’s Moscow to the End of the Line.

Victorian Myth, Fantasy, and the Art of Detection Literature 216 CROSS -LISTED: VICTORIAN STUDIES Extensive reading includes poems by Browning and Tennyson; and fiction by Benjamin Disraeli, George MacDonald, Wilkie Collins, William Morris, Thomas Hardy, and Arthur Conan Doyle.

Powers of Horror: Sublimity, Exoticism, and Monstrosity Literature 2160 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This seminar focuses on the gothic genre as a response to such historical developments as the slave trade, the rise of the bourgeoisie, the Cold War, and imperialism. Readings include Radcliffe’s The Mysteries of Udolpho, Lewis’s The Monk, Hogg’s The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner, Peacock’s Nightmare Alley, Stoker’s Dracula, and Le Fanu’s Carmilla, as well as critical works by Marx, Freud, Foucault, Huyssen, and Jameson.


This course places Richard Wright on a world stage and examines his contributions to philosophy, psychology, and world politics. Aspects of Wright’s life and literature considered include his interest in and contributions to the psychology of deviance, his friendships with Simone de

Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre, and his involvement in the Pan-African movement. Readings include Black Boy, Native Son, Pagan Spain (a travelogue), and A Father’s Law, a posthumously published novel.

Madness, Melancholy, and Psychoanalysis in Romantic Literature Literature 2170 An exploration of Romanticism, particularly English and German Romantic-era literature, and the ways it invented what is now known as psychoanalysis. By studying authors such as Coleridge, De Quincey, Shelley, Keats, Kleist, Hoffman, Hölderlin, and Schlegel, the class examines the shifting and unresolved relationships between modern subjectivity and language, fantasy and literature. These primary texts are supplemented with non-Romantic theoretical works by Heidegger, Nietzsche, Freud, Blanchot, de Man, and Laplanche.

The 20th-Century American Short Story Literature 2173 This course traces the development of the 20thcentury American short story via rigorous readings of texts and careful attention to literary, historical, and market-based contexts. Formative Russian, French, and British influences are considered, as are American modernist approaches to narration, the form’s association with national and personal identity, and the radical transformation of the short story in the postwar period. Authors include Chekhov, Gogol, Flaubert, Joyce, Mansfield, Welty, Salinger, Malamud, Baldwin, Oates, Carver, and Beattie.

The Development of Lesbian Literature in the 20th and 21st Centuries Literature 2174 CROSS -LISTED: GSS An exploration of the ways in which early 20thcentury lesbian writers prepared the ground for current lesbian narratives. Authors studied include Stein, Woolf, Hall, Cather, McCullers, Brown, Rich, Winterson, Acker, Gottlieb, Levin, Cooper, Avery, and Bechdel.

78 Languages and Literature Medieval Ireland Literature 2175 CROSS -LISTED: ICS, MEDIEVAL STUDIES This course considers what, if anything, is “Irish,” and how the country’s medieval past continues to define the present. Texts include The Táin Bó Cúailnge (The Cattle Raid of Cooley), Acallam na Senórach (Tales of the Elders of Ireland), lives of St. Patrick and St. Bridget, The Voyage of Saint Brendan, lays of Marie de France, The Romance of Tristan and Iseult, poetry of W. B. Yeats, and diaries of the hunger striker Bobby Sands.

The Revenge Tragedy Literature 2176 Clandestine murders, otherworldly revenants, disguise, and madness all characterize the revenge tragedy, a form of play popular in Elizabethan and Jacobean England. Revenge tragedies function as social critique and speak to the anxieties that accompanied new modes of understanding the physical world and human emotion. Readings include The Spanish Tragedy, The Revenger’s Tragedy, The Changeling, The Duchess of Malfi, and The Broken Heart. Films considered: The Cook, the Thief, His Wife, and Her Lover and A History of Violence.

Literary Networks and New Writing Out of Africa Literature 2178 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS

In the late 1990s, soon after Nelson Mandela was inaugurated as president of South Africa, writers, artists, and thinkers were drawn to Cape Town by the promise of a new kind of society. After more than 20 years of stasis, there has been an explosion of literary activity throughout the continent. This course looks at short fiction, essays, reportage, and creative nonfiction produced between 2002 and 2009, with particular focus on texts from Lagos, Nigeria; Cape Town; and Nairobi, Kenya.

The African American Novel Literature 2179 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES A survey of the African American novel from 1853 to the present. Works include The Marrow of Tradition, Passing, Their Eyes Were Watching

God, Native Son, Invisible Man, Giovanni’s Room, Sula, The White Boy Shuffle, and The Known World.

Free Speech Literature 218 / Human Rights 218 See Human Rights 218 for a course description.

Milan Kundera and the Art of Fiction Literature 2183 This course examines how Kundera’s idiosyncratic textual strategies unsettle the boundaries between fictional and factual, totalitarian and democratic, Eastern and Western. Readings include The Unbearable Lightness of Being, The Joke, The Book of Laughter and Forgetting, and Immortality, as well as Kundera’s writings about fiction. Supplemental texts by Nietzsche, Broch, Calvino, Fuentes, Rorty, Havel, Brodsky, Benjamin, and Huyssen, among others.

The Politics and Practice of Cultural Production in the Middle East and North Africa Literature 2185 This course draws upon a series of case studies to illustrate how cultural production can be read as a form of documentation, resistance, and potential intervention to prevailing narratives. Topics include tradition and modernity, the rise (and fall) of nationalism, and narrating war. Interdisciplinary in nature, the course considers a range of texts, including novels (Sonallah Ibrahim, Assia Djebar), films (Jackie Salloum, Lamia Joreige, Tahani Rached), video works (Walid Raad, Wael Shawky), paintings (Mahmud Said, Jewad Selim), and blogs.

Persia and the Western Imaginary Literature 219 CROSS -LISTED: MEDIEVAL STUDIES For centuries, Persia’s shahs inspired Western political thinkers, its Zoroastrian sages influenced Western philosophers, and its Sufi poets affected Western writers. How did the homeland of the three Magi come to be viewed as a member of the Axis of Evil? This course tries to make sense of the complicated relationship between these cultures. Texts include Aeschylus’s The Persians, Herodotus’s Histories, Omar Khayyám’s Rubaiyat, Jean Chardin’s

Literature 79 Travels in Persia, Goethe’s West-Eastern Divan, Iraj Pezeshkzad’s My Uncle Napoleon, and Marjane Satrapi’s Persepolis, among others.

Truth and Consequences: The Uses of Persona Literature 2214 What are fiction writers not allowed to make up? This course looks at works that use literary persona to transgress what we think of as the boundaries of fiction. The class reads authors who have falsified their identities, relied on imaginary sources, allowed philosophical concerns to intrude blatantly into the world of their stories, and in other ways called into question the merit of their work as fiction. Authors include Gertrude Stein, Fernando Pessoa, Philip Roth, J. M. Coetzee, Michael Chabon, and Philip K. Dick, among others.

Strange Books and the Human Condition Literature 225 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This class involves the close reading of books so peculiar as to verge on “outsider” literature. Authors include Jane Bowles, Felisberto Hernández, Robert Walser, and Hans Christian Andersen. Students are expected to have read enough “not strange” literature to understand why the books on the list are so unusual.

Political Theology Literature 2270 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, THEOLOGY This course considers the identity of the “other” and the ethics of our engagement with that other. These concepts seek a language that represents law, community, and event in more meaningful kinds of human action. Debates are drawn from a variety of thinkers, from Paul, Augustine, and the Hebrew Bible to contemporary works of ethical and political philosophy by Zˇizˇek, Levinas, Agamben, Badiou, Milbank, Negri, Schwartz, and others.

Innovative Novellas and Short Stories Literature 230 This course explores the range and scale of such masters in these genres as Voltaire, Tolstoy, Chekhov, de Maupassant, Aleichem, Mann,

Babel, France, Camus, Kafka, Colette, and Borges. In addition to writing analytical papers, students are asked to present a short story or novella of their own by the end of the semester.

In the Wild: Reading and Writing the Natural World Literature 2316 Students read and write narratives that use the natural world as both subject and source of inspiration. The course begins with works by Emerson, Thoreau, and Muir. Contemporary writers, such as Hoagland, Dillard, Ehrlich, Matthiessen, Wilson, and Abbey are next considered. Students write weekly on the readings and keep a nature journal.

Duels, Doubles, Dualities: 19th-Century Russian Classics Literature 2317 While dramatic duels do play out in the lives and works of many 19th-century Russian authors, this course focuses on literary and critical confrontations between writers, their writings, and how they were read. The class considers various classic works, as well as their reflections in film, music, and other arts. Texts by Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Dostoevsky, Pavlova, Turgenev, and Tolstoy. In English.

Toward the Condition of Music: Poetry and Aesthetics in Victorian England Literature 2318 CROSS -LISTED: VICTORIAN STUDIES John Ruskin announced in Modern Painters (1843) that the greatest art must contain “the greatest number of the greatest ideas.” Fifty years later, Oscar Wilde declared with equal assurance that “all art is quite useless.” What happened in that intervening half-century? This course follows the evolution of poetry and poetic theory, and the accompanying Victorian debate about the status of art in relation to society. Readings: Tennyson, Browning, Christina Rossetti, Hopkins, Hardy, and Yeats, as well as criticism by Ruskin, Arnold, Pater, and Wilde.

Global Victorians Literature 2319 / History 2319 See History 2319 for a full course description.

80 Languages and Literature American Gothic Literature 2331 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, GSS

Fantastic Journeys and the Modern World Literature 2404

This course examines ways in which American authors have used the gothic genre to engage with social, political, and cultural concerns. The gothic novel—the stronghold of ghost stories, family curses, and heroines in distress—uses melodrama and the macabre to disguise horrifying psychological, sexual, and emotional issues. In America the genre has often confronted topics pertinent to national identity and history. Readings include novels and short stories by Hawthorne, Poe, Jacobs, James, Alcott, Gilman, Wharton, Faulkner, Jackson, and Baldwin.

The modern period has been characterized as a time of unimaginable freedom as well as existential angst, exile, and loss. This course examines the response of writers from America, Central and Eastern Europe, and Russia. In their fantastic parallel worlds, machines take on lives of their own, grotesque transformations violate the laws of science, and inversions of normality become the norm. Authors include L. Frank Baum, Kafka, ˇ Capek, Schulz, Olesha, and Mayakovsky.

Romantic Women Writers Literature 2333 CROSS -LISTED: GSS Women writers were extremely influential in the Romantic period, but their contributions to the tradition of British literature have, until recently, been largely ignored. This course seeks to redefine conventional ideas about Romanticism by examining the work of the period’s most eminent women writers: Charlotte Smith, Mary Robinson, Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Felicia Hemans, Ann Radcliffe, Mary Shelley, and Letitia Elizabeth Landon.

Literature of the Crusades Literature 234 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, MEDIEVAL STUDIES, RELIGION An examination of the considerable literature produced around the Crusades, which includes epics, lyric poems, chronicles, and sermons. While the course primarily considers the Catholic perspective, it also pays attention to the Greek, Muslim, and Jewish points of view on these conflicts.

Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales Literature 2401 CROSS -LISTED: MEDIEVAL STUDIES Students examine the unities, contrasts, pleasures, and meanings of this rich collection. A study of Chaucer’s language is conducted using background reading (for example, Boethius’s Consolation of Philosophy), but the course is primarily an examination of a great poem.

Nothing Sacred: 20th-Century French Literature and the Reign of Terror Literature 2405 Much of 20th-century French literature was given to the experience of “terror”: a constant state of revolutionary crisis, severe distrust of language, and profound hatred of literature, which ultimately led, wrote Jean Paulhan, to madness and silence. How did such a “terroristic” imperative become central to 20th-century French poetics? This course, taught in English, examines essays, poetry, and fiction by Aragon, Artaud, Blanchot, Breton, Céline, Duras, Genet, Michaux, Paulhan, Sartre, Tzara, and Valéry.

The Monstrous Writer and the Moral World, The Moral Writer and the Monstrous World Literature 2406 How do we read the work of writers whose legacy is complicated by political or personal history? Is an artistic work a thing apart from the life that fed it, or are there instances when the acts of an author in the world must be admitted into a reading of their art? At the center of this question, and this course, is Louis-Ferdinand Céline, one of the most influential novelists of the 20th century and one of its great fiends—an anti-Semite of impenitent ardor. Additional readings: Eliot, Pound, Brecht, Némirovsky, Gide, Roth, and Nabokov, among others.

Milton Literature 2421 Samuel Johnson terms Milton “an acrimonious and surly republican” while T. S. Eliot laments the fact that the poet had been “withered by book-

Literature 81 learning.” But Milton was an insightful observer of human relationships and, particularly, of man’s relationship to God. This course examines the history of mid-17th-century England alongside Milton’s important writings, with a focus on Paradise Lost. His sonnets, theatrical works, and essays and tracts are also considered.

From Gutenberg to Google: Literature, Media, Information Systems Literature 2431 CROSS -LISTED: STS A survey of the influence of technology on the production and dissemination of literature. The course begins with a history of the printed book, then considers the book as an aesthetic object, and finally looks at the influence of electronic media on literary production. Readings include Febvre and Martin, Chartier, Darnton, Dickinson, Benjamin, McLuhan, Queneau, Bernstein, Philips, Drucker, Hejinian, McGann, Lessig, Kittler, and Haraway.

Secularization and Its Discontents: Goethe, Schiller, Heine Literature 248 /German 248 Against the backdrop of the intellectual climate of the time between the “storm-and-stress” movement of the 1760s and the radical trends leading up to the revolution of 1848, the class accompanies Germany’s greatest writers on their journey toward modernity and explores with them the tensions and contradictions of the “Age of Secularization,” as manifested in their poetry, prose, and plays. In English.

Narratives of Suffering Literature 2482 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS

Suffering is at the heart of many of the world’s great stories and yet it is absent, in a fundamental way, from every story. Because intense suffering takes language away, retrospective narration can seem futile, even falsifying, and it often raises more questions than it answers. Readings: the book of Job, King Lear, MobyDick, poetry by Emily Dickinson, The Sound and the Fury, Beloved, Maus, and The Road.

Urbanization in the 19th-Century Novel: Bright Lights, Big Cities Literature 2483 CROSS -LISTED: EUS As the 19th-century metropolis became too vast for individual comprehension, it became the task of visionary writers to invent the modern city and to discover its narratives. This course examines literary constructions of the urban space, with an emphasis on Paris and London. Texts include Dickens’s Our Mutual Friend; Balzac’s Lost Illusions; selected poems by Baudelaire; Trollope’s The Way We Live Now; Flaubert’s Sentimental Education; Mayhew’s London Labour and the London Poor; and Thomson’s City of Dreadful Night.

19th-Century Self-Fashioning: Life Writing from Wordsworth to Joyce Literature 2484 The class explores autobiographical narratives in various genres, beginning with Wordsworth’s Prelude and concluding with Joyce’s Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Also considered are the myths, tropes, and narrative strategies adopted by late Victorian writers to express the deepening alienation of literary artists from middle class culture. Texts include Mill’s Autobiography, Eliot’s Mill on the Floss, Ruskin’s Praeterita, Newman’s Apologia Pro Vita Sua, Gosse’s Father and Son, Wilde’s De Profundis Darwin’s Autobiography, and Butler’s The Way of all Flesh.

Arthurian Romance Literature 249 CROSS -LISTED: MEDIEVAL STUDIES This course examines the concerns, meanings, and pleasures in medieval narratives of King Arthur and his knights. Texts: the Mabinogion, Geoffrey of Monmouth’s History of the Kings of Britain, Layamon’s Brut, Chrétien de Troyes’s Lancelot, Wolfram von Eschenbach’s Parzival, Gottfried von Strassburg’s Tristan, the vulgate Quest of the Holy Grail, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Malory’s Tale of the Death of King Arthur, and Spenser’s Faerie Queene.

82 Languages and Literature English Literature I, II, III Literature 250, 251, 252 The first of three regularly offered but independent courses is an intensive study of Medieval and Renaissance English literature that emphasizes close readings in historical contexts, the development of a critical vocabulary and imagination, and the discovery of some of the classic works of English literature, from Beowulf and Chaucer to the major Elizabethans. Authors include the Beowulf poet, the Gawain poet, Chaucer, More, Spenser, Marlowe, Shakespeare, and Jonson, among others. Literature 251 explores poetry, fiction, drama, and criticism from the 17th and 18th centuries, including works by Milton, Donne, Marvell, Defoe, and Fielding. Literature 252 concentrates primarily on 19th- and 20th-century works by Austen, Wordsworth, Keats, Shelley, Tennyson, Carlyle, Ruskin, Joyce, Lawrence, Eliot, and Woolf.

Shakespeare Literature 2501 A careful reading of nine masterpieces and a selection of sonnets. The plays represent the full range of Shakespeare’s genius in comedy, tragedy, romance, and royal history, and may include Romeo and Juliet, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Henry V, Julius Caesar, As You Like It, Twelfth Night, Hamlet, Othello, Measure for Measure, King Lear, Macbeth, The Winter’s Tale, The Tempest, and Henry IV, Part 1.

The Further Adventures of the Body and Soul Literature 2505 Students examine the literary, historical, and critical accounts of the tension between body and soul in “premodern” English literature, and take up the debate in its modern instantiations. Topics covered: the relationship between the spiritual and physical, gender performativity and cross-dressing, racial-religious identity, and the idea of the hero. Texts: the 14th-century Debate of the Body and Soul and works by Chaucer, Malory, Spenser, Shakespeare, and Swift.

Barbarians at the Gate: Degeneration and the Culture Wars of the Fin de Siècle Literature 2507 This course tracks the idea of degeneration—the nightmare offspring of Darwinian progress— from the 1857 prosecution of Baudelaire’s Flowers of Evil to the trials of Oscar Wilde (for gross indecency) and Alfred Dreyfus (for treason) in the mid-1890s. Using Max Nordau’s Degeneration as a focal point, the class explores the prevalent late 19th-century identification of new literary forms with madness, criminality, and perversion. Readings include works by Ibsen, Stevenson, Nietzsche, Hardy, Wilde, Huysmans, and Wells, among others.

Poets Theater Literature 2508 Following World War II, innovative American writers took a new interest in poetry as a performative art, turning to theater as a way to expand the formal and political concerns of poetry. This course examines the development of Poets Theater over the last 65 years as well as earlier experiments in nonconventional theater. Readings: Ben Jonson, Percy Shelley, Thomas Beddoes, Charles Olson, Gertrude Stein, Robert Duncan, John Ashbery, Frank O’Hara, Carla Harryman, Steve Benson, and Leslie Scalapino.

The Victorians: British History and Literature, 1830–1901 Literature 255 / History 255 CROSS -LISTED: VICTORIAN STUDIES Through interdisciplinary study of culture, politics, and society in Britain, this course considers the rise and fall of Victorian values, paying particular attention to nationalism, imperialism, and domestic ideology. Consulting a variety of texts—novels, plays, essays, music, poetry, and historical works—students examine changing (and often conflicting) conceptions of crime, sexuality, race, class, the position of women, and the crisis of faith in 19th-century Great Britain.

Literature of the United States I, II, III, IV Literature 257, 258, 259, 260 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES This regularly repeating sequence of four independent but related units explores major authors

Literature 83 and issues in American literature, from its Puritan origins to the 21st century. Literature 257 examines writings from the first three generations of Puritan settlement in 17th-century Massachusetts, in relation to one another and also to later American texts bearing traces of Puritan concerns. Authors include notable Puritan divines, poets, historians, and citizens, and later writers such as Edwards, Irving, Emerson, Dickinson, Twain, and Lowell. Literature 258 examines works by Hawthorne, Melville, Dickinson, and other writers of the American Renaissance. Literature 259 studies works written from the post–Civil War period to the start of the Depression, emphasizing the new and evolving spirit of realism, naturalism, and emergent modernism. Authors include James, Twain, Dreiser, Wharton, Frost, Bogan, Powell, and Fitzgerald. Literature 260 looks at American literature in the wake of World War II and 9/11. Authors include Mailer, Baldwin, Williams, Ginsberg, Updike, Roth, Carver, and Cisneros.

Scholasticism versus Humanism Literature 2603 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, MEDIEVAL STUDIES, THEOLOGY Throughout the Middle Ages, intellectual life was dominated by scholastics who sought to integrate reason and faith, logic and revelation. During the Renaissance, intellectual discourse was taken over by humanists, who stressed empiricism over abstraction. With experience now privileged over logic, the subjective perception expressed in literature became prized over the impersonal cosmos of philosophy. This seminar explores the tension between scholastic and humanist thought against the backdrop of the rise of the university, the discovery of the New World, and the Protestant Reformation.

20th-Century American Literature and the Visual Arts Literature 2606 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES The class investigates the relationship between the visual arts and literature, with an emphasis on poetry. Students read art criticism and examine overlapping developments in literature and the arts. Some attention is paid to collaborations between writers and visual artists. Authors stud-

ied include Stein, Pound, Williams, Duchamp, Stieglitz, Loy, O’Hara, Ashbery, Brainard, Creeley, Coolidge, and Howe, among others.

Growing Up Victorian Literature 261 CROSS -LISTED: VICTORIAN STUDIES Children in Victorian literature come in a variety of forms: urchins, prigs, bullies, and grinds. They are demonstration models in numerous educational and social projects intended to create a braver future. Readings include nursery rhymes, fairy and folk tales, didactic stories, autobiography, and at least two novels: Hughes’s Tom Brown’s Schooldays and Meredith’s The Ordeal of Richard Feverel.

Irish Fiction Literature 2650 CROSS -LISTED: ICS Irish stories, novels, and plays of the past 300 years have been divided between two traditions: the Anglo-Irish tradition of writers who were English by descent and the Catholic tradition of modern Ireland. Readings, in addition to a brief history of Ireland, include Gulliver’s Travels, Castle Rackrent, The Picture of Dorian Gray, Dubliners, At Swim-Two-Birds, plays by Synge and Yeats, and fiction by Bowen, O’Connor, Trevor, O’Flaherty, and Doyle.

Women Writing the Caribbean Literature 2670 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, GSS Claudia Mitchell-Kernan describes creolization as “a mosaic of African, European, and indigenous responses to a truly novel reality.” This course is concerned with how women, through fiction, interpreted that reality. Students begin by reading The History of Mary Prince, A West Indian Slave, Related by Herself (1831) and Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands (1857). Works by Gellhorn, Rhys, Allfrey, Kincaid, Cliff, and Danticat are also studied.

Rebels With(out) a Cause: Great Works of German Literature Literature 270 This course surveys representative works of German literature from the 18th century to the present. Readings include Goethe’s The

84 Languages and Literature Sufferings of Young Werther (1774); Mother Tongue (1990), a collection of stories by Emine Sevgi Özdamar, a Turkish-German woman writer; and works by Schiller, Eichendorff, Heine, Hauptmann, Wedekind, Rilke, Kafka, Mann, Brecht, Dürrenmatt, and Jelinek. The course is conducted in English, but students with an advanced proficiency in German are expected to read the works in the original.

The Irish Renaissance Literature 272 CROSS -LISTED: ICS The course begins with a brief history of Ireland; next is a consideration of the Abbey Theatre and its reconstruction of legends and use of western Ireland’s idioms and characters, chiefly in the dramas of Yeats and Synge. These themes were further developed in the literature associated with the “troubles” of 1916–22 and in later writings that continue or challenge the themes of the Renaissance. Authors studied include Sean O’Casey, Liam O’Flaherty, Frank O’Connor, Flann O’Brien, and Brendan Behan.

The Holocaust and Literature Literature 276A CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, JEWISH STUDIES

The Holocaust is considered in comparison with other 20th-century genocides, such as those that occurred in the Gulag, Communist China, Cambodia, and Rwanda. Students debate questions about the boundaries of art and the literature of extreme situations and examine post-Holocaust reality—for example, the trivialization of tragedy in the mass media. Authors studied include Kafka, Levi, Borowski, Sebald, Tiˇsma, Kis, Singer, and Kertész.

Chosen Voices: Major Jewish Authors Literature 276B CROSS -LISTED: JEWISH STUDIES The course surveys the contribution of European and North American Jewish writing to 20thcentury literature. Students examine questions of Jewish identity, stereotypes, mythology, folk wisdom, humor, history, culture, relation to language, and literary modernism. Authors studied include Sholem Aleichem, Isaac Babel, Franz

Kafka, Bruno Schulz, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Primo Levi, Bernard Malamud, and Grace Paley.

The Heroic Age Literature 280 CROSS -LISTED: MEDIEVAL STUDIES Major works of the early Middle Ages are studied, with an emphasis on those written in what are today France, Germany, England, and Scandinavia. The course considers societyshaping historical events, such as the Viking invasions, rise of feudalism, and spread of Christianity, and the literary works that developed in those contexts. Texts include Beowulf, The Song of Roland, the Nibelungenlied, and the plays of Hrotswitha of Gandersheim.

The Nobel Slavs Literature 2801 CROSS -LISTED: RES This course examines works by Nobel laureates Ivan Bunin, Boris Pasternak, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Mikhail Sholokhov, Joseph Brodsky, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Czeslaw Milosz, Wladyslaw Reymont, Wislawa Szymborska, Jaroslav Seifert, and Ivo Andric. Attention is paid to the political and social impact of the Nobel Prize, particularly in the cases of Pasternak, Solzhenitsyn, and Sholokhov. Conducted in English.

Dickens Reconsidered Literature 284 Charles Dickens crafted a public persona—as the embodiment of manly virtue, pillar of family values, genial creator of Scrooge and Little Nell—that mirrored the self-flattering myths of the Victorian middle classes. The real Dickens, obsessed with class distinctions, criminality, and sexual predation, more authentically embodied the realities of his age. Through close readings of Oliver Twist, Bleak House, Hard Times, Little Dorrit, and Great Expectations, the class explores the complex psyche of the author and his epoch.

Literature 85 Modern Drama in Translation: Brecht in the Global South Literature 288 CROSS -LISTED: GERMAN STUDIES

Wittgenstein’s Lion: The Question of the Animal Literature 3012 CROSS -LISTED: PHILOSOPHY

From the 1960s to the present, many African and Latin American dramatists have reworked Brecht’s plays and techniques to give theatrical shape to the realities of imperialism and decolonization, the emergence of new ruling classes, and the persistence of political oppression and economic exploitation. Readings include radically different adaptations of The Threepenny Opera, The Measures Taken, The Good Person of Setzuan, and Mother Courage. Students who read German are invited to enroll in a tutorial to study Brecht’s plays in the original.

Toward the end of the Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein writes, “If a lion could talk, we could not understand him.” This course raises and puzzles out questions about the language, ethical implications, and symbolic character of the man/animal boundary. Primary readings are drawn from Hegel, Heidegger, Levinas, Lacan, Derrida, and Hearne, with some literary interventions by Tolstoy, Kafka, and Rilke, among others. Prerequisite: a prior course in philosophy or theory.

Different Voices, Different Views from the Non-Western World Literature 2882 CROSS -LISTED: GIS Significant short works by some of the most distinguished contemporary writers of Africa, Iran, India, Pakistan, Korea,Vietnam, and the Middle East are examined for their intrinsic literary merits and the verisimilitude with which they portray the sociopolitical conditions, spiritual belief systems, and attitudes toward women in their respective countries. Authors include Assia Djebar, Nawal El Saadawi, Ousmane Sembène, Ngugi wa Thiong’o, Chinua Achebe, Naguib Mahfouz, R. K. Narayan, Anita Desai, Nadine Gordimer, Mahasveta Devi, Mahmoud Darwish, and Tayeb Salih. ’Reading for Writers

Literature 301 The course takes a close look at what makes one writer a “stylist” and another not. If “reading for the plot” is the default paradigm in fiction, what happens when we look behind the scenes of plot, to observe how cumulative linguistic, imagistic, and syntactic patterns coalesce so that sentence generates story? What is the relation of style to form and structure? Authors studied: Nabokov, Beckett, James, Tutuola, Yourcenar, Coetzee, Gass, Gaitskill, and Strout, among others.

In Praise of Idleness: Literature and the Art of Conversation Literature 3013 The useful, Schiller wrote in On the Aesthetic Education of Man, divorces leisure from labor and turns life into a series of utilitarian dead ends. Yet the impulse to play has often been condemned as dangerously close to the decadent and the idle. Readings include critiques of “pure” work, texts that expose the vanity of conversation, novels that explore the tensions between work and conversation, and texts that offer aesthetic theories of conversation.

After Nature: Imagining the World without Us Literature 3015 CROSS -LISTED: EUS An examination of fictions that imagine what Alan Weisman calls “the world without us.” Readings trace the development of a distinctly modern strain of postapocalyptic literature from Mary Shelley’s The Last Man (1826), through Nevil Shute’s On the Beach (1957), to Michel Houellebecq’s The Possibility of an Island (2006). Also considered are works by Tarkovsky, Herzog, and Haneke, as well as readings in 20th- and 21st-century fiction.

The Threshold of Modernity in European Jewish Literature Literature 3017 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, JEWISH STUDIES This course explores the meaning of modernity in the works of six of the greatest Jewish writers

86 Languages and Literature of the late 19th and 20th centuries: Sholem Aleichem, I. L. Peretz, Franz Kafka, S. Ansky, Isaac Babel, and Bruno Schulz. Reading selections are examined against the background of Eastern European Jewish life at the end of the 19th century, a time of radical change due to the rise of fascism and communism, and the spread of avant-garde artistic theories.

Poetry and Society Literature 3023 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This course looks at poetry and related writing with sociopolitical implications from around the world and from several historical contexts. Writers studied include Whitman, García Lorca, Akhmatova, Pound, Raworth, Spahr, and Kovner. In this practice-based seminar, students experiment with poetic forms, write essays, and research areas of contemporary social concern. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

Poetics of Pragmatism Literature 3027 What is pragmatism, and how did it come to be central to American philosophical and poetic thought? Is it merely a matter of use, of what works, or is there more to it, as the relation between experience and experiment becomes one that tests both empiricism and transcendence, and complicates values of objectivity and subjectivity? Readings from Edwards, Emerson, James, Dewey, Cavell, Geertz, Stevens, Stein, Olson, Howe, and Ashbery.

Sentimental Politics of American Culture Literature 3029 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES This course examines “sentimentalism” as a literary and philosophical concept that is less about welling tears than about the role emotion plays in how we organize our political, economic, and cultural lives. Drawing on literature, philosophy, film, and art, students explore the intersections of gender, race, class, urbanism, nationalism, and internationalism to explore the key concept underlying sentimentalism: sympathy. Authors studied may include Smith, Hume, Rowlandson, Stowe, Douglass, Twain, Chesnutt,

Crane, Agee, Wright, Morrison, Sontag, and Spielberg, among others.

Toward (a) Moral Fiction Literature 3033 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS Each text in this course grapples with ethical issues through fictive means. Students assess the way in which literature can create, complicate, or resolve ethical dilemmas—or eschew morality altogether. The course also attends to craft, investigating how authors’ concerns may be furthered by formal considerations. Works studied include Frankenstein, The Heart of the Matter, Disgrace, Crash, Continental Drift, Mating, Blood Meridian, and The Fifth Child, among others.

The Frankfurt School Literature 3035 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS What is ideology? How can one distinguish between ideological and nonideological forms of consciousness? In attempting to answer these and other questions, students follow a central strand in German aesthetic thought that runs from Hegel to Habermas, and engage with recent non-Marxist thought about social norms and communicative action. Readings include Lukács, Adorno, Horkheimer, Benjamin, and Wittgenstein. Limited to juniors and seniors.

Poetic Lineages Literature 3036 This course traces various poetic lineages from the Romantic era to the present. Questions considered include: What is the relationship between poetic utterance and political power? What role do subjectivity and emotion play in poetic expression? How do the formal dimensions of language complicate its denotative function? Authors studied: Coleridge, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Emerson, Pound, Stevens, Bernstein, Prynne, and Hejinian.

A Thousand and One Nights in Comparative Perspective Literature 3037 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, MES Stories within stories, unreliable narratives, fantastic voyages, bawdy escapades, and the ever-looming possibility that Shahrazad will

Literature 87 meet her death with each new dawn—these hallmarks of A Thousand and One Nights have captivated readers for centuries. This course examines the structure and narrative techniques of the Nights; the history of this collection’s transmission, translation, and reception; and how it shaped, and was shaped by, the emergence of the novel form.

Sympathy and Its Discontents Literature 3038 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS Advocates of liberal reform in the late 18th century claimed that sympathy was the primary spur to humanitarian action. Poems, novels, and essays detailing cruelty and misery encouraged readers to partake of the edifying effects of sympathy. But what if, as the Marquis de Sade suggested, we would rather increase than alleviate the pain of others to augment our own pleasure? Or what if, as Marx argued, humanitarianism merely served to disguise exploitation? Students read Smith, Goethe, de Sade, Wordsworth, Baudelaire, Disraeli, Freud, Marx, Artaud, Celan, and Acker.

20th-Century Long Poems and the Invention of Narrative Structures Literature 304 This course examines the necessity of inventing structures of narrative form that would at once accommodate a new sense of the fractured nature of history, the need for clarity, and an increasingly vexed relation of the poet’s “I” to the linguistic event. The Early Moderns are considered (Pound, Eliot, Stevens, Williams, H. D.), but the focus is on postwar writers, including Ginsberg, Olson, Oppen, Ashbery, Schuyler, Howe, Carson, Walcott, Scalapino, and Mullen.

Literary Method: Genealogy and the Unsayable Literature 3071 CROSS -LISTED: PHILOSOPHY A seminar in criticism intended for moderated literature majors. The class explores two ideas that have become increasingly important in thinking about texts: genealogy, a historical concept, and unsayability (what language does not and cannot say), a philosophical one.

Readings include Nietzsche’s Genealogy of Morals and selected essays; Foucault’s Discipline and Punish; Agamben’s The Signature of All Things: On Method; and James’s The Turn of the Screw.

Writing the Modern City Literature 3072 This course centers on aspects of contemporary urban reportage, through a close reading of five recent works of creative nonfiction: Haruki Murakami’s Underground, Orhan Pamuk’s Istanbul, Ivan Vladisavic’s Portrait with Keys, Suketu Mehta’s Maximum City, and Sharifa Rhodes-Pitts’s Harlem is Nowhere. Topics include alienation, crowds, nostalgia, infrastructure, the role of the observer, and literary technique.

Afro-Futurism(s): Technologies of Literature and Culture in the Black Diaspora Literature 3081 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, AMERICAN STUDIES

This course examines how black diasporic communities have used science fiction, cosmology, fantasy, and utopianism to explore the intersections between race and technology, to redefine knowledge and subjectivity, and to imagine alternative political spaces. The syllabus draws on the work of a variety of writers, artists, and musicians, including Pauline Hopkins, George Schuyler, Ralph Ellison, Ishmael Reed, Samuel Delany, Octavia Butler, Nalo Hopkinson, Renee Cox, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Sun Ra, Paul D. Miller, Rammellzee, Parliament, and Anthony Joseph.

Black Mountain College and the Invention of Contemporary American Art and Poetry Literature 3090 CROSS -LISTED: ART HISTORY North Carolina’s Black Mountain College was founded in 1933 on John Dewey’s notion of “progressive” education, where the relationship between thinking and doing, idea and practice, was understood as a seamless continuum, and the arts as central to democratic ideals. A partial list of faculty includes Willem and Elaine

88 Languages and Literature de Kooning, Robert Rauschenberg, Buckminster Fuller, John Cage, Merce Cunningham, and Robert Creeley. The class examines the premise of this utopian experiment and the historical platform that allowed radical modernist idioms to flourish.

are the imaginings of novelists and poets, but most often, the gap between the longing for and attainment of this elusive object is investigated.

Modern Tragedy Literature 3104

Nuns, visionaries, cross-dressers, clerics, wild men, neurotics, con artists, and poets receive attention in a range of Spanish historical and literary discourses. This course examines the values attached to these figures and the way in which these discourses—and other artistic representations—call into question our own assumptions regarding conformity and transgression. Readings include texts from Spain and Spanish America by authors such as Rojas, Cervantes, Molina, St. Teresa, and Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz.

The complex history of tragedy is viewed in the light of major theories of Aristotle, Hegel, Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, and others. Study includes the disappearance and revival of the chorus, as well as works by Marlowe, Shakespeare, Goethe, Kleist, Buchner, Dostoevsky, Ibsen, Strindberg, O’Neill, Brecht, Sartre, and Miller.

James Joyce’s Ulysses Literature 3110 CROSS -LISTED: ICS Participants in this seminar pool their ideas about the novel’s text and context. Recent Joyce criticism is emphasized. Prerequisite: prior knowledge of Joyce and his early writings, notably Dubliners and A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.

Children’s Fantasy Literature in Cultural Conversation Literature 3123 CROSS -LISTED: STUDIO ARTS, THEATER AND PERFORMANCE

An intensive study of 20th-century children’s fantasy literature and the literary and cultural traditions to which they speak. The focus is on how cultural change and ideas of the child influence the manipulation of canonical source material to produce new meanings in works by authors such as J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, Diana Wynne Jones, Philip Pullman, J. K. Rowling, Ursula Le Guin, Tamora Pierce, and Stephenie Meyer.

The Pursuit of Happiness Literature 3127 How have writers over the last 200 years represented the desire for happiness? This seminar focuses on the “optative” or “wishing mood,” as Samuel Johnson described it in The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia. The claims of political theorists and philosophers are explored, as

Saints, Sinners, and Lunatics Literature 3128 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, LAIS

Thomas Pynchon and Don DeLillo Literature 3134 Thomas Pynchon and Don DeLillo are two of the most important practitioners of American literary postmodernism. But what is postmodernism? How do these writers defy or push the limits of this frame? Related subjects considered include consumerism, paranoia, violence, technology, mass media, and the construction of history. Texts: Pynchon’s The Crying of Lot 49, V., Gravity’s Rainbow, and Mason & Dixon; and DeLillo’s White Noise, Mao II, Underworld, and Falling Man.

Russian Literary Criticism: From Belinsky to Bakhtin and Beyond Literature 3136 This course considers various trends and theories in Russian literary criticism from the early 19th century to the present. Students examine the key methodological and theoretical concepts of the romantic, realistic, formalist, structuralist, and poststructuralist approaches to literature developed by such critics and scholars as Vissarion Belinsky, Nikolai Dobroliubov, Viktor Shklovsky, Boris Eikhenbaum, Iurii Tynianov (the Russian formalists), Iurii Lotman (the Tartu school), Mikhail Bakhtin, and contemporary Russian literary scholars. In English.

Literature 89 Women on the Edge Literature 3143 A study of numerous experimental women authors and their predecessors, including Dorothy Richardson, Djuna Barnes, Nathalie Sarraute, Clarice Lispector, Elfriede Jelinek, Marguerite Young, Kathy Acker, Jaimy Gordon, Yoko Tawada, Diane Williams, Christine Schutt, Patricia Eakins, Fiona Maazel, and others. Critical essays supplement the fiction.

The Politics of Form Literature 3145 This course traces the origins of avant-garde ideas in early European modernism (Dada, surrealism, futurism, vorticism) and then looks at the evolution of experimental/progressive ideas in American art, critical theory, and poetics. Readings come from various influential critics (Greenberg, Vendler, Perloff, Eagleton, Berger, and others) as well as poet-critics (Bernstein, Retallack, Lévi-Strauss). Poets studied include Pound, Stevens, Oppen, Riding, Ginsberg, Lowell, Olson, Scalapino, Watten, and Mackey, along with related visual artists.

T. S. Eliot and Wallace Stevens Literature 3146 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES An in-depth study of two major American writers whose aesthetic visions represent divergent trajectories for modernist poetics. Attention is given to their relation to Romanticism, their understanding of lyric subjectivity, their juxtapositions of literature and religion, their philosophies of abstraction and the image, and their engagement with social and cultural crises.

Proust: In Search of Lost Time Literature 315 CROSS -LISTED: FRENCH STUDIES Marcel Proust’s In Search of Lost Time is about an elaborate internal journey, at the end of which the narrator discovers the unifying pattern of his life both as a writer and human being. Students read Swann’s Way and Time Regained in their entirety along with key excerpts from other volumes. Topics of discussion include the ways by which Proust’s masterpiece reflect the temporality and new rhythms of modernity, the narrative and stylistic func-

tion of homosexuality, and the massive social disruption brought about by the Great War.

Literature and Politics Literature 3204 Students read recent texts in critical theory, paying special attention to the ways in which political questions are articulated with literary or aesthetic ones. The class is guided by Jacques Rancière's suggestion that “humans are political animals because they are literary animals: not only in the Aristotelian sense of using language in order to discuss questions of justice, but also because we are confounded by the excess of words in relation to things.” Readings from Derrida, Foucault, Balibar, Rancière, Butler, Spivak, and others.

Evidence Literature 3206 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS Evidence, etymologically, is what is exposed or obvious to the eye, and to the extent that something is evident it should help us make decisions, form conclusions, or reach judgments. In this seminar, students examine documentary materials alongside contemporary literary and political theory, in order to pose questions about decision making, bearing witness, and responsibility. Readings and screenings from Gilles Peress, Susan Sontag, Toni Morrison, Jean-Luc Nancy, Cathy Caruth, Shoshana Felman, Luc Boltanski, and others.

Faulkner: Race, Text, and Southern History Literature 3208 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, AMERICAN STUDIES

Unlike other writers of his generation, who viewed America from distant shores, William Faulkner remained at home and explored his own region. From this intensely intimate vantage point, he was able to portray the American South in all of its glory and shame. In this course, students read Faulkner’s major novels, poetry, short stories, and film scripts. Students also read biographical material and examine the breadth of current Faulkner literary criticism.

90 Languages and Literature Power, Violence, and Make Believe: Revealing Politics in Fiction Literature 3215 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS

Culture and Breeding, and the Rise of the English Novel Literature 3262 CROSS -LISTED: STS

Beginning with the Illiad, there has been an ongoing, centuries-long narrative investigation into the workings of power. Through close study of works by Stendhal, Trollope, Adams, James, Conrad, Chesterton, Carpentier, Garcia Marquez, Penn Warren, Camus, Just, and DeLillo, among others, this seminar examines the development of the political novel.

What is culture? What does the notion of breeding have to do with culture, and how has the idea of culture involved protobiology, exploration, education, and even discrimination? The class considers these and other questions as it makes its way through some of the seminal literary and philosophical texts of the 18th century, including David Garrick’s version of The Winter’s Tale, Robinson Crusoe, Gulliver's Travels, a selection of writings by Rousseau, Tristram Shandy, The Expedition of Humphry Clinker, and Emma.

Hobbyism and Professionalism Literature 3218 This course investigates the hobbyistic impulse to write for private pleasure and considers the importance of unprofitable conscientiousness, idiosyncrasy, and self-regulation in the making of fiction and nonfiction. Writing directed by obsessions and internal priorities is contrasted with writing pressured, in part, by professional demands. Texts by Michel de Montaigne, Hubert Butler, David Foster Wallace, Charles Fort, Fernando Pessoa, Nicholson Baker, John Donne, Franz Kafka, Lewis Carroll, C. S. Lewis, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and others.

The 20th-Century Latin American Novel Literature 323 / Spanish 323 See Spanish 323 for a full course description.

Afterlives of Antiquity: Posthumanism and Its Classics Literature 326 / Classics 326 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS If the classics have been used to define “humanity,” then how may “classics” be defined for a posthuman world? This seminar examines how processes of classification and canon formation may serve as material for cultural critique. Areas of interest include gender and ethnicity; anthropology and zoology; other(ed) organic biologies, including genetic, surgical, and extraterrestrial; and inorganic “biologies,” including artificial intelligence. Texts from Apuleius, Atwood, Dick, Le Guin, Shakespeare, Sophocles, and Wells, as well as critical readings and film screenings.

Ideology and Politics in Modern Literature Literature 328 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, JEWISH STUDIES

An examination of the ways in which political ideas and beliefs are dramatically realized in literature. Works by Dostoevsky, Ibsen, Kafka, Mann, Brecht, Sartre, Malraux, Gordimer, Kundera, Neruda, and others are analyzed for ideological content, depth of conception, method of presentation, and synthesis of politics and literature. The class also explores the borderline between art and propaganda. Discussions are supplemented with examples drawn from other art forms.

The American Comic Novel Literature 3309 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES Does comedy reinforce social hierarchies by representing comic figures as social and moral inferiors, or is it intrinsically egalitarian in its attention to the shared physical body? Why has comedy been considered both conservative and an excellent medium for social protest? Is the feeling that animates comedy closer to disgust or the affirmation of life? This course explores the comic perspective in texts by Twain, Bellow, O’Connor, Heller, Barth, Toole, and Parker.

Literature 91 Louisiana Literature 3312 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, FRENCH STUDIES

What does Louisiana (and New Orleans, in particular) mean in the American imaginary? How did the various populations distinctive to the region—Creoles, Cajuns, and free people of color, among others—help define this meaning? How did the idea of Louisiana persist through a history of traumatic change, from the Civil War to Hurricane Katrina? Readings include the first French accounts of Louisiana and works by Cable, Chopin, Faulkner, Hearn, Hurston, Williams, Percy, and Toole.

The San Francisco Renaissance Literature 3313 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES The end of World War II saw the migration of a diverse group of poets to the San Francisco area. Although their aesthetics and politics differed wildly, these writers were united by a resistance to the poetic mainstream and a desire to recreate a radical literary bohemia. This course charts the development of these writers and their communities. Readings include works by Kenneth Rexroth, Helen Adam, Jack Spicer, Michael McClure, Diane DiPrima, Jack Kerouac, Joanne Kyger, and Philip Whalen.

Freud, Lacan, and Zˇizˇek Literature 3322 Psychoanalysis was originally a science derived from clinical observation and an interpretative practice explored in essays and discussions. This course considers classic texts by Sigmund Freud, explores essays by Jacques Lacan, and then asks how contemporary theorists like Slavoj Zˇizˇek—whose work occupies a good part of the course—employ psychoanalysis today.

Freudian Psychoanalysis and Language Literature 3324 The understanding that language inhabits the human subject is essential to Freud’s conception of the unconscious. It is Freud who taught us to read slips of the tongue, bungled actions, memory lapses, and dreams as a formation of the unconscious, a language in its own right. This course focuses on texts that demonstrate

close attention to language, among them: The Interpretation of Dreams, Studies on Hysteria, Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious, and The Psychopathology of Everyday Life.

National Myths, Transnational Forms: Samurai, Cowboy, Shaolin Monk Literature 3325 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES This course considers how certain stories and images are used to create national identity and at the same time appeal to a transnational or global audience.

New Directions in Contemporary Fiction Literature 333 Students closely examine novels and collections of short fiction from the last quarter century, with particular emphasis on works by pioneering practitioners of the form. Authors include Cormac McCarthy, Angela Carter, Thomas Bernhard, Jeanette Winterson, Kazuo Ishiguro, William Gaddis, Michael Ondaatje, and Jamaica Kincaid. Several writers visit class to discuss their books and read from recent work.

Faulkner and Morrison Literature 3354 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES In this course, students first read four Faulkner novels—The Sound and the Fury, As I Lay Dying, Light in August, and Absalom, Absalom!— together with a selection of his short fiction, essays, interviews, and critical studies. Texts by Morrison include the novels The Bluest Eye, Sula, Song of Solomon, and Beloved, as well as Playing in the Dark, her influential monograph on American literature. Topics include race, violence, prophecy, motherhood, ancestry, ecstasy, privacy, the effort to speak the unspeakable, and the strange pleasures of words.

Modern and Contemporary Italian Women Writers Literature 3365 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, ITALIAN STUDIES “The beast that speaks” is how Anna Maria Ortese acknowledged her status as an Italian woman writer. From Sibilla Aleramo’s breakout feminist novel A Woman (1906) to the works of

92 Languages and Literature 1926 Nobel laureate Grazia Deledda and controversial journalist Oriana Fallaci, this course investigates what it meant to be a woman writing in Italy during the last century. Theoretical works by Simone Weil, Simone de Beauvoir, and others frame the discussion.

Poetry and Politics in Ireland Literature 3401 CROSS -LISTED: ICS In their poetry, James Mangan, Samuel Ferguson, W. B. Yeats, and Austin Clarke recreated images of a Celtic past that served the cause of Irish nationalism. This course explores their poems, as well as militant songs and ballads from the late 18th century to the present, some anonymous and some by prominent patriots like Thomas Davis and Pádraic Pearse. Readings also include problem poems by Patrick Kavanagh and Seamus Heaney, and diaries and memoirs illuminating specific moments in Irish history.

Hawthorne, Melville, and Literary Friendship Literature 3410 During a mountain picnic in the summer of 1850, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville struck up a private conversation. That talk issued into an intense, relatively brief friendship that was mediated by writing, given expression in writing, and is approachable only by way of writing. After acquainting themselves with the two writers’ careers before 1850, students read everything Hawthorne and Melville wrote between the summer of 1850 and the fall of 1852, the period of their intimacy.

Close-reading Evil Literature 3413 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS A close look at the ways in which language has been used to portray and explore the mystery of evil. Texts range from the Book of Genesis and Chaucer’s “The Pardoner’s Tale” to the fiction of Flannery O’Connor, Denis Johnson, and Roberto Bolaño. Also studied are works of fiction and nonfiction written during and about Puritanism, the slaveholding South, colonial exploration, and the Hitler and Stalin eras, as

well as news and magazine articles that address, directly or indirectly, the problem of evil.

Satire Literature 3431 A study of the origins of satire in folk culture and classical writings (Aristophanes, Horace, Juvenal, Petronius); of medieval, Renaissance, and 18th-century examples of satire; and of the 20th-century revival of satiric traditions in Waugh, Auden, Huxley, and others.

Victorian Bodies Literature 349 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, STS, VICTORIAN STUDIES This course examines Victorian texts in conjunction with theories of the construction of sexuality. Students trace the origins of “natural” categories such as male/female, child/adult, heterosexual/homosexual, and normal/perverse. Readings include works by Charlotte Brontë, Thomas Hughes, Richard Burton, Robert Baden-Powell, Oscar Wilde, Robert Louis Stevenson, Bram Stoker, John Ruskin, Rudyard Kipling, and Lewis Carroll.

Exile and Estrangement in Modern Fiction Literature 358 Selected short fiction and novels by such writers as Mann, Kafka, Nabokov, Camus, Singer, Kundera, and Naipaul, among others, are read and discussed, with an eye toward the issue of exile—estrangement as a biographical fact and a way of life. Topics of foreignness and identity (ethnic, political, sexual), rejection and loss, estrangement and challenge, and protean mutability are discussed in connection with socialhistorical situations and as major literary themes.

Plato’s Writing: Dialogue and Dialectic Literature 362 / Classics 362 CROSS -LISTED: PHILOSOPHY Interpreters of Plato have often asked why he wrote in dialogue form, and the answers proposed have frequently appealed to Plato’s conception of dialectic, although the meaning of that term in his texts is itself a matter of debate. This course examines Plato’s writings from both literary and philosophical perspectives. Readings include Euthyphro, Euthydemus,

Literature 93 Meno, Phaedrus, Republic, and Sophist. Primary texts are complemented by secondary scholarship that illustrates the range of modern approaches to Plato. All readings in English.

Urban Shakespeare Literature 364 CROSS -LISTED: EUS Shakespeare is a very urban dramatist, reflecting the vital life of the city of London in the early 17th century. Students read Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night, The Merchant of Venice, Measure for Measure, Hamlet, and The Tempest, along with relevant texts, to explore how this burgeoning capital of Europe registered in urban terms the issues of ethnicity, gender, identity, empire, sexuality, and class difference.

Enduring Novels of the 19th Century Literature 3640 CROSS -LISTED: FRENCH STUDIES, GERMAN STUDIES

This course acquaints students with representative novels by distinguished French, Russian, German, and Central European authors. The works are analyzed for style, themes, ideological commitment, and social and political setting. Taken together, they provide an accurate account of the major artistic, philosophical, and intellectual trends and developments on the continent during the 19th century. Readings include Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punishment, Stendhal’s The Red and the Black, Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina, Balzac’s Cousin Bette, Hamsun’s Hunger, and Mann’s Buddenbrooks.

Reading Arab Women Writers in Translation Literature 3671 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, MES This course considers the figure of the Arab woman, both as author and literary character, in late 20th-century fiction and nonfiction from the Arab world. By investigating the politics of translation, the economics of publishing, and international feminist debates, the class explores the limits and possibilities for reading Arab women writers. Authors studied: Leila Ahmed, Nawal al-Saadawi, Hanan al-Shaykh, Assia Djebar, Ahlam Mosteghanemi, Mervat

Hatem, Marnia Lazreg, Miriam Cooke, Evelyne Accad, and Amal Amireh. Readings in English.

The Brontës Literature 3691 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, VICTORIAN STUDIES This seminar examines selected writings of Anne, Charlotte, and Emily Brontë. Reception of the Brontës has varied enormously over the years, and the class discusses the impact of shifts in canon formation on the status of texts such as Wuthering Heights, Jane Eyre, and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, as well as the influence of theoretical, historical, and biographical accounts in shaping Brontëan myths of power and desire. Also considered are the ways that various cinematic adaptations inform our understanding of the texts.

Jane Austen Literature 374 CROSS -LISTED: GSS A seminar devoted to the close study of Austen’s major novels: Northanger Abbey, Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park, Emma, and Persuasion. Upper College standing is assumed; some familiarity with literary history and theory is desired.

Virginia Woolf Literature 3741 CROSS -LISTED: GSS What makes Woolf a modernist? Why did Woolf’s novels and essays become canonical texts of late 20th-century feminism? Students read Woolf’s novels, from The Voyage Out (1915) to Between the Acts (1941), in the context of two distinct periods of innovation and conflict in 20th-century literary culture. The first was the formation of the Bloomsbury Circle and English modernism. The second, following the women’s movement of the 1960s and 1970s, was the introduction of feminist literary criticism.

Gertrude Stein Literature 3742 This practice-based seminar looks at Gertrude Stein’s experimental and performative practices of language composition in relation to the arts, science, philosophy, and popular media of her contemporary moment and ours. Though Stein

94 Languages and Literature died in 1946, she has—for reasons the class explores—remained a perennial contemporary, whose work continues to challenge, puzzle, and stimulate. The seminar includes extensive reading, viewing, listening, performing, collaborative composing, writing (short essays and poetic compositions); it culminates in the presentation of individual and/or collaborative projects.

Prose Poetries / Poetic Proses Literature 3743 The history of literary forms from ancient times on is full of hybrid or “blurred” genres. This practice-based seminar looks at generic hybridities from pre-Socratic prose poems and Ovid’s Metamorphoses to Anne Carson’s experiments (as translator and prose poet) with classical literatures. Also addressed are the influences of Wittgenstein and Stein on the prose poetics of contemporary poets like Waldrop and Scalapino. Students experiment with the forms encountered in the readings.

class struggle; and contemporary critics such as Barthes, Foucault, and Habermas.

Henry James Literature 3812 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES In this in-depth study of Henry James, particular attention is paid to questions of genre, narrative technique, and the representation of consciousness, and to James’s engagement with social issues such as gender and sexuality, transatlantic cultural clashes, and the transformation of American political and economic structures. Texts include The Americans, The Portrait of a Lady, The Bostonians, The Turn of the Screw, and The Golden Bowl.

Joyce and Beckett Literature 382 CROSS -LISTED: ICS This course explores Irish experimental writing, including Joyce’s Ulysses and several Beckett stories and plays.

Indian Fiction Literature 3801 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES

Contemporary Critical Theory Literature 390

Indian fiction of the modern period is of three kinds: works written by English authors during the last 100 years of the empire; those written by Indian authors during the first 60 years of independence; and those written by Indians in the diaspora. Students read Kipling’s Kim, Forster’s A Passage to India, Narayan’s The Guide, Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children, Roy’s The God of Small Things, Mistry’s A Fine Balance, Desai’s The Inheritance of Loss, and Naipaul’s A House for Mr. Biswas.

During the last century, major changes in the way works of art and culture were conceived took place under the influence of modernism and poststructuralism. This seminar engages key texts in this transformation. Through the reading of full-length studies or significant excerpts of major theorists, students are introduced to the aesthetics and ethics of modernist and postmodernist debates about representation. Prerequisite: college-level course in philosophy; literature; or cultural, political, or arts theory.

Truth, Beauty, and the Market: Explorations in Literary Value Literature 381

Narrative Strategies Literature 425

How is literature at once a product beholden to a specific time and place (to a “market”), and a work of art? Students explore the ways that we evaluate, judge, and consume literary works, and consider how the term “literary value” draws on developments in aesthetics, philosophy, law, economics, and sociology. Texts include writings by Hume on taste; Smith, Marx, and Simmel on value; Wordsworth and Verga on the emergence of capitalism; Zola, Manzoni, and Turgenev on

With emphasis on postgenre fabulism and the New Gothic, this workshop is intended for writers interested in engaging the theory that reading is a primary function of creating fiction. Students explore, through selected readings and responsive writing, the ways a literary narrative best finds its expression. Readings include contemporary fiction by Wallace, Kincaid, Carter, Moody, Banks, Crowley, and others.

Written Arts 95 Contemporary Masters Literature 427 An opportunity to converse with some of the world’s greatest living authors. In recent years this course has been taught by such celebrated writers as Orhan Pamuk, Mario Vargas Llosa, Tahar Ben Jelloun, and Nuruddin Farah. The authors debate, together and with the class, such topics as the relationship between art and history, literature’s capacity to affect moral value, and the literature of extreme situations.

Postfantasy, Fabulism, and the New Gothic Literature 431 Early gothicists framed their tales within metaphoric scapes of ruined abbeys and diabolic grottoes, with protagonists who tested the edges of propriety and sanity. Postmodern masters such as Angela Carter, William Gaddis, and John Hawkes, while embracing a similarly dark vision, have reinvented tropes, settings, and narrative arcs. Postfantasy (or New Wave Fabulism) has taken the fantasy/horror genre in a similar revolutionary direction. Readings: Kelly Link, Elizabeth Hand, Jonathan Lethem, Valerie Martin, Karen Russell, John Crowley, Jonathan Carroll, and Peter Straub.

Written Arts Faculty: Mary Caponegro and Robert Kelly* (directors), Celia Bland, Teju Cole, Michael Ives, Verlyn Klinkenborg, Paul La Farge, Ann Lauterbach, Wyatt Mason, Edie Meidav, Bradford Morrow, Joseph O’Neill, Joan Retallack, Susan Fox Rogers, Luc Sante**, Mona Simpson, Binyavanga Wainaina * on sabbatical, fall 2012 ** leave of absence, 2012–2013

Overview: At Bard, writing is seen as a process that engages the student in an ardent investigation of the nature and varieties of art, so that the student’s work is understood in the context of the arts of the present and past. The careful study of literature and an awareness of critical theory are essential components of the curricu-

lum. The Written Arts Program offers a supportive environment in which the works produced meet with response in workshops and tutorials led by professional writers who are also teachers. Respecting individual uniqueness, the program proposes to liberate students even as it insists on the importance of a growing awareness of intellectual and social concerns. Every writing student is expected to investigate poetics and literary theory, and to invest substantially in courses in history, philosophy, and the arts. Writing workshops are offered every semester at several levels. Nonmajors and majors are encouraged to apply. Entry to fiction, nonfiction, and poetry workshops is by submission of writing samples to the teacher. Other workshops explore specialized varieties of writing, including translation and cultural reportage; entry to these workshops is by consultation with the instructor. Application deadlines are announced each semester. Requirements: For Moderation, students must successfully complete at least one writing workshop; two courses in the British, U.S., or comparative literature sequences; one elective course in the division; and a reading knowledge of a foreign language. A portfolio of original writing in one or more genres must be submitted, along with an analytical paper from a past or present course in literature. Students who propose to do a Senior Project in writing must submit a substantial portfolio of recent creative work to a board made up of two members of the writing faculty, who will determine whether the project seems appropriate and help the student find the appropriate adviser. Courses: In addition to the courses listed below, the student may find that other programs offer writing courses and workshops specific to their subjects. Examples include Film 211-212, Screenwriting I; and Theater 207 and 208, Introduction to Playwriting and Playwriting II.

Written Arts Literature 100 This writing-intensive course for first-year students explores noteworthy examples of poetry,

96 Languages and Literature fiction, and creative nonfiction in order to understand important elements of craft.

First Fiction Workshop Literature 121 Students read selected writers and discuss general writing principles. Student work is examined through group response, analysis, and evaluation. Course enrollment is by permission of the instructor; a writing sample is required.

Nonfiction Writing Workshop Literature 122 Creative nonfiction is a flexible genre that includes memoir, the personal essay, collaged writings, portraits, and more. Students write creative essays that can range from lyrical to analytical, meditative to whimsical. There are weekly writings and readings.

First Poetry Workshop Literature 123 This workshop focuses on the student’s own writing, along with the articulation of responses to the writing of others. Readings develop familiarity with poetic form, movement, and energy. Attendance at poetry readings and lectures is required. Open by permission of the instructor; writing sample required.

Nonfiction Workshop: Writing Science Literature 2182 Students write about science in a number of formats: essay, editorial, feature article, and book review. They address the problems that arise when the search for voice confronts subject matter that is hard to simplify or explain.

Reading as Writing as Reading: Exploring the Contemporary Literature 2207 In this course, students read a variety of contemporary poets, asking the questions: What kinds of forms are necessary to address the changing present? How do today’s poets draw on ideas and methods in disciplines other than poetics? Core texts: Conjunctions:35 American Poetry and American Hybrid: A Norton Anthology of New Poetry. In the second of two weekly classes, students write poems and prose in response to the readings.

Intermediate Fiction Workshop Literature 221 This intermediate-level fiction workshop is suitable for students who have completed First Fiction Workshop or done meaningful writing and thinking about fiction on their own. In addition to critiquing student work, the class reads selected published stories and essays and completes a series of structured exercises.

The Machine Made of Words Literature 2211 William Carlos Williams famously characterized the poem as a “machine made of words.” The objective of this course is to investigate aspects of verbal invention, with the goal of increasing the options available to writers of poetry. In addition to close readings of poems drawn from various periods of English poetry (and some translated texts), attention is paid to the kinetic possibilities of syntax and to more traditionally “poetic” concerns such as rhythm and the arrangement of words on the page.

Writing Africa Literature 2212 This is a travel writing class and a class about Africa, where we may or may not have been. Readings include Kojo Laing’s Search Sweet Country; David Kaiza’s “Benediction in Oyugis”; stories by Norman Rush; Aminatta Forna’s The Devil That Danced on the Water; Ahmadou Kourouma’s Waiting for the Wild Beasts to Vote; and Richard Onyango’s The Life and Times of Richard Onyango; among others.

Reading and Writing Contemporary Cuba Literature 2215 CROSS -LISTED: LAIS This seminar explores the development of contemporary Cuban fiction. With some illumination from nonfiction as well as Cuba’s vibrant cinematic culture, students explore, creatively and analytically, what it means to write fiction within a country functioning under the gaze of the Panopticon. Writers such as Arenas, Carpentier, Garcia, and Lezama Lima, read in translation, write within a matrix of influences: French surrealism, Afro-Cuban mythology,

Written Arts 97 communist revolutionary rhetoric, and the pain and porosity of diaspora.

Intermediate Poetry Workshop Literature 222 Working under the assumption that the “condition of music” to which poetry aspires answers to no single criterion, participants investigate a variety of textual and performance practices, ranging from traditional prosody to assorted treatments of glossolalia, jazz poetry, and sound/text compositions involving multiple and simultaneous speakers. Admission by portfolio.

Ethnographic Fiction Literature 2229 This course begins with a look at theories of representation of culture and otherness, and continues with close readings of ethnographic fiction from writers such as Abish, Barthes, Calvino, Coetzee, Cortázar, Diaz, Farah, Geertz, Ghosh, Goonesekera, Kincaid, Kundera, LéviStrauss, Mahfouz, Narayan, Paley, Rushdie, and Winterson. These readings serve as a catalyst for students’ creative and critical work.

Cultural Reportage Literature 223 This course is for the self-motivated student interested in actively developing journalistic skills relating to cultural reportage, particularly criticism. Stress is placed on regular practice in writing reviews of plays, concerts, films, and television. Work is submitted for group response and evaluation. Readings draw from Agee, Connolly, Orwell, Shaw, Sontag, Wilson, and contemporary working critics.

Writing the World: Nonfiction Prose Literature 2232 A course in two skills: learning to make excellent nonfiction prose and learning to see the world around you. The emphasis in nonfiction prose nearly always falls on the personal; this course turns the writer’s gaze outward. Models are drawn from history and current events. The goal is to become a compelling witness and maker of acute prose—as art, not journalism.

Poetry: Texts, Forms, Experiment Literature 226 This course is for students who wish to explore poetic forms and for those who are considering (or on their way to) moderating into Written Arts. Students explore a broad range—historically and varietally—of ways to compose with words as well as technologies that are expanding the genre.

Advanced Fiction Workshop Literature 321 A workshop in the creation of short stories, traditional or experimental, for experienced writers. Students are expected to write several polished stories, critique each other’s work, and analyze the fiction of published authors. Admission is by portfolio.

Advanced Poetry Workshop Literature 322 Students present their work to the group for analysis and response, and complete suggested readings of contemporary poets. Optional writing assignments are given for those poets who may find this useful. The course is open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors.

Translating Rimbaud Literature 3234 Students translate Arthur Rimbaud’s prose/verse poem, “Une saison en enfer.” Together, the class goes through the poem line by line, discussing the meaning of the French, and the boggling range of alternatives in English. The purpose is not to come up with a collective translation of the poem, but to arrive at individual translations through discussion and independent research. Previous translations of Rimbaud are read, as are essays on translation as a practice. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

Reading and Writing the Hudson: Writing the Essay of Place Literature 3308 CROSS -LISTED: EUS Students get to know the Hudson River in all of its complexity through reading a range of works and writing personal essays of place. Each student undertakes independent research into some aspect of the river; this research, combined with personal experience of the valley, is used to

98 Languages and Literature develop extended creative nonfiction essays, which are critiqued in a workshop format.

Translation Workshop Literature 331 This workshop explores the art of literary translation by focusing on style, craft, tone, and the array of options available to the literary translator in using translation as a tool for interpreting textual origins and the performative shape of the translation itself. Prerequisite: one year of language study or permission of the instructor.

Writing Workshop for Nonmajors Literature 422 Every craft, science, skill, and discipline can be articulated, and anyone who can do real work in science or scholarship or art can learn to write “creatively”—to make personal concerns interesting to other people by means of language. This workshop, for juniors and seniors who are not writing majors but wish to learn about the world through the act of writing, provides the chance to experiment with all kinds of writing.

The Essay Literature 3362 This course considers the essay form, with a particular focus on voice, viewpoint, and rhetorical technique. Word choice, cadence, and even punctuation are addressed, in the belief that even the most minute aspects of writing affect the impact of the whole. The goal is to equip students with a strong but supple command of their instrument, a prerequisite for personal expression. Weekly reading (from Macauley to Didion) and writing assignments as well as in-class exercises and discussion.

Nonfiction Seminar Literature 338 The goal of this demanding seminar is to transform the way each participant writes and perceives the world. Readings include modern nonfiction classics by Joan Didion, George Orwell, John McPhee, Ryszard Kapuscinski, and many more. This is not a seminar in a single genre of nonfiction writing (e.g., memoir, profile, feature), but it does examine the art and skills that underlie every genre.

Advanced Fiction: The Novella Literature 3500 Students read novellas by Henry James, Gustave Flaubert, Anton Chekhov, Flannery O’Connor, Allan Gurganus, Amy Hempel, and Philip Roth. Using these primary texts for reference, the class discusses technical aspects of fiction writing, such as the use of time, narrative voice, openings, endings, dialogue, circularity, and editing. In addition to writing weekly responses to readings, students write and revise a novella.

Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Literatures Faculty: Nicole Caso (director)*, Anna Cafaro, Odile S. Chilton, Carolyn Dewald*, Mika Endo, Yen-Chen Hao, Elizabeth N. Holt, Franz R. Kempf, Marina Kostalevsky, Stephanie Kufner, Joseph Luzzi, Oleg Minin, William Mullen, Melanie Nicholson, Dina Ramadan, David Rodriguez-Solás, James Romm, Nathan Shockey, Benjamin Stevens, Eric Trudel, Marina van Zuylen, Olga Voronina, Sara Pankenier Weld**, Thomas Wild, Li-Hua Ying * on sabbatical, spring 2013 ** leave of absence, 2012–2014

Overview: At Bard, the study of a foreign language provides students with the opportunity to acquire a critical appreciation of foreign cultures and literatures in addition to language skills. Integral to the process is the mastery of the foreign language and the use of this mastery in the study of written texts—not only literature, but also texts from such fields as philosophy, history, and theology—and of nonverbal expressions of culture such as art history, music, and cinema. Languages currently taught at Bard include Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Russian, Spanish, ancient Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit. Bard maintains a state-of-the-art language facility, the Center for Foreign Languages and Cultures, at the F. W. Olin Language Center, which is described in the Campus Facilities section of this catalogue.

Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Literatures 99 Most of the languages taught through the Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Literatures (FLCL) Program offer an immersion format that allows students to complete the equivalent of two years of language study within just a few months. Such courses include a one- or twomonth summer or winter program in a country of the target language. After studying abroad, students demonstrate an impressive increase in linguistic capacity. They have also gained cultural knowledge, and the exposure to different manifestations of cultural activity alerts them to the interrelatedness of diverse disciplines. Requirements: While each area of language study has its own intellectual and academic plan, all are connected by the study of literature and other cultural expressions through the medium of language. Students are free to work with the languages and texts of more than one culture; thus they can combine the plans of more than one language for Moderation and in their Senior Project. Moderation requirements may vary depending on the focus language; students should refer to information provided by the specific area of study. For all FLCL students, a Senior Project can be a purely literary project or any combination of literary and nonliterary expressions of a given culture.

Arabic Elementary Arabic Arabic 101-102 An introduction to Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) as it is used in Arab countries today. The course presents Arabic script and pronunciation as well as essentials of basic Arabic structures, syntax, and vocabulary. Differences between MSA and educated spoken Arabic are highlighted, as are various aspects of Arab culture.

Intermediate Arabic Arabic 201-202 This course focuses on developing a significant level of linguistic and communicative competence. The four basic language skills—reading, speaking, listening, and writing—are dealt with simultaneously. Selected texts from Arabic media are read to expand active and passive lexicon

and grammatical structures. Prerequisites: Arabic 101 or at least one year of Modern Standard Arabic and approval of the instructor.

Advanced Arabic Arabic 301-302 This course continues to focus on the development of the four skills of speaking, listening, reading, and writing Modern Standard Arabic. Students learn more complex grammatical structures and expand their vocabulary through extended readings using audio and video materials. Classes conducted in Arabic (except for grammatical explanations, when needed).

Chinese Beginning Chinese Chinese 101 Modern (Mandarin) Chinese is introduced through intensive drilling in oral and written forms. Emphasis is placed on speaking, basic grammar, and the formation of characters. Audio and video materials are part of the curriculum. This course is followed by an intensive course (8 hours per week) in the spring semester and a summer intensive program (6 weeks) in China.

Intensive Chinese Chinese 106 For students who have completed Chinese 101 or the equivalent. The focus is on the language’s oral and written aspects. Regular work in the language lab and private drill sessions with the Chinese tutor are required. This course is followed by a summer immersion program in China.

Intermediate Chinese I-II Chinese 201-202 This two-semester course is for students who have taken one and a half years of basic Chinese and want to expand their reading and speaking capacity. The course uses audio and video materials, and emphasizes communicative activities and language games. In addition to the central language textbook, readings are selected from newspapers, journals, and fictional works.

100 Languages and Literature Forbidden Best Sellers of Premodern China Chinese 208

Chinese Fantasic Tales Chinese 303 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES

Eccentric Taoists, mysterious Buddhists, lovesick beauties, and scholars seeking enlightenment through romantic and sexual encounters are not just comic figures, but characters that provide us with an understanding of 17thand 18th-century China. Banned by the emperor, the “bad” books in this course— The Story of the Stone, The Plum in the Golden Vase, The Peony Pavilion, and The Carnal Prayer Mat—are explored for their cultural, literary, religious, and political significance.

The class reads tales written in classical Chinese as well as their renderings in modern Chinese. Texts are selected from well-known classical works such as Zhuang Zi, Lie Zi, and Huainan Zi, written in the pre-Qin and Han Dynasties. Stories written in later periods, including Liaozhai Zhiyi, are also studied. This advanced language course is conducted in Chinese. Open to students who have had two years or more of Chinese language.

The Chinese Novel Chinese 215 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, GSS The class reads The Story of the Stone (aka Dream of the Red Chamber), which one-fifth of the world considers to be the best novel ever written, and discusses it both as literature and as cultural artifact.

Modern Chinese Fiction Chinese 230 The class reads English translations of representative works from three periods (1918–49, 1949–76, 1976– ) by authors from the mainland, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Students consider issues of language and genre, nationalism and literary tradition, colonialism, women’s emancipation, the influence of Western literary modes, and the current state of critical approaches to the study of modern Chinese literature.

Advanced Chinese I-II Chinese 301-302 These courses are for students who have taken the equivalent of five semesters of basic Chinese at Bard or elsewhere. The goal is to expand students’ reading and speaking capacity and enrich their cultural experiences. Texts may include newspapers, journals, and fiction.

Classical Chinese Chinese 308 An introduction to classical Chinese, the written language in use prior to the 20th century. Students learn basic structures and patterns, with intensive practice through exercises and translations. Readings draw from foundational works of Chinese history and literature, including the Analects, the Mencius, the Taoist classic Zhuang Zi, Records of the Warring States, and Records of the Grand Historian. Prerequisite: two years of Chinese or Japanese or the equivalent.

Chinese Calligraphy Chinese 315 An introduction to the East Asian art of calligraphy. Students examine the aesthetic principles of calligraphy and discuss the philosophical traditions of Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and Confucianism. The course emphasizes learning the techniques of writing with the brush and developing individual styles.

Reflections of China in Literature and Film Chinese 403 This course explores the origins of traditional Chinese cinem;, nationalism and revolution; social realism; the search for roots in the postMao era; nativist film and literature; the Fifth Generation and experimental fiction; Hong Kong popular culture in the commercial age; feminism and sexuality; and representations of exile, diaspora, and the new immigrants.

Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Literatures 101 Lu Xun and Modern Chinese Fiction Chinese 404 An advanced course, conducted in Chinese, that involves a close reading of short stories by major 20th-century Chinese authors, including Shen Congwen, Ding Ling, Lu Xun, Eileen Chang, and Bai Xianyong. While its primary focus is on textual analysis, the course also seeks to understand the concept of modernity in the context of Chinese literary and cultural traditions.

Classics The Odyssey of Homer Classics 125 / Literature 125 See Literature 125 for a full description. The Athenian Century Classics 157 / History 157 In the fifth century B.C.E., Athens developed from a small, relatively unimportant city-state into a dominant power in the Aegean basin. This course confronts some of the glories, ambiguities, and tensions of Athenian art, literature, and history during this period. Students read selections from the histories of Herodotus and Thucydides; the tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides; the comedies of Aristophanes; and the dialogues of Plato.

Ethical Life in Ancient Greek Literature and Philosophy Classics 2038 / Literature 2038 See Literature 2038 for a full description.

Early Greek Philosophy Classics 209 This course considers the principal preSocratic philosophers—Parmenides, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Democritus—with respect to developments in Greek religion and science as well as to the history of philosophy.

Gender and Sexuality in the Ancient World Classics 2191 / History 2191 See History 2191 for a full course description.

Virgil, Augustine, Dante Classics 226 CROSS -LISTED: ITALIAN STUDIES, LITERATURE An intensive study of Virgil’s Aeneid, Augustine’s Confessions, and Dante’s Divine Comedy. Although the texts span centuries and disparate cultures, they are a natural triad whose readings richly harmonize with each other. Read together, they raise fundamental questions for literature, literary history, and the humanities. Scholarship, criticism, and “creative” responses to the texts are also considered. Optional concurrent tutorials on select passages in the original Latin and/or Italian.

Life and Literature in the Late Roman Republic Classics 230 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, LITERATURE The last generations of the Roman Republic experienced widespread social change. Roman authors of the period responded to these “consequences of conquest” by fashioning Latin literary languages in diverse genres. Topics include Latin literary history; late Roman Republican politics, society, and culture; and linguistic and cultural pluralism, purity, and policy. Readings, all in English, are drawn from Caesar, Cicero, Catullus, Lucretius, and Sallust, and from modern historiography and literary criticism.

Rhetoric and Public Speaking Classics 250 Students give speeches in various genres and study the texts of orations and theoretical treatises on the nature of rhetoric by Aristotle, Demosthenes, Cicero, Churchill, Martin Luther King Jr., and others. Video is used to examine important speeches of the last century and to critique student speeches. The class meets, through videoconferencing, with students at Smolny College in St. Petersburg, Russia.

Archaic Greece Classics 257 A complement to The Athenian Century, this course covers a temporal span from roughly the 7th century through the 5th, and its texts are non-Athenian. Readings start with Hesiod and the Homeric hymns, then move on to the lyric poets: Alkman, Sappho, Alcaeus, Archilochus,

102 Languages and Literature Anacreon, Simonides, Bacchylides, and Pindar. The Elegiac poets, most of the pre-Socratics, and Hecataeus are also covered. Texts include present-day scholarship on the Archaic period.

Carthage and Rome Classics 265 CROSS -LISTED: EUS A study of two great rival cities and empires, from a range of disciplinary points of view. Historiography is the fundamental discipline, as encountered in the narrations of the Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage, first by a Greek historian, Polybius (c. 200–118 B.C.E.), and then by a Roman historian, Livy (59 B.C.E.. – 17 C.E.). Also considered, Virgil’s Aeneid, Books 1 and 4, and Flaubert’s Salammbô; archaeology and urban studies; a selection of feature films; hightech battle reconstructions by the History Channel; and historical fiction.

Indo-European Epic Classics 276 Linguists and archaeologists have a rough agreement that there existed a people speaking a language called Proto-Indo-European. They shared not only a common language and social structures but also common literary genres, principally epic and lyric, in which there are signs of common metaphors and even meters. It is possible to compare passages from epics that originated in oral traditions and later crystallized into such texts as Mahabharata and Ramayana in India, Iliad and Odyssey in Greece, the Norse Elder Edda, and the Irish Táin Bó Cúailnge. All texts read in English.

Self and Society in Classical Greek Drama Classics 311 A close study of nearly all of the major plays of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides in English translation, with the aim of gaining familiarity with the genre of tragedy as a complex art form and a preeminent vehicle for the transmission of core Western values—moral, political, and aesthetic. Special attention is paid to aspects of staging and performance, both in ancient times and in contemporary productions. Film screenings are part of the course.

The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Classics 315 The class reads Gibbon’s masterpiece in its entirety and considers theories that supplement or contradict his as to the “true causes” of Rome’s decline and fall, particularly in the Western Empire in the later first millennium C.E. Some of these theories are by earlier 20thcentury scholars, some from very recent books. Priority is given to moderated students in Classical Studies and Historical Studies.

Socrates: Man, Myth, Monster Classics 320 A study of primary ancient sources on which contemporary knowledge of Socrates is based (including Aristophanes’ The Clouds, Xenophon’s Socratic texts, several Platonic dialogues, and selections from Aristotle) and a number of exemplary texts from the modern reception and interpretation of Socrates (including Nietzsche, Vlastos, Kofman, Nehamas, and Hadot). The goal is to give due consideration to the historical, philosophical, and literary questions that together constitute the enigma that is Socrates. All readings in English.

Odysseys from Homer to Joyce Classics 324 This course explores the nature and cultural uses of the figure of the wandering hero, from its first major treatment in Homer’s Odyssey to its adaptation in the 20th century by Nikos Kazantzakis (The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel) and James Joyce (Ulysses). Additional readings: Virgil’s Aeneid; Sophocles’ Ajax and Philoctetes, Euripides’ Hecuba; Dante’s Inferno; Shakespeare’s Troilus and Cressida; Fénelon’s Télémaque; Walcott’s Omeros; and selections from the poetry of Tennyson, C. P. Cavafy, Louise Glück, and others.

Afterlives of Antiquity: Posthumanism and Its Classics Classics 326 / Literature 326 See Literature 326 for a full course description.

Plato’s Writing: Dialogue and Dialectic Classics 362 / Literature 362 See Literature 362 for a full course description.

Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Literatures 103 Greek

Advanced Greek Greek 301

Basic Greek I-II Greek 101-102

The class explores dialects other than Attic, samples poetic meters and genres, and reads literary criticism. Third-semester students begin working with Liddell and Scott’s lexicon; fifthsemester students use the lexicon and are responsible for additional work. Prerequisite: either Greek 102 or Greek 202, or permission of the instructor.

In this two-part course, Greek grammar and fundamental vocabulary are introduced, with attention given to pronunciation and recitation of poetry and prose. Reading includes significant passages from Homer and the Christian New Testament in Greek. Students with high school Greek are welcome and should see the instructor about placement.

Intensive Greek: Herodotus, Euripides, Lyric Poetry, the Bible Greek 106 This double-credit course allows students to attain a reading knowledge of Ancient Greek in one semester, and then to use that knowledge to read central literary and religious texts. The first 12 weeks consist of drills, grammar exercises, and readings, as well as discussions of Greek history, culture, and religion. For the final three weeks, students choose from one of four elective modules, reading Greek texts in the original with teachers who are deeply engaged with those texts.

Intermediate Greek: Plato on Poetry Greek 201 A close reading of Plato on poetry and on “imitation” or “representation” in art and the world more generally. The class reads several dialogues in translation ( Ion and The Republic, Phaedrus and Cratylus, Gorgias and Timaeus) and substantial portions of each in Greek, as well as selections from poems discussed by Plato. Prerequisite: successful completion of Greek 102 or 202, or permission of instructor.

Aeschylus’s Persians Greek 202 An intensive reading of Aeschylus’s Persians with discussion of the historical, dramatic, and poetic issues it raises. The class meets together with Greek 302 but also devotes separate sessions to grammatical work.

Aeschylus’s Persians and Prometheus Bound Greek 302 An intensive reading of Aeschylus’s Persians and Prometheus Bound with full discussion of all the issues they raise: historical, dramatic, and poetic. The class meets together with Greek 202 for Persians readings, but holds separate sessions to read and discuss the second play.

Latin Elementary Latin Latin 101-102 A yearlong introduction to Latin in which students gain familiarity with morphology, syntax, and essential vocabulary; achieve sufficient fluency for selected readings in ancient and medieval texts; and explore the literary, cultural, and historical contexts in which the language is embedded.

Accelerated Elementary Latin Latin 107 A rapid introduction to the classical Latin language. The class seeks to master morphology, syntax, and essential vocabulary so as to achieve sufficient fluency for continuous readings in unedited prose and poetry. Latin literary history is also explored, focusing on the Late Republic and the Augustan Age. Preference is given to students who have successfully completed the survey of Latin literature in Latin 207.

Intermediate Latin: Catullus Latin 201 A review of Latin grammar and an intensive survey of the poetry of Catullus, the greatest lyric poet of Republican Rome.

104 Languages and Literature Intermediate Latin II Latin 202


Students read Livy Book I, and selections from Sallust and perhaps Cicero as they consolidate their command of Latin grammar. The class also considers the nature of Roman historiography.

Basic Intensive French French 106

Latin Literature Latin 207 A survey, via readings in English translation, of writings originally in Latin from antiquity, the medieval period, and the Renaissance, with consideration of their influence on contemporaneous and subsequent writing in Latin and other languages. Conducted in English, but there is an optional concurrent tutorial on selected passages in the original for students with sufficient Latin.

Advanced Latin: Seneca and Nero Latin 301 How did a morally enlightened man like Seneca reconcile himself to the cruelties and abuses of Nero’s regime? This course examines, through readings in Latin and English, the complex and tortured relationship between Emperor Nero and his chief advisor, the philosopher Seneca. While Seneca’s own works are the main focus, short readings from Tacitus, Petronius, and Suetonius help illuminate this bizarre collaboration. The class also reads portions of Octavia, a Roman historical drama in which Seneca and Nero are central characters.

Livy and the Augustan Age Latin 302 Most of the course is spent reading in two chronological areas of Livy’s vast history of Rome: the opening books about the first kings and the high points of the Punic Wars. As a break from a single historian’s prose style, the class pauses periodically to read a few of the odes of Horace most in resonance with Livy’s themes, as well as the Res Gestae Divi Augusti.

Sanskrit Sanskrit I, II Classics 140, 141 / Religion 140, 141 See Religion 140 and 141 for course descriptions.

This course is for students with little or no experience of French who wish to acquire a strong grasp of the language and culture in the shortest time possible. Students complete the equivalent of three semesters of college-level French in a semester course that meets 10 hours a week and is followed by a four-week stay in France.

Intermediate French I, II, III French 201-202-203 This introduction to contemporary French civilization and culture is for students who have completed three to five years of high school French or who have acquired a solid knowledge of elementary grammar. Students reinforce their skills in grammar, composition, and spoken proficiency, through the use of short texts, newspaper and magazine articles, and video.

French through Translation French 215 This course helps students fine-tune their command of French and develop a good sense of the most appropriate ways of communicating ideas and facts in French. The course emphasizes translation as an exercise, as well as a craft in its own right, and addresses grammatical, lexical, and stylistic issues. Translation is practiced from English into French (and vice versa) with a variety of texts from different genres.

French through Film French 220 Students in this intermediate course explore major themes of French culture and civilization through the study of individual films ranging from the silent era to the present and covering a wide variety of genres. Students also examine the interaction between the French and their cinema, in terms of historical circumstances, aesthetic ambitions, and self-representation.

Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Literatures 105 Survey of French Literature: The Middle Ages and the Renaissance French 238 CROSS -LISTED: MEDIEVAL STUDIES

Bonnefoy, Cadiot, Char, Desnos, des Forêts, Éluard, Gleize, Jaccottet, Perros, Prigent, Ponge, Roche, and Roubaud. Conducted in French.

This course introduces the major texts of French literature between the late 11th and 16th centuries: Chanson de Roland; the early Arthurian romances; the Breton Lais of Marie de France; the lyric poetry of the Old Provençal troubadours and Old French trouvères; the last will and testament of poet-thief François Villon; the mock epic Gargantua; and the nouvelles (tales) of Marguerite de Navarre. Texts are read in French, but class discussion is in English.

Mind/Body Dichotomy in French Thought (Rabelais to Merleau-Ponty) French 333

Quest for Authenticity: Topics in French Literature, 1789 – Present French 240 This overview of modern French literature focuses on short texts (poems, plays, essays, letters, stories) that reflect the fragile relationship between selfhood and authenticity. From Rousseau’s ambitious program of autobiography to Sartre’s belief that we are inveterate embellishers when it comes to telling our own story, French literature has staged with relish the classic tensions between art, artifice, and authenticity. Readings from Rousseau, Stendhal, Flaubert, Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Proust, Gide, Sartre, Duras, Sarraute, Ernaux. Prerequisites: two years of college French or permission of the instructor.

Advanced Composition and Conversation French 270

Following recent findings in neurobiology about the “emotional brain,” the class analyzes how French thinkers have embraced and struggled with the idea of the mind’s primacy over the body and vice versa. These tensions are explored in works by Madame de la Fayette, Racine, and Molière; 19th-century texts by Charcot, Mesmer, Binet, and Pierre Janet; and later works by Bergson, Irigaray, Ernaux, and Merleau-Ponty.

Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Mallarmé French 335 Baudelaire, Rimbaud, and Mallarmé brought a revolution to the theory and practice of 19thcentury French poetry. Through a succession of close readings, students assess the range of this poetic revolution, which questioned the limits of literature and the possibility of meaning. Conducted in French, with primary texts in French, secondary sources in English. Readings include Les Fleurs du mal and Le Spleen de Paris (Baudelaire), Illuminations and Une Saison en enfer (Rimbaud), and Poésies (Mallarmé).

French Modernity, Memory, and the Poetics of History French 336

This course focuses on a wide and diverse selection of writings (short works of fiction, poems, philosophical essays, political analysis, newspaper editorials, magazine articles) loosely organized around a single theme. The readings provide a rich ground for cultural investigation, intellectual exchange, in-class debates, in-depth examination of stylistics, and vocabulary acquisition. Students are encouraged to write regularly and expected to participate fully. A general review of grammar is also conducted.

To what extent can literature “give voice”—to quote Michelet—“to the silences of history”? How does memory shape history and literature? This course investigates these questions in the context of 19th- and 20th-century France. Readings (and screenings): Michelet, Flaubert, Baudelaire, Chateaubriand, Hugo, Barthes, Duras, Gracq, Perec, Marker, Resnais, Salvayre, Simon, and Volodine. Conducted in French.

Survey of 20th-Century French Poetry French 324

An introduction to major 20th-century French novels. Through close readings and scrutiny of sociohistorical context, students explore the ambiguity of political commitment, the figure of the solitary antihero, and relevant aesthetic

A survey of major trends in modern and contemporary French poetry. Works read include poems and essays by Alferi, Albiach, Apollinaire,

French 20th-Century Fiction French 337

106 Languages and Literature theories. Authors include Proust, Gide, Céline, Sartre, Camus, Duras, des Forêts, Robbe-Grillet, and Perec. Conducted in French.


Conspiracies and Secret Societies in 19th- and 20th-Century French Literature French 339

Instruction includes grammar drills, review of reading, communication practice, guided composition, and language lab exercises. The course develops listening comprehension, speaking proficiency, and reading and writing skills. This course is for students with little or no previous instruction in German.

Cultural historians often cite the French Revolution as the event that led to the first modern conspiracy theory: Augustin Barruel’s antiIlluminati and anti-Masonic Mémoires pour servir à l’histoire du jacobinisme. In the ensuing two centuries, the secret society has served as both a source of paranoia and an alluring call to comradeship. This course examines how the representation of secret groups and plots functions as a way of explaining history, defining literary practice, and imagining a politics of literature.

Art or Virtue? Rousseau’s Legacy in French Literature French 341 Rousseau’s brutal condemnation of the arts in his Discours sur les sciences et les arts set the stage for a debate that raged from the Enlightenment to Sartre’s Qu’est-ce que la littérature? What does literature want? To please or to instruct? Taking Rousseau as its point of departure, this seminar examines works that have pitted art against social or ethical responsibility. Readings: Montaigne, Molière, Rousseau, Sade, Hugo, Baudelaire, Zola, and Sartre. Conducted in French.

Literature of Private Life French 354 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, HUMAN RIGHTS Using novels, stories, and short selections from journals, autobiographies, and correspondence, this course examines the emergence of writings previously considered too personal to be viewed as literature. Students uncover the techniques that help dramatize these highly subjective conflicts (interior monologue, free indirect discourse, early examples of flow of consciousness). In order to situate these texts within a tradition that rethinks the self, additional readings by Locke, Descartes, Kant, and Shaftesbury are considered.

Beginning German German 101-102

Transitional German German 110 For students with varied backgrounds in German whose proficiency is not on the level of German 201. While the emphasis is on a complete review of elementary grammar, all four language skills (speaking, comprehension, reading, and writing), as well as cultural proficiency, are also honed. Speaking and vocabulary exercises are combined with conversational practice, reading, writing simple compositions, and the dramatization of modern German texts. This accelerated course covers three semesters’ worth of material and allows students to continue to German 202.

Kafka: Prague, Politics, and the Fin de Siècle German 199 / Literature 199 This course covers Kafka’s shorter fiction (fragments, parables, sketches) and longer tales (“The Metamorphosis” and “The Judgment”). Students also examine the novels The Trial and The Man Who Disappeared (Amerika), and excerpts from his diaries and letters. Conducted in English; students with an advanced proficiency in German can read selections in the original for extra credit.

Intermediate German German 201-202 Designed to deepen the proficiency gained in German 101 and 102, this course increases students’ fluency in speaking, reading, and writing, and adds significantly to their working vocabulary. Readings include selected 20th-century literary texts, such as Kafka’s Die Verwandlung, supplemented by audiovisual materials.

Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Literatures 107 German Immersion German 206 This course enables students with little or no previous experience in German to complete two years of college German within five months. Students take 15 class hours per week during the semester at Bard and 20 hours per week during a June study term in Germany.

German Operas and Ideas German 213 A survey of German intellectual history from the Enlightenment to modernism and beyond, through the study of major operas and the literary works that spawned some of them. Operas: The Magic Flute, Fidelio, Der Freischütz, The Flying Dutchman, Salome, Wozzeck, Threepenny Opera, Der Prinz von Homburg, and Die Soldaten. Literary works: Die Soldaten, Prinz Friedrich von Homburg, Aus den Memoiren des Herren von Schnabelewopski, and Woyzeck.

Secularization and Its Discontents: Goethe, Schiller, Heine German 248 / Literaure 248 See Literature 248 for full a course description.

The Beheaded Angel: Postwar German Literature in Translation German 258 An examination of developments in German literature following World War II. Topics include the various ways that writers and film directors of the period dealt with the historical atrocities of the war, increased industrialization brought on by the German “economic miracle” of the 1950s, and the separation of the two Germanys. Writers discussed include Grass, Bachmann, Böll, Celan, Dürrenmatt, Köppen, and Wolf. Films by Fassbinder, Schlöndorff, and Wenders are also considered.

Writing Freedom: German Literature after 1700 German 305 This course introduces the undisputed greats of German literature—Kant, Goethe, Nietzsche, Kafka—while developing students’ reading proficiency and interpretive techniques. It is strongly recommended for prospective German studies majors. Authors may also include Lessing, Schiller, Lenz, Kleist, Eichendorff, Heine, and Mann. Primary texts and class discussion in German. Prerequisite: German 202 or the equivalent.

German Drama and Capitalism German 306 In the 1750s, as a new middle class began to emerge throughout Europe, the genre of drama and the institution of theater began to assume an unprecedented importance in German literature, philosophy, and society. This course seeks to understand why and how this happened. Why did Lessing, Goethe, and Schiller believe that their audiences needed the theater to understand themselves as “human beings” and to develop as autonomous agents? Readings from Lenz, Kleist, Hofmannsthal, Brecht, Toller, Müller, others. Conducted in German.

German Poetry: Goethe to Celan German 317 An introduction to the pleasures and challenges of German poetry. Students read exemplary works by the most important German poets of the last three centuries, including Goethe, Schiller, Hölderlin, Brentano, Heine, Rilke, Hofmannsthal, George, and Celan. While focusing closely on the formal features of each poem, students explore how the poem engages with the major philosophical shifts and historical catastrophes of the times. Conducted in German.

Grimm’s Märchen German 303

Modern German Short Prose German 320

Students do close readings of selected tales, with a focus on language, plot, motif, image, and relation to folklore. The study includes critical examination and the application of major theoretical approaches: Freudian, Jungian, Marxist, and feminist.

A survey of novellen, erzählungen, parables, and other short forms of mainly 20th-century prose. Students combine detailed literary analysis with an examination of social/political/historical contexts. Readings include works by Kafka, Musil, Mann, Walser, Kleist, Gotthelf, Benjamin, Nossack, Bachmann, Frisch, Dürrenmatt,

108 Languages and Literature Aichinger, Erpenbeck, Bernhard, Handke, and Tawada. Conducted in German.

“Exit Metaphysics, Enter Sauerkraut”: 19th-Century German Literature German 405 “Exit metaphysics, enter sauerkraut” alludes to the experience of many 19th-century German intellectuals and writers: awareness of the loss of security that idealistic philosophy had provided and an attempt to find new absolutes. This course focuses on the evolution of this experience as manifested in literature. Close readings are made of works by Nestroy, Grillparzer, Grabbe, Hebbel, Heine, Mörike, Droste-Hülshoff, Keller, Stifter, Fontane, C. F. Meyer, Schnitzler, Hauptmann, and Wedekind.

The Experience of the Foreign in German Literature German 421 This course examines representations of foreignness in modern German literature and opera (Lessing, Mozart, Novalis, Heine, Kafka, Frisch); in contemporary films (Bohm, Fassbinder, Akin); and in works of non-native Germans writing in Germany today (Tawada, Ören, Özdamar, Schami). Issues addressed include multiculturalism, homogeneity, and xenophobia. Conducted in German.

Schauerliteratur: The German Gothic and Its Obsession with Artificial Life German 423 While focusing on Gustav Meyrink’s 1915 novel The Golem, this course considers “monsters” before and after Meyrink. Starting with Goethe’s hubristic creators, the class moves on to the Romantic doppelgänger and finishes with Paul Wegener’s silent Golem films and Fritz Lang’s Metropolis. Embedding the German “Gothic” in its historical contexts allows students to explore such issues as Romanticism’s critique of the Enlightenment, theories of the sublime, and anti-Semitism and the rise of Fascism. Conducted in German.

period from 1918 to 1933. The Weimar Republic witnessed the emergence of a distinctive brand of modernism, characterized by an unprecedented openness to mass culture and to new technologies of reproduction. Students analyze works of literature and art in their relation to the rapid technological and social modernization that shaped the period, and to the sociopolitical conflicts to which this process gave rise.

The Student Movement and the Neo-Avant-Garde in 1960s Germany German 456 An interdisciplinary examination of the aesthetic and intellectual shifts that transformed West German cultural and political life in the years leading up to the student rebellion of 1968. Topics include experimental poetry (“Wiener Gruppe,” Enzensberger); theater and antitheater (Handke, Weiss); “New German Cinema” (Fassbinder, Kluge); visual art (Beuys, Fluxus, Pop, Capitalist Realism); and pronouncements and manifestos of the student movement (Dutschke, Baumann, Gruppe SPUR). Conducted in German.

Hebrew See Jewish Studies.

Italian Intensive Italian Italian 106 This course enables students with little or no previous knowledge of Italian to complete three semesters of college Italian in five months: 8 credits at Bard and 4 (in January) in Italy, where students continue daily intensive study of the language and culture while living with Italian families. The course methodology is based on a communicative approach, which includes grammar drills, guided compositions, oral practice, role-playing, and readings and analysis of authentic material.

Culture and Society in Weimar Germany German 425

Accelerated Italian Italian 110

A critical exploration of German literature, theater, visual arts, architecture, and film in the

Designed for the student with some prior exposure to Italian or excellent command of another

Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Literatures 109 Romance language. Classes cover the major aspects of grammar and provide intensive practice in speaking, comprehension, reading, and writing. The course concludes with one month of study in Italy.

Accelerated Italian II Italian 111 This course, open to students who have completed Italian 110 and the intersession program in Italy, continues to cover the major topics of grammar through intensive practice in speaking, comprehension, reading, and writing.

Intermediate Italian I-II Italian 201–202 This course, for students who have completed the equivalent of one year of college Italian, continues practice in writing and conversation. Students engage in discussion and must complete compositions and oral reports based on Italian literary texts and cultural material.

Dante Italian 225 CROSS -LISTED: LITERATURE An introduction to the world and work of Dante Alighieri, the so-called “founder of all modern poetry.” Through a close reading of the entire Divine Comedy, the class considers such issues as the phenomenology of poetic inspiration, medieval theories of gender, Dante’s relationship with the literary ghosts Virgil and Cavalcanti, the sources and shapes of the human soul, and how the weight of love (pondus amoris) can save this same soul. Readings include some of Dante’s other works.

The History of Italian Theater Italian 230 An overview of Italian theater from the Renaissance to today. Plays of Commedia dell’Arte, Goldoni, Pirandello, De Filippo, Fo, and Maraini are studied within their historical, social, and aesthetic contexts. Readings and course work are in English; students have the option of doing work in Italian with the instructor’s approval.

Italian Cinema in the New Millennium Italian 234 CROSS -LISTED: FILM AND ELECTRONIC ARTS There has been a resurgence of Italian cinema in recent years, especially in films about the cultural changes created by waves of immigration from Asia, Northern Africa, and Eastern Europe. This course focuses on contemporary Italian films, including Il Divo (Sorrentino), Best of Youth (Giordana), and I’m Not Scared (Salvatores). Conducted in Italian.

The History of Italian Cinema Italian 275 CROSS -LISTED: FILM AND ELECTRONIC ARTS This survey course, taught in Italian, examines the evolution of Italian cinema from its inception to the present. Featured directors include Rossellini, De Sica, Visconti, Fellini, Bertolucci, Antonioni, Scola, Wertmüller, Pasolini, and Salvatores. Readings are selected from film theory and criticism, screenplays, interviews, and Italian historical and literary texts. Prerequisite: one 200-level course in Italian or permission of the instructor.

Origins of Italian Literature Italian 301 Early Italian poets sought to redefine love and distinguish the array of nuances within it. This course examines the various permutations of the concept of love from the medieval to the early modern age. Authors include Lentini, Cavalcanti, Guinizelli, Dante, Boccaccio, Petrarch, Ficino, Ariosto, Bembo, Machiavelli, Aretino, Franco, Michelangelo, Stampa, Patrizi, Bruno, Marino, Pallavicino, and Casanova. Taught in Italian with critical readings in Italian and English.

New Voices in Contemporary Italian Literature Italian 315 This writing-intensive course examines the new reality of Italy as a nation with a significant population of immigrants. Focusing on the evolving meaning of cultural identity in Italy today, students read short stories by Amara Lakhous, Laila Wadia, Gabriella Ghermandi, and Igiaba Scego; and screen the films Lezioni di cioccolato and Io e l’altro. Topics investigated:

110 Languages and Literature social integration, national identity, politics, religion, and the plurality of Italian society.

The Fantastic Tale Italian 317 Fantastic fiction, said Italo Calvino, “meditates on the nightmares and hidden places of contemporary man.” This course discusses this seminal idea through a reading of short stories by Italian authors including Pirandello, Calvino, Eco, Ortese, and Tabucchi. Topics include the inherently subversive nature of the fantastic, the link between fantastic texts and politics, and the theoretical debate about the fantastic in critics such as Freud and Todorov. In English.

The Novel and the Opera: Manzoni’s Betrothed and Verdi’s Operas Italian 335 Alessandro Manzoni’s I promessi sposi (The Betrothed), a panoramic fresco of Italy during the great plague of 1631, is regarded as the greatest Italian novel of the 19th century. Giuseppe Verdi drew direct and indirect inspiration from Manzoni’s work, and he dedicated his towering Requiem to Manzoni’s memory. Students read the novel, exploring the historical circumstances depicted and the parallels with Verdi’s operas, especially La forza del destino. All course work in English.

ing, speaking, writing, and listening. Study includes intensive grammar review and practice of idiomatic expressions. Conducted in Japanese. Prerequisite: Japanese 102 or the equivalent.

Modern Japanese Literature Japanese 225 An introduction to Japan’s most recognized writers, literary movements, and aesthetic trends. Topics include late 19th-century melodrama (Ozaki Koyo); early 20th-century naturalist and realist fiction (Mori Ogai, Natsume Soseki); modernist fiction and poetry (Miyazawa Kenji, Kawabata Yasunari); colonial writings; postwar literature (Ooka Shohei, Dazai Osamu); feminist writers (Hayashi Fumiko, Tomioka Taeko, Tawada Yoko); and recent trends (e.g., detective fiction, graphic novels). Conducted in English.

Advanced Japanese I Japanese 301 The course introduces more complex grammatical structures, especially those common to written material, and accelerates character acquisition and advanced vocabulary. Students learn the fundamentals of dictionary use and acquire the skills necessary for speed-reading and accurate composition of written material. Prerequisite: Japanese 202 or the equivalent.

Advanced Japanese II Japanese 302

Japanese Beginning Japanese I-II Japanese 101-102 This two-semester sequence introduces the fundamentals of modern Japanese. Students systematically develop listening, speaking, writing, and reading abilities. Because fluency in Japanese requires sensitivity to the social setting in which one is speaking, the course also provides an introduction to fundamental aspects of daily life and culture in contemporary Japan.

Intermediate Japanese I-II Japanese 201-202 This course accelerates the learning of characters begun in Japanese 101-102 and introduces more complex grammatical patterns and expressions, to refine students’ mastery of read-

Students deepen their reading skills and engage in essay-writing exercises and formal oral presentations. Materials are selected on the basis of student interest and include newspaper articles, handwritten letters, popular songs, haiku, and selections from films.

Advanced Readings in Japanese Culture Japanese 303 The course introduces increasingly complex grammatical patterns, further accelerates the acquisition of characters and advanced vocabulary, and aids in the transition to a more sophisticated use of speech patterns and politeness levels. Students hone their speaking skills through debate, public speaking, and personal interviews. The composition of advanced written material is also emphasized. Prerequisite: Japanese 302 or the equivalent.

Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Literatures 111 Soseki: Authorship Text and the Question of Non-Western Modernity Japanese 310 The works of writer and literary critic Natsume Soseki (1867–1916) offer a window onto a formative period in the evolution of Japanese literature and a critical moment in Japan’s social history. Working through Soseki’s major novels and essays, students address a larger set of questions and themes relating to authorship, the relation of literary text to history, and the possibilities for imagining a non-Western mode of modernity. All readings in English.

Russian For a description of the Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences (Smolny College) and the Bard– St. Petersburg State University exchange program, see “International Programs and Study Abroad.”

Beginning Russian Russian 101 An introduction to the fundamentals of the spoken and written language as well as Russian culture. Creative expression is encouraged through autobiographical and fictional compositions. In addition to regular class meetings, students are required to attend a weekly tutorial.

Intensive Russian Russian 106-107 This course is for students who have completed Russian 101 (or the equivalent of one semester of Russian). It culminates in a June program in St. Petersburg that includes 24 hours a week of Russian-language classes. Successful completion of this program qualifies the student to pursue study at the Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences of St. Petersburg State University (Smolny College).

Continuing Russian I Russian 206 Students increase their oral proficiency by expanding their vocabulary and studying the syntax of complex Russian sentences and grammatical nuances. They develop reading and viewing strategies appropriate to a variety of texts (literature, poetry, and newspapers). They

also keep a weekly diary, write short essays on numerous topics, and do audiovisual work in the language laboratory.

Continuing Russian II Russian 207 Students continue refining and engaging their practice of speaking, reading, and writing Russian. Advanced grammar topics are addressed through a variety of texts and contexts. A semester-long group project provides an opportunity for the class to research aspects of modern Russian culture; build a Web design dictionary; and analyze and present findings in a collaborative creative effort, such as a play, news broadcast, or newspaper.

An Appointment with Dr. Chekhov Russian 220 While studying to become a doctor at Moscow University, Chekhov began writing in order to earn money. Students analyze how his “general theory of objectivity” had an impact on his writing and how his “treatment” of human nature and social issues brought an entirely new dimension to Russian literature. Readings include Chekhov’s prose, plays, and letters.

Advanced Russian Russian 301 Students increase oral proficiency and develop reading strategies appropriate to the widest variety of written texts. Study includes vocabulary, syntax of the complex Russian sentence, and grammatical nuances. Students write essays on a variety of topics and study audiovisual materials in the language laboratory.

Advanced Russian through Reading and Writing Russian 316 Designed for students with at least two years of Russian language study and for heritage speakers who want to practice reading and speaking Russian. A variety of written and oral exercises serve to improve students’ grammar, morphology, and syntax; narrative and conceptual proficiency is enhanced through readings of selected texts by leading Russian writers, including Chekhov, Pushkin, and Dostoevsky. Writing in Russian is an important part of the course.

112 Languages and Literature Body, Mind, and Spirit in Dostoevsky Russian 325

Accelerated First-Year Spanish Spanish 110

An exploration of Dostoevsky’s multifaceted world. Particular attention is paid to the way the writer experiments with the themes of body and sexuality, intellectual pursuit and philosophy, spiritual quest and religion. Readings include “Bobok,” “A Gentle Creature,” Notes from Underground, Crime and Punishment, The Idiot, The Brothers Karamazov, letters and excerpts from A Diary of a Writer, and major critical and theoretical writings. In English.

This course, designed for the student with prior exposure to Spanish or command of another Romance language, covers major topics in grammar with intensive practice in speaking, comprehension, reading, and writing. Practice with a Spanish tutor and work in the language lab are required. The course prepares students for summer language programs abroad or Spanish 201.

Translation: Russian to English Russian 390

This course is designed to perfect the command of all four language skills (speaking, comprehension, reading, writing) through intensive grammar review, conversation practice, reading of modern Spanish texts, writing simple compositions, and language lab work. Prerequisites: Spanish 106 or 110 (or equivalent), and permission of the instructor.

This practical and theoretical course consists of regular weekly reading and translation of a variety of literary texts. Students also work on an independent project throughout the semester. Texts include short stories and poems by Bunin, Chekhov, Babel, Tolstaya, Dovlatov, Akhmatova, Pasternak, and others.

Russian Poetry Russian 409 A historical study of Russian versification—the technical aspects of poetry, structural analysis of poetic texts, and translation of selected poems. Poets studied include Pushkin, Lermontov, Baratynsky, Tyutchev, Fet, Blok, Akhmatova, Mandelstam, Tsvetaeva, Tarkovsky, Pasternak, Mayakovsky, Brodsky, and Rein. In Russian.

Intermediate Spanish I Spanish 201

Intermediate Spanish II Spanish 202 This course continues to refine the student’s mastery of speaking, reading, comprehension, and writing. Advanced study of grammar is supplemented with readings on a variety of topics related to Spanish and Latin American history, literature, music, and art. Texts include excerpts from Don Quijote, indigenous Mexican poetry, and a short modern novel. Prerequisite: Spanish 201 or permission of the instructor.


Spanish for Heritage Speakers Spanish 211

Basic Intensive Spanish Spanish 106

This course is for students who have been exposed to Spanish at home and wish to achieve confidence in speaking, writing, and reading the language. Emphasis is placed on written composition, accelerated grammar review, and the discussion of issues pertinent to Hispanic cultures. Admission is by permission of the instructor.

This course enables students with little or no previous knowledge of Spanish to complete three semesters of college Spanish in five months (8 credits at Bard and 4 credits in Mexico in January). Students attend eight hours of class per week, plus two hours with a Spanish tutor. Oral communication and reading and writing skills are developed through a variety of approaches.

Hispanic Presence in the United States Spanish 220 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This multidisciplinary course provides an indepth study of historical, social, political, legal, and linguistic issues surrounding the Hispanic presence in the United States. It also gives

Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Literatures 113 advanced Spanish students an opportunity to utilize and improve their communication skills and broaden their cultural perspectives. Prerequisites: at least one year of college-level Spanish and permission of the instructor.

Literature, Film, and Theater in Spain’s Transition to Democracy Spanish 221 Thirty years after the events that led Spain to a democratic form of government, politicians are still praised as the agents of change. However, playwrights, novelists, filmmakers, and artists paved the way. This course explores how the transition is perceived in Spain today and analyzes films and dramas produced during those years by Pedro Almodóvar, Víctor Erice, José Luis Alonso de Santos, and Fernando Fernán Gómez. Topics include censorship, sexual liberation, urban culture, women and workers’ rights, and collective memory. In Spanish.

The Moral of the Story Spanish 235 The tension between didactic and aesthetic imperatives provides this course with a framework with which to examine a wide range of short stories and think about the function of art in general. Writers studied include Don Juan Manuel, Miguel de Cervantes, Mariano José de Larra, Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, Emilia Pardo Bazán, Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, Pío Baroja, Ignacio Aldecoa, and Ana María Matute.

Representations of the Spanish Civil War Spanish 236 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, LAIS This course reviews representations of the Spanish Civil War in literature, art, and film since its outbreak in 1936. Topics include how the war has been thematized by exiles (Ayala, Aub) and contemporary novelists (Rivas, Méndez), and how theater (Sanchis Sinisterra, Alberti) and film (Erice’s The Spirit of the Beehive and Del Toro’s Devil’s Backbone) have used the motif of haunting as an allegory of the past. International reactions to the war by Orwell, Hemingway, Malraux, Neruda, and Vallejo are also addressed. In English.

Testimonies of Latin America: Perspectives from the Margins Spanish 240 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, HUMAN RIGHTS Students engage critically with texts that serve as a public forum for voices often silenced in the past. Some of the questions discussed are: How best to represent memories of violence and pain? What are the ultimate effects of mediations of the written word, translations to hegemonic languages, and interventions of well-intentioned intellectuals? The course integrates diaries, testimonial narratives, and films.

Introduction to Literary Analysis Spanish 265 This course, designed to bridge Spanish language classes and 300-level seminars on literature and culture from Spain and Latin America, is primarily engaged with four literary genres: poetry, narrative, drama, and essays. Works studied span the vast historical period from the Middle Ages to contemporary times but the focus is on acquiring the basic skills for literary analysis. Conducted in Spanish.

Introduction to Spanish Literature Spanish 301 An introduction to Spanish literature through a variety of genres, including poetry, short stories, novels, dramas, and essays, from the 11th century through the 20th. Students read texts closely, in the original language, and also explore music, painting, and sculpture. Writers include Gonzalo de Berceo, Miguel de Cervantes, Teresa de Jesús, Lope de Vega, Benito Pérez Galdós, Ramón del Valle-Inclán, and Federico García Lorca, among others. Conducted in Spanish.

Introduction to Latin American Literature Spanish 302 This writing-intensive course covers a broad historical range, presents all literary genres, and prepares students for more specialized courses in Hispanic literature. Students spend an hour a week in a writing lab, and there are regular short writing assignments.

114 Languages and Literature Five Latin American Poets Spanish 306 A study of works by Pablo Neruda (Chile), César Vallejo (Peru), Octavio Paz (Mexico), Nicolás Guillén (Cuba), and Alejandra Pizarnik (Argentina). Outside readings orient students to the historical, social, and political contexts in which these writers worked.

Introduction to Latin American Poetry Spanish 314 This course traces the development of poetry in Latin America from the colonial period to the present day. Certain early figures, such as Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz (Mexico), are examined in depth, but the majority of the course focuses on 20th-century poetry—from the work of José Martí (Cuba) to that of Alejandra Pizarnik (Argentina). Class discussions also attempt to locate those texts within historical, social, and political contexts. Conducted in Spanish.

20th-Century Mexican Literature Spanish 315 This writing-intensive course begins with the novel of the Mexican Revolution, ends with contemporary poetry, and includes short stories, essays, drama, and certain works of art and music. The common thread is the notion of La Mexicanidad, or authentic “Mexican-ness.” Students spend an hour a week in a writing lab, learning to develop, compose, organize, revise, and edit analytical prose. Conducted in Spanish (writing lab in English). Prerequisite: Spanish 301 or 302, or permission of instructor.

The 20th-Century Latin American Novel Spanish 323 / Literature 323 With the publication of works such as Julio Cortázar’s Rayuela (1963) and Gabriel García Márquez’s Cien años de soledad (1967), the Latin American novel achieved an international reputation. This course begins by analyzing several novels of the “boom” period and then moves to selected later novels, examining the relationship of these works to theoretical articulations of postmodernism and feminism. Authors: Allende, Arenas, Asturias, Carpentier, Cortázar, Ferré, Fuentes, García Márquez, Peri Rossi, Puig, Skármeta, and Valenzuela.

Introduction to Central American Literature Spanish 334 Students read a selection of 20th-century authors and explore aesthetic and ideological concerns within the violent political and historical context that is often a theme in Central American fiction. Authors studied include Miguel Ángel Asturias, Gioconda Belli, Roque Dalton, Tatiana Lobo, and Sergio Ramírez. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisites: Spanish 301 or 302, and permission of the instructor.

Love, Honor, and Power in the Spanish Drama Spanish 344 This course takes its title from Pedro Calderón de la Barca’s Amor, honor, y poder, a title that summarizes some of the most urgent concerns of Spain’s early modern period. How did the leading playwrights of the day use the stage to reenact the anxieties and fantasies of their society? Why did the theater enjoy unprecedented success at a moment of national crisis? These questions are explored in works by Calderón de la Barca, Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina, Juan Ruiz de Alarcón, and others.

Mayan Identities: Negotiating Tradition and Modernity Spanish 349 CROSS-LISTED: ANTHROPOLOGY, HUMAN RIGHTS What does it mean to be Maya today and what has it meant in the past? Using materials from Guatemala and southern Mexico, the course approaches this question from many different angles, drawing from the fields of literature, anthropology, and history. Students read selections from precolonial texts, such as the Popol Vuh or Rabinal Achí, and contemporary Mayan novels, poetry, and testimonies. In English.

Through Spanish Eyes: Recent and Past Cinema from Spain Spanish 351 An examination of a selection of films from 1929—the year in which Buñuel made Un chien andalou—to the present. Special attention is given to the historical and cultural frameworks of these films, particularly to the period of the

Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Literatures 115 Spanish Civil War and Franco’s subsequent dictatorship. Conducted in Spanish.

Contemporary Spain: Literature, Film, and Culture Spanish 353 How do novels and films deal with immigration? How is domestic and international terrorism represented in fictional works? Why does the Spanish Civil War and Francoism still shape public debate? This seminar explores these and other current issues through literary and cultural production. Texts include Marsé’s El amante bilingüe, Pedrero’s Ana el once de marzo, Nini’s Diario de un ilegal, recent scholarship on cultural analysis, newspapers, photographic works, and documentary and feature films.

Spanish Literary Translation Spanish 356 The focus of this course, designed for students who have completed at least two years of college Spanish, is theoretical texts on translation. The goal is to encourage thoughtful examination of literary language across linguistic and cultural boundaries. Conducted primarily in Spanish.

Writing toward Hope: The Literature of Human Rights in Latin America Spanish 357 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS Based on Marjorie Agosín’s anthology of the same title, this seminar considers the regenerative power of language after the experience of traumatic historical and political events in Latin America. Among the authors read are Timerman, Arenas, Velenzuela, and Alegría. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisites: Spanish 301 or 302, and permission of the instructor.

Division of Science, Mathematics, and Computing In the Division of Science, Mathematics, and Computing, progressive and classical curricular elements lead to an active understanding of the concepts, methods, and contexts of these disciplines. The division welcomes all students—science majors and nonmajors—into its courses, and offers a diverse array of introductory and advanced courses to meet the needs, interests, and backgrounds of Bard’s students, including the innovative Citizen Science program for first-year students. In all courses in the division, learning comes from doing: working in the laboratory, using computers, posing and solving problems. Students in divisional courses acquire not only a body of fundamental knowledge in a field, but also the habits of critical and creative thinking that are necessary components in all scientific activity. The state-of-the-art Gabrielle H. Reem and Herbert J. Kayden Center for Science and Computation opened in 2007 and is home to the Biology, Chemistry, and Computer Science Programs. The Lynda and Stewart Resnick Science Laboratories wing opened in the spring of 2009. In addition, the building features the László Z. Bitó ’60 Auditorium, which seats up to 65 people; “smart” classrooms for multimedia presentations and videoconferencing; faculty offices; and open spaces for studying, computer work, and informal meetings. Bard provides a range of research opportunities on campus and at affiliated institutions. In 2000 Bard College and The Rockefeller University in New York City established a collaborative program in the sciences. As part of the collaboration, Rockefeller reserves places for Bard students in its Summer Undergraduate Research Fellows program, and Bard faculty may be appointed to adjunct faculty positions at Rockefeller, enabling them to develop research programs in Rockefeller laboratories. The BardRockefeller Semester in Science in New York City is a one-semester program designed for advanced science students, particularly in the fields of neuroscience, biochemistry, molecular biology, developmental biology, biophysics, and genetics. Students spend a semester in New York City working in the lab with Rockefeller faculty and taking specially designed classes at Rockefeller and at Bard’s Globalization and International Affairs Program. Students can also spend a semester at the Marine Biological Laboratory Ecosystem Center in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. The Bard Summer Research Institute offers students the opportunity to spend 10 weeks in residence at the College, working on projects in the social or natural sciences. The Division of Science, Mathematics, and Computing oversees six programs: biology, chemistry, computer science, mathematics, physics, and psychology. Students 116

Biology 117 exercising the 3-2 engineering or environmental options also usually moderate into the division. The pursuit of a degree in the division provides majors with the foundation needed for advanced, independent, and original work in graduate or professional schools or in technical professions requiring no further academic preparation.

Biology Faculty: Michael Tibbetts (director), John B. Ferguson, Philip Johns, Brooke Jude, Felicia Keesing, Bruce Robertson, William T. Maple Overview: In order to meet the needs and interests of students within this diverse field, the biology curriculum at Bard is designed to be flexible. Students are encouraged to consult with their advisers to design a personal curriculum that covers requirements for advanced study and satisfies varied interests (biochemical, molecular, ecological) and approaches (laboratory-based, field-based, computational). Students are also encouraged to explore, in depth, another scientific discipline. Gaining additional expertise in chemistry, physics, mathematics, or computer science is essential to the interdisciplinary nature of modern biological research. Bard’s laboratory facilities, field station, and relationship with The Rockefeller University allow students to undertake sophisticated Senior Projects in a wide variety of areas. Funds for summer research are available on a competitive basis. Requirements: In addition to the collegewide distribution and First-Year Seminar requirements, biology majors must complete a Senior Project of original scientific research; two semesters of 100-level courses (from among Biology 141, 142, 146, 151, and 152); Biology 144, Biostatistics; Biology 201, Eukaryotic Genetics, or Biology 202, Ecology and Evolution; Chemistry 141-142, Basic Principles of Chemistry; and a minimum of three additional elective courses in biology, two of which must be laboratory courses.

Recent Senior Projects in Biology: “Inhibiting the glutamate receptor AMPA during hair-cell development in Danio rerio” “Learning precise timing in neural networks by stochastic perturbation of conductances” “Reconstructing the paleoenvironment of the Bonneville Lake cycle in the Bonneville Basin, Utah, ~35,000–11,000 years ago” “The presence of relapsing fever group Borrelia in Dutchess County, New York” Facilities: In addition to the laboratories and “smart” classrooms in The Gabrielle H. Reem and Herbert J. Kayden Center for Science and Computation, biology equipment includes DNA and protein electrophoresis instruments, a digital gel imaging system, an array of standard PCR machines, a Real-Time PCR machine, two fluorescence microscopes, and a wide array of ecology field equipment. Biology students may also use the facilities of the Bard College Field Station, which is located on the Hudson River and affords access to freshwater tidal marshes, swamps, and shallows; perennial and intermittent streams; and young and old deciduous and coniferous forests, among other habitats. It also houses a library, herbarium, and laboratories. Courses: Elective courses in biology cover a variety of topics, including ecology, human physiology, botany, microbiology, cell biology, aquatic ecology, and cancer biology, among others. Upper College courses emphasize exposure to experimental techniques, examination of the primary literature, and written and oral presentation of scientific material.

Introductory Biology: Multicellular Life Biology 100 This course begins with an introduction to ecology, from global processes to local populations in the vicinity of campus. Students examine the diversity and phylogeny of life, emphasizing

118 Science, Mathematics, and Computing major evolutionary transitions and changes in body plans, as well as the interplay between population genetics and the expression of traits. Laboratory work follows up on topics discussed in class. Prerequisite: eligibility for Q courses.

Biological Inquiry Biology 101 Intended for students who are interested in pursuing biology as a major but who feel their high school experience did not adequately prepare them. The course is composed of two parallel strands. The first strand consists of laboratory experiences that expose students to a variety of ways that modern biologists ask questions. The lecture strand consists of readings from and discussions about John Moore’s classic text Science as a Way of Knowing.

Biology of Infectious Disease Biology 112 While morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease declined steadily during the 20th century in developed nations, they remain high in poorer nations. Students examine the reasons for this disparity as they study agents of bacterial, viral, protozoan, and metazoan disease. Diseases covered include anthrax, typhoid fever, cholera, botulism, tetanus, bubonic plague, Lyme disease, leprosy, tuberculosis, influenza, smallpox, rabies, yellow fever, polio, AIDS, malaria, and schistosomiasis. Prerequisites: high school biology and chemistry; Biology 141 or the equivalent is recommended.

Biology of Noninfectious Disease Biology 114 Conditions studied include inherited diseases such as sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis; endocrine disorders; therapeutic drug addiction and toxicities; allergies; and neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s; among others. Laboratory work introduces students to human physiology as it relates to disease. Prerequisites: high school biology and chemistry; Biology 141 and 142 are strongly recommended.

Sex and Gender Biology 123 Why are there two sexes? Why do women get depressed more often than men but commit suicide less often? Why are women, on average, shorter than men? Students in this course, which is intended for nonscientists, examine the biological bases of sex and gender. They consider hypotheses that attempt to explain differences in behavior between males and females, the genetic and hormonal determinants of sex and gender, and the arguments for how and why sex evolved in the first place.

Backyard Ecology Biology 124 A look at how populations of plants, animals, and fungi function and interact with nearby natural areas, human environments, attempts at controlling natural populations, and the introduction of exotic species. In the lab, students study a seminatural local habitat, measure biodiversity, and make recommendations for ways to manage the habitat to better support local populations and meet diverse human needs.

Introduction to Insects Biology 127 In this course, students use insects and other arthropods to explore biological topics such as how bugs are put together; how they reproduce and grow; and how they interact with their environment to find food, catch prey, avoid predators, and compete for mates. Also discussed is how the study of insects contributes to our understanding of genetics, evolution, and disease. Prerequisites: eligibility for Q courses; high school biology and chemistry.

Field Study in Natural History Biology 130 Designed to acquaint the interested nonscience student with the plants and animals that make the Bard campus their home, including trees and shrubs in their winter condition and wildflowers in the spring. Animal tracks and bird migrations are also objects of study. Although the course includes some lab work on preserved specimens, especially during severe weather, most class meetings are field trips. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

Biology 119 Subcellular Biology Biology 141 Beginning with the evolution and complexity of life, including prokaryotes and viruses, the course examines the commonality of life at both the biochemical and cellular levels. One primary focus is energy transfer in living systems (fermentation, respiration, and photosynthesis), followed by attention to information transfer (genetics, nucleic acid replication, transcription, and translation). The course ends with discussions of more complex topics (genetic engineering, human genetics, and immunology). Prerequisites: eligibility for Q courses; high school biology and chemistry.

Conservation Biology Biology 147 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, GIS This course investigates ways in which fundamental principles of ecology, evolution, and genetics can be applied to conserving biodiversity. Issues covered include global patterns of biodiversity, with a focus on current threats and the consequences of species extinctions; the importance of maintaining genetic diversity; and population dynamics. Labs provide opportunities to use tools and research approaches employed by ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and systematists to solve practical problems in conservation biology.

Organismal Biology Biology 142

Symbiosis: From Cells to Communities Biology 149

An introduction to organismal biology and ecology, primarily for those who intend to continue in biology. Topics include population genetics; evolution; vertebrate embryology and anatomy; and animal phylogeny, taxonomy, and ecology. Biology 142 may be taken before Biology 141. Students majoring in biology are strongly encouraged to enroll concurrently in Chemistry 142. Prerequisite: eligibility for Q courses.

Symbiosis describes a close physical association between two different species, often benefiting one or both members of the relationship. Students explore topics in introductory biology, focusing on how different types of symbiotic relationships—parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism—have factored in the evolution, ecology, and biodiversity of life on earth. The class studies symbiotic relationships at several different scales of biological organization: cells, individuals, populations, and ecological communities. This course is intended for students with a strong high school biology background.

Biostatistics Biology 144 This course provides a general idea of the statistical methods commonly used in biology, the methods appropriate for various types of data, and an in-depth examination of how the methods work. Topics covered include elementary probability and statistics, hypothesis testing, characteristics of frequency distributions, regression analysis, and some multivariate-based methods. Prerequisite: eligibility for Q courses.

Earth and Life through Time Biology 146 Students examine physical processes operating on the Earth as well as ways the planet has changed since its formation. This includes longer time-scale processes like climate change and glaciation, and the impacts of hazards such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and meteorites. Labs involve field trips to local sites of geologic interest. Prerequisite: eligibility for Q courses.

From Genes to Traits Biology 151 An introduction to the relationships between genetics, environment, and biochemistry. The laboratory portion of this course acquaints students with some of the methodologies and instrumentation found in a modern biology lab. Prerequisites: eligibility for Q courses; high school biology and chemistry.

Biodiversity Biology 152 In addition to studying characteristics of the major groups of organisms on Earth, students investigate the evolutionary causes and ecological consequences of diversity. They examine patterns of biodiversity through time and develop an understanding of how the present loss of biodiversity compares in magnitude and

120 Science, Mathematics, and Computing rate to previous periods of extinction. Finally, students evaluate methods for preserving biodiversity based on principles of conservation biology. Prerequisites: eligibility for Q courses; high school biology.

eral nervous systems; muscle, heart, blood, lungs, and kidneys; digestive system; endocrine glands; and reproductive systems. Prerequisites: Biology 141 and 142 and Chemistry 141-142; Chemistry 201202 is recommended concurrently.

Global Change Biology Biology 153 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, GIS

Botany Biology 206

This course investigates global environmental change from a biological and ecological perspective. Topics include dynamics of the carbon and nitrogen cycles, land use change and urbanization, ocean acidification and eutrophication, biodiversity, and global climate change. Lab activities focus on local environments as case studies of global ecological change and include site visits, field studies, data analysis, and modeling exercises.

Eukaryotic Genetics Biology 201 The course takes a modern approach to the study of genetics in which classical ideas about genotype, phenotype, and inheritance are integrated into the modern molecular and genomic understanding of the processes involved in the generation of diversity. The laboratory consists of a semester-long project involving the genetic manipulation of a model organism’s genome to address one or more topics in the course. Prerequisite: one year of college biology.

Ecology and Evolution Biology 202 In addition to studying foundational ideas in both ecology and evolution, the class explores how genetic variation among individual organisms can influence ecological interactions and how these interactions can influence fitness. Students use model building to inform a mechanistic understanding of processes. Prerequisite: successful completion of Biology 201.

Introduction to Human Physiology Biology 204 This course focuses on the relationship between the physical and chemical functions of various organs and organ systems and overall homeostasis, with an emphasis on human physiology. Systems examined include the central and periph-

This course consists of lectures, labs, and frequent field trips. The first part surveys the plant kingdom and focuses on anatomy, histology, and physiology, with an emphasis on form, function, and adaptation. The last third of the semester covers local flora, taxonomy, and plant ecology. Prerequisites: Biology 141 and 142 and Chemistry 141-142, or permission of the instructor.

Visiting Speakers Seminar Biology 208 This one-credit course provides students with broad exposure to biology through visiting speakers. Students hear about the wide-ranging research interests of invited biologists and have opportunities to interact informally with them. The course is graded pass/fail. Recommended for sophomore and junior biology majors.

Biology of the Hudson River Biology 212 CROSS -LISTED: EUS Topics covered include the origin and morphology of the river channel; origins and fates of water, nutrients, and sediments in the estuary; characteristics of biological populations and the food web; major human impacts on the ecosystem; and comparisons with other aquatic ecosystems. Prerequisite: college-level biology or permission of the instructor.

Biochemistry Biology 301 An introduction to general biochemistry, including protein structure, enzyme mechanisms and kinetics, coenzymes, thermodynamics, central metabolic pathways, biological membranes, DNA structure and replication, and ribosomal translation. Emphasis is placed on integrating knowledge of fundamental organic chemistry into a biological context. Laboratory work provides practical experience in the topics covered. Prerequisites: Biology 141 and Chemistry 201-202.

Biology 121 Molecular Biology Biology 302

Invertebrate Zoology Biology 309

Through close reading of primary and secondary literatures, students examine the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that control the dynamic cellular processes involving DNA and RNA. Of particular consideration are the regulatory mechanisms controlling such processes as DNA replication, transcription, translation, and genome structure. The laboratory consists of a semester-long project in which a cellular or developmental process is probed at the molecular level. Prerequisites: Biology 201 and 202 and Chemistry 201-202.

This course takes a comparative approach to studying zoology, with a special focus on marine and aquatic invertebrates native to the Hudson Valley. Students learn how to use phylogenetic tools to study ecology, evolution, comparative morphology, biogeography, and speciation of different invertebrate groups. Laboratories include comparative anatomy of different invertebrate phyla, DNA extraction and sequencing, and working with phylogenetic analysis software. Prerequisites: Biology 201 and 202, or permission of the instructor.

Microbiology Biology 303

Prokaryotic and Viral Genetics Biology 310

The first portion of the course deals with prokaryotic cell biology and growth; the second with plant viruses, viroids, bacteriophages, animal viruses, and prions; and the third with the diversity of the prokaryotes, from archaea through both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. Laboratory work provides practical experience in dealing with prokaryotes and bacteriophages. Prerequisites: Biology 141 and 142 and Chemistry 141-142; Chemistry 201-202 is recommended.

This course considers biological inheritance in prokaryotes (bacteria) and their viruses (bacteriophages). Topics include mutagenesis and repair, plasmids, conjugation, transformation, intemperate and temperate phages, transduction, transposition and nonhomologous recombination, homologous recombination, and the regulation of gene expression. Offered every other spring. Prerequisites: Biology 201 and 303, and Chemistry 201-202.

Cell Biology Biology 304 This course examines the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in processes relating to eukaryotic cellular organization, communication, movement, reproduction, and death. These topics are considered through close reading of the primary and secondary literature. The laboratory consists of a semesterlong project. Prerequisites: Biology 201 and 202 and Chemistry 201-202.

Vertebrate Zoology Biology 306 This course surveys the natural history, evolution, and ecology of the vertebrates native to the Hudson Valley region. Lab sessions are used for identification, taxonomy, and study techniques, with as much work as possible done in the field. Prerequisites: Biology 141 and 142, Upper College status, and permission of the instructor.

Field Ornithology Biology 311 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, MBB Birds, one of the most diverse taxa of vertebrates, live on every continent, including Antarctica, and in nearly every environment, including aquatic and marine. They have enormous biological and behavioral complexity. The Hudson Valley is a major flyway for migratory birds. This course explores the birds of the region; it meets weekly for an extended laboratory period, but has no formal lecture time. Intended for biology majors who have had Biology 201 or 202, but is open to other students with the approval of the instructor.

Animal Behavior Biology 313 CROSS -LISTED: MBB An examination of animal behavior from a biological and evolutionary point of view. The class explores the causes and consequences of behaviors such as foraging and predation, migration,

122 Science, Mathematics, and Computing antipredator behavior, mating behavior, cooperation, and altruism. Students design and carry out their own research over the course of the semester. Prerequisites: Biology 201 and 202; Biology 144 and 315 are useful but not required.

Advanced Evolution Biology 315 This course examines the various forces of evolution, using population and quantitative genetics to address fundamental questions in biology. Patterns of evolution within and among populations, across species, and through time are explored. The class also looks at what evolution can reveal about other disciplines, such as medicine, and how modern genomic and bioinformatic techniques rely on evolutionary principles.

Tropical Ecology Biology 316 Tropical ecosystems are among the most biodiverse, most threatened, and least studied in the world. This course examines aspects that are unique to tropical ecosystems, including the role of geology, biogeochemical cycling, evolutionary processes, and species interactions. Students design, conduct, and present a field research project, to be conducted at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica over spring break. Prerequisites: Moderation, Biology 202, and permission of the instructor.

Epidemiology: A Human Rights Perspective Biology 337 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, GSS, HUMAN RIGHTS Epidemiologists study how diseases spread through populations. They track down the sources of outbreaks, explore trends, and try to understand the social forces that influence sexual behavior, weight gain, and other complex human phenomena. Epidemiology can also serve as a powerful forensic tool in the hands of human rights activists. Students learn how studies are designed and carried out; generate hypotheses about the underlying causes of diseases; and discover how the presentation of data and the design of studies can affect man’s understanding of the human condition.

Behavioral Genetics Biology 403 This seminar reviews recent genetic literature as it applies to behavioral traits, emphasizing the use of genomic technology. Topics include: classic studies of behavioral genetics; geneenvironment interactions; behavioral development; genetic architecture and behavior; the genetics of social behaviors including aggression, cooperation, and sexual behaviors; and genetic influences on communication and language. Students analyze genomic data sets to better understand the pertinent literature. This research seminar is intended for upper-level biology majors. Prerequisite: a 200-level genetics course or permission of the instructor.

Immunology Biology 405 CROSS -LISTED: GIS Basic concepts are taught from a historical perspective, with special attention paid to current unanswered questions in the field and their implications. The course also looks at uses of immunology concepts from perspectives other than medical and basic research applications. Appropriate for students who have a biology background and want to gain a basic understanding of the field and its applications.

Cholera: Pandemics, Pathology, and Molecular Mechanisms Biology 406 The microbe Vibrio cholerae and the disease it causes, including seven worldwide pandemics, is studied in this upper-level seminar. The course examines the historical significance of cholera, the environmental and socioeconomic factors that influence outbreaks, and the complex molecular genetics that allow this microbe to be so effectively pathogenic. Prerequisites: Biology 201 and Chemistry 201-202; Biology 302 and 303 are helpful but not essential.

Diabetes Mellitus Biology 407 Diabetes mellitus is responsible for a large fraction of the morbidity and mortality of developed nations. This seminar examines the development of scientific understanding of dia-

Biology 123 betes. Readings range from works by Aretaeus the Cappadocian (A.D. 200), William Prout (1840), and Claude Bernard (1877) to papers describing the latest developments in the field. Prerequisites: extensive course work in molecular, cellular, and organismal biology; senior status; permission of the instructor.

Biology of Microbiomes Biology 408 This seminar explores the rapidly expanding literature on “microbiomes,” the microbiological communities that live on, in, and around other organisms. Students discuss how technology has changed man’s ability to characterize these communities and how variation in the composition of the microbiome can affect an organism. Using examples from humans as well as many other species, the seminar focuses on how microbiomes affect organismal health and ecological interactions.

Advanced Seminar in Animal Behavior Biology 410 The class looks at some proximate mechanisms to behavior, but the main focus is the genetic and evolutionary causes and consequences of animal behavior. Prerequisites: Biology 201 and 202; Biology 144 is recommended.

Cancer Biology Biology 411 Cancer is a genetic disease that cannot be inherited; a disease in which one’s own cells disrupt normal physiological functions; a disease for which some therapies result in the loss of the body’s ability to fight disease. This advanced course looks at the complex reasons for these paradoxes, by examining a particular cancer from several perspectives: epidemiological, physiological, genetic, molecular, and cellular. Prerequisites: Moderation in biology and permission of the instructor.

Ecosystems Ecology / Biogeochemistry Biology 412 As our planet is basically a closed system, cycles of certain elements dictate life-determining processes. The nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon cycles are of particular interest in understanding patterns of life on earth. Geological,

biological, and chemical processes play key roles in mediating the availability of these nutrients. The course examines how interactions between biological processes and geological processes influence nutrient availability and long-term climate, and how human activities affect these cycles. Prerequisites: Chemistry 142 and two biology courses, one at the 200 level.

Developmental Genetics Biology 413 Multicellular organisms develop through a process of progressive morphological and molecular changes, encompassing cellular growth, differentiation, movement, and communication. These are all complex tasks an embryo has to undertake in order to develop into a fully functional organism. Students examine fundamental concepts of development, such as cell fate specification, plasticity and commitment, tissue organization through the establishment of morphogen gradients, stochasticity and determination, as well as transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms of control. Prerequisites: Moderation in biology and permission of the instructor.

Advanced Seminar in Ecology Biology 415 This course includes a review of the conceptual bases of restoration ecology, including succession, recruitment, plant/animal interactions, and landscape-scale phenomena. It also addresses particular operational problems in restoration (genetics, hydrological regimes, physical barriers, exotic species, fire, and grazing). Students participate in a class project to design and execute a restoration plan for a location on campus.

Sexual Selection Biology 417 This seminar examines sexual selection, mate competition, and mate choice, primarily in animals, using classic models as well as recent outgrowths of those models. Students also look at how recent advances in genomic studies have changed studies of sexual selection and sexually selected traits. Prerequisites: Biology 201 and 202; Biology 144 is encouraged.

124 Science, Mathematics, and Computing Conflicts in Social Biology Biology 418 The evolution of complex sociality remains one of biology’s unsolved mysteries. Theories underlying sociality are currently in flux, as some social researchers have returned focus to the ecological benefits of cooperation, while others emphasize the role of kinship.

Stem Cells Biology 419 Stem cells range from adult stem cells that can normally only repopulate a limited subset of cell types to embryonic stem cells, which give rise to all the cells of the adult organism. The class discusses the biology of the various types of stem cells, investigates their possible implications in treatment of disease, and delves into ethical concerns about their use.

Chemistry Faculty: Craig Anderson (director), Swapan Jain*, Tanay Kesharwani, Christopher LaFratta, Emily Colleen McLaughlin * on sabbatical, fall 2012

Overview: Chemistry at Bard is geared primarily, but not exclusively, toward meeting the needs of students planning to do graduate work in chemistry and biology. Students receive extensive hands-on experience with contemporary instruments and equipment (see “Facilities” below). In addition to the core courses, a student typically takes at least two advanced electives in chemistry and biology, mathematics, or physics, according to personal goals. Requirements: Before moderating in the program, students should complete or be enrolled in Chemistry 141-142 and 201-202, Mathematics 141 and 142, and Physics 141 and 142. Students are expected to follow the standard divisional procedure for Moderation and to fulfill the collegewide distribution and First-Year Seminar requirements. To graduate, students must successfully complete Chemistry 311, 312, 350, and 360; two electives at the 300 level or higher (at

least one must be a 400-level seminar); and the Senior Project. Recent Senior Projects in Chemistry: “Semiempirical calculations for a model of stage 1 lithium-intercalated graphite: structures and energetics” “Synthesis and binding affinity of 6-acetamido2-hydrazone-purine to xpt riboswitch” “Synthesis of a zinc(II) complex using a novel bidentate benzodithioate ligand” Facilities: Facilities at The Gabrielle H. Reem and Herbert J. Kayden Center for Science and Computation and the Lynda and Stewart Resnick Science Laboratories include teaching labs; individual research laboratories for faculty and their students; seminar rooms; and expanded space for student research posters. Students have the opportunity to work with contemporary instrumentation, including a 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer; a gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer; a liquid chromatograph–mass spectrometer; two Thermo Nicolet Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometers; several ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometers; two microwave reactors; a Dionex high-performance liquid chromatograph; a Johnson Matthey magnetic susceptibility balance; and, in collaboration with Vassar College, a state-of-the-art X-ray diffractometer. More details are available at the Chemistry Program website. Courses: Core courses include Chemistry 141142, Basic Principles of Chemistry; Chemistry 201-202, Organic Chemistry 1 and 11; Chemistry 311, Physical Chemistry; Chemistry 312, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry; and Chemistry 350 and 360, the laboratory concepts courses Analytical and Physical Techniques and Synthesis. Each semester, at least one advanced elective course, covering topics such as organic synthesis, chemical kinetics, organometallic chemistry, and biochemistry, is offered.

Principles and Applications of Chemistry Chemistry 121 A comprehensive survey of key theories and applications in chemistry. Topics include atomic

Chemistry 125 structures, chemical bonding, chemical reactions, stoichiometry, states of matter, theories of solutions, energy transfer, and basic organic chemistry and biochemistry. The laboratory focuses on basic techniques, quantitative applications, and some reactions in organic chemistry and biochemistry. Designed for nonscience majors. Prerequisite: background in high school mathematics or permission of the instructor.

Molecules and Medicine Chemistry 129 When you take aspirin or ibuprofen do you ever wonder what the structure of this “miracle drug� looks like? How the molecule actually works in the body? How the medicinal use of this and other drugs was discovered? This course, intended for nonscience majors, explores biologically active molecules and their modes of action (naturally occurring and synthetic) in an effort to stress the importance of chemistry in biology and medicine.

Basic Principles of Chemistry Chemistry 141-142 An introduction to the composition, structure, and properties of matter. The first semester covers atomic structure, stoichiometry, periodic trends, bonding and molecular geometry, thermochemistry, and the behavior of gases, liquids, and solids. Central concepts in the second semester are energy transfer, spontaneity, and change (thermochemistry, chemical equilibrium, and kinetics). The laboratory portion stresses basic techniques and quantitative applications. Basic algebra skills are required. Concurrent enrollment in calculus is recommended for students who intend to major in chemistry.

Organic Chemistry Chemistry 201-202 Students study the structure and reactions of specific types of organic compounds and develop interrelationships that provide an integrated understanding of organic chemistry. The course emphasizes general principles and reaction mechanisms, but students are also expected to accumulate and utilize factual material. The laboratory is coordinated with classroom topics and should provide direct experience with many reactions and concepts. The laboratory

also develops familiarity with experiment design, experimental techniques, and instrumental methods such as chromatography and spectroscopy. Prerequisite: Chemistry 141-142.

Principles of Chemical Analysis Chemistry 301 A survey of analytical chemistry, with emphasis on the basic principles of solution equilibriums. Quantitative treatment of solubility, acidity, and oxidation potential provides the background for understanding gravimetric and volumetric techniques. Modern methods of instrumental analysis are studied and integrated into the laboratory work. Prerequisite: Chemistry 141-142.

Physical Chemistry Chemistry 311 Quantum chemistry, spectroscopy, and thermodynamics are studied in detail. Topics covered include the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, the hydrogen atom, computational chemistry, atomic and molecular spectroscopy, the standard functions (enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs, etc.), and the microscopic point of view of entropy, among others. Prerequisites: Chemistry 141–142 (or equivalent), Physics 141 and 142, and Mathematics 141 and 142, or by permission of instructor.

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Chemistry 312 An introduction to the chemistry of the elements, this course places emphasis on the classification of the properties and reactivity of the elements by chemical periodicity, structure, and bonding. Topics include coordination chemistry of the transition metals, organometallic chemistry, and bioinorganic chemistry. Prerequisites: Chemistry 201-202; either Chemistry 301 or Chemistry 411-412.

Laboratory Concepts and Techniques: Analytical and Physical Techniques Chemistry 350 This course covers many analytical, physical, inorganic, and organic chemistry techniques and applications. Concepts dealing with statistical evaluation of data, activity, systematic treatment of equilibrium, and electrochemistry are also addressed.

126 Science, Mathematics, and Computing Laboratory Concepts and Techniques: Synthesis Chemistry 360 Multistep organic and organometallic synthesis make up a solid portion of the course, which also introduces advanced lab concepts and techniques. Air- and moisture-sensitive techniques are explored, as are many analytical, physical, inorganic, and organic chemistry techniques and applications, as necessary.

Organic Synthesis Chemistry 408 The starting point is the predictable design of organic structures by the “disconnection approach,� based heavily on the use of carbanions and other modern reactions. The versatility of these methods is discussed, using novel ways to apply these reactions to generate elusive structures. Fairly complicated syntheses are evaluated to appreciate new ideas and approaches to synthesis. Prerequisite: Chemistry 201-202.

Topics in Biochemistry Chemistry 409 This course focuses on the chemistry of biochemical molecules, including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. A brief overview of each molecule is given, with emphasis on its structure, bonds, and reactivity. Recent papers are presented and discussed. Prerequisites: Chemistry 201 or 202 and permission of the instructor.

Organometallics Chemistry 431 This course integrates material from inorganic and organic chemistry to provide a basis for understanding the rich chemistry of the metalcarbon bond. The material consists of an examination of various organometallic reaction mechanisms, including substitution, oxidative addition, reductive elimination, and insertion, combined with a survey of the structure and reactivity of organometallic ligands. Topics such as organometallic photochemistry, catalysis, and the use of organometallic reagents in organic synthesis are also covered.

RNA/DNA: Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids Chemistry 441 This seminar-style course begins with a review of nucleic acid chemistry. Topics of inquiry include the influence of DNA/RNA structure on replication, transcription, and translation; the importance of protein-nucleic acid interactions; and the role of RNA in regulation (catalytic RNA, riboswitches, and RNA interference pathways). Students utilize modeling/imaging software to acquire a deeper appreciation of nucleic acid structure. Prerequisites: Biology 301, Biochemistry, and permission of the instructor.

Computer Science

Physical Chemistry Chemistry 411-412 A modern molecular approach to the subject. The first semester begins with a study of model quantum mechanical systems and culminates in the application of the model systems to atomic and molecular structure and spectra. In the second semester, statistical mechanics is used as the link between quantum chemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics. Molecular modeling software is used to go beyond a consideration of prototypical systems. Prerequisites: Chemistry 141-142; Physics 141 and 142; and Mathematics 141, 142, and 212.

Faculty: Keith O’Hara (director)**, Sven Anderson, William J. Joel, Robert McGrail*, S. Rebecca Thomas * in residence, AUCA-Bard, fall 2012 ** on sabbatical, spring 2013 Overview: Computer science is integral to current technological and cultural changes and to all fields of study. The Computer Science Program at Bard offers courses of interest to computer science, science, and nonscience majors. The program focuses on the fundamental ideas of computer science and introduces students to multiple programming languages that emphasize different programming paradigms. It offers broad coverage of theoretical,

Computer Science 127 applied, and systems-oriented topics. Students have numerous opportunities to participate in hands-on courses and research projects in new laboratories devoted to cognition, robotics, and symbolic computation. The curriculum is designed to offer many opportunities for students whose interest in computer science arises from its intersection with another discipline. Computer science has many linkages with cognitive science, electronic arts, mathematics, and physics. Students from these fields often begin with an introductory course and later return to take a more advanced computer science course that enhances skills and knowledge they will use in their Senior Project. Requirements: Before Moderation a student in the Computer Science Program should complete or be enrolled in an introductory computer science course (e.g., Computer Science 115 or 116); Computer Science 141, 145, and 201, as well as Mathematics 141 (or the equivalents). Students are expected to follow standard divisional procedures for Moderation and to fulfill the collegewide distribution and First-Year Seminar requirements. By graduation, a student in the program must take Computer Science 301, 305, 312, and either 326 or 335, at least two other computer science courses numbered 300 or above, and complete a Senior Project. Recent Senior Projects in Computer Science: “Analyzing and Visualizing Malware Collected in Honeypots” “Computing the Typeset of Quandles,” a construction of computational classification for the allowable types of minimal algebras in the variety of quandles “Delaunay Diagram Representations for Use in Image Near-Duplicate Detection” “The Effect of Tangible and Multitouch Interfaces on Game Performance” Facilities: Program facilities at The Gabrielle H. Reem and Herbert J. Kayden Center for Science and Computation include computer and hardware teaching labs, a cognitive systems lab, robotics lab, dedicated computer server room, and study space with wireless networking.

Courses: The following core courses are offered every year or every other year: Computer Science 141, Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming; Computer Science 145, Discrete Mathematics; Computer Science 201, Data Structures; Computer Science 251, Introduction to Artificial Intelligence; Computer Science 301, Algorithms; Computer Science 305, Design of Programming Languages; Computer Science 312, Theory of Computation; Computer Science 326, Operating Systems; and Computer Science 335, Computer Networks. Elective courses are offered at least once every three years or by tutorial; recent examples include Computer Science 321, Databases, and Computer Science 322, Computer Graphics.

Introduction to Computing: Graphics and Animation Computer Science 112 Students learn to use a programming language and graphics interface to write algorithms that represent and render two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometrical objects, beginning with points and lines and extending to three-dimensional solids. Topics include applied geometry, coordinate transformations, projection, perspective, object modeling, and basic animation. Prerequisites: Mathematics 110 and eligibility for Q courses.

Introduction to Computing: Robotics Computer Science 113 Teams design and build shoe box–size robots, with guidance from the instructor. These rather minimalist robots are mobile and have multiple sensors. Teams use a simple programming language to program their robots to carry out simple tasks, then move to a more robust programming language and more complex tasks by the end of the semester. Prerequisite: eligibility for Q courses.

Introduction to Computing: Simulating Reality Computer Science 115 How do rumors and fashions spread in society? Does a small change in environmental temperature disrupt an ecosystem? Questions like these are explored, using computers to create virtual worlds. This introduction to modeling and

128 Science, Mathematics, and Computing simulation is for students who are interested in creating computer models of objects, processes, and complex systems using computer software. No prior knowledge of computer programming is required. Prerequisites: a strong background in precalculus mathematics or the equivalent, and eligibility for Q courses.

Introduction to Computing: Semantic Web Computer Science 116 An introduction to semantically intelligent content management for the World Wide Web. Participants construct social networking software, similar in scope to weblogs or Facebook, using an advanced content-management system. A strong emphasis is placed on the development of flexible applications that efficiently store and process data and metadata. In addition to basic computer programming, various XML technologies are introduced and employed. Prerequisite: eligibility for Q courses.

Introduction to Computing: Interactive Systems Computer Science 117 In this course, students program graphics, perception, and robotics systems, and learn how computers can manipulate the physical world as well as calculate in the virtual world. Programming projects include creating 2-D and 3-D pieces of art, automatically analyzing photos and video from digital cameras, and making machines walk and talk. No prior programming knowledge is required. Prerequisite: eligibility for Q courses.

Introduction to Cognitive Science Computer Science 131 CROSS -LISTED: MBB, PHILOSOPHY, PSYCHOLOGY How do brains make minds? Can computers think? Is my dog conscious? Cognitive science assumes that the brain is some sort of computational engine and, beginning with that premise, attempts to answer such questions. The course is taught by faculty in biology, computer science, linguistics, philosophy, and psychology; their combined approach explores how humans and other intelligent systems feel, perceive, reason, and act. Laboratories provide analysis of neural and behavioral data as well as computa-

tional modeling. Prerequisite: Mathematics 110 or the equivalent.

Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming Computer Science 141 This course introduces students with prior programming experience to the methodologies of object-oriented design. Students learn how to move from an informal problem statement to the design and implementation of a solution. Prerequisite: any Introduction to Computing course or permission of the instructor.

Object-Oriented Programming with Robots Computer Science 143 CROSS -LISTED: MBB This course introduces students with prior programming experience to object-oriented design and programming through the design and implementation of mobile robot programs. Students learn how to move from an informal problem statement, through increasingly precise problem specifications, to design and implementation of a solution. Good programming habits are emphasized. Prerequisite: any Introduction to Computing course or permission of the instructor.

Discrete Mathematics Computer Science 145 This course emphasizes creative problem solving, linking language to logic, and learning to read and write proofs. Topics include propositional logic, predicate logic, inductive proof, sets, relations, functions, introductory combinatorics, and discrete probability. Prerequisite: Mathematics 141 or programming experience.

Data Structures Computer Science 201 CROSS -LISTED: MBB An introduction to the basic ideas underlying data storage and retrieval. Several standard data structures are covered, including stacks, queues, lists, hash tables, and balanced binary trees. The course balances implementation of structures and formal analysis of their properties. Prerequisite: Computer Science 141.

Computer Science 129 Computer Architecture Computer Science 225 An introduction to the structure and operation of modern computer architecture. Topics include instruction sets, pipelining, instructionlevel parallelism, caches, memory hierarchies, storage systems, and multiprocessors. Assembly language programming is used to demonstrate concepts. Corequisite: Computer Science 201; Physics 210 is recommended.

Mobile Applications and Interfaces Computer Science 233 An introduction to the design of applications on handheld mobile devices characterized by limited computational and interface resources. Particular emphasis is placed on developing software interface designs that incorporate the specialized input-output capabilities of these devices, such as wireless communication, spoken interfaces, and image capture. Students are assigned to small teams that work together to develop applications for this platform. Prerequisite: Computer Science 201.

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Computer Science 251 CROSS -LISTED: MBB An introduction to artificial intelligence principles and techniques, primarily intended for students interested in cognitive science and neuroscience. The course emphasizes elements of artificial intelligence that are compatible with the current understanding of biologically based intelligence (e.g., neural computation), and explores the application of such artificial intelligence techniques as automated reasoning, machine learning, evolutionary learning, heuristic search, and behavior-based robot control. Application examples are drawn from artificial life, robotics, game play, logic, visual perception, and natural language processing.

Algorithms Computer Science 301 This course covers the design and analysis of correct and efficient computer algorithms. Topics include sorting, greedy algorithms, divide-and-conquer algorithms, dynamic programming algorithms, and graph algorithms. Advanced topics in algorithms may be selected from specialized areas of the mathematical and

empirical sciences. Prerequisites: Computer Science 145 and 201 or Mathematics 261.

Computational Geometry Computer Science 303 / Mathematics 303 See Mathematics 303 for a course description.

Design of Programming Languages Computer Science 305 This course covers a selection of important issues in the design of programming languages, including type systems, procedure activation, parameter passing, data encapsulation, dynamic memory allocation, and concurrency. In addition, the functional, logical, and object-oriented programming paradigms are presented. Prerequisite: Computer Science 201.

Cognitive Science Research Computer Science 308 This seminar explores the primary literature relevant to a particular question about cognition. Students are responsible for selecting papers, presenting material, and leading discussion. Prerequisite: moderated status or permission of the instructor.

Theory of Computation Computer Science 312 An introduction to several computational models developed to formalize the notion of an algorithm, the course also offers detailed discussion of primary topics in the theory of computation, including the theory of recursive functions, Turing machines, and several undecidable problems, such as the halting problem. Prerequisites: Computer Science 201 and either Computer Science 145 or Mathematics 235.

The Computational Image Computer Science 317 This course covers computational techniques for the analysis and synthesis of digital images. Using algorithms and approaches from computational geometry, computer graphics, image processing, computer vision, and augmented reality, students build computer systems that are visually interactive. Topics include image formation, feature extraction, object segmentation, recognition and tracking, rendering, and multiview geometry.

130 Science, Mathematics, and Computing Databases: Theory and Practice Computer Science 321 An introduction to the design, implementation, and uses of databases. Topics include database design, models, integrity, concurrency, security, and query languages. Prerequisite: Computer Science 201.

Computer Graphics Computer Science 322 Students explore the algorithms used to create and manipulate two- and three-dimensional graphic objects. Topics covered include coordinate transformations, projection, hidden surfaces, shading, ray tracing, and texture mapping. Prerequisites: Computer Science 201, Mathematics 242, and permission of the instructor.

Advanced Hardware: Multiprocessor Computer Architecture Computer Science 325 Modern desktop computers typically contain multiple microprocessors. In order to take full advantage of these new machines, one must understand a number of interlocking hardware and software issues, including instruction and thread-level parallelism, architectures for shared memory, and dynamic scheduling. This course combines principles of computer organization as applied to multiprocessor systems with case studies of extant multicore architectures. Prerequisite: Computer Science 201.

problems involving massive amounts of data in a highly fault-tolerant fashion. Students examine the challenges of extending traditional computing systems concepts (e.g. shared state, hardware abstraction, scheduling, file systems, timing, authentication) to a networked setting as well as the architectures, algorithms, and technologies used to design, build, and evaluate distributed computer systems. Prerequisite: Computer Science 201 or permission of the instructor.

Computer Networks Computer Science 335 The course takes a bottom-up approach to computer networking, covering in detail the physical, data-link, MAC, network, transport, and application layers. TCP/IP and OSI reference models are introduced, with examples taken from the Internet, ATM networks, and wireless networks. Prerequisite: Computer Science 201.

Intelligent Robotics and Perception Computer Science 360 An overview of topics in computational perception, machine learning, and robotics. Students learn the underlying principles and methods of intelligent robotic systems, including techniques from sensor processing; robot software architecture; and supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. Throughout the semester, students collaborate to build an intelligent robotic system. Prerequisite: Computer Science 201 or permission of the instructor.

Operating Systems Computer Science 326 The class covers traditional topics of operating systems, including interprocess communication, semaphores, monitors, scheduling algorithms, deadlocks, virtual memory, and file system design. In addition, discussion may include issues in distributed systems such as the clientserver model, remote procedure call, distributed synchronization, transactions, threads, and file servers. Prerequisite: Computer Science 201.

Distributed Systems Computer Science 327 Computing systems are increasingly built in a networked, distributed manner. These systems, often spanning the globe, coordinate to solve

Mathematics Faculty: Samuel K. Hsiao (director), Jules Albertini, James Belk, Maria Belk, Ethan Bloch, John Cullinan, Jennie D’Ambroise, Mark D, Halsey, Gregory Landweber*, Lauren Rose, Branden Stone * on sabbatical, fall 2012

Overview: Mathematics is at the core of human civilization and is the cornerstone of all modern science and technology. The Mathematics Program has three main functions: to provide students in the program with the opportunity to study the primary areas of contemporary math-

Mathematics 131 ematics, to provide physical and social science majors with the necessary mathematical tools for work in their disciplines, and to introduce all students to serious and interesting mathematical ideas and their applications. Requirements: The program requirements are flexible enough to allow a student to prepare for graduate study in mathematics, professional schools (such as medical or law), or employment in the public or private sector. Students in the program are expected to follow the standard divisional procedure for Moderation and to fulfill the collegewide distribution and First-Year Seminar requirements. By the time of Moderation a student in the program should have taken (or be taking) these courses or their equivalents: Mathematics 141, Calculus I; Mathematics 142, Calculus II; Mathematics 212, Calculus III; and Mathematics 261, Proofs and Fundamentals. By graduation, a student must have completed: Mathematics 242, Elementary Linear Algebra; Mathematics 332, Abstract Algebra; Mathematics 361, Real Analysis; at least two other mathematics courses numbered 300 or above; a computer science course, preferably before beginning the Senior Project; and the Senior Project. Recent Senior Projects in Mathematics: “A Structure Theorem for Plesken Lie Algebras over Finite Fields” “Classification of Adinkra Graphs” “Enumerating faces of Zonohedra” “Modeling Origami Folding with Thick Paper” “Voronoi Diagrams with Non-Linear Bisectors” Courses: In addition to the core and elective courses, the Mathematics Program offers tutorials in advanced topics.

Mathematics and Politics Mathematics 106 This course considers applications of mathematics to political science. Five major topics are covered: a model of escalatory behavior, gametheoretic models of international conflict, yesno voting systems, political power, and social choice. The implications of each model presented, as well as the limitations of the model,

are discussed. There is no mathematical prerequisite, but the course includes some algebraic computations and discussion of deductive proofs of the main results.

Topics in Geometrical Mathematics Mathematics 107 Geometrical mathematics involves many topics other than traditional Euclidean geometry, including symmetry, groups, frieze and wallpaper patterns, graphs, surfaces, knots, and higher dimensions. Prerequisite: eligibility for Q courses.

Introduction to Mathematical Modeling Mathematics 109 Mathematical modeling is the process of using mathematics to describe and solve problems about real-world scenarios. A mathematical model is a representation of a particular phenomenon using structures such as graphs, equations, or algorithms. This course presents the skills used in creating, interpreting, and using mathematical models to solve real-world problems. Precise writing, as well as careful use of algebraic manipulations, is stressed.

Precalculus Mathematics Mathematics 110 For students who intend to take calculus and need to acquire the necessary skills in algebra and trigonometry. The concept of function is stressed, with particular attention paid to linear, quadratic, general polynomial, trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions. Graphing in the Cartesian plane and developing the trigonometric functions as circular functions are included. Prerequisites: eligibility for Q courses and satisfactory performance on the precalculus entrance exam.

Chance Mathematics 119 The mathematical theory of probability is useful for quantifying the uncertainty in everyday life. This course introduces basic ideas in discrete probability and explores a wide range of practical applications such as evaluating medical diagnostic tests, courtroom evidence, and data from surveys. The course uses algebra as a problem-solving tool. Prerequisite: passing score on Part I of the Mathematics Diagnostic.

132 Science, Mathematics, and Computing Communications (and Miscommunications) Using Math Mathematics 122 This course introduces the math behind everyday communications, from mass media to cell phones. Topics covered include cryptography, as used in secure websites, and elements of sound and image analysis used in MP3 players and digital cameras. Prerequisite: Mathematics 110 or the equivalent.

Statistics for Everyday Life Mathematics 123 Statistics is used in the stock market, weather forecasting, medical studies by insurance companies, and quality testing. This course introduces core ideas in statistical reasoning to enable students to make sense of the statistics they encounter in the media, in their classes, and in everyday life. Prerequisite: precalculus or the equivalent.

Exploration in Number Theory Mathematics 131 An overview of one of the oldest areas of mathematics, designed for any student who wants a taste of mathematics outside the calculus sequence. Topics include number puzzles, prime numbers, congruences, quadratic reciprocity, sums of squares, Diophantine equations, cryptography, coding theory, and continued fractions. Prerequisite: Mathematics 110 or permission of the instructor.

Game Theory Mathematics 135 Game theory is a mathematical approach to modeling situations of conflict, whether real or theoretical. Using algebra and some analytical geometry, students explore the mathematical foundations of game theory. Topics include zero-sum games, nonzero-sum games, pure and mixed strategies, von Neumann’s minimax theorem, Nash equilibria, and cooperative games. Prerequisite: Mathematics 110 or permission of the instructor.

Voting Theory Mathematics 136 Who should have won the 2000 presidential election? Do any two senators really have equal

power in passing legislation? A mathematical perspective can offer a quantitative analysis of these issues and others. This course considers the advantages and disadvantages of various types of voting systems and shows that, in fact, any such system is flawed. Prerequisite: Mathematics 110 or the equivalent.

Calculus I Mathematics 141 An introduction to the basic ideas of differentiation and integration of functions of one variable. Topics include limits, techniques of differentiation, definite integrals, the fundamental theorem of calculus, and applications. Prerequisite: Mathematics 110 or the equivalent.

Calculus II Mathematics 142 This course, a continuation of Calculus I, reinforces the fundamental ideas of the derivative and the definite integral. Topics include integration techniques, L’Hôpital’s rule, improper integrals, volumes, arc length, sequences and series, power series, continuous random variables, and separable differential equations. Prerequisite: Mathematics 141 or the equivalent.

String Theory Mathematics 191 An introduction to the mathematical ideas underlying string theory, a theory of particle physics that supposes the fundamental constituents of matter and energy are not points, but rather tiny strings or loops. No prior background in physics is required. Prerequisite: Mathematics 141 or the equivalent.

Mathematical Models in Biology Mathematics 209 An introduction to common approaches for dynamic modeling in biology, including difference equations, matrix algebra, and simulation. The main focus is on population and disease models, but there is some flexibility to explore other types of biological examples. Students conduct computer simulations using Matlab. Prerequisite: one year of calculus.

Mathematics 133 Introduction to Differential Equations Mathematics 211 CROSS -LISTED: MBB

Proofs and Fundamentals Mathematics 261

Topics include the classification of differential equations; determining the existence and uniqueness of ordinary differential equations; and solving first- and second-order differential equations using a variety of mathematical tools, such as integrating factors, Laplace transforms, and power series. Prerequisites: Mathematics 141 and 142, or permission of the instructor.

An introduction to the methodology of the mathematical proof. The logic of compound and quantified statements; mathematical induction; and basic set theory, including functions and cardinality, are covered. Topics from foundational mathematics are developed to provide students with an opportunity to apply proof techniques. Prerequisite: Mathematics 142 or permission of the instructor.

Calculus III Mathematics 212

Problem Solving Mathematics 299

This course investigates differentiation and integration of multivariable functions. Topics covered include vectors, coordinate systems, vector-valued functions, partial derivatives, gradients, Lagrange multipliers, multiple integrals, change of variables, line integrals, Green’s theorem, and Stokes’ theorem. Prerequisites: Mathematics 141 and 142, or the equivalent.

The course focuses on solving difficult problems stated in terms of elementary combinatorics, geometry, algebra, and calculus. Each class combines a lecture describing the common tricks and techniques used in a particular field with a problem session in which students work together using those techniques to tackle some particularly challenging problems. Prerequisite: any 200-level mathematics course or permission of the instructor.

Linear Algebra with Ordinary Differential Equations Mathematics 213 Topics in linear algebra include n-dimensional Euclidean space, vectors, matrices, systems of linear equations, determinants, eigenvalues and eigenvectors; topics in ordinary differential equations include graphical methods, separable differential equations, higher order linear differential equations, systems of linear differential equations and applications. Prerequisite: Mathematics 142 or the equivalent.

Elementary Linear Algebra Mathematics 242 This course covers the basics of linear algebra in n-dimensional Euclidean space, including vectors, matrices, systems of linear equations, determinants, and eigenvalues and eigenvectors, as well as applications of these concepts to the natural, physical, and social sciences. Equal time is given to computational, applied, and theoretical aspects of the course material. Prerequisite: Mathematics 141 or permission of the instructor.

Numerical Analysis Lab Mathamatics 301 An introduction to mathematical computation. After reviewing Taylor series and introducing algorithms for finding the zeros of nonlinear functions, solving linear systems quickly, and approximating eigenvalues, the course is devoted to curve fitting by means of polynomial interpolation, splines, bezier curves, and least squares. Other topics: matrix factorizations, the PageRank algorithm, sparse matrices, and vector processing. Corequisites: Mathematics 213 or 242, and any computer science course or basic programming experience.

Computational Geometry Mathematics 303 / Computer Science 303 The focus of this class is on the computational complexity of the algorithms presented and appropriate data structures. Topics may include Voronoi diagrams, convex hull calculations, and line-segment intersections. Prerequisites: Mathematics 212 and 242, and some programming knowledge.

134 Science, Mathematics, and Computing Advanced Calculus Mathematics 312 This course treats the differential and integral calculus of several variables from an advanced perspective. Students are expected to be familiar with the fundamentals of multivariate calculus from Mathematics 212. Topics include curvilinear coordinates, change of variables for multiple integrals, Stokes’ theorem, divergence theorem, Fourier series and transform, and applications to probability and the physical sciences. Prerequisite: Mathematics 212 or permission of the instructor.

Data Analysis: Getting the Extra Rigor Mathematics 313 This course provides the computational, algebraic, and statistical tools needed to understand and make contributions in empirical science. The main focus is multidimensional data—data that typically are a function of space and time. After a solid linear algebra review, topics covered comprise covariance and cross-covariance functions and matrices, spanning sets, spectral representations and truncations, discrete versus continuous spectra and the real number continuum, singular value decomposition, and Monte Carlo techniques. Prerequisites: Mathematics 212 and 242.

Modeling Realizable Phenomena Mathematics 314

theory. Prerequisite: Mathematics 261 or permission of the instructor.

Graph Theory Mathematics 317 Graph theory is a branch of mathematics that has applications in areas ranging from operations research to biology. Topics discussed include connectivity, trees, Hamiltonian and Eulerian paths and cycles; isomorphism and reconstructability; planarity, coloring, colorcritical graphs, and the four-color theorem; intersection graphs and vertex and edge domination; matchings and network flows; matroids and their relationship with optimization; and random graphs. Prerequisite: Mathematics 261 or permission of the instructor.

Probability and Statistics Mathematics 319 CROSS -LISTED: ECONOMICS Every day we make decisions based on numerical data in the face of uncertainty. We do so while reading the latest political polls, playing a card game, or analyzing a scientific experiment. Probabilistic models and statistical methods help us think through such decisions in a precise mathematical fashion. This course provides a calculus-based introduction to the techniques and applications of probability and statistics. Prerequisite: Mathematics 142 or the equivalent.

Modeling plays a prominent role in nearly every aspect of human knowledge—conceptual, qualitative, statistical, analytic, numerical. This course explores a variety of modeling approaches and styles. Topics may include statistical modeling, time series, spatial modeling and kriging, modeling in terms of special complete sets, auto- and cross-correlation functions, Markov chains, differential equations, data assimilation, and combining data with models. Prerequisites: Mathematics 212 and 242.

Partial Differential Equations Mathematics 321

Combinatorics Mathematics 316

The study of techniques for finding optimal solutions to complex decision-making problems. The course tries to answer questions such as how to schedule classes with a limited number of classrooms on campus, how to determine a diet that is both rich in nutrients and low in calories, or how to create an investment portfo-

Combinatorial mathematics is the study of how to combine objects into finite arrangements. Topics covered in this course are chosen from enumeration and generating functions, graph theory, matching and optimization theory, combinatorial designs, ordered sets, and coding

The primary focus is the derivation and solutions of the main examples in the subject rather than on the existence and uniqueness theorems and higher analysis. Topics include hyperbolic and elliptic equations in several variables, Dirichlet problems, the Fourier and Laplace transform, and Green’s functions.

Operations Research Mathematics 322

Mathematics 135 lio that meets investment needs. Techniques covered include linear programming, network flows, integer/combinatorial optimization, and nonlinear programming. Prerequisites: Mathematics 212 and 242.

Dynamical Systems Mathematics 323 An introduction to the theory of discrete dynamical systems. Topics covered include iterated functions, bifurcations, chaos, fractals and fractal dimension, complex functions, Julia sets, and the Mandelbrot set. The class makes extensive use of computers to model the behavior of dynamical systems. Prerequisite: Mathematics 261 or permission of the instructor.

Fourier Analysis and Wavelets Mathematics 324 Recently, signal processing has gone through a mathematical revolution. Traditionally, it was built on the Fourier transform, a tool used to express signals as superpositions of pure sinusoidal functions. While the Fourier transform is suited to understanding physical phenomena, such as waves, it lacks the flexibility to analyze more complicated functions. A new tool, the wavelet transform, has become the staple of many signal processing tasks. This course introduces the mathematical foundations of the Fourier and the wavelet transforms, with excursions into signal processing. Prerequisites: Mathematics 212 and Mathematics 213 or Mathematics 242.

Abstract Algebra Mathematics 332

phisms, inner product spaces, and quadratic forms. It then moves on to multilinear algebra, discussing symmetric and exterior powers, before turning to the Jordan canonical form and related topics. Other more advanced topics may include Hilbert spaces, modules, algebras, and matrix Lie groups. Prerequisite: Mathematics 242; corequisite: Mathematics 332.

Coding Theory Mathematics 340 The digital transmission of information is considered extremely reliable, although it suffers the same sorts of corruption and data loss that plague analog transmission. Digital reliability comes from sophisticated techniques that encode data so that errors can be easily detected and corrected. These error-correcting codes require surprisingly beautiful mathematics. This class introduces the basics of errorcorrecting codes, as well as the mathematics of data compression and encryption. Prerequisites: Mathematics 242 and either Mathematics 261 or Computer Science 145.

Point Set Topology Mathematics 351 Topics addressed include topological spaces, metric spaces, compactness, connectedness, continuity, homomorphisms, separation criteria, and, possibly, the fundamental group. Prerequisite: Mathematics 361 or permission of the instructor.

Differential Geometry Mathematics 352

An introduction to modern abstract algebraic systems. The structures of groups, rings, and fields are studied, together with the homo morphisms of these objects. Topics include equivalence relations, finite groups, group actions, integral domains, polynomial rings, and finite fields. Prerequisite: Mathematics 261 or permission of the instructor.

This course uses methods from multivariable calculus to study the geometry of curves and surfaces in three dimensions. Topics include curvature and torsion of curves, geometry of surfaces, geodesics, spherical and hyperbolic geometry, minimal surfaces, Gaussian curvature, and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. Prerequisites: Mathematics 212, 242, and 261, or permission of the instructor.

Advanced Linear Algebra Mathematics 335

Real Analysis Mathematics 361

This course starts with a discussion of dual spaces, direct sums, quotients, tensor products, spaces of homomorphisms and endomor-

The fundamental ideas of analysis in onedimensional Euclidean space are studied. Topics covered include the completeness of real

136 Science, Mathematics, and Computing numbers, sequences, Cauchy sequences, continuity, uniform continuity, the derivative, and the Riemann integral. As time permits, other topics may be considered, such as infinite series of functions or metric spaces. Prerequisite: Mathematics 261 or permission of the instructor.

Complex Analysis Mathematics 362 This course covers the basic theory of functions of one complex variable. Topics include the geometry of complex numbers, holomorphic and harmonic functions, Cauchy’s theorem and its consequences, Taylor and Laurent series, singularities, residues, elliptic functions, and other topics as time permits. Prerequisite: Mathematics 361 or permission of the instructor.

Computational Algebraic Geometry Mathematics 384 This introduction to computational algebraic geometry and commutative algebra explores the idea of solving systems of polynomial equations by viewing the solutions to these systems as both algebraic and geometric objects. Students learn how these objects can be manipulated using the Groebner basis algorithm. The course includes a mixture of theory and computation as well as connections to other areas of mathematics and to computer science. Prerequisite: Mathematics 332.

Mathematical Logic Mathematics 405 Topics include first-order logic, completeness and compactness theorems, model theory, nonstandard analysis, decidability and undecidability, incompleteness, and Turing machines. Prerequisite: Mathematics 332.

Advanced Topics in Abstract Algebra Mathematics 432 A continuation of Mathematics 332. The primary goal is to develop the Galois theory of fields. Students explore the theory of field extensions, including algebraic extensions, automorphisms of fields, splitting fields, and separable extensions. As time permits, students may develop some topics in advanced group theory. Prerequisite: Mathematics 332 or permission of the instructor.

Modern Geometry Mathematics 453 This course looks at Euclidean, non-Euclidean (hyperbolic and elliptic), and projective geometries, making use of tools from linear algebra and abstract algebra. Prerequisites: Mathematics 242 and Mathematics 332 (which can be taken simultaneously with this course), or permission of instructor.

Knot Theory Mathematics 454 Knot theory is an active branch of contemporary mathematics that involves many problems that are easy to state but difficult to solve. This course is an introduction to the theory of knots and links. Topics include methods of knot tabulation, knot diagrams, Reidemeister moves, invariants of knots, and knot polynomials. Prerequisite: Mathematics 351 or 361 or permission of the instructor.

Physics Faculty: Matthew Deady (director), Christian Bracher, Paul Cadden-Zimansky, Simeen Sattar, Peter D. Skiff Overview: The Physics Program provides a firm foundation for work in a variety of areas, including graduate work in physics and allied fields. A student usually takes the core courses listed below, although in some cases the student and faculty may decide that not all the courses are appropriate because of advanced preparation or the particular focus of the student’s work. The student also chooses a number of electives according to personal interests. Students are expected to follow the standard divisional procedure for Moderation and to fulfill the collegewide distribution and First-Year Seminar requirements. Requirements: Prior to Moderation, a student has usually completed Physics 141 and 142, Introduction to Physics I and II; Mathematics 141 and 142, Calculus I and II; and at least one 300-level course in physics. Physics majors are

Physics 137 required to complete the courses listed above plus Physics 241, Modern Physics; Physics 303, Mechanics; Physics 312, Electricity and Magnetism; Physics 314, Thermal Physics; at least one 400-level physics course; Mathematics 211, Introduction to Differential Equations; Mathematics 212, Calculus III; and the Senior Project. Recent Senior Projects in Physics: “Aeroelasticity and vibration of composite aircraft wings: Transverse oscillations of composite wings modeled as simple beams” “The Casimir Oscillator,” a description of quantum phenomenon to produce a nonharmonic oscillator “Eddy Current Forces and Torques Experienced by a Moving Magnet” “Factorization, SUSY QM, and Shape Invariance” Courses: In addition to the core required courses, electives include mathematical courses (e.g., Physics 221 and 222, Mathematical Methods of Physics I and II) and advanced laboratory and theoretical courses, including Physics 210, Introduction to Electronics, and Physics 403, Quantum Mechanics. Additionally, tutorials are offered for advanced study on such topics as general relativity, nuclear and particle physics, and condensed matter physics.

Acoustics Physics 116 This laboratory course provides an introduction to the phenomena of acoustics, particularly aspects that are important in the production and perception of music. The physics of sound is covered in depth, and characteristics of acoustic and electronic instruments are discussed. Mathematical and laboratory techniques are introduced as needed.

Light and Color Physics 118 An introduction to light, optical phenomena, and related devices, including some historical perspective; classical and modern models of light; light and color in nature and vision; the geometrical optics of lenses, mirrors, and related devices; the physical optics of interfer-

ence and diffraction; spectroscopy and polarization; color science, lasers, and holography. The class develops models and explores them in weekly labs. Prerequisites: high school algebra and trigonometry.

The Physics of Stuff: The Structure and Properties of Matter Physics 119 This course explores the physical principles underlying the organization of matter into increasingly complex structures and the resulting properties. Topics may include particles, nuclei, radioactivity, the concept of energy, atoms and molecules, the electric force, fundamentals of quantum mechanics, gases, crystals, basic laws of thermodynamics, polymers, and biological matter, with selected applications. Laboratory sessions are devoted to the study of the physical properties of materials. A working knowledge of elementary algebra is required.

Climate Change Physics 124 This lab course explores the physical principles underlying climate and anthropogenic climate change. It surveys the most compelling lines of evidence for climate change and studies current observations in the broader context of past climates. Policy mitigation efforts and their implementation obstacles are also discussed. While not technical per se, students must have the ability to solve linear algebraic equations and perform basic manipulation of data.

The Quantum World Physics 137 For centuries it was supposed that the motion of objects, ranging in size from planets to those visible only through a microscope, was governed by the same laws. In the 20th century this assumption was found to be false for molecules, atoms, and electrons. This course examines the surprising behavior of these very small objects, as revealed by their interaction with light. Basic calculus skills are essential. Prerequisites: high school physics or chemistry, and Calculus I or the equivalent.

138 Science, Mathematics, and Computing Introduction to Physics I Physics 141

Computational Physics Physics 225

A calculus-based survey of physics. The first semester covers topics in mechanics, heat and thermodynamics, and wave motion. The course stresses ideas—the unifying principles and characteristic models of physics. Labs develop the critical ability to elicit understanding of the physical world. Corequisite: Mathematics 141.

Students apply computational techniques to solve problems in sciences generally and in physics and engineering particularly. They program specific physical problems and learn the theoretical base of the techniques used. This course introduces computational tools and teaches their application. This is an applied course, designed on the basis of the theme “Learn via Applications.” No prior experience with computer programming is required. Prerequisites: Mathematics 141 and 142.

Introduction to Physics II Physics 142 This is the second part of a calculus-based survey course, continuing with electricity and magnetism, light, and basic atomic and modern physics. Prerequisites: Physics 141 and Mathematics 141.

Introduction to Electronics Physics 210 A survey of analog electronics, beginning with Kirchhoff’s laws, voltage dividers, and filters, and proceeding to power supplies, amplifiers, oscillators, operational amplifiers, timers, and integrated circuits (ICs). Semiconductor diodes, bipolar and field-effect transistors, and ICs are employed. The semester ends with a brief introduction to digital electronics. The course consists of equal parts lecture and lab. Corequisites: at least one physics course and one mathematics course numbered above 140.

Mathematical Methods of Physics I Physics 221 This course presents methods of mathematics that are useful in the physical sciences. While some proofs and demonstrations are given, the emphasis is on the applications. Topics include: power series, probability and statistics, multivariable differentiation and integration, and curvilinear coordinate systems. Prerequisites: Mathematics 141 and 142, or the equivalent.

Mathematical Methods of Physics II Physics 222 Topics include vector calculus, complex numbers and functions, Fourier series, and orthogonal functions. Prerequisites: Mathematics 141 and 142, or the equivalent.

The Atmosphere and the Ocean in Motion Physics 234 What would climate change look like? To a large extent, it depends on fluid motions. Would Europe wither in deep chill? That depends on the response of the Gulf Stream System to greenhouse forcing. Would polar bears go extinct? That depends on circulation changes in the Arctic Ocean. This is a semitechnical course designed to help interested students acquire the tools needed to answer questions like those above. Prerequisite: Physics 141 or equivalent.

Modern Physics Physics 241 A topical course in the development of modern physics from the theory of relativity to quantum mechanics. Relativity, photoelectric effect, X‑ray production and scattering, nuclear transmutation, alpha and beta radiation processes, particles and quasiparticles. Prerequisites: Physics 141 and 142; Mathematics 141 and 142.

Mechanics Physics 303 This course in particle kinematics and dynamics in one, two, and three dimensions covers conservation laws, coordinate transformations, and problem-solving techniques in differential equations, vector calculus, and linear algebra. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations are also studied. Prerequisites: Physics 141 and 142, and Mathematics 141 and 142.

Psychology 139 Electricity and Magnetism Physics 312 This course covers electrostatics, conductors, and dielectrics; Laplace’s equation and characteristic fields; magnetostatics, magnetodynamics, and the magnetic properties of matter; flow of charge and circuit theory; and Maxwell’s equations and the energy-momentum transfer of electromagnetic radiation. Prerequisites: Physics 141 and 142, and Mathematics 211.

to cosmic evolution, noting current problems of cosmic acceleration. Historical topics include the Einstein-Grossmann “Entwurf,” retrodiction of Mercury’s orbit, the 1919 eclipse and subsequent gravitational lensing, and Gravity Probe B, among others. Prerequisites: Physics 303 and 241; Mathematics 212.

Psychology Thermal Physics Physics 314

An introduction to the elements of thermodynamics, kinetic theory, and statistical mechanics; equations of state; first and second laws; distribution functions; the partition function; and quantum statistics. Prerequisites: Physics 141 and 142, and Mathematics 142.

Faculty: Frank M. Scalzo (director ), Sarah Dunphy-Lelii, Andrew C. Gallup, Richard Gordon, Kristin Lane, Barbara Luka, Stuart Stritzler-Levine

Quantum Mechanics Physics 403 An introduction to elements of Schrödinger and Heisenberg formulations of quantum mechanics, including potential wells, hydrogen atoms, scattering, harmonic oscillators, perturbation theory, and angular momentum. Prerequisite: Physics 241.

Condensed Matter Physics Physics 418 An overview of the physics of the solid and liquid states of matter. Possible topics include crystalline structure of solids; X-ray scattering; lattice vibrations; elasticity; band structure; electrical and optical properties of metals, semiconductors, and insulators; magnetism and Hall effect; superfluidity and superconductivity; polymers; and “soft matter.” Prerequisites: Physics 141, 142, and 241.

General Relativity Physics 444 A course on Einstein’s “General Theory of Relativity and Gravity.” Elements of tensor analysis and differential geometry are developed to explore metrics on a pseudoRiemannian manifold. The Schwarzschild metric is then employed for applications to dynamics near massive objects, including black holes. The Robertson-Walker metric is applied

Overview: The science of psychology is a quest to understand the human mind and behavior. Bard psychology faculty and students seek to answer questions about the workings of the brain; the interactions of brain, mind, and behavior; the person in social context; the development of the person throughout childhood and adulthood; the nature of thinking and language; and the problems and pathologies that people develop, along with methods of helping them. The Psychology Program is rooted in the idea that mind and behavior are best understood from multiple, intersecting levels of analysis, ranging from biological mechanisms and individual psychological processes to social, cultural, and other environmental influences. The Psychology Program offers all students the opportunity to learn how the unique perspectives and empirical methods of psychology can illuminate human thought and behavior. The language and analytical approaches of psychology have become a common basis for many professional endeavors, making students who concentrate in psychology well equipped for graduate study in this field, as well as in a variety of related career pursuits. Areas of Study: The program of study provides grounding in the areas of clinical psychology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, neuroscience, and social psychology. It provides a thorough foundation in empirical

140 Science, Mathematics, and Computing methodology and analysis, and offers opportunities to participate in meaningful research and laboratory experiences In brief, clinical psychology is both an applied discipline and a research-oriented science that pertains to the study of psychopathology (i.e., psychological disorders), personality, and treatment of psychopathology. Cognitive psychology seeks to understand how the human brain governs action, imagination, decision making, and communication. Developmental psychology involves the study of change (both growth and decline) over the life span, including changes in cognition, social interaction, and brain development. Neuroscience focuses on understanding the structure and function of the central and peripheral nervous systems as it investigates questions of brain and behavioral development, normal brain function, and disease processes. Finally, social psychology is the scientific study of people in their social contexts, emphasizing the empirical study of behavior and social thought, preferences, and feelings about oneself, one’s social groups, and others. Requirements: Psychological knowledge, techniques, and skills may be applied in many careers and provide background for students entering graduate work in psychology and related areas. Prior to Moderation in psychology, students entering the College in or after the fall semester of 2012 are required to complete the following courses with a grade of C or higher: Introduction to Psychological Science (Psychology 103), preferably in the first year (although a score of 5 on the AP Psychology exam fulfills the requirement); a sophomore sequence of Statistics for Psychology (Psychology 203) in the fall and Research Methods in Psychology (Psychology 204) in the spring; and at least two 200-level courses in psychology. Psychology students must complete the following requirements to graduate: two additional 200-level courses in psychology; one course in biology, chemistry, computer science, mathematics, or physics; two 300-level courses following Moderation, at least one of which must be

completed before beginning the Senior Project; and the Senior Project. At least one 200-level course must be completed from each of the following course clusters: Cluster A: Personality Psychology (Psychology 245); Development and Psychopathology (Psychology 210); Adult Psychopathology (Psychology 264). Cluster B: Developmental Psychology (Psychology 216); Social Psychology (Psychology 240). Cluster C: Cognitive Psychology (Psychology 228); Neuroscience (Psychology 230). Although the Psychology Program is housed in the Division of Science, Mathematics, and Computing, students decide at the time of Moderation whether they will pursue their degree in psychology from either the Division of Science, Mathematics, and Computing (SM&C) or the Division of Social Studies (SSt). These divisional degrees are distinguished by two features: a) an SSt degree entails at least two courses in one or more related disciplines in the Social Studies Division (see the Psychology Program website for particular courses that fulfill this requirement) and b) the Senior Project for an SM&C degree must have an empirical focus, in which the student collects and analyzes data, or presents a detailed plan for doing so. The SSt Senior Project does not carry this requirement, though it may of course do this. An SSt degree may be particularly suited for those intending to pursue law, social work, or education; and an SM&C degree may be particularly suited for students intending to pursue a research degree in psychology, medicine, or the natural sciences Requirements for students entering the College prior to fall 2012 can be found on the Psychology Program website. Opportunities for Additional Learning: Students are strongly encouraged to pursue opportunities for research or community-based practicum experiences that complement their regular course work and that connect academic learning with practical applications. The program offers advanced methodology courses in

Psychology 141 clinical psychology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, social psychology, and neuroscience under the direction of program faculty that provide ideal opportunities for learning how to conduct research in each subfield of psychology. In addition, opportunities exist in local communities for students to pursue interests in cognitive, clinical, and developmental psychology. Students are also encouraged to gain experience through summer research opportunities in the Bard Summer Research Institute. Students have also been successful at obtaining summer research positions at major universities. Recent Senior Projects in Psychology: “Children of Katrina: Education as a Means of Promoting Childhood Resilience in a Community Recovering from Natural Disaster” “(Dis)order in the Court: Gender and Jurors’ Decisions about Mentally Ill Offenders of Filicide” “Growing Up Bipolar: Social, Emotional, and Cognitive Contributions to the Diagnosis of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder” “In Search of a Causal Relationship between Anxiety and Alcoholism, Using Zebrafish as an Animal Model” “The Influence of Musical Training on Sensory Integration and Attentional Control” Courses: The course descriptions that follow are listed numerically, from introductory 100level courses to 300-level Upper College courses and seminars.

Introduction to Psychological Science Psychology 103 How does the mind create the reality we perceive? How do experiences shape the brain, and how do processes in the brain influence thought, emotion, and behavior? This course investigates these and similar questions by studying the science of the human mind and behavior. Topics covered include memory, perception, development, psychopathology, personality, and social behavior. A focus is on the biological, cognitive, and social/cultural roots that give rise to human experience. The course

also considers how behavior differs among people and across situations.

Introduction to Statistics for Psychology Psychology 203 An introduction to the concepts and methods of statistics, aimed at helping students gain a fundamental grasp of the tools needed to understand and conduct research in psychology. Topics include frequency distributions and probability, descriptive statistics, simple correlation and regression, sampling distributions, t-tests, and basic analysis of variance. This course is the first of a two-course sequence in statistics and research methods that is required of all prospective psychology majors.

Research Methods in Psychology: Labs A and B Psychology 204 CROSS -LISTED: MBB This course is a continuation of Psychology 203. It extends the skills and abilities acquired in that course, and provides an introduction to the research methods and data analyses used in the study of psychology. Students explore research methods and design through a combination of readings, lectures, class discussions, and handson laboratory experience. Learning to present research results in different ways is emphasized. Ethical issues are discussed at each stage of the research process, and students learn to assess research critically.

Development and Psychopathology Psychology 210 CROSS -LISTED: MBB This course investigates the early and multiple factors contributing to psychopathology emerging in childhood, as well as the diagnostic and treatment standards now in practice. Students work from an empirically based developmental psychopathology perspective, with an emphasis on the risk and protective factors that shape abnormal and normal developmental trajectories. The course explores various models for understanding maladaptive development through the examination of current research and diagnostic practices in specific diagnostic areas.

142 Science, Mathematics, and Computing Developmental Psychology Psychology 216 CROSS -LISTED: GSS This course explores the many ways in which humans grow and change across the life span, and the ways that cultures deal with these changes. The physical, motor, cognitive, intellectual, emotional, personality, and social changes from infancy and childhood through old age are examined. Textbook, research articles, and popular writings on the nature of growth and decline at different life stages are used to facilitate discussion and writing.

Social Neuroscience Psychology 223 CROSS -LISTED: BIOLOGY Social neuroscience aims to elucidate the links among mind, brain, and social behavior. The course covers basic neuroanatomy and explores research on the neural underpinnings of social judgments, culture and cognition, emotion recognition, embodied cognition, empathy, attachment, theory of mind, sexual attraction, endocrine responses, love, and neuroeconomics, among other topics. Students are introduced to various neuroscience methods involving social psychology paradigms, lesion studies, patient research, and neuroimaging. Prerequisite: an introductory psychology or biology course, or permission of the instructor.

Child Development Psychology 224 This specialized course prepares students to understand the biological, motor, perceptual, cognitive (including intelligence), language, emotional, social, and gender development of children. The process of human development from conception through early adolescence is studied, with an emphasis on what enables children to reach physical, mental, emotional, and social maturity, and what environments promote their optimum development. This class is not appropriate for students who have already taken Psychology 216.

Introduction to Cognitive Psychology Psychology 228 This course is about how people perceive, remember, and think about information. The

major topics covered include object recognition, memory, concept formation, language, visual knowledge, judgment, reasoning, problem solving, and conscious and unconscious thought. The course also considers the neural underpinnings of these topics. Prerequisite: Psychology 103 or permission of the instructor.

Neuroscience Psychology 230 The ability to express thoughts and emotions and to interact with the environment largely depends on the function of the nervous system. This course examines basic concepts and methods in the study of brain, mind, and behavior. Topics include the structure and function of the central nervous system, brain development, learning and memory, emotion, sensory and motor systems, the assessment of human brain damage, and clinical disorders such as schizophrenia, epilepsy, and Parkinson’s disease.

Clinical Psychology Psychology 238 Clinical psychology involves the integration of research, theory, and therapy/consultation to better understand, predict, prevent, and/or treat psychological illnesses and symptoms. It also promotes functional adaptation and “healthy” forms of coping. This course provides a broad overview and critical evaluation of various clinical approaches to assessment, research, and treatment. In addition, it considers current controversies in the field, addresses ethical issues, and discusses what being a clinical psychologist entails. Prerequisite: Psychology 103.

Social Psychology Psychology 240 CROSS -LISTED: GSS Social psychology is the scientific study of human thought, behavior, and feelings in their social contexts. This course surveys many of the processes that influence and are influenced by our interactions with others. Students use principles of social psychology to understand the ordinary origins of benevolent (e.g., altruism) and malevolent (e.g., aggression) aspects of human behavior. The course emphasizes the influence of culture, race, and gender on the topics addressed. Prerequisite: Psychology 103.

Psychology 143 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 241 A review of the main forms of psychopathology, with an emphasis on clinical definition, formal diagnosis, etiology, and treatment. The system of psychiatric diagnosis offered by the DSM-IV is utilized in defining clinical syndromes including anxiety disorders, conversion disorders, psychophysiological disorders, antisocial and impulse disorders, schizophrenia, affective disorders, alcoholism, and eating disorders.

Personality Psychology Psychology 245 A broad overview of the major historical and contemporary psychological theories of personality and their applications. Theories covered include, but are not limited to, psychoanalytic, neoanalytic, existential, humanist, behavioral, cognitive, and trait. The applications of personality theory to the understanding of health and behavior (i.e., clinical applications) and Axis II personality disorders are also considered.

Health Psychology Psychology 247 This course provides a survey of health psychology—the scientific study of behavioral, cognitive, and affective influences on biological function. Course work emphasizes the interaction of biological and psychological factors on individuals’ health. Among the topics covered are behavioral influences in cardiovascular disease, weight management, pain management, physiological manifestations of stress, and lifestyle interventions. A focus is on the biopsychosocial model in understanding health and disease. Prerequisite: Psychology 103 or an introductory level course in biology.

Human Memory Psychology 248 This course is an overview of classic theories and current research in human learning and memory. Students evaluate models of memory, including debates on the cognitive representations of knowledge. They examine the role of awareness in memory, false memory, the biological bases of memory, diseases and disorders of memory, and methods for brain imaging. Prerequisite: 100-

level course in psychology or biology, or permission of the instructor.

History and Systems in Psychology Psychology 249 This course reviews theoretical insights and conceptual attempts to understand human behavior, from speculations within the ancient world to current scientific thinking and methods. Because a discipline is also about the people who advance it, students are introduced to the lives, times, and ideas of individuals who have made significant contributions to the field, among them James, Pavlov, Freud, Skinner, and Asch. Critical analyses and integrations are juxtaposed with historical renderings.

Psychology of Women Psychology 250 CROSS -LISTED: GSS An integrated study of women’s behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and social experiences, as well as a variety of issues faced by women. The course offers a broad overview of relevant topics, among them sex differences and similarities in personality and cognition, gender development, media portrayals, and violence against women. Several disciplinary domains of psychology (e.g., personality, abnormal/clinical, social, developmental) provide the theoretical and research lenses through which these topics are contextualized. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

Drugs and Human Behavior Psychology 252 CROSS -LISTED: MBB, AND BEHAVIOR; STS An exploration of the biological bases for the behavioral effects of several psychoactive substances including therapeutic compounds, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants, and drugs of abuse. The course focuses on mechanisms of drug action and physiological and behavioral effects. Broader societal issues such as drug addiction, drug policies and testing, and controversial therapeutic interventions are discussed in relation to selected compounds. Prerequisite: an introductory psychology or biology course, or permission of the instructor.

144 Science, Mathematics, and Computing Cultural Perspectives of Human Development Psychology 255 This course explores the nature of culture as an environmental context within which development occurs across the life span. It examines cross-cultural research from two perspectives: cross-national comparisons and subcultures within a larger, dominant culture. Particular focus is placed on the contrasting of Western and non-Western cultures. Empirical investigations of cultural variability in development are strongly emphasized. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

Psycholinguistics Psychology 256 CROSS -LISTED: MBB An introduction to psycholinguistics, the study of the relationship between language and cognition. The goal of the course is to develop a deeper understanding of this relationship, by examining how language is represented, processed, and acquired, and related issues. Research areas relevant to psychology, linguistics, philosophy, computer science, and neuroscience are addressed.

Madness, Genius, and Creativity Psychology 257 Are people of higher intellect and creativity more susceptible to “madness” (i.e., mental illness, psychological disorders)? Does madness lead to creativity and genius, or do creativity and genius render one mad? Ultimately, is the supposed connection between madness and creativity, or madness and genius, a fallacy, or is such a connection indeed a truism that warrants further empirical and conceptual inspection? This course explores these questions and critically examines various possible answers. Permission of instructor required.

Adult Psychopathology Psychology 264 This course examines various forms of adult psychopathology (i.e., psychological disorders) within the contexts of theoretical conceptualizations, research, and treatment. Etiology and pathogenesis of symptoms (both core and associated), diagnostic classifications, and treatment

applications are addressed. Adult forms of psychopathology that receive the primary emphasis of study include anxiety, mood, psychotic, and substance-related disorders. Prerequisite: Psychology 103 or permission of the instructor.

Close Relationships Psychology 268 CROSS -LISTED: GSS This course takes a social psychological perspective as it explores interpersonal attraction, theories of love and relationship development, common problems in relationships ( jealousy, loneliness, conflict), and therapeutic interventions. The major theories of close relationships are emphasized, including examinations of evolutionary, attachment, interdependence, and cognitive approaches. Methodological concerns are discussed within the context of each topic. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

Judgment and Decision Making Psychology 271 CROSS -LISTED: MBB John F. Kennedy once noted, “The essence of ultimate decision remains impenetrable to the observer—often, indeed, to the decider himself.” As this quote reminds us, conscious reflection and verbal report often lead to inaccurate descriptions of the causes of our judgments and decisions. In this course, students strive to ascertain the underlying causes of these mental processes by relying on contemporary research in fields such as psychology, neuroscience, economics, and political science. Source materials include empirical articles, review papers, videos, and case studies.

Seminar in Cognitive Science Psychology 308 CROSS -LISTED: PHILOSOPHY Juniors and seniors studying cognitive science are strongly urged to take this two-credit course. Each student presents research in progress or a significant paper from the current literature. The purpose of the seminar is to help students become familiar with a cross-section of current cognitive science research, including topics from cognitive psychology, neuroscience, computational modeling, philosophy of mind,

Psychology 145 linguistics, music cognition, and artificial intelligence. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

Psychophysiology: The Mind-Body Connection Psychology 324 Psychophysiology correlates cognitive, emotional, and behavioral phenomena to physiological responses. This course emphasizes theory, research methodology (strengths and limitations of each measure), and practical applications. A variety of response systems are covered, including heart rate, skin conductance, muscle activity (electromyography), changes in pupil diameter, and eye gaze. Special attention is paid to measures of brain activity, including electroencephalography, event-related potentials, functional magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, and magnetoencephalography. Prerequisite: Moderation into psychology or consent of instructor.

Anxiety and Its Disorders Psychology 325 Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent, and the most treatable, of all psychological illnesses. This course provides a detailed overview and critical analysis of anxiety disorders with particular focus on the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of such disorders. Recent psychological and cognitive-behavioral models and approaches, and related empirical findings, are emphasized. Prerequisite: Psychology 241, 245, or 264.

Grounded Cognition and the Representation of Knowledge Psychology 331 “Grounded Cognition” proposes that cognitive systems evolved to support action, so that perceptual systems are the foundation of concepts in memory. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods provide strong support for this new perspective, driving a reevaluation of long-held assumptions regarding the representation of concepts, processes of memory, and the role of language in cognition. This course examines these new theories on the “embodiment” of knowledge in the context of prevailing paradigms. Prerequisite: Moderation in psychology or permission of the instructor.

Psychology of Prejudice and Stereotyping Psychology 337 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This course focuses on the empirical study of intergroup relations. It is designed to provide an overview of the social psychological study of issues in prejudice and stereotyping. The bulk of the course examines the cognitive, affective, and motivational origins of stereotyping and prejudice, but students also explore the experience of being a target of prejudice. A broad range of social groupings are considered, including gender and ethnicity, as are scientifically based means of prejudice reduction.

Cognitive and Neural Bases of Metaphor Comprehension Psychology 339 CROSS -LISTED: MBB A basic assumption of language processing research is that the meaning of a sentence arises from the sum of the meanings of its constituent words. Figurative expressions, in contrast, convey meaning that extends beyond the literal meanings of the words—i.e., “You are the sunshine of my life.” Models of language processing predicted that metaphor comprehension would require more cognitive effort, and take more time, for a listener to infer the intended meaning. Instead, research shows that even novel metaphorical expressions are understood quickly and easily. Students examine the cognitive and neurological characteristics that make this paradoxical accomplishment possible.

Self and Identity Psychology 340 “Who am I?” This deceptively simple question underlies classic and current research about the self. This course covers such topics as selfesteem, self-concept, self-illusions, and the centrality of the self in processes such as memory, impression formation, and attitude formation. It also considers how children develop the concept of self as separate from other people, and how identity develops over the life span. Prerequisites: Psychology 103, 203, and 204, or their equivalents.

146 Science, Mathematics, and Computing The Medication of Distress Psychology 343 CROSS -LISTED: STS

The Work and Legacy of Stanley Milgram Psychology 348 CROSS -LISTED: STS

This course examines the rise in the use of psychotropic medications to deal with a wide spectrum of human behavioral difficulties. Beginning with the origins of modern medication in the antipsychotic, antidepressant, and antianxiety drugs of the 1950s, it focuses on three disorders in which medications have played a central role: depression, obsessivecompulsive disorder, and attention-deficit disorder. Contrasting viewpoints on the nature, origins, and treatment of these disorders are critically examined. Prerequisite: Moderation in psychology or permission of the instructor.

It has been more than 40 years since the work of Stanley Milgram demonstrated that large numbers of individuals, in multiple samples of men and women studied, were willing to punish another person when ordered to do so by an experimenter. This seminar considers the prominence of Milgram’s work and its continued relevance to the study of social psychology.

Recent Developments in Pharmacotherapies for Mental Illness Psychology 345 CROSS -LISTED: STS This seminar examines newly discovered drug treatments for several mental illnesses. Initial class meetings focus on in-depth readings that provide a background for understanding the methods used for identifying and testing potential new therapies. Subsequent meetings consist of student-led discussions of topics of interest. Prerequisite: Moderation in psychology or permission of the instructor.

Brain Mechanisms and Addictive Behavior Psychology 347 Rapid strides have been made recently in our understanding of the neurological underpinnings of addiction. This research conference provides a brief history of our understanding of the mechanisms of brain reward systems and how findings have led to modern concepts of addictive behavior. Students analyze contemporary theoretical and neurobiological approaches to conceptualizing and treating addictive behaviors, particularly drug abuse, and examine the extension of the addiction concept to such behaviors as gambling, eating, and sexual activity.

The Psychology of Sexual Behavior: Clinical Considerations Psychology 351 CROSS -LISTED: GSS This course provides an in-depth empirical, conceptual, and theoretical examination of sexual behavior and its relevance to clinical science and psychotherapy. Topics include, but are not limited to, sexual ethics and boundaries in the therapeutic relationship; “healthy” sexual functioning; sexual disorders (e.g., premature ejaculation, fetishism) and their treatment; the controversial and questionable veracity of sexual addiction as a diagnostic category; and sexual trauma. Prerequisite: Psychology 210, 241, or 264.

Comparative Cognition Psychology 359 Comparative cognition explores the evolutionary origins of the human mind by comparing the cognitive abilities of humans and other animals. The primary focus of this course is the evolutionary underpinnings of social cognition. Students discuss scientific, empirical literature comparing the abilities of human children and animals, and consider which experimental methodologies might be used to address the questions raised.

Children with Autism Psychology 364 Within the last 25 years, autism has become one of the most widely recognized childhood disorders. Where did it come from? How have we grappled with its increased prevalence? What is the long-term outlook for these children? The class explores the major theories of autism and the predominant diagnostic methods. Readings consist predominantly of primary empirical

Psychology 147 work, augmented by theoretical and popular writing. Prerequisites: Psychology 103 and at least one of the following: Developmental Psychology, Child Development, or Adult Psychopathology.

Sex, Brain, and Behavior Psychology 365 CROSS -LISTED: GSS; MBB From sexual differentiation to partner preference to parental care, sex-related behaviors help to shape and drive processes that allow an organism to adapt to its environment. This course examines research on sex-related behavior in human and nonhuman animals and discusses the neural and hormonal mechanisms that regulate these behaviors. Prerequisites: Psychology 103 and at least one of the following: Neuroscience, Health Psychology, Social Neuroscience, or Drugs and Human Behavior.

Cultural Psychology Psychology 366 This course examines the interaction of culture and the mind, and explores theoretical developments and methodological limitations in the field. Topics include the influence of culture on self, cognition, social relationships, and wellbeing. The course has a particular focus on comparing cultures in East Asia, Latin America, Western Europe, and parts of North America. Prerequisite: Moderation into psychology or permission of the instructor.

Automaticity of Social Life Psychology 367 CROSS -LISTED: MBB The idea that much of mental life occurs without conscious intention, awareness, or control has taken root as one of the central tenets of contemporary psychology. This seminar explores the ways in which large swaths of mental processes and behavior operate outside of conscious awareness. Readings draw from cognitive, social, and clinical psychology as well as neuroscience and philosophy. Prerequisites: Moderation into psychology or the Mind, Brain, and Behavior concentration; and at least one of the following: Psychology 228, 240, 248, or 271.

Cognitive Psychology: Advanced Methodology PSY COG CROSS -LISTED: MBB This course provides an opportunity for guided research in psycholinguistics. Students contribute to ongoing studies of language comprehension, including preparing stimuli, working with participants, analyzing collected data, reviewing recently published empirical papers, and developing an independent project. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

Developmental Psychology: Advanced Methodology PSY DEV CROSS -LISTED: MBB In this course, students participate in laboratory research in child developmental psychology. Special emphasis is placed on 3- to 5-year-olds’ social cognition, perspective taking, and memory in the context of games. The bulk of the course is taken up by independent laboratory work and research, and students work with young children, parents, and members of the community to initiate research protocols.

Neuroscience: Advanced Methodology PSY NEU Students participate in laboratory research in developmental psychopharmacology, neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, and/or neurobehavioral teratology using the zebrafish as an animal model. Within these general fields, specific roles of neurotransmitter systems in normal behavioral development and the neurobehavioral effects of chemical insults during early development are investigated.

Social Psychology: Advanced Methodology PSY SOC This course provides an opportunity for guided research in social psychology. Students participate in laboratory research on stress and social relationships and conduct an independent project. The majority of time in this course consists of independent laboratory work and research.

148 Science, Mathematics, and Computing

Additional Courses in the Sciences Courses listed under this heading are introductory courses in branches of science that do not fit into the six divisional programs, or that approach the study of science from historical or philosophical points of view.

Astronomy Science 161 An introduction to astronomy and astrophysics that covers the current status of knowledge and theories of the solar system, individual stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium. Theories of quasars, pulsars, supernovas, X-ray stars, and black holes are discussed in terms of models of stellar, galactic, and cosmic evolution.

Paints and the Examination of Paintings Science 123

Cosmology Science 162

This course is about the composition of pigments, dyes, and paints; the chemistry underlying selected techniques (e.g., Attic vase and fresco painting); and scientific methods for examining paintings. As light, atoms, and molecules are central to paints and techniques for examining paintings, the course begins with these foundational topics. Laboratory work includes synthesis and analysis of pigments and dyes, and preparation of binders and paints.

A descriptive review of the astrophysical theories of the origin and development of the early universe. The Big Bang theory is examined in detail, with attendant evidence and theories of particles, fields, energy and entropy, and spacetime geometry. Current models of supernovas, quasars, black and white holes, dark matter, quantum foam, and recent alternative models of supersymmetry and superstrings are reviewed.

Artists’ Materials: Metals and Prints Science 125 Topics covered include the properties of metals, formation of alloys, oxidation of metal surfaces by chemical and electrochemical means, and the chemistry of early photographic processes. Lab work includes preparation of bronze, etching, and anodization of metals; and making prints by the salted paper, blueprint, and gum bichromate processes.

Starlight Science 143 One of our species’ most amazing achievements is a fairly good understanding of the composition of stars, despite our confinement to Earth. Since no space probe has gone near any star besides the sun, our understanding comes from a close examination of starlight—by a process resembling Isaac Newton’s decomposition of sunlight into its colors—and our modern understanding of atoms and molecules. This course is about the analysis of starlight, and what it tells us about the composition of stars, their temperatures, and their motions.

The History of Science before Newton Science History and Philosophy 222 T. S. Kuhn’s model of historical progress is used to examine selected parts of discourses involving pre-Socratic philosophy, mythology, Copernican astronomy, Galileo’s trial, and Newton’s philosophy.

Physical Science after Newton Science History and Philosophy 223 CROSS -LISTED: STS, VICTORIAN STUDIES A survey of major agendas of physical science since 1750. Characteristic episodes include Lavoisier and the theory of elements; Maxwell and the mathematization of physics; arguments about light from Newton, Young, Michelson, and Einstein; 20th-century atomic theory; and the emergence of “big science.”

Science and Pseudoscience Science History and Philosophy 227 CROSS -LISTED: STS This course examines a number of well-studied 20th-century incidences of pseudoscience in physical science, including Blondlot’s N-rays, Langmuir’s criteria, Ehrenhaft’s electrons, polywater, cold fusion, and the fifth force. No background in science or mathematics is required.

Division of Social Studies

The Division of Social Studies offers academic programs in anthropology, economics, economics and finance, history, philosophy, political studies, religion, and sociology. Additional courses are available through interdivisional programs and concentrations. Students are advised to take courses from a range of fields in the division in order to develop a comprehensive perspective on humanity in both contemporary and historical contexts. By applying what they have learned of general philosophical, historical, and scientific methods and of particular research methods and interpretations, students will be able to focus on some aspect of the diversity of human cultures and civilizations, institutions, values, and beliefs. Although the main emphasis in the division is on a liberal arts curriculum, students are encouraged to design programs to satisfy personal needs and interests in preparation for work in graduate or professional school or a profession requiring no further training. Typically, courses in the Upper College are seminars, in which the student is expected to participate actively. Advisory conferences, tutorials, fieldwork, and independent research prepare the student for the Senior Project. The Senior Project may take any form appropriate to the student’s field, subject, and methodology; most are research projects, but a project may take the form of a critical review of literature, a close textual analysis, a series of related essays, or even a translation.


Faculty: Laura Kunreuther (director), Mario J. A. Bick*, Diana De G. Brown**, Michèle D. Dominy, Abou Farman, Christopher R. Lindner, Neni Panourgiá, John Ryle, Yuka Suzuki

identity, difference, and inequality in the contemporary world. The core of the program consists of courses that examine everyday experiences in relation to a range of societal issues, such as development and the environment, medicine and health, religion, language, kinship and reproductivity, sports, mass media, visual culture, and aesthetics. Anthropology offers a way to understand patterns and contradictions of cultural meaning within a transnational and transcultural world. Areal strengths include West and Southern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia, Australasia, and the United States.

* on sabbatical, fall 2012; leave of absence, spring 2013 ** leave of absence, 2012–2013

Overview: The Anthropology Program encompasses the subfields of sociocultural, linguistic, historical, archaeological, and applied anthropology. It seeks to understand the cultural dynamics in the formation of the nation-state; the precolonial, colonial, and postcolonial; and the politics of


150 Social Studies Requirements: Majors in anthropology can design a course of study in various topical, area, and theoretical orientations. Prior to Moderation, students must complete an introductory course and at least two 200-level courses in anthropology. In consultation with their Moderation board, students shape their plan of study in the Upper College to include at least three additional courses in anthropology, at least two of which should be 300-level courses, as well as the Senior Project. One of the 300-level courses required is a seminar on contemporary cultural theory that involves each member of the anthropology faculty. In addition, the program recommends that students take at least one course that involves field research and encourages fieldwork as part of the Senior Project. Students intending to pursue postgraduate study are required to take a 200-level course in field methods and are encouraged to study a foreign language to the 200-level. Recent Senior Projects in Anthropology: “From Clinic to Support Group: Medical Expertise and Lyme Disease in Dutchess County, New York” “Global Guru: Constructing a Multicultural Movement around a Living God” “India Wiring Out: Transnational Call Centers and Their Relationship to the Indian NationState” “Tutus and Tuxedos: Boundary Maintenance and Transgression in Costuming, Clothing, and Gender Expression” Courses: Anthropology courses approach seemingly “natural” ideas such as indigeneity, race, gender, sexuality, and class as cultural constructions that change over time. They critically examine, for instance, the international division of labor, the growth of the media, and the global commodification of culture. Many classes apply this anthropological perspective to a variety of sources, ranging from traditional ethnographies to novels, travel literature, music, films, and new forms of electronic media (the program has a film library, which includes ethnographic and experimental films). The program also administers a student research and travel fund, the Harry Turney-High Fund, to support work on Senior Projects.

Introduction to Cultural Anthropology Anthropology 101 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, GSS, HUMAN RIGHTS This course explores the intellectual angles through which anthropologists have engaged culture as a central and yet often elusive concept in understanding how societies work. The course combines discussions, lectures, and films; topics include the transformative roles of ritual and symbol, witchcraft and sorcery in historical and contemporary contexts, and cultural constructions of gender and sexuality, among others.

Archaeological Field Methods Anthropology 111 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, EUS The course concentrates on excavation and initial lab procedures used in archaeology through a continuation of the dig at Grouse Bluff, a 7,000-year-old site adjacent to the campus. Two digging techniques are emphasized: stratigraphy and small-scale cartography. Fieldwork involves painstaking measurements that permit study of the distribution of debris throughout the site, description of deposit formation over time, and comparison with other sites.

Gender and Social Inequalities in Latin America Anthropology 201 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, GSS, HUMAN RIGHTS, LAIS Despite recent gains in democratization, contemporary Latin American societies continue to display dramatic inequalities. This course explores inequalities of gender and their interface with hierarchies of social class, ethnicity, and race through examination of ethnographic texts. It looks at historical sources of these inequalities in colonial structures and their expression in contemporary cultural practices. Students critically evaluate Latin American gender stereotypes and consider how gender is practiced and how gender identities are formed in particular local and global contexts.

Cultural Politics of Empire Anthropology 207 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, GIS, HISTORICAL STUDIES, VICTORIAN STUDIES An examination of contemporary theories of colonialism and the cultural categories that

Anthropology 151 emerged and changed through the colonial experience. While the primary focus is on British rule in India, the course frames this case within broader perspectives of colonialism, including Edward Said’s analysis of Orientalism, critical responses to it, and the ideology of liberalism that underwrote the colonial project.

How the Victorians Put the “Others” in Their Place Anthropology 208A CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, VICTORIAN STUDIES

The class examines how the Victorians sought to know the “other” through ethnographic, missionary, government, and travel encounters; the science of race; the objects of archaeology and museum collections; and photography. How the “other” was then related to the Europeans is studied within the framework of evolutionary and diffusionary theories.

American Anthropology, 1850–1870 Anthropology 208B CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES Up until World War II, American anthropology had three central concerns: the description and understanding of Native American peoples based on participant observation through fieldwork; the defeat of scientific racism; and the placement of the concept of culture at the center of anthropological thought. Students examine these concerns along with the rise of sociological, psychological, and neo-Marxist evolutionist thought in American anthropology in this period.

British Anthropology, 1920–1990 Anthropology 208C CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES A distinctly British social anthropology formed in the 20th century, largely shaped by research in Britain’s African colonies. This anthropology contributed to the construction of colonial relations with African peoples, constituted our knowledge of precolonial African cultures, and provided critiques of colonialism. Both the colonial system and the nationalist movements that destroyed that system were influenced by this anthropology. This course examines the central texts of this school, especially as they explore politics from colonial and postcolonial Africa.

Kinship: Identity and Difference Anthropology 210 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, GSS The study of kinship within anthropology has a history as long as the discipline itself. Until recently it served as the primary lens for analyzing social, political, and economic organization in non-Western societies. This course examines the ways in which kinship analyses have contributed to historic and contemporary claims of identity and difference, and reviews the contribution this body of scholarship has made to colonial, anticolonial, and postcolonial constructions of self and other in Western and non-Western societies.

Historical Archaeology Anthropology 212 CROSS -LISTED: EUS Field trips on campus and in neighboring towns provide firsthand contact with the diverse groups that left their vestiges here: Native Americans, African Americans, and German and British settlers. The class works with artifacts in the lab and visits excavations after reading background material on their history, culture, and archaeological interpretation. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

Anthropology of Medicine Anthropology 213 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, HUMAN RIGHTS, STS An exploration of medical knowledge and practice in a variety of healing systems, focusing on the human body as the site in which illness is experienced and upon which social meanings and political actions are inscribed. The course examines the way political economic systems, and the inequalities they engender, affect human well-being. Among the topics addressed are biomedical constructs, alternative medical systems, epidemic diseases, cosmetic medical interventions, and new medical technologies.

Archaeological Field School Anthropology 214 In this summer session, students assist Christopher Lindner, Field School director, in researching the Palatine German settlers of 1710 and their descendants, many of whom still live near Bard. Excavation takes place at the 1743

152 Social Studies Parsonage in Germantown, which housed German Reformed ministers, a Dutch American physician, and several generations of an African American family. Students learn basic techniques of excavation and mapping, read and discuss a variety of background materials and historical maps, and analyze artifact finds.

Africa: The Great Rift Anthropology 218 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES The Great Rift Valley runs from the Red Sea to Mozambique, dividing the African continent in two. The countries bordering the Rift embody many of the divisions and challenges that confront Africa as a whole. This course offers an introduction to the geography and political history of the Rift countries, using historical and anthropological research, documentary video, and written reportage to examine the diverse ways of being that endure in the region and the varieties of modernity emerging from war and demographic transformation.

Urban Ethnography and American Capitalism Anthropology 229 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES The city has long symbolized the prospects and problems of American capitalism. This course examines a range of urban ethnographies in relation to the history of urban anthropology and in light of prevailing cultural, political, and economic circumstances affecting communities both here and abroad. Topics include globalization, neoliberalism, class conflict, the politics of urban space, ethnicity, poverty, religion, and the militarization of community life.

Methods and Ethics in Ethnographic Research Anthropology 232 A survey of anthropological and oral history literature on methodology, self-reflexivity, and ethics in the collection of material during ethnographic research. Specific characteristics, possible uses, and ethical ramifications of a range of qualitative methods are studied, including participant observation, unstructured interviews, structured interviews, focus groups, and the collection of oral histories. Discussion is supple-

mented with practical exercises in designing and applying ethically informed research methods.

Problems in Human Rights Anthropology 233 / Human Rights 233 See Human Rights 233 for a course description.

Language, Culture, Discourse Anthropology 234 This course begins with the assumption that language and culture are inseparable, and introduces students to theoretical and ethnographic approaches that demonstrate this in various ways. Topics include how authority is established through specific forms of speech, language ideologies, the performative power of language, and the relationship between language and social hierarchies, among others. The course also examines the way technology and media have been fundamental in shaping how different groups perceive their social worlds.

The Sacred, the Uncanny, the Divine: The Anthropology of Religion Anthropology 238 / Religion 238 A survey of anthropological studies of religious cultures and ritual traditions in modern societies. Topics include Islamic revivalism in the Middle East, Haitian Vodoun festivals, Appalachian snake-handling churches, African witchcraft and possession rituals, and Hindu asceticism. This course is meant to provide students with necessary skills to analyze religious practices from ethnographic as well as comparative perspectives.

African Diaspora Religions Anthropology 243 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, LAIS The many contemporary religions in Latin America and the Caribbean that draw upon African theology and practice testify to the vitality of the African heritage in the New World. The course examines these religions within their historical context as dimensions of the African diaspora and as they are currently practiced—CandomblÊ, Umbanda, and Batuque in Brazil; Santeria in Cuba and the Dominican Republic; Maria Lionza in Venezuela; Shango in Trinidad; and Vodoun in Haiti.

Anthropology 153 Anthropology and the Politics of the Body Anthropology 244 CROSS -LISTED: GSS Anthropology has been long concerned with bodies, both as sources of symbolic representations of the social world and as vehicles for expressing individual and collective identities. More recent interests center on mind-body relations and embodiment, and on bodies as targets for the production of consumer desires and sites of commodification and political control. This course explores a range of different issues raised by these perspectives, including the gendering of bodies and other culturally constructed markings of social class, race, and age.

Travel, Tourism, and Anthropology Anthropology 249 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES This course considers travel as a cultural practice and examines the link between travel writing and ethnography. Course work is based on a broad range of sources, including fiction, ethnography, travelogues, letters, and anthropological theories about ethnography and travel writing. Some topics discussed are travel as a rite of passage; how various genres of travel writing both reflect and shape the experience of travel; and how “home” is configured in relation to foreign places in 19th-century travel writing.

Reading Baseball as Metaphor Anthropology 250 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES Baseball has often been labeled the quintessential American sport. This course explores that claim while examining the history and diffusion of the game, its performance and representation, and its connections to the politics of ethnicity, race, gender, class, region, and place. Cultural constructions are examined and contrasted in U.S., Japanese, and Latin American baseball.

Race and Ethnicity in Brazil Anthropology 256 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, JEWISH STUDIES, LAIS Brazil, in contrast to the United States, has been portrayed as a “racial democracy.” This course examines the debate over the “problem of race”

in its early formulation, as shaped by scientific racism and eugenics, and on through the Brazilian policy of branqueamento (whitening) in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the groups discussed are indigenous Brazilians, the Luso-Brazilians, Afro-Brazilians, Japanese Brazilians, Euro-ethnic Brazilians, and Brazilians of Arab and Jewish descent.

Anthropology of Violence and Suffering Anthropology 261 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, GIS This course considers how acts of violence challenge and support modern ideas of humanity, raising questions about what it means to be human today. It reviews different forms of violence—e.g., ethnic and communal conflicts, torture, rituals of bodily pain—and examines violence as a means of producing and consolidating social and political power and exerting political control.

Refugees: The Politics of Forced Displacement Anthropology 264 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS Is mass forced displacement unique to recent world history? What aspects of refugee experience are obscured by an approach that privileges the claims of the nation-state? This course explores these and other questions through an examination of historical, anthropological, and legal scholarship on the nation-state, national identity, human rights, migration, displacement, refugee populations, and refugee subjectivity.

Race and Nature in Africa Anthropology 265 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, EUS, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS

Western fantasies have historically represented Africa as the embodiment of a mythical, primordial wilderness. Within this imagery, nature is racialized, and Africans are constructed as existing in a state closer to nature. This course investigates the racialization of nature under imperial regimes, and considers the continuing legacies in postcolonial situations. Texts include ethnographic accounts, historical analyses, and works of fiction based in Africa.

154 Social Studies Anthropology of Youth and Youth Politics Anthropology 266 Since the 18th century, childhood and youth have been depicted as times of happiness, innocence, and closeness to nature distinct from adulthood. However, many writers, activists, and policy makers have witnessed young people in conditions of violence, toil, and poverty. This course examines young people’s experiences in a variety of historical and geographic contexts. A key point of emphasis is that young people are not merely the passive recipients of tradition or targets of policy, but active contributors to social and political change.

Middle Eastern Diasporas Anthropology 267 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, JEWISH STUDIES, MES This course examines the past and present experiences of Arabs, Iranians, Turks, and Kurds who reside in Europe and North America, as well as Jews of diverse backgrounds who live in Israel and abroad. It also explores how and why these groups are commonly regarded as “diasporas,” and investigates not only the history of “diaspora” as a concept, but also the contemporary circumstances that have encouraged its recent prominence in public and scholarly discussions.

War, Culture, and Politics in Contemporary Sudan Anthropology 268 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS

Africa’s largest and most diverse country embodies many of the challenges that confront the continent as a whole. These include civil war, mass killing, recurrent famine, radical Islam, oil politics, and indigenous cultural destruction. This course examines the current political and humanitarian crisis in Sudan from the perspectives of history, geography, anthropology, and political economy. Historical texts, contemporary reportage, ethnographic monographs, and video, music, and literature from Sudan help students understand the complexities of the country and its borderlands.

Ireland and the Anthropological Imagination Anthropology 269 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, ICS Ireland has long captured the anthropological imagination, and the field has provided classic depictions of kinship and community, controversial accounts of rural decline and disorder, and current work on the country’s shifting position in European and world politics. This course includes a range of ethnographic exploration in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. It considers the multiple, contested meanings of Irish identity in contexts as varied as the increasingly diverse city of Dublin, Traveller communities, and politically divided Northern Ireland towns.

Gender, Sexuality, and Feminist Anthropology Anthropology 270 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, HUMAN RIGHTS This course examines the emergence and transformation of gender studies within anthropology since the 1970s. It reviews early texts that challenged anthropologists to recognize women’s lives as valid subjects of study as well as more recent work that encompasses constructions of both femininities and masculinities, exploring the division between and interrelation of biological and social factors in determining sex and gender. Critical interpretation of gender and sexuality in contemporary American popular culture is reviewed.

Anthropology of Mass Incarceration Anthropology 273 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, SOCIOLOGY The United States entered the era of “mass incarceration” during the last quarter of the 20th century, when the total national population grew by 30 percent and the incarcerated population by nearly 700 percent (from 340,000 to 2.3 million). This course explores the onset of mass incarceration holistically, by situating it within a sociohistoric context.

Anthropology 155 Post-Apartheid Imaginaries Anthropology 275 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS

Evangelicalism and the Myths of Secularization Anthropology 282 CROSS -LISTED: RELIGION

As one of the few regions on the continent charted for permanent European settlement, southern Africa has been marked by histories of violence that far surpassed normative applications of colonialism. In the wake of such turmoil, nations struggled to reinvent themselves at the moment of independence, scripting new national mythologies and appeals for unity. This course explores these contests over nationhood in the post-apartheid era, focusing primarily on the experiences of Zimbabwe and South Africa.

This course explores the conflicted dynamics of evangelical Protestantism and secularization in contemporary cultural forms and social movements, from early U.S. revivalism to the rise of global televangelism, Christian popular media, and the politics of the Christian Right. Students assess how the historical polarizations of religion and science, faith and reason, and fundamentalism and secular humanism have shaped and influenced how evangelical religiosity is practiced and disseminated in modern societies.

Japanimation and Culture in Postwar Japan Anthropology 276 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, GIS, STS

Anthropologies of Diaspora Anthropology 283 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES

Japanese animation, also known as anime, is one of the most dynamic forms of cultural production in contemporary Japan. This course traces the history of anime and its relationships to the nation’s social, political, and economic transformations over the past century. It covers the origins of Japanese animation, the different subgenres that began emerging in the 1960s (e.g., “Tokyo cyberpunk,” “cute young girl” anime), and the globalization of the genre in recent decades.

Islam and Europe Anthropology 279 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, MES This course examines Islam’s complex relationships with Europe as a geographic territory, sociopolitical entity, and discursive category. Given its long-standing presence in Europe, why is Islam commonly conceived as a moral and cultural formation external to Europe, European history, and European identities? Why are Muslims regarded as in Europe but not of it, and how does this exclusion shape the everyday practices and perceptions of European Muslims? Such questions are considered through readings, films, and other materials.

With the increased dispersion of peoples around the globe, “the diaspora” has become an important lens through which to examine changing ideas about nationalism and global citizenship. This course begins with the premise that the perception of being part of a diaspora is enabled by new communication technologies that connect national/ethnic communities around the globe. Ethnographies focus on South Asian diasporas, including, for instance, Sikhs in North America and Pakistanis in London.

Cultural Technologies of Memory Anthropology 332 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This course considers several practices and technologies that produce collective and personal memory, and questions the distinction commonly made between “memory” and “history.” Students review techniques and technologies of public memory (e.g., historical writing, oral narrative), and examine how radio and photography are used to produce national and familial representations of the past. The course focuses on how the particular medium of remembering shapes the content of what is remembered, and addresses the link between the production of particular memories and their political uses.

156 Social Studies Cultural Politics of Animals Anthropology 337 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, EUS, HUMAN RIGHTS

Human ideas about animals have metamorphosed throughout history, giving rise to a wide spectrum of attitudes across cultures. Some of the questions this course raises include how, and by whom, is the line between humans and animals drawn? What are the politics of taxonomy and classification? Do animals exercise agency? Students explore these shifting terrains through the angle of “animal geography,” a new field that focuses on how animals have been socially defined, labeled, and ordered in cultural worldviews.

Global Flows Anthropology 338 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS Globalization is commonly presented as a phenomenon of the late 20th century, made possible by the spread of capitalism and new forms of telecommunications technology. It is predicated, however, upon a sharp disjuncture between the homogeneity of identity and experience within immobile national pasts and the multiplicity and plasticity of identity and experience enabled by the ease of transnational mobility. This course addresses this dichotomy by examining anthropological scholarship on capitalism, colonialism, nationalism, and diasporas.

Oral Accounts: Theory, Methodology, and Ethics in Fieldwork Anthropology 339 Students examine the specific characteristics and possible uses of oral history interviews as a means of conducting fieldwork-based research, and learn to apply research methods developed within these disciplines to individual projects in the social sciences and the humanities.

Middle Eastern Modernities Anthropology 343 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, MES What does it mean to be “modern” in the Middle East in the aftermath of colonialism and in the face of continuing Euro-American efforts to reform the region’s social, economic, and political life? Does modernity require the abandonment of tribal affiliations, cousin marriages,

and other putatively traditional social forms and practices? Or does it involve more complex, creative negotiations of existing constraints and available resources? This course examines these and other questions through analysis of recent anthropological literature, popular cultural artifacts, and films.

Revolutions in the Modern Middle East Anthropology 344 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, MES Theorists of revolution from Karl Marx to Hannah Arendt have argued that revolutions emerge from a collective sense that human existence itself is no longer viable under the existing order. This course explores the conditions under which such a sense has emerged at particular historic moments in the modern Middle East, as well as the historic contexts within which they emerge.

South Asian Modernities Anthropology 347 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, GIS Students explore the varied, and often contradictory, forms of social life in the region, with an emphasis on the lived experience of modernity in India and Pakistan. The course is structured around three themes: personhood, community and difference, and transnationalism. Readings include historical, ethnographic, and literary texts.

Political Ecology Anthropology 349 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, EUS, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, STS Political ecology emerged in the early 1990s as a bridge between cultural ecology and political economy. Based on the principle that environmental conditions are the product of political processes, the field integrates the work of anthropologists, geographers, historians, political scientists, and sociologists. Topics explored in this course include the politics of knowledge, state power, sustainable development, mapping, urban ecology, corporations and conservation, and multilateral environmental governance. Readings are primarily drawn from case studies in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

Economics 157 Contemporary Cultural Theory Anthropology 350 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This introduction to advanced theories of culture in contemporary anthropology is required of all anthropology majors. In contrast to early anthropological focus on seemingly isolated, holistic cultures, more recent studies have turned their attention to conflicts within societies and the intersection of local systems of meaning with global processes of politics, economics, and history. The class is designed around an influential social theorist and the application of his or her theories by anthropologists. Students develop theoretical tools and questions for a Senior Project that makes use of contemporary theories of culture.

Culture, Mediation, Media Anthropology 356 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS

challenges understandings of these concepts as natural or inevitable, and explores different possibilities for measuring, representing, and creating meaning in relation to them. Finally, it considers how political economy structures experiences of time and space. This includes temporal disciplines of commodity production, state seizure of “private” time under socialism, and descriptions of time-space compression in late capitalism.

Economics Faculty: Sanjaya DeSilva (director), Alex Chung, Kris Feder, Olivier Giovannoni, Aniruddha Mitra, Dimitri B. Papadimitriou, Pavlina R. Tcherneva

Just as culture is being reshaped by everyday media practices, media itself has reshaped our idea of culture and humanity. Looking broadly at the concept of “mediation,” this course considers contemporary theories and ethnographies of media and technology. Examples include the use of cell phones to organize political protest, the use of photography to link national with personal identity, and social networking sites that produce new forms of public intimacy, among others.

Overview: Adam Smith (1776) defined “political economy” as the science of “the nature and causes of the wealth of nations.” The basic methodological approach of economics is to analyze the ubiquitous problem of human choice among alternative uses of limited resources. Economics examines how decisions are influenced by incentives, opportunities, and resource constraints, and explores the interacting consequences of those choices in our private and public lives.

Anthropology of the Body Anthropology 360 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, HUMAN RIGHTS

The Bard Economics Program emphasizes the policy applications of economic theory at the local, national, and global levels. A wide range of courses in economic theory, applied economics, quantitative research methods, economic history, and economic thought are regularly offered. For students who wish to pursue a career in the financial world, Bard offers a fiveyear program leading to a B.S. degree in economics and finance and a B.A. degree in any other program. For more information on the Program in Economics and Finance, see page 164.

Recent anthropological interest has centered on the individual body as a locus of situated knowledge: it has become a target for the production of consumer desires and a site of commodification and political control. This course explores a range of different issues raised by these perspectives through readings that theorize the body, supplemented by comparative ethnographic studies of bodily knowledge and practice.

Anthropology of Time and Space Anthropology 370 This course begins by considering the extent to which time and space are cultural constructions that vary within and across social groups. It

Areas of Study: Students are encouraged to construct their academic program in a sequence of cognate courses that culminates in a Senior Project. To help guide this process, economics courses have been classified in the following

158 Social Studies fields of specialization: economic theory and methodology; economic thought; economic history; macroeconomic theory and policy; industrial organization and theory of the firm; labor and household economics; economic development; environmental and ecological economics; and international economics. Requirements: Three economics courses are required for Moderation, including Economics 100 and two 200-level courses. At Moderation students identify an area of focus and discuss their preliminary ideas for the Senior Project. It is recommended that students take several 200level applied courses during the sophomore and junior years. Graduation requirements include: (1) The theory sequence (Principles of Economics, Intermediate Microeconomics, and Intermediate Macroeconomics); (2) Statistics or Econometrics; (3) a course in economic history; (4) a course in economic thought; (5) at least four electives at the 200 level or above in economics, two of which must be at the 300 level (students with joint majors or interdisciplinary concentrations may replace one 300-level elective with two 300-level courses in a related discipline); (6) Calculus I (Mathematics 141) or the equivalent is a prerequisite for Economics 201 (Calculus II, Mathematics 142, is recommended); and (7) the Senior Project. Recent Senior Projects in Economics: “Employer of Last Resort: Program Implications for the Ecuadorian Case” “Local Political Budget Cycles: The Chinese Case” “Minskyan Reregulation of the Financial Market” “The Mediterranean Sea: Ecological Issues, Economic Solutions” Courses: Students typically begin their study of economics by taking the principles course (Economics 100). The 200-level courses typically assume knowledge of introductory theory and are of special interest to students in political studies, historical studies, sociology, philosophy, human rights, global and international studies, social policy, and environmental and urban studies. Students who have completed introductory theory are encouraged to take at

least one 200-level applied course before proceeding to more advanced course work in economics. The 300-level Upper College courses and seminars provide advanced treatment of theory, research methodology, and applications for moderated economics majors. Students contemplating graduate school in economics are encouraged to take advanced theory courses and to develop their quantitative skills with additional courses such as Introduction to Mathematical Economics (Economics 205), Econometrics (Economics 329), and related courses in mathematics (Linear Algebra, Proofs and Fundamentals, Probability and Statistics). Sample curricula for all areas of study within the Economics Program are available on the Economics Program website.

Principles of Economics Economics 100 CROSS -LISTED: ECONOMICS AND FINANCE, EUS, GIS, SOCIAL POLICY An introduction to the essential ideas of economic analysis. The microeconomics component of the course develops the basic model of consumer and firm behavior, including demand and supply, in the context of an idealized competitive market and examines several ways in which the real world deviates from this model, including monopoly, minimum wages and other price controls, taxes, and government regulation. The macroeconomics component studies the aggregate behavior of modern economies and the government’s ability (or inability) to use monetary and fiscal policies to achieve economic goals such as full employment and price stability. Prerequisite: eligible for Q courses.

Economics of Globalized Food Systems Economics 130 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, GIS, STS The world food system is in crisis: a reversal in the downward trend that food prices have shown in the past, increased environmental degradation of the agricultural resource base, and a rise of food deficits and malnutrition in the global south, along with an increase of surpluses in the industrial north, are indicators that the system is in a vulnerable state. The class makes use of

Economics 159 basic economic concepts to analyze the driving forces behind these trends.

Introduction to Mathematical Economics Economics 205

Money and Banking Economics 200

An introduction to the use of elementary calculus and linear algebra in economic theory. This course provides the basic mathematical skills necessary to approach professional economics literature. Emphasis is on formulating economic problems and building economic models in mathematical language. Applications are based upon simple micro- and macroeconomic models. Prerequisites: Economics 100 and calculus.

This course examines the role of money and financial intermediaries in determining aggregate economic activity. Interactions of savers, investors, and regulatory authorities in domestic and international capital markets are analyzed, and the linkage between the financial system and the real economy is traced. The functions of central banks, commercial banks, securities dealers, and other intermediaries are covered in detail. The debate over the goals, tools, indicators, and effectiveness of monetary policy is considered in light of current economic problems. Prerequisite: Economics 100.

Intermediate Microeconomics Economics 201 This course further develops principles and analytical methods introduced in Economics 100. The positive and normative characteristics of alternative market structures—perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, pure monopoly, and, in resource markets, monopsony—are studied in depth. Market forces are examined in the context of social and political institutions that shape, and are shaped by, market outcomes. The alleged trade-off between equity and efficiency is debated. Prerequisites: Economics 100 and one semester of calculus.

Intermediate Macroeconomics Economics 202 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, SOCIAL POLICY This course acquaints students with the main models that macroeconomists use to analyze the way economies behave. Students consider the models that explain long-run economic growth; examine economic theories concerning recessions and booms; and investigate the role of governments in affecting the long- and shortrun economic prospects of their countries. Theoretical knowledge is applied to a range of current economic issues. Prerequisite: Economics 100.

Economics from the Ground Up Economics 206 CROSS -LISTED: EUS This course develops economic principles from the ground up through successive extensions of a simple intuitive model. Following the standard conception of economics as the study of constrained choice, it explores the economizing behavior of a single individual, acting alone, who struggles to survive by employing available resources to produce food and shelter. The model then builds complexity, introducing cooperation and exchange among persons, and demonstrating how this is embedded in local and global ecosystems. Prerequisite: competence in algebra and precalculus.

History of Economic Thought I Economics 210 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, STS A survey of the early history of economics. Among the subjects considered are the ideas of Hume, Locke, Smith, Malthus, and Mill, and the attacks on existing politicoeconomic institutions by Marx and George. This course focuses on the classical period up to the late 19th century, when classical political economy gave way to the “marginal revolution,” which, applying the mathematical insights of calculus to economic questions, focused more on subjective choice and less on political issues and institutions. Prerequisite: one economics course.

History of Economic Thought II Economics 211 The course explores the ideas of the greatest economic thinkers of the 20th century, including Marshall, Keynes, Hayek, Sraffa, Veblen,

160 Social Studies Schumpeter, Galbraith, and Nobel Prize recipients Samuelson, Friedman, Sen, Stiglitz, and Krugman. Also considered are such schools of thought as the New Keynesians, Post Keynesians, and New Classicals; and issues such as the business cycle, unemployment, inflation, free markets, and the role of governments. Prerequisite: Economics 100 or permission of the instructor.

concept of economic development is defined and related to ideas such as economic growth and human development. Economic theories of development are introduced, and policies designed to promote development are evaluated. Topics include the economic consequences of colonialism, poverty and income distribution, and the role of foreign capital flows. Prerequisite: Economics 100.

European Economic History Economics 216

Women and the Economy Economics 223 CROSS -LISTED: GSS

An examination of the political and economic problems of countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union that are making the transition from the Soviet economic system to free-market capitalism. Necessary reforms are analyzed and merits of various proposals for making a successful transition debated. Topics include privatization of state-run enterprises, deregulation of prices and inflation, and the role of international lending institutions, among others. Prerequisite: Economics 100 or permission of the instructor.

Economic History of Modern Asia Economics 218 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, GIS An examination of important historical events and circumstances that shaped the economic landscape of Asia in the 20th century. Topics include colonialism and economic dependency, the impact of the World Wars, and postindependence nation building. The evolution of development strategies such as import-substituting industrialization, national planning, export-led growth, regional integration, and globalization is studied. The impact of history, geography, and institutions on economic activity is emphasized. Prerequisite: Economics 100 or permission of the instructor.

Economic Development Economics 221 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, ASIAN STUDIES, EUS, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, LAIS, SOCIAL POLICY, STS This course explores the economic conditions and problems faced by the majority of people who live in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The

This course introduces different theoretical approaches to and methodologies for analyzing labor markets and economic outcomes that specifically affect women. A second goal is to use the different theoretical lenses to analyze key policy questions, such as pay differentials, discrimination, comparable worth policies, unpaid care work, labor force participation, and globalization’s impact on women, among many others. Students also explore more advanced academic literature and policy-relevant papers in order to improve their research skills.

Urban and Regional Economics Economics 226 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, EUS, SOCIAL POLICY, STS The spatial structure of cities and of regional systems of cities is analyzed from the perspective of central place theory, a microeconomic theory of location that complements a historical review of patterns of urbanization and sprawl. Contemporary urban problems are also examined from an economic point of view, and issues of urban planning and policy are debated. Prerequisite: Economics 100.

Statistics Economics 229 CROSS -LISTED: ECONOMICS AND FINANCE, EUS, GIS, SOCIAL POLICY This course is designed to examine empirical economics; it is also a prerequisite for Economics 329, Econometrics. Basic concepts of statistics, probability, probability distributions, random variables, correlation, and simple regression are introduced; the techniques of sta-

Economics 161 tistical inference hypothesis testing are developed. Prerequisite: Economics 100.

Law and Economics Economics 252 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS

Economics of the Public Sector Economics 237 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, SOCIAL POLICY

The economic approach focuses on the choices people make in the context of given opportunities and constraints, and on how they respond to changes in incentives. This course applies economic principles to study the incentive effects that legal sanctions have on human behavior. Four areas of law are analyzed: property law, contracts, torts, and the concept of crime and punishment. Prerequisites: Economics 100 and at least one additional course in microeconomic theory or applications.

This course introduces the two branches of traditional public finance, corresponding to the two sides of the government budget—revenue and spending. On the spending side, it surveys the economic rationales for the existence of government and for its intervention in the economy, and the economic consequences of government expenditures. On the revenue side, the course examines the problem of efficient pricing of public sector output, the consequences of alternative tax structures for the distribution of wealth, and approaches to the economics of collective action. Prerequisite: Economics 101.

Ecological Economics Economics 242 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, SOCIAL POLICY Ecological economics (ECE) is a transdiscipline that draws upon physics, ecology, and other natural and social sciences as well as economics. It views the economy as “an open subsystem of a larger ecosystem that is finite, nongrowing, and materially closed (though open with respect to solar energy).” The positive analyses of ECE are motivated by three normative social goals: (1) efficient allocation of scarce resources, including those that do not pass through markets; (2) justice in distribution; and (3) an ecologically sustainable scale of economic activity.

Economics of Climate Change Economics 244 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, GIS This course attempts to offer insights into the design and implementation of policies aimed at mitigating the potential results of a warming climate. It considers the scientific basis of climate change and its likely impacts, and how basic concepts of environmental and ecological economics apply to the problem. Prerequisite: Economics 100.

Religion and Economics Economics 260 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, RELIGION This course analyzes the relationship between religion and economic development. It examines the impact that religion and religious thinking have had on the formation of economic order in societies. Topics include the role that monotheism has played in the development of economic ethics; the impact of the Templars on the development of financial institutions in Europe; the economic history of Russian Old Believers; and how the lack of economic opportunities in the Middle East may have helped to foster terrorism.

Community-Based Development: Development from the Ground Up Economics 265 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, EUS, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, STS This course critically examines the concept and practice of community-based development as an alternative to the top-down theories and policies of development. Conceptualizations of well-being in Buddhist and Gandhian thinking are considered to highlight the cross-cultural differences in what constitutes a “good life.” Students gain a broader definition of development as economic, social, and political empowerment. Throughout the course, the relationship of community-based development with ecological sustainability and political decentralization is highlighted. Prerequisite: Economy 100 or permission of instructor.

162 Social Studies Foundations of Finance and Investments Economics 291 CROSS -LISTED: ECONOMICS AND FINANCE This course explores the foundations of the pricing of financial instruments and the structure and organization of financial markets. Methods are developed to analyze and measure financial performance, price stocks and bonds, evaluate portfolios, and understand financial derivatives as these relate to financial data. Additional topics include the investment decision-making process, trading practices, risk assessment, and diversification. The course involves a substantial amount of statistical analysis and calculation, but no prior knowledge of statistics is required.

Topics in Microeconomics Economics 301 An analysis of theories of price determination and allocation of resources by the market; factor prices, income distribution, and poverty; effects of monopoly and imperfect competition; and problems of the consumer society, public goods, and social welfare.

Topics in Macroeconomics Economics 302 CROSS -LISTED: GIS The foundations of macroeconomic theory are studied, and alternative approaches to growth, distribution, increasing returns, and endogenous change are analyzed. Monetary and financial aspects of macro foundations are discussed, focusing on the work of Minsky, Tobin, Sargent, Lucas, post-Keynesians, neo-Keynesians, new Keynesians, and neo-Ricardians.

Macroeconomic Stability: Theory and Policy Economics 304 This seminar examines the nature of economic instability and financial crises in modern history and the Keynesian contributions to macroeconomic stabilization policy. The class explores John Maynard Keynes’s investment theory of the business cycle and Hyman P. Minsky’s financial theory of investment, as well as the controversial question of government intervention. Topics of discussion also include economic policies that deal with problems such

as inflation, unemployment, poverty, and financial crises; and the relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policies. Prerequisite: Economics 202.

Industrial Organization Economics 317 This course covers industrial organization, from traditional ideas to ideas on the frontier of economic research. The traditional literature addresses the industrial structure of the U.S. economy and antitrust policy, monopolies, and anticompetitive behavior. More recent work examines the structure of firms, markets, and organizations. Other topics include vertical integration and coordination, product differentiation and patents, auctions and bidding, and theories of advertising. The theory is examined in the context of real-world situations, both current and historical. Prerequisite: Economics 202.

Microeconomics of Development Economics 321 This seminar examines less developed economies from a microeconomic perspective. Topics addressed include the structure and organization of markets for commodities, labor, credit, and insurance; the provision of public services such as education, health care, water, and energy; household decision making regarding consumption, farm and home production, market work, migration, and schooling; and the impact of macroeconomic changes related to industrialization, urbanization, economic growth, and globalization on households. Students read primary articles, study mathematical models, learn empirical research methods, and analyze primary and secondary data. Prerequisites: Economics 201, Economics 229, and Mathematics 141 (Calculus I).

Seminar in International Economics Economics 324 CROSS -LISTED: GIS This seminar covers both international trade (real or “physical” flows) and international finance (monetary or financial flows). Questions addressed include: Why do countries engage (increasingly) in trade? Does trade benefit everybody? Equally? Should we manage trade flows and if so, do quotas, subsidies, and

Economics 163 tariffs make sense? How about trade and capital market liberalization? What are the roles and effects of institutions such as the Federal Reserve and IMF? Students apply the tools and models of international economics to think analytically and critically about real-world situations. Prerequisite: Economics 202.

Econometrics Economics 329 Econometrics is the artful blending of economic theory with statistics. Economic theory helps develop behavioral hypotheses, while statistics help test these hypotheses. For example, consumer theory sees an inverse relationship between price and quantity consumed; econometrics determines whether consumers actually behave in this way. The proper use of statistical tools, such as linear regression, multivariate regression, and hypothesis testing, is covered. Students apply these tools to a variety of economic issues, including estimating production and cost functions. Prerequisites: Economics 100 and 229.

Seminar in Geoclassical Economics Economics 330 CROSS -LISTED: EUS This seminar reviews the literature of geoclassical economics from its roots in George, Locke, Quesnay, Ricardo, and Smith to the recently published work of Gaffney, Stiglitz, Tideman, Vickrey, and others. The geoclassical tradition studies the role of land tenure and related property institutions in shaping social, political, and economic life; its research agenda includes economic applications to environmental issues, urban problems, economic cycles, and tax policy, among other things. Prerequisite: Economics 100. Moderated environmental and urban studies students may enroll with permission of instructor.

Labor Economics Economics 335 This course focuses on the economic forces and public policies that affect employment and wages, and examines theoretical models of labor markets and how well they hold up to real-world empirical data. Topics emphasized include labor demand and supply, minimum wage laws, theories of unemployment, job

search and matching models, family and lifecycle decision making, human capital, efficiency wage theory, compensating wage differentials, worker mobility and migration, unions, and discrimination. Prerequisite: Economics 100.

Institutional Economics Economics 345 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, POLITICAL STUDIES, SOCIAL POLICY, STS Institutions can be defined as systems of established and prevalent social rules that govern social interactions. Examples of institutions include the law, money, and property rights, among others. This course analyzes how institutions function and develop, and how they influence economic outcomes. It explores the link between institutions and economic development by addressing topics such as the modeling of culture, norms, and values; formal and informal institutions; corruption; path dependence; and the issue of evolution versus equilibrium. Prerequisite: Economics 201.

Health Economics Economics 386 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, SOCIAL POLICY, STS This course applies economic tools to an understanding of the peculiar features of health care and related markets. It reviews the demand and supply for health outputs and considers various methods for measuring the costs and benefits of health outcomes. Topics addressed include the information asymmetries in health services and insurance; the market for private health insurance; and reasons for and effects of social insurance programs, among others.

Seminar in Contemporary Developments of Finance Economics 390 CROSS -LISTED: ECONOMICS AND FINANCE This seminar contrasts the academic analysis of financial economics with the coverage it receives in the news media. The news stories are almost always connected with people, yet traditional finance theories concentrate on efficient markets and predictable prices that are determined by the concept of present value, rates of return, and analysis and pricing of computable risks. Human behavior has no place in these

164 Social Studies theories. This course challenges that view, examining the influence of economic psychology in the decision-making process of various agents and in market dynamics. Prerequisites: Economics 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor.

The Bard Program in Economics and Finance Faculty: Dimitri B. Papadimitriou (director), Alex Chung, Sanjaya DeSilva, Kris Feder, Olivier Giovannoni, Pavlina R. Tcherneva Overview: The Bard Program in Economics and Finance, established in the fall of 2007, is a five-year B.S./B.A. dual-degree program. Students receive both a B.S. degree in economics and finance and a B.A. degree in an academic program other than economics. The Economics and Finance Program is designed to meet the needs of students who wish to achieve a broad education in the liberal arts and sciences even as they prepare themselves for careers in the financial world. Requirements: The B.A./B.S. program requires 160 credits; the student must fulfill all general educational requirements of the College’s B.A. academic program. The B.S. degree will not be awarded unless the student also receives the B.A. degree. However, a student may elect to step out of the program, continuing in the B.A. program. Hence, the dual-degree program is structured to allow all requirements for the B.A. to be met within four years. Candidates for the dual degree must complete 52 credits in economics and finance, comprising the core courses of the program: Principles of Economics; Foundations of Finance and Investment; Money and Banking; Intermediate Microeconomics; Introduction to Mathematical Economics; Accounting; Industrial Organization; Statistics; Seminar in International Economics; Econometrics; Seminar in Contemporary Developments of Finance; Corporate Finance; and Capstone Experience Project (Senior Project, B.S.).

Students are required to complete a Senior Project relating to finance.

Accounting Economics and Finance 190 This course surveys financial and managerial accounting. The concepts and methods of financial accounting following generally accepted accounting principles and the effects of alternative principles on the measurement of periodic income and financial status are covered. Recent changes in accounting methods such as those stimulated by manufacturing advances are examined, as are concerns about ethical standards.

Corporate Finance Economics and Finance 391 This course analyzes the major financial decisions facing firms. Topics include capital budgeting, links between real and financial investments, capital structure choice, dividend policy, and firm valuation. Additional topics may include issues in value and risk; debt financing; risk management; corporate governance; managerial incentives and compensation; and corporate restructuring. Prerequisite: Economics and Finance 190.

Historical Studies Faculty: Gregory B. Moynahan (director), Richard Aldous, Charles William Anderson, Myra Young Armstead, Leon Botstein, Jonathan Brent, Christian Ayne Crouch, Robert J. Culp, Carolyn Dewald*, Tabetha Ewing, Cecile E. Kuznitz, Ellen Condliffe Lagemann, Mark Lytle, Joel Perlmann, Miles Rodriguez, Gennady L. Shkliarevsky, Alice Stroup * on sabbatical, spring 2013

Overview: The Historical Studies Program focuses primarily, but not exclusively, on political, social, economic, and cultural aspects of history. The program encourages students to examine history through the prism of other relevant disciplines (for example, sociology, anthropology, economics, philosophy) and different forms of expression (art, film, literature, drama, architec-

Historical Studies 165 ture). The program also introduces students to a variety of methodological perspectives used in historical research and to philosophical assumptions about men, women, and society that underlie these perspectives. Areas of Study: Study plans can be divided into the following categories: national, regional, or local history (for example, American, European, Asian, Russian); period-oriented history (ancient, medieval, early modern, modern); and topical specializations (environmental history, urban history, diplomatic history, ethnic history, African American history, history of gender and sexuality, history of ideas, history of science and technology). Individual study plans may be further subdivided into specific areas of concentration. Requirements: In the Lower College, students are expected to take three or four history courses covering different regions and time periods and using a variety of research methodologies. Students are required to take a global core course before graduation, and preferably before Moderation. For Moderation, students are required to submit the standard two short papers and a sample paper on a historical subject. By the time of their graduation, students must have completed between six and eight history courses covering at least three world regions and one period prior to 1800. As part of the preparation for their Senior Project, juniors should take a Major Conference. Recent Senior Projects in Historical Studies: “A Failure of a Regime: Vichy’s Attempts to Corporatize the Jews of France” “Against Work: Autonomist Marxist Tendencies in 1970s Italy” “Popular Culture and Nationalism in the Modern Republican Party and Argentina’s Peronism” “Walt Disney: An Imaginative Escape” Courses: The course descriptions that follow are presented numerically, beginning with 100-level introductory classes and continuing through 300level seminars. Tutorials and Major Conferences are also offered regularly; recent examples include Anarchism, Critical Geography, and The Decision to Drop the Bomb.

Revolution History 1001 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS This course analyzes and compares some of the most iconic and influential revolutions in world history, including the French Revolution of 1789, the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, and China’s Communist Revolution of 1921–49. Other revolutionary events examined include the German Peasant Revolt of 1525, China’s Cultural Revolution, the protests by students and intellectuals that rocked Europe in 1968, and the “velvet revolutions” and near revolutions that transformed state socialism in 1989.

The Making of Europe to 1815 History 101 The second millennium opened a new era of European ascendancy. For 300 years, Northern Europeans improved agriculture and lived longer, and cities flourished as centers of commerce and culture. Then came a little ice age and the Black Death, followed by famines and epidemics. Yet the period also saw the rise of literacy, the Renaissance, the Enlightenment, and the creation of a global empire. To understand the paradoxical making of Europe, students examine primary sources and modern analyses.


The first half of the course, from the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to the outbreak of World War I in 1914, covers such topics as the establishment of parliamentary democracy in Great Britain, the revolutions of 1848, and European imperialism. The second half focuses on the Great War, the Russian Revolution, the Great Depression, the rise of fascism, the Holocaust, the Cold War, and the fall of communism in Eastern Europe.

From Empire to Superpower History 106 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, GIS This course examines the international role of the United States in the 20th century. The course covers the Treaty of Versailles, the rise of fascism, Pearl Harbor, the decision to drop the atom bomb, the Cold War, and Vietnam.

166 Social Studies Students are asked to weigh the role of economic, strategic, and moral concepts in the formulation of American policy.

Origins of the American Citizen History 130 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, HUMAN

War and Peace: A History of International Relations, 1878–2001 History 120 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, VICTORIAN STUDIES

The United States is often portrayed as emerging triumphantly in 1776 to offer inclusive citizenship and a transcendent, tolerant, “American” identity to all its indigenous and immigrant residents. Yet the reality of American history belies this myth. This course focuses on six moments that definitively challenged and shaped conceptions of “American identity”: the early colonial period, the Constitutional Convention, the Cherokee Removal, the era of internal slave trade and the “Market Revolution,” the Mexican-American War, and Reconstruction.


A survey of modern international history, beginning in 1878 with the Congress of Berlin and a war in Afghanistan and moving chronologically toward 9/11 and another war in Afghanistan. Special attention is given to the three great conflicts of the 20th century (World Wars I and II, and the Cold War) and the shifting balance of power in Europe and Asia, as well as to the policies of the Great Powers and the ideological forces that defined them.

France and Empire in the Early Modern World History 124 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, FRENCH STUDIES

The early modern world encompasses the histories of peoples and economies, and the circulation of ideas, products, and humans through long-distance oceanic travel. It helped to formulate the globalized, modern world we live in today. To study greater France is an opportunity to consider how the language of nation and empire overlays complex networks of contact, exchange, and identity between metropolitans, indigenous peoples, and those without states.

Crisis and Conflict: Introduction to Modern Japanese History History 127 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES Japan in the mid-19th century was beleaguered by British and American imperialism and rocked by domestic turmoil. How, then, did it become an emerging world power by the early 20th century? Why did Japan’s transformations during the late 19th and early 20th centuries lead to the total war of the 1930s and 1940s, and what factors explain its postwar economic growth and renewed global importance?

The Atlantic World in the Early Modern Period History 133 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES This course provides students with a foundational knowledge of the Atlantic world during one of the most dynamic and fascinating periods in human history. The early modern period roughly encompasses the 15th through the 18th centuries; it was an age of exploration, which challenged the foundations of human knowledge, and an age of destruction of indigenous peoples and cultures via religion, germs, and steel. The course considers the impact of this time in Europe, Africa, and the Americas.

Imperial Chinese History History 135 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES An introduction to the origins and transformations of the Chinese imperial order from the Neolithic period to the final decades of the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911). Among the topics explored are the founding and transformations of the imperial state, the emergence of the literati class, and late imperial period rural peasant society. The course considers the fluid and complex relations between Chinese states and their Central Asian neighbors, and assesses the impact of Buddhism on China’s Confucian and Taoist philosophical traditions.

Historical Studies 167 The Mediterranean World History 138 CROSS -LISTED: ITALIAN STUDIES, LAIS A historical journey to the Mediterranean world of the 16th and 17th centuries using the scholarship of Fernand Braudel as a vehicle. The class considers geography, demography, climate, and economies; next, the formation of social structures; and last, politics, religion, and culture.

City Cultures History 139 CROSS -LISTED: EUS The built environment of cities is a powerful indicator of the social and cultural history of urban populations. This course looks comparatively at five cities in the United States and Western and Eastern Europe—New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Paris, and Vilna—considering a variety of physical structures and spaces from the industrial and postindustrial eras. Students examine features of the urban landscape and read these sites for what they reveal about urban life across time.

Introduction to Russian Civilization History 140 CROSS -LISTED: MEDIEVAL STUDIES, RES An examination of the origins and evolution of Russian civilization from the founding of the first Eastern Slavic state through the 18th century, when Russia began to modernize by borrowing from Western culture. Among the topics considered are the ethnogeny of early Russians, the development of state and legal institutions, the relationship between kinship and politics, the role of religion in public and private spheres, economic organization, social institutions, popular culture, and the impact of the outside world upon Russian society.

“modern” of European states, it has been haunted since its inception by its past. Topics include the impact of World War I, the political experiment of Weimar democracy, the Holocaust, the student protests of 1968, and the creation of a new German and European identity after 1989.

Britain since 1707 History 142 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, VICTORIAN STUDIES This survey course examines 300 years of British history, asking how a small island off continental Europe spread its influence so successfully around the globe. Bringing together political, diplomatic, economic, social, and cultural history, and fully integrating England, Scotland, Wales, and the Irish experience, the class explores developments such as the growth of democracy, imperialism and decolonization, the two world wars, the expanding role of the state, and the reach of institutions such as the BBC.

American Revolution History 149 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES Our founding was radical, virtually unimaginable, and, ultimately, what made us American. This course focuses on the Revolution—the events leading to the war, the war itself, and the articles constructed in its aftermath. Was our separation from Britain inevitable? How could our founders reconcile their cries for freedom on a nation built by slavery? What were the vices inherent in mankind against which our Constitution was intended to guard?

Under a Western Sky: The American West in Film, Fact, and History History 150 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, FILM AND ELECTRONIC ARTS

20th-Century Germany and the Unification of Europe History 141 CROSS -LISTED: GERMAN STUDIES, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS

This course explores Germany’s pivotal place in the ideological divisions, political catastrophes, and theoretical, social, and scientific innovations of modern Europe. A guiding theme is the paradox that even as Germany is perhaps the most

An in-depth examination of one of the richest of American film genres, the Western. The films— which include such John Ford classics as Stagecoach and The Searchers, among others— are studied from a number of perspectives, as characteristic examples of popular narrative cinema and as attempts to understand the complex dynamic of America’s westward expansion in the 19th century, the actual history of which provides a background for the screenings.

168 Social Studies Diaspora and Homeland History 153 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS, JEWISH STUDIES The concept of diaspora has gained widespread popularity as a way of thinking about group identity and group relationship to place. In this era of increasing globalization, more individuals than ever are emigrating to distant shores; as a result, “homeland” has taken on multiple complex meanings in the imaginations and lived experience of migrant populations. Students read recent theoretical works on diaspora and examine case studies of diasporic populations from ancient times to the present.

The Athenian Century History 157 / Classics 157 See Classics 157 for description.

The History of Technology and Economics in the Modern Period History 161 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, GIS, STS The course considers how a separate domain of technology first came to be defined during the 18th century and addresses how institutional forces such as law, academia, business, and government came to define and influence technological change and scientific research during the industrial revolution. Case studies ranging from the bicycle to the birth control pill help students generate “internal” accounts of the development of technology and science in conjunction with “external” accounts of the historical context of technologies.

Hooke’s Micrographia History 164 A monument of natural philosophy and scientific illustration, Robert Hooke’s Micrographia (1665) was the first laboratory manual in microscopy. Hooke intended the work to be a manifesto of experimental method and faith in progress. His Royal Society of London colleagues also hoped Hooke’s observations would lend credence to atomism, a notorious ancient philosophy that was being rehabilitated in the 17th century. Students investigate Hooke’s life and work, as well as the links between science and society during the Scientific Revolution.

The French Revolution History 170 CROSS -LISTED: FRENCH STUDIES Was the French Revolution a bloodbath or an affirmation of human rights? Who led it, who benefited from it, and why did it evolve as it did? Using Hilary Mantel’s A Place of Greater Safety for its narrative, this course examines the documents left by eyewitnesses, participants, partisans, and opponents.

Africa South of the Sahara History 178 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, GIS Actual European colonial occupation of subSaharan Africa, with the exception of South Africa, lasted a relatively short time. Yet the impact of European colonization on African religion, political organization, material culture, and gender relations was profound. How did Africans cope with, resist, and accommodate colonization, decolonization, and nation building? This course addresses those questions by using primary materials produced by Africans— political writings, fiction, autobiography, oral testimonies, and records of Africans’ actions and words as rendered by European colonial officials and missionaries.

People and Power in Colonial and Contemporary Mexico History 179 CROSS -LISTED: ANTHROPOLOGY, GIS, LAIS This history of Mexico weaves together four thematic approaches: a social history of indigenous, Hispanic, and Afro-Mexican peoples; a cultural geography of land, legal, and labor relations; a documentary history of intellectual, religious, and cultural traditions; and politicaleconomic analyses of Mexico’s independence, revolution, domestic and foreign policies, wars, and border issues. Among the primary sources examined are pre-Columbian codices, conquest accounts, political correspondence, and censuses, as well as maps, travel writing, art, architecture, and literature.

Historical Studies 169 Jews in the Modern World History 181 CROSS -LISTED: JEWISH STUDIES, RELIGION

ogy as they came to impinge on the traditional feudal and communal orders.

In the modern period Jews faced unprecedented opportunities to integrate into the societies around them, as well as anti-Semitism on a previously unimaginable scale. In response to these changing conditions they reinvented Jewish culture and identity in radically new ways. This course surveys the history of the Jewish people from the expulsion from Spain to the establishment of the state of Israel. It examines such topics as acculturation and assimilation, Zionism, the Holocaust, and the growth of the American Jewish community.

History of the Modern Middle East History 185 CROSS -LISTED: MES

The United States in the Middle East: A History History 183 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, AMERICAN STUDIES, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, MES This course explores American involvement in the Middle East, beginning in the early 19th century. Topics covered include the history of American merchants in the Mediterranean and Red Sea, the significance of American missionaries in the region during the European colonial period, U.S. interests during the Cold War, the 1958 Lebanon crisis, the emergence of an American-Israeli alliance, the Iranian hostage crisis, the histories of Arab communities in the United States, and the American invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan.

Inventing Modernity: Peasant Commune, Renaissance, and Reformation in the German and Italian Worlds, 1291–1806 History 184 CROSS -LISTED: GERMAN STUDIES, ITALIAN STUDIES, STS This course examines the role of the drastic upheavals of the early modern period in defining the origins of such modern institutions as capitalism, political individuality, religious freedom, democracy, and the modern military. Two apparently opposed developments are the focus: the role of the autonomous peasant commune as a model and spur for political forms such as democracy and anarchism, and the development of modern capitalism and technol-

This introduction to the history of the Middle East covers the period from the Ottoman conquest of the Levant and North Africa until the present. Students explore the social, political, and intellectual history of the region, drawing from a multitude of sources: Sufi poetry, modern novels, memoirs of political leaders, and treatises and works of Muslim reformers.

The Cold War History 190 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, RES Like two scorpions, the Soviet Union and the United States warily circled each other in a deadly dance that lasted more than half a century. In a nuclear age, any misstep threatened to be fatal— not only to the antagonists, but possibly to the entire human community. What caused this hostile confrontation to emerge from the World War II alliance? This course reconsiders the Cold War by simultaneously weighing both the American and Soviet perspectives on events as they unfolded.

Topics in Modern European History, 1789–Present History 192 CROSS -LISTED: GIS This course employs methodologies and historiographies ranging from gender and demographic history to diplomatic and military history. It offers both an in-depth presentation of key aspects of modernity and a survey of contemporary historiography. Among the key issues discussed are the relation of the Industrial Revolution to the creation of new institutions of invention and patent, the role of institutional struture in diplomacy, and the effect of new mass media on citizenship.

Alexander the Great History 201 CROSS -LISTED: CLASSICAL STUDIES Alexander the Great changed the world more completely than any other human being, but

170 Social Studies did he change it for the better? How should Alexander himself be understood—as a tyrant of Hitlerian proportions, as a philosopher-king seeking to save the Greek world from selfdestruction, or as a deluded madman? Such questions remain very much unresolved among modern historians. This course undertakes a thorough reading in the ancient sources concerning Alexander and examines as much primary evidence as can be gathered.

Frederick Douglass and His World: On Page and Screen History 2013 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES Few figures loom larger in 19th-century America than Frederick Douglass, the former slave turned abolitionist and editor whose eloquence and moral passion ignited a generation. This course takes a close look at Douglass’s career and examines how his life has been treated by historians, biographers, and filmmakers. Students read from a wide selection of Douglass’s writings and at least two biographical treatments, and study a number of documentary films.

History of New York City History 2014 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, EUS A history of New York City from its founding as a Dutch colony to the present postindustrial, post-9/11 era. Emphasis is on the 19th and 20th centuries, when the city was transformed by immigration and rose to prominence as a global economic and cultural capital. Topics include the development of public spaces and skyscrapers; the city’s evolving population; and various, often controversial, solutions proposed to the problems of a modern metropolis.

Berlin and Vienna: The Science of Metropolis, 1890–1933 History 2017 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, GERMAN STUDIES, STS Following a tour of central Europe in 1914, American reformer Frederic Howe marveled at how “administrative and industrial efficiency are a scientific study in which hundreds of thousands of the best minds of the state are engaged . . . scientific thought [is applied] to every process and every social and industrial

problem.” The class examines this process and the reactions against it in the major metropolises of Berlin and Vienna, in part through the interrelated lives of sociologist Georg Simmel and novelist Robert Musil.

The Weary Titan: Britain in the 20th Century History 2034 CROSS -LISTED: GIS “The weary Titan,” said Joseph Chamberlain in 1902, “staggers under the too vast orb of his fate.” This course offers a survey of Britain in the 20th century, beginning with the death of Queen Victoria in 1901 and moving chronologically to the election of Tony Blair as prime minister in 1997. Emphasis is given to political history, the two world wars and the Cold War, the end of the empire, and the changing role of the state in the lives of ordinary citizens.

Wars of Religion History 2035 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, HUMAN RIGHTS Religion and revolution have formed an unholy alliance at several distinct moments in history. The 16th and 17th centuries were a time in which religious revolution and new ways of ordering spiritual life exploded in a fashion that no one could have anticipated. This course traces the personal stories of real people during this period through Inquisition records, diaries and conversion tales, early pamphlets, and accounts of uprisings.

The Boundaries of Fiction: 19th-Century European Historical Narratives History 2038 CROSS -LISTED: LITERATURE The historical narrative and the historical novel developed interdependently during the 19th century. Narrative historians appropriated the techniques of novelists, while historical novelists made new claims to truthfulness by grounding their fictions in historical fact. This course explores the porous frontier between the century’s historiography and realist fiction, comparing classic historical narratives by Carlyle, Tocqueville, Leopold von Ranke, and Marx to fictional narratives by Balzac, Georg Büchner, and George Eliot.

Historical Studies 171 Early Middle Ages History 2110 CROSS -LISTED: CLASSICAL STUDIES, MEDIEVAL

Comparative Atlantic Societies History 2134

A survey of seven centuries, from the Germanic invasions and dissolution of the Roman Empire to the Viking invasions and dissolution of the Carolingian Empire. Topics include early Christianity, “barbarians,” the Byzantine Empire, Islam, monasticism, and the myth and reality of Charlemagne. Readings include Boethius’s Consolation of Philosophy, Einhard’s Life of Charlemagne, and selections from Ammianus Marcellinus and Gregory of Tours.

Slave or indentured labor underpinned the early modern Atlantic world. Beginning in the early 16th century, millions of enslaved Africans and indigenous Americans came to, or moved around, the Americas, creating a wide variety of zones of interaction that became places of contested and changing cultural practice. This course focuses on the African and indigenous Atlantics, and considers the comparative development of slavery, the methods of resistance, and the processes of emancipation and national formations at the end of the 18th century.

The Invention of Politics History 2112 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS

Perpetual Peace: War, Pacifism, and Utopia in German History History 2138

Individuals and groups spoke, wrote, and fought to make their claims to public power in the period between 1500 and 1800 in ways that forced a reimagining of political relationships. The greatest institutions in place, particularly monarchies and the papacy, used their words, documents, symbols, and rituals to maintain their legitimacy in the face of resistance. The tension among groups created new political vocabularies that we have claimed by virtue of historical ownership or explicitly rejected.

Immanuel Kant began his famous essay “Perpetual Peace” by noting that for the cynic the topic of his essay could only apply to a graveyard. Yet he proposes that through a better constitution of human institutions a realistic alternative, and a real peace, could be developed. Can it? In this course, students examine the dialectic of war and peace in Germany, and later the European Union, from the Thirty Years War to the present.


The Arab-Israel Conflict History 2122 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, JEWISH STUDIES, MES This course provides students with an understanding of this conflict from its inception to the present. Among the themes discussed are how the Jewish national movement that began in the late 19th century and the Arab national movement that arose to contest Ottoman and European rule of Arab peoples led to the emergence of the State of Israel and the Palestinian refugees in 1948. The course examines how the political character of the conflict has changed over the decades.

Immigration and American Society: Colonial Times to the 1960s History 213 / Sociology 213 See Sociology 213 for a full course description.

Atlantic North America, 1492–1765 History 2139 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, FRENCH STUDIES, LAIS Beginning with the “Columbian Exchange” and oceanic revolution of 1492, this course traces contact between Indians, Africans, and Europeans from initial encounter through the enmeshed global Atlantic of the 18th century. What motivated migrations across the Atlantic in both directions? How did imperial aspirations shape the nature of encounters (both voluntary and forced) in North America? What is at stake in how we construct particular visions of colonial American history? Intellectual, social, and cultural trends in various colonies are analyzed.

Immigration in Contemporary American Society History 214 / Sociology 214 See Sociology 214 for a full course description.

172 Social Studies Zionism and Jewish Nationalism History 2141 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, JEWISH STUDIES, RES This course explores the historical context for Zionism and other Jewish national movements, with a focus on European movements. Also considered are the answers proposed by each movement to questions such as: What is the most effective means of securing the rights of Jews as a stateless minority? How should Jews relate to the other groups among whom they live? Do Jews need a territory of their own?

The Progressive Era in U.S. History History 217 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES This course surveys the period between 1890 and 1930 for the social and cultural politics of reform that it spawned. Topics include crossAtlantic exchanges that informed an American progressive consciousness, competing historical interpretations of progressivism, and the legacy of progressivism for later 20th-century liberalism. In addition to the recognized reform movements of the period, the class considers other contemporary developments—for example, the rise of educative exhibits and exhibitionism, racial accommodationism—as reflections of progressive thought.

Gender and Sexuality in the Ancient World History 2191 / Classics 2191 CROSS -LISTED: CLASSICAL STUDIES, GSS The course explores the gendered relations of men and women in the ancient Greco-Roman world, focusing on literary and historical sources, in order to understand the social history of ancient sexuality and its complex manifestations. Topics include women’s lives in classical Athens; Greek homoerotic relationships; sexuality as part of Greek drama, religion, and mythology; women in Roman myth, literature, and history; and differences in Greek and Roman sexual/social bonds.

Mexican History and Culture History 220 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, LAIS This course focuses on events that have changed and defined Mexican culture, from the apex of the Aztec civilization to the fall of the revolutionary ruling class in contemporary Mexico. Topics include the role of gender and race in colonial Mexico, ideologies of nationbuilding after the War of Independence, and representations of cultural identity that emerged from the Revolution of 1910. Influential artistic and intellectual voices considered include Fray Bartolomé de las Casas, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Diego Rivera, Juan Rulfo, and Octavio Paz.

The Politics of the Postcolonial Middle East History 2203 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, EUS, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, MES This course draws on literature produced by historians, political scientists, and anthropologists to explore topics such as the impact of the Cold War and the rise of third worldism, the role of women’s movements, the coalescence of political Islam, the Arab-Israel conflict, the Lebanese Civil War, the impact of oil production, the Iranian Revolution, and the wave of revolutions that have swept the Middle East in the past year.

Decolonization and Postcolonial Africa History 2236 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS

This course provides an overview of the recent history of sub-Saharan Africa, moving beyond conventional “crisis narratives” to look deeper into a history filled with momentous changes and great possibilities as well as problems and continuities. Topics discussed include the dynamics of late colonialism and the roots of national liberation movements, Pan-Africanism and African socialism, the rise and impact of neoliberalism, and the changing position of Africa in the world.

Historical Studies 173 Conquest, Empire, and Revolution in the Ottoman Middle East History 2252 CROSS -LISTED: MES

China in the Eyes of the West History 2301 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, GIS, HUMAN

A history of the Ottoman Empire, with a focus on the Arab provinces it acquired through conquest in the 16th century. Among the questions that the course addresses are: How did regional conflicts shape the history of the empire? How were communities structured within the Ottoman realm? What was the role of religion in organizing the empire? Why did the Ottoman Empire come to an end?

European Enlightenment thinkers viewed the Qing dynasty (1644–1911) as the world’s most enlightened despotism, but by the turn of the 20th century most Western thinkers considered China to be the “sick man of Asia.” This course reconstructs the visions of China formulated by Europeans and Americans during the 19th and 20th centuries, and explores how those visions changed over time. Texts include popular histories, news reports, travel writing, academic works, novels, photographic essays, films, websites, blogs, and list-serves.

Ecological History of the Globe History 2253 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, STS Human technology and population growth have damaged the Earth through deforestation, erosion, salinization of soil, and species loss. Where our moral sensibilities look to repair or reduce ecological damage, our study of historical and evolutionary processes helps identify those processes, from political to ecological, most likely to succeed in that endeavor. The course examines case studies from prehistory to the present to reconsider human institutions, cultures, and choices in ecological context.

Confucianism: Humanity, Rites, and Rights History 229 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, GSS, HUMAN RIGHTS, PHILOSOPHY, RELIGION This course explores the transformations of Confucian philosophy, social ethics, and political thought, from its ancient origins through the present, focusing on five key moments of change. Close readings in seminal texts provide a foundation in the earliest Confucian ideas of benevolence, rites, and righteousness. The course also considers how Confucian thought shaped Western ideas of rights; how Confucian concepts of humanity, relational ethics, and social responsibility offer alternatives to EuroAmerican rights discourse; and the contemporary Confucian revival.


Shanghai and Hong Kong: China’s Global Cities History 2302 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, GIS Shanghai and Hong Kong are cities with long cosmopolitan pasts. This course explores the history of their current economic, social, and cultural dynamism, and in doing so probes the historical roots of globalization. It analyzes how 19th- and early 20th-century colonialism and semicolonialism both drove and conditioned, in somewhat different ways, the development of these two cities.

Gender, Sexuality, and Power in Modern China History 2306 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, GIS, GSS The point of departure for this course is the traditional areas of focus for scholars of gender and sexuality in China: footbinding, the cloistering of women, and the masculinization of public space; the transformations of Confucian age-sex hierarchies within the family; the women’s rights movements of the early 20th century; and the Communist Revolution’s ambivalent legacy for women in the People’s Republic of China.

The American Dream History 2307 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES “But there has been also the American dream, that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for every man, with

174 Social Studies opportunity for each according to his ability or achievement.” These words from James Truslow Adams summarize the optimism and sense of exceptionalism that have defined much of the American experience. This course considers the various articulations of the Dream and the ideological and structural supports for it, and how these have changed over time.

China’s Environment in Historical Perspective History 2308 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, EUS, GIS The fate of the global environment arguably depends on how China’s environmental crisis develops over the next half century. This course analyzes the historical roots of China’s current environmental condition and confronts the challenges posed to current efforts at environmental protection. In addition to regular papers, the class works on a group project to formulate a comprehensive environmental policy for China during the coming decade.

From Classicism to Modernism: Music, Politics, and Society in the “Long” 19th Century History 2313 CROSS -LISTED: VICTORIAN STUDIES Music is not written in a vacuum; it is both a “mirror and a prophecy” for its time. This course examines European music in the “long 19th century,” from the French revolution to the eve of World War I. By using individual case studies—e.g., Mozart’s Don Giovanni; Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring—students explore the political, commercial, philosophical, material, and circumstantial influences surrounding each composition, and the impact of these works on their own times and ours.

Precolonial and Colonial Africa History 2318 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, ANTHROPOLOGY, GIS An overview of the history of sub-Saharan Africa during the precolonial and colonial periods, with an emphasis on the 19th and early 20th centuries. Some major themes are the relationship between Africa’s linkages to the world and local historical dynamics on the continent;

slavery, empire, and economic transformations; and the stakes of conceptualizing African history in the present. Students review case studies from across the sub-Saharan African continent, drawing upon secondary historical literature, primary sources, novels, and visual arts.

Global Victorians History 2319 / Literature 2319 CROSS -LISTED: VICTORIAN STUDIES They went everywhere and did everything. Long before “globalization,” the Victorians imagined the world universally. In their voyages of discovery they set out to achieve mastery of others and themselves, as well as attempting to map and understand the natural world around them. The course focuses on this project of empire, both from within and without, using texts on exploration and discovery. Authors studied may include Charlotte Bronté, Joseph Conrad, Sir Richard F. Burton, Rudyard Kipling, Anna Leonowens, and Winston Churchill.

Native Peoples of North America History 2356 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES An overview of the history created by and between Native peoples, Europeans, and Africans, from the initial colonial exchanges of the 15th century up through the 20th century. Students focus on primary sources from the Northeast, Southwest, and Southeast as well as the ways in which those sources have been manipulated over time. The changing cultural and political self-understanding of Native peoples is examined in conjunction with the appropriation of their culture and agency by both the federal government and scholarship.

Jerusalem: History, Theology, and Contemporary Politics History 2357 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, JEWISH STUDIES, MES This course surveys past events that contributed to the making of the history of Jerusalem; the theologies that make it a Holy City for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; and the Israeli and Palestinian national narratives that make it a contested capital. In addition to Israeli policies regarding Jerusalem and

Historical Studies 175 Palestinian responses, international initiatives and third-party plans that present solutions to the problem of Jerusalem are discussed.

20th-Century Russia: From Communism to Nationalism History 242 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, RES

Greek Religion: Magic, Mysteries, and Cults History 2361 CROSS -LISTED: CLASSICAL STUDIES, RELIGION

In its search for an elusive balance between modernity and tradition, Russian society has experienced many radical transformations, which are the subject of this introductory survey. In addition to a discussion and analysis of the main internal and external political developments in the region, the course examines the Soviet command economy; the construction of national identity, ethnic relations, and nationalism; family, gender relations, and sexuality; and the arts. Materials include scholarly texts, original documents, works of fiction, and films.

This course examines the ways in which polytheism was practiced and conceptualized by the ancient Greeks from the Mycenaean period into the Hellenistic era. It emphasizes the ritual aspects of Greek polytheism through the analysis of religious institutions, beliefs, and rites in their wider sociocultural contexts. Students explore the literary expressions of Greek religion and the ways in which religious beliefs and practices profoundly affected the development of Greek culture and history.


This course examines the irony of increasing political dissent and violence in an era of relative prosperity. It touches on such topics as civil rights, media and politics, the Cuban missile crisis, popular culture, and the feminist movement. It takes an in-depth look at John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, and Richard Nixon, and at the most disruptive crisis of the post–World War II years, the war in Vietnam.

Czarist Russia History 241 CROSS -LISTED: RES This survey explores Russian history from Peter the Great to the 1917 revolution within a broad context of modernization and its impact on the country. Among the topics covered are the reforms of Peter the Great and their effects; the growth of Russian absolutism; the position of peasants and workers; the Russian revolutionary movement and Russian Marxism; and the overthrow of the Russian autocracy. Readings include contemporary studies on Russian history and works by 19th-century Russian writers.

Film, Culture, and Politics in the Depression Era History 247 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES As the U.S. economy recently spiraled out of control, the Great Crash of 1929 and the New Deal of Franklin Roosevelt suddenly took on new relevance. As Hollywood provided Americans with entertainment and escape, Roosevelt and his New Deal also employed mass media to manage the public mood. This course examines how the New Deal, in its manipulation of symbols, differed from other national responses to these crises. Among the topics considered are the dangers of domestic fascism, the rise of the welfare state, and the Dust Bowl phenomenon.

Mao’s China and Beyond: A History of the People’s Republic History 2481 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, GIS This course considers Mao Zedong’s life and writings as a framework for exploring 20thcentury Chinese history. It covers China’s revolutions during that century, the Maoist period (1949–78), and contemporary China in light of the history of the period of Reform and Opening (1978 to the present) since Mao’s death. Fiction, film, television, advertisements, and other mass media are studied to understand how contemporary China has developed in reaction to the Maoism of the previous decades.

176 Social Studies The American Civil War: A History History 254 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES No event looms larger in American historical consciousness than the Civil War, and yet questions remain about why the war was fought and what it meant to those who fought it. Was it war over slavery or to preserve the union? Did the North win or the South lose? Why did Union and Confederate forces meet at Gettysburg and how did that clash affect the war’s outcome? This course takes up these and other questions.

Capitalism and Slavery History 2631 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS

See Literature 255 for a full course description.

Scholars have argued that there is an intimate relationship between the contemporary wealth of the developed world and the money generated through 400 years of slavery in the Americas. Is there something essential that links capitalism, even liberal democratic capitalism, to slavery? This course examines the development of this linkage, focusing on North America and the Caribbean from the early 17th century through the staggered emancipations of the 19th century. Contemporary issues (e.g., reparations, the “duty” of the Americas to Africa) are also considered.

Joyce’s Ulysses, Modernity, and Nationalism History 2551 CROSS -LISTED: ICS, STS, VICTORIAN STUDIES


Although it concerns only one day in 1904, each chapter of James Joyce’s Ulysses is written in a radically different style. This course complements Joyce’s stylistic innovation by using multifarious contemporary documents and historical texts to unfold the historical context and resonance of each of Joyce’s chapters. Among the key issues addressed are the funtion of historical and mythical time in everyday life and the effect of politics and mass media on personal experience.

This course examines modern anti-Semitic movements and the aftermath of World War I; Nazi rule and the experience of German Jews from 1933 to 1938; the institution of ghettos and the cultural and political activities of their Jewish populations; the turn to mass murder and its implementation in the extermination camps; and the liberation and its immediate aftermath. Special attention is paid to the question of what constitutes resistance or collaboration in a situation of total war and genocide.

European Intellectual History since 1860: Central Debates of the Modern Period History 261

Liberty, National Rights, Human Rights History 2702 CROSS -LISTED: GIS

The Victorians: British History and Literature, 1830–1901 History 255 / Literature 255

This course outlines the principle transformations in the modern perception of society and nature within a political, cultural, and institutional framework. It considers the suppositions and fault lines on which 20th-century thought developed, using as its central theme “great debates” of the modern period, among them the critique of positivism at the turn of the century, the conflict of psychoanalysis and historicism, and the critique of technocracy and systems theory in the postwar period.

Both the UN Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 and the successor conventions that ultimately formed the International Bill of Human Rights were created in reaction to the problems of genocide and mass population transfers during World War II. Topics include the creation of national rights from the treaty of Westphalia through the British, American, and French Revolutions, the relation of these rights to colonial administrations, and the postwar institutions of human rights, among others.

Historical Studies 177 American Environmental History I History 280A CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, EUS Since the Old World first encountered the New, a battle has raged over what this New World might become. For some, it meant moral and spiritual rejuvenation. For most, it meant an opportunity to transform material circumstances. At no time have those two visions been compatible. This course examines attempts to fashion a scientific or aesthetic rationale for the use and abuse of natural resources, to subdue or preserve the wilderness, and to understand the relationship between humans and nature.

American Environmental History II: The Age of Ecology History 280B CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, EUS, SOCIAL POLICY

This course investigates the history of Americans’ interaction with their environment from roughly 1890 to the present. It considers how the role of the federal government has changed from the “conservation” to the “environmental” eras, why the Dust Bowl occurred, how chemical warfare changed the life span of bugs, whether wilderness should be central to the environmental movement, and other topics that address how we live in the world.

The History of International Institutions History 2812 CROSS -LISTED: POLITICAL STUDIES This course traces the history of international institutions from the Concert of Europe to the World Trade Organization. Topics include the factors that led to the demise of the League of Nations and the rise of the United Nations; the Dumbarton Oaks, Yalta, and San Francisco Conferences; the rise and consequence of the international financial institutions created at Bretton Woods; and the major successes and failures of these institutions over the last 200 years.

FDR and the Birth of the Modern Presidency History 2832 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES This course examines Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s response to the global crisis of 1933

to 1945 with a view toward gaining a greater understanding of how his policies transformed America, the world, and the office of the U.S. presidency during these critical years. Also addressed are the long-term consequences of his policies and the ways they continue to fashion the world we live in today.

Environmental Diplomacy History 302 CROSS -LISTED: GIS Diplomatic historians have long looked at territorial disputes, imperial ambitions, and dynastic competition as causes for war. They have generally ignored the environment as a factor in international relations. Yet, future wars may well be fought over pollution, scarce resource destruction, and overpopulation. This course invites students to look at peoples, events, and issues in which the environment has played a central role, and affords them an opportunity for research and writing that prepares them for their Senior Projects.

Political Ritual in the Modern World History 3103 CROSS -LISTED: ANTHROPOLOGY, ASIAN STUDIES, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS Bastille Day, the U.S. presidential inauguration, and rallies at Nuremberg and Tiananmen Square: political ritual has been central to nation building, colonialism, and political movements over the last three centuries. This course uses a global, comparative perspective to analyze the modern history of political ritual. Among the topics covered are state ritual and the performance of power, the relationship between ritual and citizenship in the modern nation-state, and the ritualization of politics in social and political movements.

Fugitives, Exile, Extradition History 3107 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This course studies the picaresque case histories of runaway wives, fugitive slaves, dissident pamphleteers, anti-imperial revolutionaries, and others confronting extradition by foreign governments or sovereigns. It covers the period from the rise of European states (when rulers effectively kidnapped their subjects from foreign territories) to the birth of the modern

178 Social Studies extradition system. Prerequisite: History 102, Political Studies 104, or Sociology 242.

Jewish Women: Gender Roles and Cultural Change History 3108 CROSS -LISTED: GIS This course draws on historical and memoir literature to examine the lives of Jewish women and men and their changing social, economic, and religious lives across the medieval and modern periods. It considers the status of women in Jewish law and discusses the forms of women’s religious expression, the differing impact of enlightenment and secularization on women in Western and Eastern Europe, the role of women in Zionist and labor movements, and other related issues.


The cry “Plague!” has struck fear among people around the world, from antiquity to the present. What is plague? How has it changed history? Starting with Camus’s metaphorical evocation of plague in a modern North African city, this Upper College seminar examines the historical impact of plague on society. It focuses on bubonic plague, which was epidemic throughout the Mediterranean and European worlds for 400 years, and which remains a risk in many parts of the world.


The High Middle Ages is an era of cultural flowering, population growth, and political consolidation, occurring between the two cataclysms of Viking invasions and bubonic plague. Students read modern analyses of medieval inventions, heretics in Southern France, the plague, and women’s work. Also examined are medieval texts—anticlerical stories, epic poetry, and political diatribes—that offer a contemporary perspective on values and issues.

Jewish Power and Politics History 3131 CROSS -LISTED: JEWISH STUDIES, POLITICAL STUDIES, RES This course examines modern Jewish political movements, such as Zionism and Diaspora Nationalism, as well as attitudes toward power and powerlessness in Jewish culture. Students scrutinize the answers proposed by each movement to the problems of anti-Semitism and assimilation, and also address the question: Does combating powerlessness require Jews to have a state of their own? The course focuses on European movements and thinkers, but also considers how these ideas played out in the United States and Israel.

History of U.S. Urban Schooling History 3132 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, EUS, HUMAN RIGHTS

This course reviews the history of urban schooling within the context of major social developments from the early national period to the 21st century: industrialization, immigration, unionization, suburbanization, and the woman’s suffrage and civil rights movements, among them. The first section traces the development of urban schools through the first half of the 20th century; the second focuses on more contemporary problems of school reform.

Biography and U.S. History History 3135 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES Students survey the ways in which life stories can convey multiple and often opposing understandings of the past. Biographies can reinforce “Great Man” understandings of history, recover the role of ordinary people, confirm the idea of individual agency, highlight the power of context in framing individual decision making, precisely locate and define extraordinary actions and actors, render history in human terms, and suggest rightly or wrongly a coherence to the past. This course serves as a Major Conference.

Historical Studies 179 The City and Modernity in Central Europe: Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest History 3141 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, STS

Environmental History of the Middle East and Africa History 3146 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, EUS,

Focusing principally on the four cities listed above, this course keys on the metropolis as a means to investigate the central European experience of modernity. Some topics covered are the cultural reaction to mechanization and bureaucratization of modern urban life, the metropolis as a new political arena to contest traditional political and social roles, and new forms of communication, association, and political action in the city. Period films and the writings of figures such as Benjamin, Freud, Kafka, and Musil are examined.

This course explores the particular and general questions that shape the portrayal of the environment in each regional historiography, such as: How has agriculture evolved and what changes in agricultural practice have proved most transformative? What role has the “natural” environment played in the development of nationalism and political conflict? How does the urban, “built” environment interact with rural and agricultural spaces?

Women, Gender, and Political Media History 3144 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, HUMAN RIGHTS This course explores the long history of women’s participation in political media. By focusing on how women political leaders, writers, journalists, artists, and audiences shaped the media, and by studying the complex role women played and were assigned in public and political life, the course seeks to move beyond familiar, binarized debates about social goals, resources, and policies, establishing clear links between the history of media and the histories of women’s and human rights.

Jamestown History 3145 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES In this course students first learn various methodologies and approaches used in writing early American history, and then apply these strategies in their own research papers. The first half of the course examines current historiographical approaches to the topic of the English settlement of Jamestown; the second half provides an intensive investigation of primary source materials, which form the core of the research papers that students generate at the end of the semester.


Education and Social Policy in the United States, 1954–2002 History 315 CROSS -LISTED: SOCIAL POLICY, SOCIOLOGY This seminar explores the history of education and social policy in the United States from Brown v. Board of Education (1954) to passage of the No Child Left Behind Act (2002). It examines the roles of institutions (notably, research and advocacy organizations, think tanks, and philanthropic foundations), social movements and political parties, the mass media, and individual men and women in the shaping of public policy.

The History of Education in the United States, 1636–2002 History 316 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, GSS, SOCIAL POLICY

In this course, students examine the history of American education, broadly conceived— including not just schooling, but also education within families, religious institutions, and places of work, and via the mass media. Course work is set within the context of U.S. political, social, economic, and cultural history, and is geared to help students understand how pivotal education has always been in all aspects of American history, especially the history of U.S. social policy.

180 Social Studies Anti-Semitism: A Comprehensive Examination History 320 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This course considers one of the oldest and most persistent forms of hatred, asking, among other questions: How is anti-Semitism part of the family of bigotries, prejudice, and discrimination, and how is it unique? How has it manifested itself in different eras, regions, political systems, economies, and cultures? Why does it exist in some countries that do not even have Jews? How can it be combated?

A Sociological Classic: Middletown and America History 322 / Sociology 322

course critically examines a body of theory associated with the production of space.

Racialization and American Immigration Policy, 1870–1930 History 324 For a long period, immigration to the United States and other Western countries was more or less unrestricted (and in some cases strongly encouraged). But around the turn of the 20th century the “open door policy” ended. This course considers the changing American context within which these changes in policy came about. Though it focuses primarily on the United States, comparisons to developments in immigration restriction made by other countries is also considered.

See Sociology 322 for a full course description.

Technocracy, Technology, and Social Control in Nazi Germany, the DDR, and the BRD History 3234 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, STS This research course addresses the coercive and violent powers of the modern state as they were refined through technologies and techniques in National Socialist Germany, and then alternately condemned and utilized in the two German nations of the (East) German Democratic Republic (DDR) and the (West) German Federal Republic (BRD). Topics range from the development of new techniques of propaganda to the manipulation of social technologies such as identification papers, the census, racial pseudoscience, and, most horrifically, the concentration camp system.

Making Space in the Colonial and Postcolonial World History 3237 CROSS -LISTED: AFRICANA STUDIES, ANTHROPOLOGY, EUS, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS Over the past two centuries, rapid urbanization, postcolonial development projects, and dramatic shifts in agriculture have radically transformed the spaces we now consider the postcolonial world. In addition to a rigorous engagement with historical, political, and anthropological case studies, which focus primarily on the Middle East and Africa, this

The Politics of History History 340 What are the origins of history as a modern discipline? How have particular modes of history developed in relation to nationalism, imperialism, and the emergence of the modern state? How have modern historical techniques served to produce ideology, and how have these same techniques provided tools for challenging different forms of domination and the ideologies that help to perpetuate them? This course addresses these questions through theoretical readings, including works by Foucault, LaCapra, Scott, White, and theorists active in the subaltern studies movement.

Russian Intellectual History History 365 CROSS -LISTED: RES Following a brief introduction dealing with the modernization of Russia and the origin of Russian secular thought and the intelligentsia, this seminar focuses on the major trends and personalities in 19th-century Russian secular thought. Topics include continuity and change in Russian culture, debates between Westernizers and Slavophiles, revolutionary populism, and socialism. Readings include works by Chaadayev, Chernyshevsky, Dostoevsky, Gogol, Lenin, and Tolstoy, and contemporary studies of the Russian intellectual tradition.

Philosophy 181

Philosophy Faculty: Norton Batkin (director), Daniel Berthold, William James Griffith, Garry L. Hagberg, Robert Martin, David Shein, Alan Sussman, Kritika Yegnashankaran, Ruth Zisman Overview: The philosophy curriculum is designed to provide every student with a general understanding of the nature and history of philosophical inquiry. Students majoring in philosophy have extensive access to a more specialized curriculum, which can serve as the foundation for graduate study. Areas of Study: The core of the program consists of history of philosophy courses and such traditional areas of philosophic study as ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, logic, the philosophy of language, and aesthetics. In addition, several seminars are offered each year that are devoted to the work of one philosopher, for example, Hegel, Heidegger, James, Kant, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Plato, Sartre, or Wittgenstein. Requirements: Students moderating in philosophy are expected to have taken three courses in philosophy while in the Lower College. Although no specific courses are required prior to Moderation, students intending to major in philosophy generally take one of the Introduction to Philosophy courses, which provide an orientation to philosophic methodologies and common themes of philosophic concern in texts ranging from Platonic dialogues to 21st-century works. A major in philosophy normally involves taking seven courses, of which at least four are in the Upper College. Juniors must take the writing-intensive Philosophical Research Seminar as well as a 300-level single-author seminar. Students intending to apply to graduate schools in philosophy are strongly encouraged to take symbolic logic, at least one course in ancient philosophy, at least two courses in modern philosophy (17th through 19th centuries), at least one course in 20th-century philosophy, and at least one course in ethics or political philosophy. The student determines the topic of his or

her Senior Project in consultation with an adviser. Recent Senior Projects in Philosophy: “Clearing Up the Grounds of Language: A Reading of Wittgenstein” “The Freedom of Love: The Possibility of Collective Self-Realization through Enduring Forms of Mutual Recognition” “Nonanthropocentrism and Intrinsic Value: In Search of an Alternative” “The Philosophical Significance of Adequacy Results for Logical Systems” “Skillful Listening: Enactivism as a Challenge to Musical Formalism” “Unstable Foundations: The Role of the Dionysian in Nietzsche’s Construction of Belief” Courses: Introductory courses are numbered in the 100s. Courses numbered in the 200s, while more specialized in content, are also generally appropriate as first courses in philosophy. Courses numbered in the 300s are more advanced and require previous courses in philosophy and permission of the instructor for admission. Tutorials are also taught: recent subjects include Hegel, Heidegger, Hume, Kant’s second and third critiques, and Quine. The Philosophy Research Seminar, required for all program majors, centers on a problem in contemporary philosophy. For details, see Philosophy 302.

Problems in Philosophy Philosophy 101 An introduction to the problems, methods, and scope of philosophical inquiry. Among the philosophical questions discussed are those associated with morality, the law, the nature of the mind, and the limits of knowledge. Philosophers read include Plato, Descartes, David Hume, William James, A. J. Ayer, Jean-Paul Sartre, C. S. Lewis, and Lon Fuller.

Introduction to Philosophy from a Multicultural Perspective Philosophy 104 This course is an introduction to such major themes in the history of philosophy as the

182 Social Studies nature of reality and our capacity to know it, issues of ethics and justice, and conceptions of how one should live. Readings are drawn from a diverse range of traditions, including Western, Hindu, Buddhist, Chinese, African, Native American, and feminist texts.

Informal Logic, Critical Reasoning Philosophy 107 This course is designed to strengthen the ability to reason well. Emphasis is on techniques of inductive reasoning, although certain basic elements of “formal” logic and the use of syllogisms in ordinary reasoning are touched upon. Students learn techniques of diagramming and distilling arguments, methods of detecting common fallacies of reasoning, the central features of inductive reasoning, and the relation between argumentation and explanation, as well as progressively more complex examples of reasoning and argument.

Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 108 Western philosophers address questions that most of us find puzzling. Do we have free will? Do we know what the world around us is really like? Does God exist? How should we treat one another? The class examines historical and contemporary texts that address these and other central themes of the philosophical tradition.

Introduction to Moral and Political Philosophy: Justice Philosophy 111 What is justice? Who is just? What does a theory of justice try to accomplish? Which institutions might provide justice? Exploring these and other questions, this course provides an introduction to a few key figures of the Western philosophical tradition. Emphasis is on the analysis of primary sources, but the course also aims to build up students’ familiarity with some of the canonical terms and the tools, methods, and strategies of moral and political philosophy.

Introduction to Practical Reasoning Philosophy 112 Should I walk, or drive my car? Go to graduate school, or bum around Europe? While such questions often have little significance, they can

also arise in morally fraught contexts and have tremendous import. Practical reasoning is the process of reflecting upon and resolving the question of what to do in particular situations. Students examine questions about what kind of process reasoning is, what distinguishes different kinds of reasoning, and what different philosophers say on the subject.

Introduction to Philosophy of Education Philosophy 113 CROSS -LISTED: MBB What is education? Is it something that occurs only in a school environment? What is worth knowing and studying? This course examines philosophical thinking about education. Course work centers on the close reading of primary texts in the history of ideas, with a focus on how these texts illuminate the meanings and significance of educational practice. Among the writers and texts discussed are Plato, The Republic; John Dewey, Experience and Education; and Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed.

Introduction to Philosophy of Action Philosophy 114 Placing a leaf on my head seems different from a leaf falling on my head. The first we might call an action, and the second something that merely happens to me. In this course, students examine questions about what distinguishes actions from happenstance, and whether action comes in degrees. They examine four kinds of philosophical views—those that emphasize causal history, the role of the agent, explanation and knowledge of action, and the qualitative aspects of action.

Introduction to Philosophy of the Mind Philosophy 115 Immaterial spirits, futuristic robots, fake computers with little people inside, Martians who behave like us but have an internal structure very different from ours, brains in vats, and swamp men formed by random aggregation of molecule: this course asks whether these strange characters have thoughts and feelings, and if so, whether they are like us in what they think and feel. The class goes on to investigate central issues in the philosophy of mind, such as

Philosophy 183 the mind-brain-body relation, mental representation, and conscious awareness.

“What Is” Philosophy? Philosophy 116 A survey of canonical philosophical texts that pose the question, “What is . . . ?” What type of knowledge do we anticipate or hope to receive when asking this question? What value do we attribute to such knowledge? This class serves as an introduction to philosophical thinking through these questions and the important philosophical ideas to which they give rise, such as the concept of essence, the nature and ends of knowledge, and the systems by which values are created.

Introduction to Political Philosophy Philosophy 117 / Political Studies 117 See Political Studies 117 for course description.

History of Philosophy I Philosophy 203 This course closely examines selected texts in the history of philosophy, emphasizing historical connections and developments through the centuries from ancient Greece to 18th-century Britain. Authors include Plato (Republic), Aristotle (Nicomachean Ethics), Epictetus, Augustine (Confessions), Aquinas, Descartes (Meditations), Spinoza, Locke (An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, selections), Berkeley (Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous), and Hume. Issues include the philosophy of knowledge, art, education, society, ethics, religion, reason, perception, and, centrally, philosophical methodology.

Ethical Life in Ancient Greek Literature and Philosophy Philosophy 2038 / Literature 2038 See Literature 2038 for a course description.

Human Nature Philosophy 118 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, STS An ancient tradition claims that we have a detailed set of inborn capabilities and limitations, rich in implications for how we live our lives and organize society. An opposing tradition emphasizes plasticity and indeterminacy. If there is a human nature, what is it, who can speak with authority about it, and what implications does it have for changing what we are? Readings from philosophy, psychology, evolutionary biology, and other fields.

Introduction to Philosophy of Science Philosophy 120 CROSS -LISTED: STS This course takes a thematic approach to examine the nature and limits of science and scientific reasoning. Topics include the demarcation problem (what distinguishes scientific theories from putatively nonscientific theories such as astrology and creationism?); the riddles of induction (what reason is there to think the future will resemble the past?); and the realism/antirealism debate (does science tell us what the world is really like?).

History of Philosophy II Philosophy 2044 A close examination of selected texts in the history of philosophy, emphasizing historical connections and developments from the 18th century to the 20th. Authors studied: Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Sartre, Kierkegaard, Russell, William James, and Wittgenstein. The class keeps questions of philosophical methodology in mind as it proceeds through issues in ethics, aesthetics, metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of perception, and philosophy of language. Prerequisite: Philosophy 203.

Medieval Philosophy Philosophy 207 CROSS -LISTED: MEDIEVAL STUDIES Are faith and reason essentially antagonistic, or might they require one another for their mutual perfection? What, then, are the powers and limits of faith and reason, both independently and in relation to one another? These questions were central to the Jewish, Christian, and Islamic philosopher-theologians on whose work this course concentrates: Moses Maimonides, St. Thomas Aquinas, Abu Nasr al-Farabi, and Avicenna.

184 Social Studies 19th-Century Continental Philosophy Philosophy 213 CROSS -LISTED: GERMAN STUDIES Readings from Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche. The focus is on how these writers explored such themes as the nature of consciousness, reality, value, and community; on their distinctive styles of authorship; and on their conceptions of the nature and role of philosophy.

The Critical Turn: Aesthetics after Kant Philosophy 231 An examination of major contributions to philosophical aesthetics, beginning with Kant’s Critique of Judgment, which transformed 18thcentury debates about beauty, taste, and art and continues to inform accounts of criticism and the arts today. Particular attention is given to discussions of the standard of beauty, progress in the arts, art’s relationship to truth, art and the theatrical, and the antagonism of art and convention. Readings include works by Hume, Kant, Hegel, Heidegger, Benjamin, Greenberg, Fried, and Cavell.

Philosophy and Film Philosophy 235 Are the claims conveyed by film mediumbound? Can the philosophical, ethical, or political content of a film be detached from its specifically filmic expression? To explore these and other questions, this course integrates readings of Benjamin, Adorno, Beckett, Cavell, and Danto with viewings of films by Eisenstein, Marker, Fellini, and others.

Symbolic Logic Philosophy 237 CROSS -LISTED: MBB This course reviews several symbolic systems in order to formally test the validity of deductive arguments expressed in ordinary language of various levels of complexity. Beginning with the common notion of a valid argument, the course progresses through such topics as truth tables, Aristotelian logic, Venn diagrams, and general quantification theory, including identity. It ends with a discussion of the extension of such work into higher orders of logic and the foundations of mathematics, and the initial surprise of Gödel’s incompleteness proof.

Relativism Philosophy 242 This course explores relativism as a philosophical position. The first half of the semester focuses on epistemic relativism and the second half on moral/cultural relativism. The class introduces several fundamental modes of philosophical inquiry, among them, metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of language, and metaethics. Authors read include Richard Rorty, W. V. Quine, Thomas Kuhn, Bernard Williams, and Peter Winch. A prior course in philosophy is desirable but not necessary.

Epistemology Philosophy 244 Do you know anything and, if so, what do you know? What does it mean to know something? Is knowing something different from believing it, thinking it, or being sure of it? This course examines these and other questions, and studies the answers philosophers give to them. Readings are drawn from the works of Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Plato, Descartes, Moore, Unger, Gettier, Goldman, Quine, and others.

Hume and Philosophy of Science Philosophy 248 This course examines Hume’s empiricist challenge to received understandings of causality, induction, the systematic unity of nature, and the self. It brings Hume into dialogue with the Logical Positivists, and explores the Humean elements of relativity theory, quantum mechanics, and contemporary neuroscience, along with his influence on key figures in the philosophy of science. Finally, it asks whether contemporary philosophy of science has successfully responded to Hume’s empiricist challenge.

Ethical Theory Philosophy 251 What is the moral dimension of our life, and what constitutes its key elements? Are there such things as “happiness,” “virtue,” and “wisdom”? Do we have “rights” and “duties” and, if so, how do we recognize them? This course critically examines the primary texts of four philosophers whose writings on these fundamental questions have had a permanent

Philosophy 185 influence on Western thought: Aristotle, Epictetus, Immanuel Kant, and John Stuart Mill.

Aristotle and the Experience of Nature Philosophy 262 CROSS -LISTED: STS

American Philosophy and Education Philosophy 252

Contrary to modern mechanicist theories of nature, Aristotle’s Physics and Metaphysics testify to an experience of nature as that which exceeds and encompasses the human and is in some sense divine. By turning back to ancient experiences, this course seeks to unsettle some of modernity’s most entrenched assumptions about nature, value, divinity, knowing, the relation between theory and practice, and indeed the meaning of “life.” Readings are drawn from Aristotle’s works as well as Plato’s Republic, Symposium, Phaedrus, and Timaeus.

While American education has been influenced greatly by philosophy, it is, largely, a neglected area of study for many students and aspiring teachers. This course introduces students to philosophical texts central to the development of education in America, and to American philosophers who examine conceptual issues of concern in teaching and learning today. Students emerge with a foundational understanding of the intersection that exists between education and democracy, the nature of educational experience, and how teaching as an art and as a science is understood.

Around Merleau-Ponty: Language and Vision Philosophy 253 This course focuses on questions of vision as they emerge in Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s late work (particularly The Visible and The Invisible) and as they are linked by him to a general concern for language and a more specific question about the proper form of philosophical expression. These questions emerge in close dialogue with various of Merleau-Ponty’s contemporaries, including Jean-Paul Sartre, Jacques Lacan, and Claude Lévi-Strauss. Readings also include works by Jean-François Lyotard, Gilles Deleuze, Hubert Damisch, Michael Fried, and Rosalind Krauss.

Medical Ethics Philosophy 255 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, STS This course examines a range of topics in contemporary debates over medical ethics, among them issues of genetics, reproduction, death and dying, and involuntary hospitalization and treatment. Students review competing ethical positions that philosophers have proposed as models for understanding and resolving issues of medical ethics and study basic concepts with which all such theories grapple. Also examined are the ways these concepts apply to actual cases, and the conflict between ethical reasoning and social, religious, and legal concerns.

Philosophy of Race Philosophy 263 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS The major tasks of a philosophy of race include: identifying and accounting for historically and geographically diverse histories of racialization; clarifying the forms and normative significance of the injuries of invidious racialization; acknowledging the motivations for and evaluating the efficacy of critical reappropriations of racial identity; and orienting resistance to ongoing forms of racialized injustice. This course addresses the question, “Is the normative purview of liberalism adequate to these tasks?”

Contemporary Feminist Philosophy Philosophy 264 CROSS -LISTED: GSS This course examines how the various philosophical resources that feminist philosophers draw upon—Nietzsche, Foucault, Derrida, Deleuze, Rawls, Kant, Arendt, Freud, Lacan— influence their articulations of the tasks, strategies, and goals of feminist philosophy and politics. This accomplished, it then presents a multiparty dialogue among several contemporary feminist philosophers about the tasks and future of feminism.

The Unconscious Philosophy 265 CROSS -LISTED: MBB In the 17th century, consciousness was the reigning mark of the mental phenomenon. Since the emergence of cognitive psychology in

186 Social Studies the mid–20th century, however, there has been an explosion of research into unconscious mental life. In a striking reversal, so much of our mental life is now relegated to the domain of the unconscious that consciousness has come to seem the greater mystery. This course examines debates concerning the nature and existence of unconscious mental phenomena over the past 350 years.

Spinoza and the Political Philosophy 270 CROSS -LISTED: JEWISH STUDIES This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the major currents of Spinoza’s philosophy and examines the work of those who claim to philosophize in its wake (primarily, Gilles Deleuze and Antonio Negri). Students read Spinoza’s Tractatus theologico-politicus and his Ethics, and consider the consequences of the distinction between true and false (i.e., “seeming”) contradictions in Spinoza’s philosophy. Other topics discussed include Spinoza’s critiques of abstraction and stasis; the value of free thought and speech; and the relative powers of reason and passion.

Topics in the Philosophy of Language Philosophy 271 CROSS -LISTED: MBB This course reviews Saul Kripke’s groundbreaking lecture series, Naming and Necessity, given at Princeton University in 1970. For background, students read essays by Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, John Searle, and others. Readings may also include some of the recent literature on Naming and Necessity. Prerequisites: one prior course in philosophy (preferably Philosophy 237, Symbolic Logic) and permission of the instructor.

ence, the subject matter and nature of psychology, various ethical issues, and the pragmatic theory of truth. Prerequisites: permission of the instructor and at least sophomore status.

Philosophical Research Seminar Philosophy 302 An intensive advanced seminar required of all philosophy majors in their junior year. A problem in contemporary philosophy is carefully selected, exactingly defined, and thoroughly researched; an essay or article is written addressing the problem, going through numerous revisions; the article is formally presented to the seminar, followed by discussion and debate; and the article in its completed form is submitted to an undergraduate or professional journal of philosophy or to an undergraduate conference in philosophy.

Existentialism Philosophy 315 Existentialism is a philosophic, literary, artistic, and social movement that emerged during the Second World War in France, but with roots tracing back to Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche in the 19th century. This course provides a close study of selected writings of Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Sartre, Camus, and Heidegger. It focuses on themes regarded as common existentialist preoccupations—such as rebellion against rationalism and the corresponding emphasis on subjectivity—and emphasizes important distinctions among these five writers.

Is “Perpetual Peace” Sustainable? Philosophy 334 / Human Rights 334 See Human Rights 334 for a course description.

Constitutional Law: Rights and Liberty Philosophy 340 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, POLITICAL

The Philosophy of William James Philosophy 281


William James (1842–1910) wrote and lectured on philosophy for both the emerging “profession” and for lay persons, and he did so with unusual style and clarity. In his lifetime, he earned an international reputation and became the most widely known philosopher in America. Readings include selections from James’s works, and among the topics covered are religious experi-

The U.S. Constitution is not only the charter of our political institutions but a statement of political philosophy as well. This course examines the theory and practical application of rights and liberties set forth in Amendments 1 through 10 (the Bill of Rights) and Amendment 14, guaranteeing due process and the equal protection of law to all. Most of the course readings

Philosophy 187 are Supreme Court decisions, including dissenting opinions, through which students learn methods of judicial interpretation and aspects of legal reasoning.

Readings range from war crimes tribunals to selections from Anscombe, Augustine, Elshtain, Holmes, May, McMahan, Nagel, Rawls, Scheffler, Todorov, Walzer, and Williams.

Pragmatism Philosophy 350

Unconditional Rationalism: Derrida Philosophy 356

A detailed examination of the content and methods of a number of classic works of American philosophy, emphasizing issues in epistemology. Authors include Peirce, William James, Royce, Dewey, Santayana, Mead, and more recent writers. The philosophical movements discussed include transcendentalism, pragmatism, empiricism, and realism. The investigation of these works involves problems in the philosophy of religion, ethics, aesthetics, the philosophy of language, the philosophy of education, and social and political philosophy.

This course explores the writings of Jacques Derrida, in order to clarify his call to an unconditional rationalism in the name of an Enlightenment to come. In addition to close readings of Derrida’s texts, the class also investigates his sources, concentrating on Derrida’s engagement with great classics of the tradition (Plato, Rousseau, Descartes, and Kant, among others). Prerequisites: a previous course in philosophy and permission of the instructor.

Jean-Luc Nancy and Philosophy after Derrida Philosophy 353

This Upper College seminar combines elements of two disciplines—law and philosophy—to examine the premises that support the ideal of a just society and the reasons utilized in making legal and moral arguments. The course is jointly taught by a faculty member of the Philosophy Program and a constitutional lawyer. Readings include current court decisions involving issues of equality, sexuality, the death penalty, and the right to die, and texts by philosophers such as Jeremy Bentham, Isaiah Berlin, Ronald Dworkin, and John Rawls.

French philosopher Jean-Luc Nancy rose to prominence as a follower of Jacques Derrida in the mid-1970s, often writing in collaboration with Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, most notably in a study of Jacques Lacan (Le titre de la lettre) and a study of German Romanticism (L’absolu littéraire). Students explore a range of Nancy’s writings in relation to those he draws upon, including the philosophers Hegel and Heidegger, maverick surrealist Georges Bataille, and novelist and critic Maurice Blanchot. Prerequisites: one philosophy course and consent of the instructor.

Philosophical Issues of War Philosophy 354 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, POLITICAL STUDIES

This course examines various topics concerning demands upon morality imposed by circumstances of war. These encompass the just war theory and laws of war, patriotism, obedience to authority, pacifism and conscientious objection, collective responsibility, harm to civilians, mass destruction, and humanitarian military intervention, as well as more purely ethical concerns such as utilitarianism, consequentialism, deontology, and the principle of double effect.

Law and Ethics Philosophy 357

The New Genetics: Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues Philosophy 368 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, STS An examination of a variety of ethical, legal, social, and scientific debates surrounding recent advances in genetics, especially technologies facilitated by the decoding of the human genome: genetic screening and testing, issues of justice (genetic discrimination and privacy issues), gene therapy, cloning, and transgenic agriculture (genetically modified crops). Prerequisites: previous courses in philosophy and/or biology.

188 Social Studies The Philosophy of Kant Philosophy 371 CROSS -LISTED: GERMAN STUDIES

The Philosophy of Heidegger Philosophy 383 CROSS -LISTED: GERMAN STUDIES

An introduction to one of the classic texts of Western philosophy, Kant’s magnum opus, The Critique of Pure Reason. Prerequisites: a previous course in philosophy and permission of the instructor.

This course provides a close reading of major portions of Heidegger’s Being and Time and several short later works. It focuses on such themes as Heidegger’s (re)conception of the phenomenological method; the elusive search for an account of Being; the analysis of our “everyday” inauthentic being and our potentiality for authenticity; and Heidegger’s thoughts on art, language, and technology.

Philosophy of Biology: Conceptual Foundations of Darwinian Theory Philosophy 372 The lively, often acrimonious, debate between evolutionism and creationism continues, but we can achieve clarity on the terms of the debate only by understanding precisely what each position is committed to. In this course students examine the conceptual foundations of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. Issues addressed include the ingredients for natural selection, the units and levels of selection, and the individuation of biological categories and kinds, among others. Prerequisite: one course in either philosophy or biology.

The Philosophy of Hegel Philosophy 373 CROSS -LISTED: GERMAN STUDIES This course consists of readings from two of the four works Hegel saw to publication, The Phenomenology of Spirit and The Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences, and from two of his four posthumously published lecture cycles, Lectures on the Philosophy of History and Lectures on Aesthetics.

The Philosophy of Husserl Philosophy 382 Can philosophy become a rigorous science? If so, can it finally redeem its promise to provide a secure foundation for knowledge? Throughout the enormously ambitious itinerary of his writings, Edmund Husserl sought to demonstrate that both questions could be answered in the affirmative. Specifically, he sought to demonstrate that objectivity can be secured through the phenomenological exposition of subjectivity. For Husserl, constitutive subjectivity, when methodologically refined, allows what is to appear as it is: subjectivity and objectivity become as one.

Politics and the Arts: Art, Philosophy, and Democratic Culture Philosophy 390 CROSS -LISTED: ART HISTORY Plato banished poetry and the arts from his city, charging that they corrupted its citizens. How do we, citizens of a democratic republic in its third century, conceive the value and role of the arts in our democracy? Is art fundamental to our democratic culture, even essential to its continuation? This course explores topics from Emerson’s hopes for American culture, to Hollywood films of the 1930s and 1940s, to contemporary critical writing on the arts and popular culture. Prerequisites: one course in philosophy and permission of the instructor.

Philosophy and the Arts Philosophy 393 This course explores the ways that philosophers (and philosophically engaged critics) have approached issues concerning the nature and value of art. After a discussion of Plato’s influential account of representation and the place of art in society, the class turns to questions raised by painting, photography, film, and music. From there, broader topics that cut across various art forms are considered. Readings include Hume and Kant on taste, Stanley Cavell on the moving image, and Theodor Adorno and Walter Benjamin on mass culture.

Political Studies 189

Political Studies Faculty: Omar G. Encarnación (director)*, Sanjib Baruah, Jonathan Becker, Roger Berkowitz, Jonathan L. Cristol, Kenneth Haig, David Kettler, Christopher McIntosh, Walter Russell Mead, Michelle Murray, David O’Connell, Ian Storey * on sabbatical, spring 2013

Overview: Politics can be understood in many ways: as a struggle for power over other people, groups, and nations; as a social process that determines who has what kinds of authority and how this affects particular communities; as a series of conversations or disputations about what counts as a “public problem” and how to address public problems; or as an art or science of institutional design, especially the design of governments and international institutions. However it is defined, politics matters. Political outcomes shape the choices we can make as individuals, and the fates of communities, nations, and states. The Political Studies Program at Bard welcomes students who care about politics and want to reason critically about political outcomes and debates at the local, national, and international levels. The program intends to inform responsible participation in American and global public affairs. It also prepares students for work and/or further study in political science, international affairs, public policy, law, cultural studies, and related fields. Areas of Study: At Bard, six broad clusters of political studies are identified: political theory, American politics, comparative politics, political economy, public law, and international relations. The clusters necessarily overlap one another and other fields. Students are encouraged to combine courses in political studies with relevant courses in other disciplines, such as history, economics, sociology, and literature. Requirements: Prior to Moderation a student ordinarily should have taken at least four courses in the program, including two of the program’s required core courses. Depending on a student’s focus or interest, one course from another pro-

gram may be counted toward this requirement. The courses in political studies must fall into at least two of the subfields. In the junior year the student takes at least one 300-level course designed as preparation for the independent research and writing of a Senior Project. Students take at least two other courses in the program in the Upper College. Recent Senior Projects in Political Studies: “Improvisatory Citizen: Jazz, Freedom, and the Rethinking of American Democracy” “Political Warming: Environmentalist and Evangelical Liaisons in the Climate-Change Debate” “Them That Bless Israel: Christian Zionism and the Forging of the U.S.-Israel Alliance” “Who’s Kerry Edwards? A Comparison of Youth Protest in the Vietnam and Iraqi War Periods” Courses: In addition to the courses described below, the following tutorials have been offered in recent years: Globalization and the Environment, Heidegger and the Law, Historical Roots of Islamic Nationalism, Intelligence and American Politics, Nietzsche’s Beyond Good and Evil, Reading Marx, Texts and Pretexts in American War Rationales, and Women and the Law.

International Relations Political Studies 104 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS This course provides students with an understanding of the hows and whys of state behavior: the “nuts and bolts” of international affairs. Topics include international relations theory; how foreign policy is made; international organizations; and some of the “hot” issues in the world today— terrorism, preventive war, globalization, and the spread of democracy. Authors read include Thucydides, Morgenthau, Russett, Huntington, and Mearsheimer, among many others.

Comparative Politics Political Studies 105 CROSS -LISTED: GIS The intellectual premise of comparative politics is that we can better understand the politics of almost any country by placing it in its larger,

190 Social Studies global context. This perspective allows us to address some of the most fundamental questions of politics. Students examine not only the key institutions of liberal democracies, but also democracies constructed after dictatorships (Germany, Japan) and federalism as an emerging trend in contemporary regional politics.

Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, Arendt, Foucault, and Derrida.

Political Economy Political Studies 109 CROSS -LISTED: GIS

This course introduces students to the basic institutions and processes of American government. It aims to provide students with a grasp of the fundamental dynamics of American politics and the skills to be an effective participant in and critic of the political process. During the semester, students examine how the government works, interpret current political developments and debates, and consider how to influence the government at various levels.

American Politics: Issues and Institutions Political Studies 122 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, SOCIAL POLICY

Political economy refers to the interrelationship between politics and economics. However, political scientists and economists do not always use the term in the same sense, and within these two disciplines the term has multiple meanings. This course reviews the ideas of major thinkers such as Adam Smith, Karl Marx, John Maynard Keynes, and John Kenneth Galbraith, and introduces two subfields: international political economy and the political economy of development.

Introduction to Political Thinking Political Studies 115 This course examines politics through a core body of writings. It takes a comparative look at texts from diverse historical eras and reflects critically on different ways of thinking about concepts such as justice, democracy, authority, and “the political.” Students reconstruct (and perhaps deconstruct) key strategic alternatives to such enduring questions as the relationship between the state and the individual, the conditions for peaceful political order, and the relationship between political action, intellectual contemplation, and morality.

Introduction to Political Philosophy Political Studies 117 / Philosophy 117 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS From Plato’s “philosopher kings” to Hegel’s “master-slave dialectic” to Foucault’s “disciplined subject,” political philosophers have struggled with the concept of authority. This course explores various themes in political philosophy, all of which revolve around or branch out from the concept of authority: the state, rights, law, liberty, justice, citizenship, duty, obedience, and sovereignty. Texts are drawn from works by Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli,

Constitutional Law Political Studies 134 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This course provides an introduction to constitutional legal systems including, but not limited to, the legal system of the United States.

Human Rights in Global Politics Political Studies 145 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This course examines the principal historical and sociological explanations behind the rise of human rights; its principal actors, institutions, and legal frameworks; and the main international, regional, and national settings in which the debates and practices of human rights take place. The course is divided into three core sections, which explore, respectively, the origins of the notion of human rights, human rights activism in action, and the dominant debates within the human rights movement.

Foundations of the Law Political Studies 167 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS As the novelist William Gaddis writes: “Justice? You get justice in the next world. In this world, you have the law.” This course explores the apparent disconnect between law and justice. Through readings of legal cases as well as political, literary, and philosophical texts, students grapple with the problem of administering jus-

Political Studies 191 tice as it emerges in the context of contemporary legal institutions. Texts include Kant’s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Melville’s Billy Budd, and selections from Dostoevsky, Twain, Plato, and others.

cal history of some representative countries, including Venezuela under Chávez.

U.S.–Latin American Relations Political Studies 214 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, LAIS


A comprehensive overview of the relationships between the United States and the nations of Latin America, how they were affected by historical and ideological events, and what possibilities exist for the future. The course provides a historical overview of the events that shaped U.S.–Latin American relations; an examination of the principal issues that currently dominate the relations between the United States and its southern neighbors; and a close look at the relationships between the United States and Cuba, Mexico, and Puerto Rico.

Theories of the Self, Gender, and Antiracism Political Studies 218 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, HUMAN RIGHTS This course reviews competing ways of understanding the self, from Freud’s still controversial “psychoanalytic” approach to the more socially oriented perspectives of Goffman, Foucault, and Althusser. It also explores contemporary issues of gender, sexuality, and race, and how current thinking and practices of contestation continue to be informed by the major approaches to theorizing about the self.

Latin American Politics Political Studies 222 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HISTORICAL STUDIES, LAIS A conceptual and historical introduction to the politics of Latin America. The course focuses on the actors, regimes, and processes that have characterized and structured the region’s political life. Among the topics covered are the widely different political regimes that have marked the 20th-century history of the continent; the return to electoral democracy in the 1980s and the major sociopolitical shifts that have happened as a consequence; and the politi-

Sex, Power, Politics Political Studies 224 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, GSS, This course brings work in feminist and queer theory to bear on the study of contemporary public policy controversies, and vice versa, to see how sex, power, and politics are related to one another in the United States. Students explore the history and politics of several recent social movements and critically assess the assumptions embedded in U.S. law and public policy. Topics may include debates over reproductive freedom, pornography, marriage, adoption, and gay rights, among others.

West European Politics and Society Political Studies 225 CROSS -LISTED: FRENCH STUDIES, GERMAN STUDIES, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS Western Europe has been a key arena for some of the most remarkable late 20th- and early 21st-century ventures and experiments in globalization, democratic political reform, acceptance of cultural diversity, developments in social policy, and the viability of socialism. The course looks at what brought these experiments into being, their relative historical success, and how they have fared in the face of new global and international challenges.

Europe and the World: International Relations of West European States Political Studies 227 CROSS -LISTED: FRENCH STUDIES, GERMAN STUDIES, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS This course examines the redefinition of West European states and the renegotiation of their relations with their former colonies, the United States, the rest of Europe, and one another, from the late 1940s to the present. It is especially concerned with the institutional and organizational effects of these renegotiations, from the emergence of such key international organizations as NATO, the Council of Europe, and the European Union to their changing—and often contested—roles in international affairs today.

192 Social Studies Immigration and Citizenship Political Studies 229 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, SOCIAL

The United Nations and Model UN Political Studies 239 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS


The first part of this two-semester course explores the history of the United Nations, providing an introduction to its structure and principal aims. It examines the role of specialized agencies and how alliances impact on the UN’s day-to-day operations. The second part of the course focuses on an assigned country whose history, politics, and economics are studied. The course concludes with the writing of position papers that reflect that country’s approach to issues confronting the UN. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

This course examines the way that responses to immigration have affected existing policies and practices of citizenship. Studies focus primarily on the post–World War II experience of developed countries and the practical and theoretical issues raised by that experience, such as the challenge of integrating culturally and religiously diverse new social groups of immigrant origin and the ways in which different countries have confronted this task. Topics include multiculturalism, minority rights, visions of state and nationhood, and alien voting rights.

International Politics of South Asia Political Studies 233 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES This course provides a historical overview of South Asia, a region that has 21 percent of the world’s population. It covers the British colonial period, the Kashmir conflict, the war in Afghanistan, India-Pakistan relations and the regional nuclear arms race, the politics of outsourcing, and the United States and South Asia, among other topics. Students are expected to keep up with current developments and relevant policy debates by reading South Asian and U.S. newspapers online.

The Modern American Presidency Political Studies 235 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES An introduction to the office of the presidency and, more generally, to the major dynamics affecting American politics today. Using the 2004 and 2008 presidential campaigns as a point of reference, the course examines historical patterns of change in party coalitions, electoral and policy-making strategies, and the institutional capacities of the presidency. Particular attention is paid to changes in the scope of presidential power in the context of the Great Depression, World War II, September 11 attacks, and other events.

Public Opinion, Political Participation, and Democracy in America Political Studies 245 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES Many political observers and players make sweeping claims about what Americans want, how they think, and to what extent they live up to ideals of citizenship. This course looks closely at what we know about the American people’s political and social beliefs and their political participation in all its various forms. Topics include public opinion polls, people’s voting decisions, the scope of citizen political activism, and fundamental attitudes toward government—and what they mean for the future of American democracy.

American Foreign Policy Debates Political Studies 247 CROSS -LISTED: GIS An examination of the questions facing American foreign policy today through several lenses: global geopolitics, economics, resource issues, culture and ideology, and regional politics. The course stresses the connections between domestic and international policy and explores the schools of thought currently contending to shape the foreign policy agenda of the Obama administration and of various critics and opponents. Readings include essays and books by leading scholars and practitioners.

Political Studies 193 East Asian Politics and Society Political Studies 248 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, GIS An introduction to the comparative politics of Japan, Korea, and greater China. The first part of the course focuses on economic development: how can industrialization and sustained economic growth be achieved? Next, students consider the causes underlying social revolutions. Finally, the class addresses the question of democracy in a region with a long history of authoritarian rule. Besides examining democratization in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, students explore different cultural conceptions of democracy and their impact on political reform.

Introduction to Quantitative Analysis Political Studies 250 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, GIS, SOCIAL POLICY It has been said that “figures never lie, but liars figure,” and in political debates, the incentives to lie with figures are ubiquitous. Political scientists, however, frequently resort to statistical analysis to gain insights into social phenomena and causal relationships. This course cultivates rudiments of statistical analysis, with emphasis on the ability to interpret and evaluate inferential claims in social science literature.

Human Rights in Asia Political Studies 251 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS This course challenges assumptions about cultural relativism by comparing and contrasting the different ways in which societies in East, Southeast, and South Asia have confronted increasing social diversification and changing norms about class, gender, ethnic, and religious minorities. In addition to comparing the extent to which human rights protections have been incorporated into domestic legal institutions, students also consider efforts to build regional and transnational dialogue on these issues.

Security and International Politics Political Studies 254 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS Security is one of the foundational concepts in the study of international politics. As the principal rationale for war, the quest for security influences the behavior of states both interna-

tionally and domestically. Students consider critical approaches to the politics of threat construction, alternative conceptualizations of security, and the ethics of conducting torture and suspending civil liberties in the name of national security.

The Politics of Russia and the Soviet Successor States Political Studies 255 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, RES Why did communism collapse? What political, economic, social, and historical factors explain the difficulties of Russia’s postcommunist transition? This course examines the monumental political, social, and economic changes that have swept Russia since 1985. Students explore the transformation of Russia not only through academic books and articles, but also through literature, film, and the speeches and writings of political figures.

Politics and News Media Political Studies 256 This seminar addresses the interaction between government and news media, concentrating on the characteristics of different media systems, the role of news media in elections, the impact of news media on the formation of foreign and domestic policy, and recent news media restrictions related to national security concerns. Although the focus is on contemporary U.S. news media, some attention is devoted to comparisons of media in other countries.

Strategies of Radical Political and Social Change Political Studies 258 CROSS -LISTED: SOCIOLOGY How can we change the political condition of society? Can such change be achieved through force of will, organization, and political strategies, or is long-lasting political change a product of slower transformations of the social fabric? This course examines various strategies designed to trigger and achieve social and political change. Students compare, for example, the guerrilla strategy used historically in Latin America with nonviolent strategies from Gandhi to contemporary civil disobedience.

194 Social Studies Spanish Politics: Democracy after Dictatorship Political Studies 259 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, LAIS During the 20th century, Spain went from anarchist politics, civil war, and fascist uprising to becoming an emblem of right-wing authoritarianism, and finally to becoming a stunning case of “Third Wave” democratization by the late 1970s. This course considers this series of political transformations and what they teach us about the domestic and international factors that condition political development in general, and the rise of democracy in particular.

Environmental Politics in the United States Political Studies 260 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, EUS, SOCIAL POLICY

Environmental politics involves many crucial themes in American politics. This course considers how government regulation works and fails to work, how competing interests and values shape policy outcomes, how policy makers grapple with (or evade) complex technical issues, and such topics as toxic waste, environmental justice, climate change, wilderness conservation, and endangered species protection.

The United States and the Modern Middle East Political Studies 264 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, MES This seminar focuses on the complex and contradictory relationship between the United States and the Arab world. Students discuss the creation of Arab nation-states, the pivotal year 1948, Nasserism, the Cold War, the Six-Day War, and the first Gulf War, among other topics. The class then considers challenges to the American role (if any) in the Arab world as well as fundamentalism, terrorism, democratization, trade, the Gulf emirates as liberals, and the war in Iraq.

Politics of Globalization Political Studies 274 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS Advocates of free markets see globalization as a positive force that can generate employment and raise world living standards. Critics see it as

an excuse for the exploitation of workers and the expropriation of resources of poor countries, environmental degradation, and a host of other ills. This course is framed by the question: What is new about globalization and what is not?

Nations, States, Nationalism Political Studies 280 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, MES The 20th century was the century of nationalism. The national conflicts that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union were only the most recent manifestations of the power of nationalism. But terms such as nations, nationalities, and nationalism are difficult to define. This course makes use of a number of key theoretical texts to examine the history of the idea of nations and the “nation-state.”

Equality and American Democracy Political Studies 281 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS In the United States, one-tenth of the population owns 71 percent of the nation’s wealth. The New York City school-age population is over 70 percent African American or Hispanic, yet at Stuyvesant High School, one of the city’s best, less than 4 percent of the students come from these groups. On average, American women earn 77 cents for every dollar men earn in comparable jobs. How should we regard these and other inequalities? This course explores several theories of egalitarianism and applies them to American case studies in inequality.

NGOs, Civil Society, and Development Political Studies 282 How accountable are nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)? What are the limits of transnational activism? How does transnational development work “fit” with national development policies? This course provides an overview of the theories and debates involving NGOs and civil society. It examines these issues through case studies of specific transnational networks, movements, and project work in the areas of the environment, sustainable development, global health, and poverty alleviation. The cases are drawn from Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

Political Studies 195 Anarchism Political Studies 287 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, PHILOSOPHY Anarchism is the political theory of government without rulers, or the idea that communities can organize themselves politically without hierarchical authority. Often utopian, there are many practical and historical examples of anarchic politics and self-organization. Most recently, large elements of the Occupy Wall Street movement have embraced fundamental anarchist ideas. This course explores the intellectual history of anarchism in order to understand its place in contemporary politics. Readings include Emma Goldman, Martin Heidegger, Subcomandante Marcos, David Graeber, and others.

Political Economy of Development Political Studies 314 This Upper College seminar examines the economic development of the “Third World” through the lens of several generations of scholars. After reading representative authors of competing theoretical traditions, students move on to concrete cases.

Nuclear Proliferation Seminar Political Studies 326 CROSS -LISTED: GIS This seminar reviews the origins of the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the impact of this proliferation on U.S. national and international security. Students consider the central academic debates about why states want nuclear weapons and evaluate these ideas against the major cases of nuclear acquisition and restraint in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

American Religion and Politics Political Studies 327 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, RELIGION, SOCIAL POLICY

This course illustrates the application of various research methods to a major theme in American politics: the impact of religious identities, movements, and divides—including the apparent contemporary cleavage between religious and secular Americans. Topics include the role of religious beliefs and institutions in major social movements and contemporary debates

about the proper relationship between church and state. Texts include George Lakoff’s Moral Politics, James Morone’s Hellfire Nation, Pat Robertson’s The New World Order, and others.

Crisis of the Rule of Law Political Studies 336 After an introduction to the concept of “rule of law,” drawing on some classical formulations, the course focuses on areas in American legal practice, such as regulatory law in relation to property rights, labor law, family law, and presidential emergency powers, where serious commentators speak of “crisis.” If time permits, some comparative materials relating to transitional justice are also considered.

Strategy and Power Political Studies 338 Based loosely on the “Grand Strategy” curriculum developed by John Gaddis, Paul Kennedy, and Charles Hill at Yale University, this seminar examines a series of key texts in grand strategy and a set of case studies that analyze strategy in important world conflicts from ancient times through the 20th century. Texts include works by Sun Tzu, Thucydides, Machiavelli, von Clausewitz, and others. Students are encouraged to think critically about these conflicts and the world leaders who engaged with them.

Populism in Latin America Political Studies 339 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, LAIS Politically incorporating the voices and claims of the poor has been a tumultuous central issue in Latin American politics, from the tragic to the outrageously “humorous.” This course examines the theoretical foundations, representational claims, and concrete appeal of populism. Among the topics covered are the role of populism in the creation of popular identities, the problematic relation between populism and liberalism, and the intriguing relation between populism and popular culture in Latin America.

196 Social Studies Civil Liberties in States of Emergency Political Studies 343 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS

Clinton Rossiter wrote, “No form of government can survive that excludes dictatorship when the life of the nation is at stake.” This seminar takes up the question of how the United States should be governed during times of crisis by situating the “War on Terrorism” in historical and comparative context, and by asking broader questions about the relationship between the rule of law, sovereignty, and democracy. A special focus is on how and when civil liberties have been rescinded in America, and to what effects.

Political Representation and Social Differences Political Studies 348 CROSS -LISTED: SOCIAL POLICY, SOCIOLOGY This seminar crosses borders between political sociology, electoral analysis, and what political scientists call spatial analysis. It examines the conflicts associated with political representation from the subjective angle of identities, as they relate to “self” and “experience,” and from a macrosociological perspective. Topics such as electoral sociology, social movements, and identity politics are reviewed, and the relational and discursive mechanisms of identity formation are analyzed from a political theory perspective.

Bard–West Point Seminar: The Nature of Power Political Studies 349 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS Hans Morgenthau wrote that “power may comprise anything that establishes and maintains control of man over man. Thus power covers all social relationships which serve that end, from physical violence to the most subtle psychological ties by which one mind controls another.” This seminar investigates “physical violence,” “subtle psychological ties,” and everything in between in an attempt to understand the nature and role of power in the international system. Joint sessions are held with Professor Scott Silverstone and his students at the United States Military Academy. Prerequisites: Political Studies 104 and permission of the instructor.

The End of Unions Political Studies 353 This course examines the political importance of organized labor, especially in the post–World War II period and primarily in the United States, in order to assess the causes and consequences of the present steep decline in the power of unions. The common reading during the first half of the semester covers both empirical-historical and theoretical studies. The second half consists of seminar reports on group or individual projects.

Anglo-American Grand Strategy Political Studies 354 CROSS -LISTED: GIS The American world system that exists today can be seen as version 2.0 of the liberal capitalist system first built by Great Britain. The builders of these systems developed a distinct style of strategic thought around the needs of a maritime, global, and commercial system. Students read works by important thinkers in this tradition, such as Admiral Mahan and Winston Churchill, and study the grand strategies of the two powers from the War of the Spanish Succession through the Cold War.

Radical American Democracy Political Studies 358 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS While most characterizations of democracy see it as a form of government, this course explores the essence of democracy as a specifically modern way of life. Students review texts by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Walt Whitman, Ralph Ellison, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Hannah Arendt to understand the democratic spirit of radical individualism that has proven so seductive and powerful since its modern birth in the American Revolution.

God’s Country? U.S. Foreign Policy and Religion in the United States Political Studies 365 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS The United States is an intensely religious country, affected by an individualistic form of Christianity with roots in the British Isles and the Protestant Reformation. Both religious and nonreligious citizens today have been shaped by this heritage, and America’s engagement with

Political Studies 197 the world continues to reflect the ideas and values of that past. This course examines the ideological, cultural, and social consequences of that influence on American foreign policy.

Promoting Democracy Abroad Political Studies 368 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, GIS Almost alone among the world’s superpowers, the United States has made promoting democracy abroad a central objective of its foreign policy. This course explores three questions about this “mission” to spread democracy: What explains the genesis and persistence of the centrality of democracy in American foreign policy? How have American administrations tried to construct policies to advance democratic development abroad? Why have these attempts to promote democracy abroad so often fallen short of their intended goals?

Great Power Politics Political Studies 369 This course explores the military, economic, and social sources of great power competition in international politics. Historical cases covered include the rise of U.S. hegemony in the Western Hemisphere, the Anglo-German naval race, World Wars I and II, and the Cold War. Contemporary topics include the emergence of new nuclear powers, the war on terror, and the rise of China.

Politics of Population Control Political Studies 370 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, SOCIAL POLICY For much of history, rulers knew that having large populations was the key to military and economic strength: more people meant a larger workforce and larger armies. Today, however, developing countries almost universally view overpopulation as a threat to social, economic, and political stability. This course examines the various theories and approaches that have historically informed state responses to population change. It considers the range of populationcontrolling or population-growing policy solutions that have been tried by different nations and the political conflicts they have prompted.

Public Policy Seminar Political Studies 371 CROSS -LISTED: SOCIAL POLICY Public policy can be loosely defined as what governments “do about” various issues. This seminar begins with an overview of policy making in the United States through broad themes such as policy entrepreneurship, agenda setting, and cost-benefit analysis. It goes on to examine selected aspects of U.S. social welfare policy with an eye to understanding the sources and effects of past and present policy, as well as the prospects for future policy initiatives.

Human Rights and the Environment Political Studies 373 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, HUMAN RIGHTS Across the global south, social mobilizations against oil and mineral extraction, and for improved access to clean and sufficient water, are occurring with increasing frequency. The ongoing pollution generated by oil wells, mines, and industry pose severe threats to the health and cultural survival of many people within the developing world. This course examines the work being done by various groups to frame environmental degradation and, conversely, environmental sustainability, as a critical aspect of human rights.

Grand Strategy from Sun Tzu to Clausewitz Political Studies 377 CROSS -LISTED: GIS The question of what war is and how wars can be won has exercised great minds from the dawn of recorded history. Students in this advanced seminar examine classic texts on conflict, from ancient China to modern Europe. Issues addressed include, the nature of conflict, the role of chance in human affairs, the definition of power, and the development of strategic thought.

Advanced Topics in Political Thinking Political Studies 380 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, PHILOSOPHY This course focuses on a close reading of one important thinker or book in the tradition of political and legal theory. Authors and books vary from semester to semester.

198 Social Studies Hannah Arendt Seminar Political Studies 420 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS Students read some of Hannah Arendt’s seminal works, paying particular attention to her thoughts about how science and art relate to the human condition. The course also explores the challenge that scientific rationality and artificial intelligence pose to the humanity of humans. Beyond scheduled class meetings, students are expected to attend lectures and other events sponsored by the Hannah Arendt Center for Politics and Humanities and Bard’s Center for Curatorial Studies.

Religion Faculty: Richard H. Davis (director), Bruce Chilton, David Nelson, Jacob Neusner, Kristin Scheible, Mairaj Syed Overview: Religious ideas and practices have been crucial in shaping distinctive human societies throughout history, and they continue to exercise critical influence in the world of the 21st century. We study the various phenomena we call “religion” for many reasons: for their intrinsic interest; to understand how particular religious expressions may reinforce or challenge their own social and historical settings; and to consider how they may also challenge our own understandings of the world. At Bard, religion offerings are organized within three primary approaches to the study of religious phenomena: interpretive, historical, and theoretical. (For detailed descriptions of these categories, see the Religion Program website.) Requirements: Students wishing to moderate into the Religion Program should, by the semester of Moderation, complete four religion courses, with at least one course in each of the three approaches mentioned above. Students considering the religion major are strongly encouraged to explore several of the five religious traditions of the world offered in the Bard curriculum: Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism.

Graduation requirements in religion include at least eight courses in the Religion Program, in addition to the Senior Project and the Religion Colloquium. Majors are encouraged as well to take courses relevant to the study of religion offered by other programs, such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, theology, literature, historical studies, philosophy, gender and sexuality studies, and others. Courses outside the program that centrally involve religious issues or texts may, in consultation with the adviser, be counted as religion courses. Two courses are required for all moderands: Seminar: Sacred Pursuits (Religion 269) and Religion Colloquium. Students are expected to study a language relevant to the particular religion or area of study upon which they intend to focus for their Senior Project. Relevant languages taught at Bard include Arabic, Chinese, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Latin, and Sanskrit. The Senior Project in the Religion Program will ideally be the culmination of the student’s investigation of religion at Bard and should reflect a sustained analysis of a carefully defined topic in the critical study of religion. Recent Senior Projects in Religion: “Defining Gnosticism: Valentinus and Irenaeus in Dialogue” “Evolving Beliefs, Cultivating Practice: The Codependent Arising of Environment and Dietary Practice in Buddhist Tibet and Japan” “Freemasonry in Victorian America” “New Magisteria: Religion, Science, and Medicine in the 21st Century” “Telling the Hive: An Exploration of HumanNature Relationships through Honeybee Narratives”

Buddhist Thought and Practice Religion 103 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES A study of the basic categories of philosophy and practice in Buddhism, a pan-Asian religious tradition of remarkable diversity and expansive geographical and chronological scope. The course maintains a historical perspective but is structured mainly along thematic lines according to the traditional concepts of the “Three

Religion 199 Jewels (or Refuges)”: Buddha (teacher, exemplar, enlightened being), Dharma (doctrine), and Sangha (community), and the “Three Trainings”: Shila (ethics), Samadhi (meditation), and Prajna (wisdom). Readings include primary sources in translation and historical and ethnographic studies.

Introduction to Judaism Religion 104 CROSS -LISTED: JEWISH STUDIES Diverse Judaic religious systems have flourished in various times and places. No single Judaism traces a linear, unitary, traditional line from the beginning to the present. This course sets forth a method for describing, analyzing, and interpreting Judaic religious systems and comparing one such system with another. Topics include the formative history of Rabbinic Judaism; Reform, Orthodox, and Conservative Judaisms; Zionism; and the constant place of women in Judaic systems as a basis for comparison and contrast.

Introduction to Islam Religion 106 CROSS -LISTED: MES Is Islam in 7th-century Arabia the same religion as Islam in 21st-century Michigan? Does West African Islamic mysticism differ from South Asian Islamic mysticism? This course answers these and related questions by introducing Islamic religious systems in a global context. Themes include conceptions of prophecy, ritual practice, and development of Islamic theology and jurisprudence, among others, and texts include the Qur’an, traditions of the prophet Muhammad, philosophical treatises, mystical guidebooks, reform literature, and contemporary educational manuals.

The Hebrew Bible: Origin and Context Religion 111 CROSS -LISTED: JEWISH STUDIES, THEOLOGY This course surveys the text, meaning, historical background, and ancient Near Eastern literary and cultural context of the Hebrew Bible, and provides a crucial introduction to all further studies of the three Abrahamic faiths. It examines the interplay between history and myth, various forms and purposes of biblical

law, the phenomenon of biblical prophecy, and the diverse literary genres that are found within the Bible.

Introduction to the New Testament Religion 114 CROSS -LISTED: THEOLOGY This theology course, which provides an overview of the New Testament, is open to students without prior knowledge of the Bible. Topics covered include the historical and political issues of the New Testament, with special attention given to its major themes. The diversity of the different books is also considered.

Hindu Religious Traditions Religion 117 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES Students read from mythic and epic literature and become familiar with the gods, goddesses, and heroes that have been central to Hindu religious practice. A range of social and devotional paths taken by Hindus is explored, as are the paths of action, devotion, and wisdom (karma, bhakti, and jnana). The class also considers modern ethnographic accounts of how the tradition is lived, both in India and the United States, with a special eye to the construction of sacred space through temples and pilgrimage.

Reading Religious Texts Religion 124 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, THEOLOGY This course offers an introduction to some of the primary texts of the major world religions, and to the strategies adopted in reading them by both believers and scholars. It focuses on two genres of religious writing: narratives of the foundation of a religious community and lyric expressions of devotion to a deity. Traditional commentarial and hermeneutical methods employed within each religious tradition are examined, along with current methods of academic historians of religion.

History of Islamic Society Religion 130 CROSS -LISTED: MEDIEVAL STUDIES, MES The rise of Islam in Arabia dramatically affected the historical landscape of territories stretching from Spain to the Indus Valley and

200 Social Studies from Central Asia to Yemen. This course surveys the political, social, religious, and cultural developments of these Islamic worlds from the 7th to the 16th century C.E. It addresses topics such as the process of conversion, the formation of Islamic art, and the growth of political and religious institutions. Readings include historical, biographical, literary, political, religious, and philosophical texts.

Islam and Islamics Religion 131 CROSS -LISTED: MES, THEOLOGY Muslims and non-Muslims use the terms of Islam and Islamics interchangeably. Do these terms address the same entities, or do they have different meanings? What is Islam as a religion? What really makes a thing Islamic, and what does not? To answer these questions, this course examines classical sources of Islam, the Qur’an and the Prophetic tradition, and their interpretations by various groups of people. Students also review current debates involving the nature of Islamics.


Sanskrit is the language of ancient India, the language in which such works as the Bhagavad Gita, the great Hindu epics Mahabharata and Ramayana, and the Upanishads were written. In this course students learn the grammar and syntax of classical Sanskrit and acquire a working vocabulary.


This course continues the study of Sanskrit foundations begun in Religion 140, and introduces readings of Sanskrit texts in the original. The readings include selections from the Indian epic Mahabharata. Students also continue their recitation practice, to gain an appreciation of the aural quality of the “perfected language.”

Filming Saint Paul Religion 145 CROSS -LISTED: THEOLOGY Paul has been reviled and revered throughout Western history. A visionary thinker who combined stoicism, Judaism, and nascent Christian theology, he transformed all of them in the mix. This seminar examines how Paul might be represented visually, on film. The producers of Rabbi Paul have made their screenplay available for student use.

Asian Humanities Seminar Religion 152 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES This course examines classic texts in three primary Asian cultures: India, China, and Japan. Works may include the teachings of the Buddha, Confucius, and Chuang-tzu; epics (the Ramayana); the poetry of Kalidasa and Basho; and the Japanese Tale of Genji. By engaging with these great works, students explore some of the ways Asian thinkers have dealt with fundamental issues pertaining to self, society, and the cosmos. This writing-intensive course is intended as an entry into Asian studies.

Classics of Judaism Religion 175 CROSS -LISTED: JEWISH STUDIES This course studies a particular religion— Judaism—to exemplify an important trait of religion in general. Students explore how writing serves as a medium for preserving and handing on religious experience in the life of an ongoing religious community. Particular focus is on the Torah—both the written Torah, also known as the Five Books of Moses or the Pentateuch—and its oral counterpart, called “the memorized Torah,” which also includes such nonscriptural writings as the Mishnah, Talmud, and Midrash.

Working Theologies Religion 201 / Theology 201 This course provides an overview of the major religious traditions. It introduces the principal world religions (religious traditions that flourish in more than a single location), and also examines indigenous religions (which flourish in one location mainly, or only) and new reli-

Religion 201 gions (those that have coalesced in the past century or so). The presentation of the topics follows a single outline, so that comparisons between and among religious traditions are facilitated. Primary reading is Professor Jacob Neusner’s textbook on comparative religions.

the problem of bhakti in 20th-century Indian literature, among others.


Trading Places Religion 215 CROSS -LISTED: JEWISH STUDIES, THEOLOGY At the beginning of the Common Era, Judaism presented a view of God that competed seriously with various philosophical schools for the loyalty of educated people in the Greco-Roman world. Christianity appeared to be a marginal sect. Later, the Talmud emerged as the model of Judaism, and the creeds defined the limits and core of Christianity. Christianity was the principal religion of the empire, and Judaism was seen as an anomaly, its traditions grounded in custom rather than reflection.

Society and Renunciation in Hinduism Religion 218 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, THEOLOGY This course focuses on the tension between world-affirming values of society and worldnegating values of asceticism and, to a degree, monasticism. While social life and asceticism are seemingly at odds with one another, the class investigates whether these two modes of living are, in fact, opposites. Following an exploration of normative codes of conduct, ritual and worship, art and architecture, the class turns to “left-handed” or impure religious practices and asceticism.

Devotion and Poetry in India Religion 228 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES Bhakti means “participation in” or “devotion to” God. From 700 C.E. to 1700 C.E., bhakti poetsaints sang songs and lived lives of intense, emotional devotion to their chosen gods. The songs, legends, and theologies of these saints and the communities they established permeate the religious life of India. This course explores the world of bhakti through its poetry. Topics include bhakti and gender, the interactions of Hindu devotionalism and Islamic Sufism, and

When an ancient religious tradition like Judaism encounters the radical challenges of modernity, it must rethink all of its basic beliefs and assumptions. This course explores the attempts of key figures of 20th-century Jewish thought to come to terms with such fundamental notions as particularism vs. universalism, the limits of divine authority, and the voluntary nature of religious affiliation and observance in the modern world.

Jewish Food and Jewish Eating: A Cultural and Religious Analysis Religion 233 CROSS -LISTED: JEWISH STUDIES Jewish food and eating practices have been staples of comedy, but this course seriously examines these topics as a way to view the development of Judaism throughout the ages. Using texts ranging from the Bible and the Talmud to modern literature, students explore the complex religious and cultural structures, theological narratives, and legal principles that have driven Jewish civilization. These are enhanced by readings in anthropology, philosophy, and history, and by careful observation of the contemporary Jewish world.

Introduction to Sufism Religion 236 CROSS -LISTED: MES Sufism is one of the most important philosophical and theological movements within the world of Islam. While primarily known for their production of mystical poetry and achievement of ecstatic states, Sufis have produced a unified system of belief and interpretation that both transgresses and defines the boundaries of the Islamic religious tradition. This course examines some of the central ideas of Sufism, as well as the historical developments of Sufi orders and their social and political role in Islamic history.

202 Social Studies The Sacred, the Uncanny, and the Divine: The Anthropology of Religion Religion 238 / Anthropology 238

Gender and Buddhism Religion 261 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, GIS, GSS

See Anthropology 238 for a course description.

This course examines the sacred images and social realities of women and men in the Buddhist world. Specifically, it considers the ways in which categories such as “woman,” “feminine,” “gender,” “nun,” and “monk” have been explained and imagined by Buddhist communities (as well as by academics and feminists) through various historical periods and locations.

Hinduism in the Epics Religion 242 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES The Indian epics have long been one of the major ways that the teachings of the Hindu tradition have been transmitted. In this course students read the Mahabharata (including the Bhagavad Gita) and the Ramayana, with a view to the role of the epics in Hindu ritual and devotional life. In addition, students examine how these texts have been retold and performed in various ways up to the present.

Gender and Islam Religion 246 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, HUMAN RIGHTS, MES This course examines issues related to the construction of gender and sexuality in the context of Islamic civilization. The first part is concerned with a thematic treatment of issues relating to gender and sexuality in Islamic religious and legal texts. Then students examine how women fared in different Muslim societies of different time periods. Finally, the class discusses the impact of the feminist movement on the Muslim world.

Gender and Sexuality in Judaism Religion 257 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, JEWISH STUDIES Traditional Judaism is often seen as a highly patriarchal system in which women have little access to ritual roles or community leadership. Men and women are strictly separated in many social situations; casual physical contact between husband and wife during the latter’s menstrual period is prohibited; and homosexual acts are deemed an “abomination” for which capital punishment is prescribed. This course examines the origins of these practices, and the social, theological, and psychological attitudes that they reflect.

Qur’an: Listening, Reading, Viewing Religion 268 CROSS -LISTED: THEOLOGY Unlike other religious texts, the Qur’an explains itself. It announces itself as the word of God, and verse after verse reiterates that its form and content provide proof of the reality of Allah’s dominion. This course aims to understand how the Qur’an as a divine book is situated within Islamic culture. Students approach the text through three modes of analysis: listening, reading, and viewing.

Sacred Pursuits Religion 269 CROSS -LISTED: ANTHROPOLOGY This writing-intensive seminar seeks to develop theoretical self-awareness in the study of religion. Most weeks the class meets for an extra hour-long writing lab, and regular short writing assignments are required. The labs are designed to help with the development, composition, organization, and revision of analytical prose; students learn to use evidence to support an argument and how to interpret and analyze texts, and become familiar with the mechanics of grammar and documentation. Readings include key theorists in the study of religion.

Mary Magdalene and Her Sacrament Religion 277 CROSS -LISTED: THEOLOGY Since the first century C.E., hierarchical authorities have sought to silence Mary Magdalene. However successful they have been, unmistakable signs of her influence remain. This course examines the persistence of her signature sacraments, from the era of medieval hagiographies

Religion 203 on through the conspiracy theories of modern revisionists.

Jewish Responses to Destruction Religion 279 CROSS -LISTED: JEWISH STUDIES The notions of destruction, suffering, and victimhood have often played prominent roles in Jewish collective identity. This course examines Jewish textual responses to three important instances of destruction: that of the Second Temple, that of European Jewish communities during the Crusades, and the devastation wrought upon most of Europe’s Jewish communities during the Holocaust. Students review primary texts that express theological, philosophical, and literary responses to these important historical turning points.

The History of Christian-Muslim Relations Religion 283 CROSS -LISTED: MEDIEVAL STUDIES This course provides a historical overview of Christian-Muslim relations by discussing the lives and writings of significant persons against the backdrop of important events and developments, including the exploration of some of the key issues that have divided Christians and Muslims. The course is open to all students interested in religion and history.

Jewish Searches for Alternative Spirituality Religion 284 CROSS -LISTED: JEWISH STUDIES, THEOLOGY Periodically throughout Jewish history, some individuals or groups have felt that what they perceived as “mainstream Judaism” had become stale and estranged from an intimate relation to God. In response to these instances of dissatisfaction, a new movement was initiated to create more spiritual models of practice. This course examines and compares several of these movements, among them Kabbalism, early Hasidism, and the contemporary Jewish Renewal movement.

Science and the Sacred: Exploring the Intersection Between Religion and Rationality Religion 286 This course examines a number of important contemporary issues at the intersection between religion and science. Scientific thinking about God, religious responses to cosmology and evolution, and the writings of both scientists on religion and religionists on science are included. The focus is on attempts to learn about religion from science and about science from religion, and on the different methodologies and assumptions of the two disciplines.

Contemporary Islam Religion 287 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, MES This course interprets contemporary Islamic movements in historical perspective. It studies the history, ideology, and activism of major movements, including the Muslim Brotherhood, the Salafiyyah (Wahhabism) movement, and the Islamic Liberation Party. It also looks at the transformation of some of these movements, especially the Muslim Brotherhood, into political parties in many Arab and Islamic countries. The impact of these movements on political stability in their respective countries is also discussed.

Islamic Legal Theory and Practice Religion 288 CROSS -LISTED: MES This course begins with the still-influential, premodern Sunni Muslim theory of legal hermeneutics (as described in M. H. Kamali’s Principles). This provides the background needed for reading Muslim legal texts and pursuing questions about the nature of legal reasoning. The second half of the course is devoted to case studies in premodern law selected from among the following topics: marriage, divorce, women in the public space, privacy, relations with non-Muslims, commercial law, and the obligation to forbid wrong and enjoin right.

204 Social Studies Gandhi: Life, Philosophy, and the Strategies of Nonviolence Religion 332 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS

Popular Arts in Modern India Religion 343 / Art History 343 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES

Mohandas Gandhi was among the most radical, revered, controversial, and influential political and religious figures of the 20th century. His strategies of nonviolent satyagraha were widely and successfully adopted during the Indian independence movement, and have since been adapted by others, with varying degrees of success. This seminar examines Gandhi’s life and the development of his philosophy. The course includes a series of films that provide different perspectives on Gandhi’s legacy, from the hagiographical to the deeply critical.

Bright, wide-eyed Hindu deities, in poster form, are ubiquitous in India. These mass-produced chromolithographs, or “god posters,” occupy a central place in the country’s visual landscape but until recently have not received scholarly attention. This seminar explores the world of Indian god posters, considering iconographic features, stylistic developments, political and religious significations, and devotional responses to these commercial prints. The genre is also studied in relation to other modern forms of South Asian visual arts, such as pilgrimage paintings and Bollywood cinema.

World Religions in the Hudson Valley Religion 338 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES

Buddhist Ethics Religion 344 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES, GSS,

This course offers a historical overview of the movements that have shaped the religious diversity of the Hudson Valley, along with excursions to local sites of interest. The influx of Buddhism into the region—for example, the Wappingers Falls stupa and the Zen Mountain Monastery in Mount Tremper—is used as a case study. Students then choose a location and religious tradition and produce both a contribution to our collective research on area institutions and a critical paper about religious pluralism and diversity.


The Greek Bible Religion 341 CROSS -LISTED: CLASSICAL STUDIES Even before the Hebrew Bible appeared in its present form, the Scriptures of Israel emerged in a Greek translation. The Greek Bible, called the Septuagint after its legendary 70 translators, has been in circulation since the third century B.C.E. Its authority was such that even the rabbis of Mishnah and Talmud considered that binding decisions and teachings could be grounded in the Septuagint. Because Christianity only became a religion distinct from Judaism in the environment of Hellenism, the Bible of the first Christians was the Septuagint, and they added the books we now call the New Testament. This seminar familiarizes students with both the Septuagint and New Testament.

This seminar considers the theoretical structures, patterns of behaviors, and societal norms operative in Buddhist communities of the past and present, East and West. Topics include the shared foundations of Buddhist ethics, canonical formulations and examples from various genres of Buddhist literature, and historical and contemporary accounts of Buddhist behaviors and motivations along several thematic lines. Contemporary issues (human rights, abortion, and contraception) are examined in light of Buddhist ethics. Prerequisite: Religion 103 or permission of the instructor.

Theravada Buddhism Religion 345 CROSS -LISTED: ASIAN STUDIES Theravada Buddhism is the dominant religious orientation in Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka. This course describes the historical, literary, and religious contours of this Buddhist tradition in accordance with such questions as: What makes the Theravada selfevidently valid to the community of the faithful? What is the worldview of the Theravada, including its position in history, its conception of the Buddha, and its principal ethical teachings? What are the main traits of the Theravada today?

Sociology 205 Coercion and Responsibility in Islamic and Western Legal and Moral Thought Religion 347 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS, MES Coercion poses moral and legal problems for making judgments about responsibility: How serious must a coercer’s threat be to count as morally or legally exculpatory for the coerced? What is dispositive in a claim of coercion—the subjective perception of the capability of the coercer to follow through on the threat or the objective reality? Is there an element of coercion in the illegal commands of a staterecognized superior? This seminar explores the solutions developed by classical Muslim religious scholars and contemporary Western legal theorists and philosophers to these difficult problems.

Critical Mass: The History of the Eucharist Religion 351 As Christianity evolved during its early centuries, a set of practices emerged that rooted worship in familiar patterns and yet acquired a distinctive set of meanings. Popular practice rather than political pressures, theological fashions, or authoritative leadership determined the definition of Christian faith. This course addresses anthropological and historical considerations as it evaluates the place of the Eucharist within the Church.

Visions of the Islamic Ethical Life in the Thought of al-Ghazali Religion 354 CROSS -LISTED: MES Ghazali (d. 1111) is arguably the most influential and famous premodern Muslim intellectual in Islamic history. This seminar considers Ghazali’s social and political context (during the fading of the Sunni caliphate and the rise of Egyptian Ismaili Shi’is) and his synthetic vision of what constitutes the Islamic life lived well. The course critically examines the materials out of which Ghazali tried to synthesize the conflicting strands of Islam in his day.

Religion Colloquium This colloquium, open to all students but required of religion moderands, fosters a community of

scholarship among students and faculty interested in the study of religion and features public presentations of independent research. It is designed to encourage interdisciplinary and comparative perspectives on topics of interest.

Sociology Faculty: Yuval Elmelech (director), Michael Donnelly*, Allison McKim, Joel Perlmann * leave of absence, fall 2012

Overview: Sociology at Bard aims to provide an understanding of the structure and processes of society, explain and chart the course of social changes, and offer knowledge of the sources of those actions and ideas that are learned and shared through social membership. While contemporary complex societies are of central concern, cross-cultural comparative materials also lend meaning to the particular patterns of American life. Students are encouraged to engage in internships and original research. Requirements: Students planning to moderate in sociology are required to take Sociology 101, Introduction to Sociology; Sociology 203, History of Sociological Thought; and Sociology 205, Introduction to Research Methods, before Moderation. For Moderation, students submit the standard autobiographical outline of past and future work and a 10-page essay on a topic of their choice that has been approved by their adviser. Majors are expected to take Sociology 304, Modern Sociological Theory; two 300-level seminars; and two additional electives. Each student must write a Senior Project. Recent Senior Projects in Sociology: “Behind the ‘Model Minority’: Asian Americans Facing Discrimination in Education and the Labor Market” “Reconceptualizing American Public Schools: An Analysis of One of Central Harlem’s HighPerforming Charter Schools in the Context of the Charter School Movement” “The Park Slope Food Co-op: A Model for Participatory Democracy”

206 Social Studies “‘We Belong to No One’: A Critical Analysis of the American Foster Care System” “Women Troubles: Tranquilizer Prescriptions in the 1950s” Courses: In addition to required courses, tutorials and Major Conferences are offered regularly, based on individual study and interest. Recent tutorials include Minorities and the Media, The Death Penalty and Public Opinion, and Controversies in Education.

Introduction to Sociology Sociology 101 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, EUS This introductory course illuminates the way in which social forces impinge on individual lives and affect human society. It reviews key sociological concepts and methods through the study of Durkheim, Weber, and Marx; examines forms of social inequality, particularly those based on class, race, and gender; surveys important social institutions (e.g., the family, education, religion); and explores interrelated issues of ideology, social movements, and social change.

Inequality in America Sociology 120 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, EUS, GSS, HUMAN RIGHTS, SOCIAL POLICY An examination of the ways in which socially defined categories of persons are unevenly rewarded for their social contributions. Sociological theories are used to explain how and why social inequality is produced and maintained, and how it affects the well-being of individuals and social groups. The governing themes are the structure of inequality as part of the study of the unequal distribution of material and social resources, and the processes that determine the allocation of people to positions in the stratification system.

Sociology of Gender Sociology 135 CROSS -LISTED: ANTHROPOLOGY, GSS This course examines how and why gender is an organizing principle of social life; how social structures and practices construct gender identity and culture; how different groups of women and men experience this gendered order; and

how gender is significant within different institutional and interpersonal contexts. The course also considers the ways that gender inequality is intertwined with other axes of oppression such as sexuality, race/ethnicity, and class.

Introduction to Urban Sociology Sociology 138 CROSS -LISTED: EUS How do cities grow, develop, and decay? How and why are cities segregated, gentrified, and stratified? What happens in the urban public realm? An introduction to urban sociology, this course addresses these questions and many more. Through ethnographies, comparative studies, theoretical works, fiction, films, and other sources, students explore the social organization of cities and the nature of the urban experience.

History of Sociological Thought Sociology 203 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This course retraces the origins of modern social theory in the aftermath of the democratic revolutions in America and France and the capitalist Industrial Revolution in Britain. Readings include Marx, Weber, Durkheim, and Simmel. Sociological themes include alienation and anomie; social disorganization and community; and class conflict and solidarity. The contributions of classical sociologists to social science, and their aspirations to criticize, reform, or revolutionize modern society, are assessed.

Introduction to Research Methods Sociology 205 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, HUMAN RIGHTS, SOCIAL POLICY

This course helps students understand and use the various research methods developed in the social sciences, with an emphasis on quantitative methods. Topics covered: how to formulate hypotheses and research questions, choose the appropriate research method for the problem, maximize chances for valid and reliable findings, perform simple data analysis, and interpret and present findings in a written report.

Sociology 207 Deviance and Social Control Sociology 207 All societies establish norms, and in all societies there are individuals who violate norms and are sanctioned for doing so. The sociological study of deviance examines how certain people and behaviors come to be defined and labeled “deviant.” Who or what defines and identifies deviance? How do the labelers understand or explain the sources and causes of deviance? What are the consequences for deviants of being so identified and treated? Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or permission of the instructor.

Immigration and American Society: Colonial Times to the 1960s Sociology 213 / History 213 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS, SOCIAL POLICY This course focuses on the role of immigration in American life through the 1920s, when federal legislation ended the great waves of European immigration (Congress had earlier restricted Asian immigration). The class also considers the four decades that followed, a period of little immigration. Major themes include: who came and why; the immigrants’ economic impact on American society; how children of the immigrants have fared; whiteness, multiculturalism, and assimilation; and immigration policy and politics. This course is the first part of a two-semester sequence.

Immigration in Contemporary American Society Sociology 214 / History 214 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, SOCIAL POLICY Why do immigrants come to the United States? How do they handle cultural differences? How do they affect class and racial relations and to what extent do immigrants and their children assimilate into mainstream society? This course examines immigration to the United States since the 1960s, as well as its effect on both the immigrants and the society they have entered.

Sociology of Knowledge Sociology 229 An introduction to the sociology of knowledge, ideas, and expertise. Beginning with classic

statements on knowledge as a social product, students read works by Karl Mannheim, Berger and Luckmann, Thomas Kuhn, and members of the Frankfurt School. Topics include the idea of social construction, the ethnography of scientific practice, the role of experts in politics, and the study of intellectuals and academic production. Prerequisite: all students are required to have prior experience with sociology courses.

Israeli Society Sociology 239 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, JEWISH STUDIES, MES This course provides an overview of Israeli society, with an emphasis on the key social conflicts that Israel is currently confronting. Through a critical analysis of academic literature, daily news reports, and popular films, students explore the sources and consequences of these conflicts and their manifestations. Topics include tensions between various groups (e.g., religious and secular, “hawks” and “doves,” Jews and non-Jews), and the links between such things as religiosity (or lack thereof ) and political views, nationality and poverty, and ethnic origin and educational attainment.

The Historical Sociology of Punishment Sociology 242 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This course examines the character of punishment and the rationales for it in different historical circumstances, including primitive societies, Puritan New England, and the American South, among others. Comparisons among such disparate cases are meant to suggest broad development patterns in punishing and more specific queries about the connections between culture, social structure, and penal strategies. Case studies offer a historical perspective on many contemporary issues and controversies.

The American Family: Continuity and Change Sociology 247 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, GSS, SOCIAL POLICY

How do we choose the people we date and eventually marry? What effect does marital separation have upon the success of children later

208 Social Studies in life? This course uses sociological literature to study these and related questions. Focusing primarily on family patterns in the United States, it examines the processes of partner selection, the configuration of gender and family roles, and the interrelationships among family and household members.

Social Movements Sociology 254 CROSS -LISTED: GSS, HUMAN RIGHTS, LAIS Students examine four social movements: the black civil rights movement of the 1950s and ’60s; the Chicano movement of the 1960s and ’70s; the gay and lesbian movement of the 1970s, ’80s, and ’90s; and the Vieques antimilitary movement of the 1990s. The course focuses on two main areas: the tactics and strategies taken by organizers, and the ways these actions and decisions related to the movements’ goals, successes, and failures.

Political Sociology: Exploring the Social Foundations of Politics Sociology 258 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES An introduction to political sociology. Seeing politics as more than just voting, parties, and the policy process, this course offers a sociological perspective on those elements of collective life that are often taken for granted, but which supply the foundations of our political structures. Students analyze major concepts in political sociology, such as the state, civil society, and citizenship. The fate of the state and civil society in the age of globalization is also considered.

. . . And the Pursuit of Happiness Sociology 259 What makes people happy? Does money improve life satisfaction? Does marriage? Friendship networks? Volunteering? Religious activity? And can it be that gender, race, and ethnicity influence life satisfaction in systematic ways? The aims of this course are to introduce students to the various measures of subjective well-being (e.g., happiness, life satisfaction, marital satisfaction, relative deprivation); to explore the social, economic, and demographic determinants of well-being; and

to better understand the relationship between objective and subjective well-being.

Marxist Society Sociology 261 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This course considers what is living and what is dead in the tradition of Marxist sociology. It begins with an in-depth reading of texts by Karl Marx, moving from his earlier work in politics and philosophy to his later critique of political economy. The second part of the course examines the prospects of critical sociology in today’s world and the connection between sociology and the utopian imagination. Prerequisite: some prior experience with sociology, political studies, or philosophy.

Sexualities Sociology 262 CROSS -LISTED: GSS This course examines how sexual identities and social categories of sexuality are created and maintained or changed over time; how historically specific social contexts shape the meaning of sexual experiences; and how we use sexuality to define ourselves, produce social hierarchies, and mark moral boundaries. Students review theories of sexuality; the history of social institutions that help to produce, construct, and control sexual practice and identities; the development of modern sexual communities, identities, and politics; and related subjects.

Drugs and Society Sociology 263 This course examines the social organization and history of drug control and trade, and how social processes shape drug usage and the cultures that develop around it. It focuses primarily on illegal drugs in America, but also considers legal drugs and the international politics of drugs. Students learn to think sociologically about drug use as a historically situated social practice, examine how institutions develop categories and ideas about drugs, and grapple with the social consequences of drug policies.

Sociology 209 Space and Place in Urban Sociology and Geography Sociology 265 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, STS

A Sociological Classic: Middletown and America Sociology 322 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES,

This course analyzes the production of space and place, with an emphasis on the history of urban geographical thought. Topics include human ecology, the relationship between the city and development, and the intersections between culture and nature, among others. Readings cover foundational texts in urban theory and studies of American cities, as well as works examining cities of the “global south.”


Modern Sociological Theory Sociology 304 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This course examines functionalism, conflict theory, exchange and rational choice theory, feminist theory, critical theory, symbolic interactionism, and other modern sociological theories. Readings include works by Ralf Dahrendorf, Jon Elster, Michel Foucault, Harold Garfinkel, Erving Goffman, Jürgen Habermas, George Herbert Mead, Talcott Parsons, and Dorothy Smith. Prerequisite: Sociology 203 or permission of the instructor.

The Blending of American Peoples: Intermarriage, Assimilation, and Group Continuity Sociology 315 Throughout American history, people of different ethnic or racial backgrounds have formed sexual unions (some of which society defined as legal marriages, others not), and from these unions have emerged generations of multiethnic, or multiracial, children. This course reviews the role of these unions in determining American ethnoracial assimilation; explores group-level responses to the challenges posed by the presence of mixed-origin people; and asks how ethnic and racial groups survive at all following extensive blending.

A close reading of Robert and Helen Lynd’s Middletown and Middletown in Transition. The first volume was based on the work of a research team that lived for months in the “typical” American community of Middletown in the 1920s; the second was based on a similar study during the Great Depression. The volumes try to understand the social life of the community, notably class structure and class relations; politics; courtship, family, child raising, and schooling; and entertainment, religion, and other aspects of cultural life.

Seminar on Social Problems Sociology 332 CROSS -LISTED: AMERICAN STUDIES, HUMAN RIGHTS, SOCIAL POLICY We often read shocking stories about children in poverty, segregated and failing schools, family dissolution, and other problems in contemporary American society. While these accounts provide a sensational and superficial treatment of various social problems, what do researchers really know about the causes of, and solutions for, these problems? This seminar provides a critical survey and analysis of the research on various topics, including poverty and wealth, schools and education, and gender inequality in the workplace, among others.

Urbanisms Sociology 337 CROSS -LISTED: EUS, STS An advanced seminar in urban theory and the sociology of cities. Course readings and discussions focus on the history of urbanism, the production of social space, and the politics of urban knowledge. What are some major forms that urbanism has taken? What factors make cities change, stagnate, or transform? Course readings include Lewis Mumford, Henri Lefebvre, David Harvey, Alice O’Connor, M. Christine Boyer, and others. Prerequisite: previous experience with sociology and urban studies.

210 Social Studies Welfare States in Comparative Perspective Sociology 338 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HUMAN RIGHTS, POLITICAL STUDIES, SOCIAL POLICY This course retraces the main lines of development of the welfare state, examining the social demands and political conflicts out of which “welfare” emerged, and the values and principles that have subsequently informed welfare policies. It considers debates and conflicts over the scope and aims of welfare states during the last two decades, and examines innovative policy ideas to reform the welfare state or bring it into line with changing realities. Case studies are drawn from Sweden, Germany, Britain, Italy, and the United States.

Governing the Self Sociology 346 CROSS -LISTED: SOCIAL POLICY This seminar traces sociological approaches to the self and examines various institutional and political attempts to govern social life by shaping the self. It covers the symbolic interactionist tradition of sociology, including thinkers such as Mead and Goffman, and its break with Enlightenment ideas about the individual. The course then explores scholarship associated with Foucault and “governmentality.” The goal is to examine questions of identity and individuality, the changing nature of state governance, and the politics of empowerment.

Gender and Deviance Sociology 352 CROSS -LISTED: GSS This seminar uses gender as a lens to approach the sociological field of “deviance and social control.” Students develop understanding of different theoretical approaches to deviance and to gender. The course considers the relationship between gender and definitions of what is normal, sick, and criminal, and investigates how norms about masculinity and femininity can produce specifically gendered types of deviance.

Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations Bard’s approach to the liberal arts curriculum provides students and faculty with the opportunity to rethink traditional boundaries of academic divisions and disciplines. This flexible framework allows students to create plans of study that integrate the content and methodology of multiple fields. The areas of study listed in this chapter are interdisciplinary in nature, and draw on faculty, courses, and resources of the four academic divisions. Most of these fields are considered concentrations, and therefore require a student to moderate either simultaneously or sequentially into a primary program. The Senior Project combines the interdisciplinary theories and methods of the concentration with the disciplinary theories and methods of the program. Several of the fields in this chapter are standalone programs, in which students can major. These include American studies, Asian studies, classical studies, environmental and urban studies, French studies, German studies, human rights, Italian studies, Russian and Eurasian studies, and Spanish studies. Students may also opt for a multidisciplinary course of study, with permission of the Executive Committee.

Africana Studies Faculty: Yuka Suzuki (coordinator), Susan Aberth*, Myra Young Armstead, Thurman Barker, Mario J. A. Bick**, Diana De G. Brown***, Teju Cole, Christian Ayne Crouch, Helen Epstein, Tabetha Ewing, Donna Ford Grover, John Ryle, Robert Tynes, Binyavanga Wainaina

ies, students trace the historical and cultural connections between Africa and the rest of the world and explore their importance for African peoples and the nature of modern, global society. Requirements: Concentration in Africana studies must be combined with a major in a traditional disciplinary program. Ideally, a student will moderate simultaneously in Africana studies and the disciplinary program. Before Moderation, a student is expected to take at least three Africana studies courses or Africana studies cross-listed courses, including the core course, Introduction to Africana Studies (Africana Studies 101), or the equivalent. Before graduation, the student must take two additional Africana studies or crosslisted courses, including one 300-level seminar. The Moderation and Senior Project boards

* on sabbatical, fall 2012 ** on sabbatical, fall 2012; leave of absence, spring 2013 *** leave of absence, 2012–2013

Overview: Africana studies is an interdisciplinary concentration that examines the cultures, histories, and politics of African peoples on the African continent and throughout the African diaspora. The Africana studies concentration teaches students to use diverse historical, political, ethnographic, artistic, and literary forms of analysis. Through these interdisciplinary stud-


212 Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations should each include one Africana studies core faculty member.

American Studies

Introduction to Africana Studies Africana Studies 101 CROSS -LISTED: GIS

Faculty: Julia Rosenbaum (director), Myra Young Armstead, Thurman Barker, Christian Ayne Crouch, Yuval Elmelech, Donna Ford Grover, Christopher R. Lindner, Mark Lytle, Matthew Mutter, Joel Perlmann, John Pruitt*, Susan Fox Rogers, Tom Wolf**

Africa and the African diaspora have both been central to the making of the modern world. From the trans-Atlantic slave trade to early Africans who shaped the social and religious landscapes of American culture, this course explores historical connections between the continent and other areas of the world. Topics include: African art, music, and diasporic religion; early explorers’ representations of the continent, slavery, and the Atlantic world; refugees and nature conservation; and the development of Africana studies as an intellectual field. This course is required for students concentrating in Africana studies.

New Fiction Out of Africa Africana Studies 120 / Literature 120 See Literature 120 for a full course description.

Precolonial and Colonial Africa Africana Studies 2318 /History 2318 See History 2318 for a full course description.

Encountering Africana Africana Studies 248 CROSS -LISTED: GIS The course analyzes travel accounts of subSaharan Africa to understand how non-African travelers experienced this area, and how their writings contributed to the image of Africa by the West. Accounts are drawn from the end of the 18th century to the present by explorers, travelers, and journalists. African American and European American writers are the main focus.

Captivity and Law Africana Studies 310 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS This course focuses on the confrontation of early modern African and European political thought and practices of captivity, especially abduction, wartime hostage taking, slavery, and other forms of internment.

* on sabbatical, fall 2012 ** leave of absence, spring 2013

Overview: The American Studies Program offers a multidisciplinary approach to the study of culture and society in the United States. Students take courses in a wide range of fields with the aim of learning how to study this complex subject in a sensitive and responsible way. In the introductory course, students develop the ability to analyze a broad spectrum of materials (novels, autobiographies, newspapers, photographs, films, songs, buildings, websites, etc.); in the junior seminar and Senior Project, students identify and integrate relevant methodologies, creating modes of analysis appropriate to their topics. By graduation, students should have developed a base of knowledge about the past and present conditions of American experience both at home and abroad, as well as intellectual habits that will enable them to be aware of what surrounds them, wherever they are in the world. Requirements: Before Moderation, students must take American Studies 101, Introduction to American Studies, or American Studies 102, Introduction to American Culture and Values, and at least two other courses focusing on the United States. After Moderation, they must take at least three more courses on the United States and at least two courses on non-U.S. national cultures. One post-Moderation course on the United States must be either a junior seminar or a junior tutorial. Every junior seminar or tutorial culminates in a 20- to 25-page paper in which students bring multiple analytical frameworks to bear on a subject of their choice. At least two of the students’ U.S.-focused courses must emphasize the period before 1900. In order to ensure a variety of perspectives on stu-

Asian Studies 213 dents’ work, both the Moderation and Senior Project boards must consist of faculty members drawn from more than one division.

Introduction to American Studies American Studies 101 An introduction to the field of American studies, defined both by the range of materials covered (essays, novels, autobiographies, photographs, historical documents, etc.) and by the questions asked about them, including: How have different Americans imagined what it means to be an American? What ideas about national history, patriotism, and moral character shape their visions of being American? How do they draw the boundaries that define who belongs within the nation and who gets excluded?

Introduction to American Culture and Values American Studies 102 Weighed down with the authority of custom, a national culture imposes a sense of obligation to all who belong to a society, but it affects groups and individuals differently. Students compare and contrast visions of American culture during the 19th and 20th centuries. Works by Walt Whitman, Ralph Waldo Emerson, W. E. B. Du Bois, Georgia O’Keeffe, Ralph Ellison, Elvis Presley, and others are reviewed.

Spiritualism American Studies 314 CROSS -LINKED: GSS This course examines the social, religious, economic, and political forces that helped shape the Spiritualist movement, which began in 1848 with a series of mysterious raps and a pair of young women from Rochester, New York. Readings include works by William James, who attempted to place Spiritualism within the legitimate scientific community; and Henry James, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and William Dean Howells, whose novels provide a critique of the movement and demonstrate its cultural impact.

Asian Studies Faculty: Richard H. Davis (director), Sanjib Baruah, Ian Buruma, Robert J. Culp, Sanjaya DeSilva, Mika Endo, Kenneth Haig, Yen-Chen Hao, Patricia Karetzky, Laura Kunreuther, Kristin Scheible, Richard Suchenski, Yuka Suzuki, Li-Hua Ying Overview: The Asian Studies Program draws from courses in literature, history, politics, music, art history, anthropology, religion, and economics. With program faculty, students select a regional and disciplinary focus to create a coherent program of study. Although the program focuses on China, Japan, and South and Southeast Asia, students can investigate other regions. Intellectual emphasis is placed on comparative perspectives, both within Asia and with other regions. Requirements: Before Moderation, Asian studies students should take four courses crosslisted with the Asian Studies Program. Asian students focusing on Chinese and Japanese studies are expected to have taken at least one year of Chinese or Japanese language and at least two courses cross-listed with Asian studies. One of these courses should be in their field of future interest, which may be any of the disciplines taught in the Arts, Languages and Literature, or Social Studies Divisions. For graduation, Asian studies students should complete a minimum of 40 credits in Asian studies. Four credits (one course) must be an Asian studies core course treating an aspect of Asia in comparative perspective. The Senior Project topic may be specific to a particular culture or may be comparative. Students in Chinese and Japanese studies focusing on language and literature must have a minimum of 44 credits. They should complete at least three years of language study in either Chinese or Japanese and four courses cross-listed with Asian studies. Of these, at least two courses should be on the literature of the student’s primary region, one course on the literature of

214 Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations another part of East Asia, and one course in non-Asian literature, preferably oriented toward literary theory. Students in Chinese and Japanese studies focusing on the arts and/or social studies should complete at least two years of language study in either Chinese or Japanese and five courses cross-listed with Asian studies. Of these, at least two courses should be in the primary discipline and region. At least one other course should be on the primary region of interest, plus one course in the primary discipline but that considers an area outside of Asia. Students of Chinese and Japanese studies should incorporate materials involving either language into their Senior Projects. Courses: A sampling of Asian studies courses offered in the last few years includes courses from the Division of the Arts (Asian American Artists Seminar, East Meets West, Arts of China, Arts of India, Arts of Japan, Music and Tourism in South East Asia); Division of Languages and Literature (Chinese Diaspora, Modern Chinese Fiction, Representations of Tibet, Confucius and Socrates, Japanese Translation, Natsume Soseki, Imagining Environment in East Asia, Indian Fiction, Japanese Literature and the Question of Aesthetics); and the Division of Social Studies (Anime and Culture in Post-War Japan, Cultural Politics of the Raj, South Asian Politics, South Asian Modernities, China in the Eyes of the West, Introduction to Modern Japanese History, Economic History of Modern Asia, Hindu Religious Traditions, Buddhist Thought and Practice, Women and Buddhism).

Classical Studies Faculty: James Romm (director), Thomas Bartscherer, Richard H. Davis, Diana H. DePardo-Minsky, Carolyn Dewald*, Daniel Mendelsohn, William Mullen, Benjamin Stevens * on sabbatical, spring 2013

Overview: Classical studies students seek to understand the ancient Mediterranean world, especially Greece and Rome, both on its own terms and as part of a larger nexus of ancient cultures that laid much of the groundwork for the ideas of the city, the nation, and the role of the individual within a civic and national context. The literature, art, and history of the ancient world all contribute to our understanding of these foundational cultures. Majors follow one of three focuses: 1) philological, consisting of intensive work in the ancient languages (Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit) and elective courses on ancient civilization, history, art history, philosophy, religion, rhetoric, and ancient literature in English translation; 2) classical studies, focusing on the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome and their influence on later Western culture; or 3) ancient studies, combining ancient Greece and Rome with the ancient Middle East, India, and/or China. Requirements: Moderation into any focus requires four courses representing two or more disciplines (literature; history and culture; philosophy, religion, and thought; and art and architecture), while graduation requires an additional four courses—for a total of eight, usually representing all four areas—plus the Senior Project. In philology, the four courses for Moderation must include at least one year of Greek or Latin, while the four additional courses for graduation must include at least a second year of Greek or Latin and at least one year of the other language. (For more details, including sample curricula, see the Classical Studies Program website.) Courses: Recent electives have included Survey of Linguistics; Comedy and Its Problems; Rhetoric and Public Speaking; Self and Society in Classical Greek Drama (in the Division of Languages and Literature); Ancient History; Greek History; The Rise and Fall of Ancient Rome; Archaic Greece; The Athenian Century; Gender and Sexuality in the Ancient World; Greek Religion: Magic, Mysteries, and Cult; Alexander the Great and the Problem of Empire; Hinduism in the Epics; History of Philosophy; Confucius and Socrates; Socrates: Man, Myth,

Environmental and Urban Studies 215 Monster; Buddhist Thought and Practice; Theology of Judaism; Dialogue and Dialectic in Plato's Writing; Euripides and Nietzsche (in the Division of Social Studies); and Greek Art and Architecture; Arts of India; Roman Art and Architecture; Roman Urbanism; Roma in Situ (in the Division of the Arts).

Ecosystem Studies, and The Rockefeller University laboratories. Students with a strong foundation in science and/or economics may apply to the 3-2 program with the Bard Center for Environmental Policy, earning in five years a B.A. and a master of environmental policy or master of climate science and policy degree.

Environmental and Urban Studies Faculty: Susan Fox Rogers and Kris Feder (codirectors), Myra Young Armstead, Sanjib Baruah, Daniel Berthold, Diana De G. Brown*, Noah Chasin, Robert J. Culp, Sanjaya DeSilva, Michèle D. Dominy, Gidon Eshel, Felicia Keesing, Christopher R. Lindner, Mark Lytle, William T. Maple, Gregory B. Moynahan, Vivek Sheth, Matthew Slaats, Michael Specter, Alice Stroup, Yuka Suzuki * leave of absence, 2012–2013

Overview: The Environmental and Urban Studies (EUS) Program at Bard is a primary field of study that requires a student to complete a concentration in a primary discipline. EUS focuses on empirical studies that give students the skills to understand the interconnection of living and constructed systems. Such an approach capitalizes on transformations within an array of social and natural sciences, from systems theory to environmental toxicology, and furthers Bard’s holistic approach to ecology and development through studies of the Hudson River estuary and valley. The Hudson River forms a laboratory and stepping-off area for an integrated understanding of global environmental transformation. Details of program requirements and opportunities are available at the EUS website. EUS has links to Hudsonia and the Bard College Field Station on campus, the Bard Globalization and International Affairs Program in New York, and a rich variety of internship and junior-year abroad programs, including a junior year practicum in Kingston, New York. Students also draw on resources at the Bard Center for Environmental Policy, Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library, Cary Institute of

Areas of Study: Recent courses have addressed the global ecology of disease and epidemics; consequences of alternative property systems for environmental sustainability and distribution of wealth; exposure to environmental contaminants; the human place in nature; environmental racism; globalization; deforestation; species extinction; and international efforts to protect the global environment. Senior Projects have addressed suburban sprawl and urban blight; the impact of land-use planning; watershed protection; depletion of ocean fisheries; habitat and farmland loss; agricultural and industrial pollution of the Hudson River and other waterways; risks and benefits to local residents of nuclear power stations, industrial plants, and landfills; and the politics and economics surrounding the provision of municipal and social services. EUS will be home to a farm and local food project that will combine practical and academic experience. Requirements: EUS at Bard has three tracks that students may follow individually or in combination: a social science orientation (drawing on such disciplines as history, political studies, philosophy, anthropology, and human rights); science (with emphasis on ecology, biology, and environmental chemistry); and urban studies (focusing on urban design and history, planning, cultural geography, and architecture). All students are expected to be familiar with elements of each track. For example, a student might draw on environmental chemistry to examine urban air pollution, environmental disease, and policy planning for air quality control. Moderation into EUS takes place simultaneously with the choice of a primary concentration. Three EUS or EUS cross-listed courses are required for Moderation, including at least one

216 Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations core natural science course and one core course in social science or social studies. At least one of these must be at the 200 level or higher. At Moderation students indicate which track they intend to pursue and construct the board accordingly. For graduation, three additional courses at the 200 level or higher, including at least one at the 300 level, are required: a course in quantitative empirical methods; a natural science course in environmental studies; and a core social science course in environmental studies. Students are encouraged to develop some facility with either GIS (geographic information systems) or another mapping system. EUS students are also encouraged to participate in relevant internships, service projects, and study abroad programs during the junior year and/or summers. These opportunities should be discussed at Moderation. All juniors and/or seniors participate in a one-semester EUS Colloquium. Courses: Required courses include: EUS 101, Introduction to Environmental and Urban Studies; EUS 102, Introduction to Environmental Science; Biology 142, Organismal Biology, or Biology 152, Biodiversity; Environmental Studies 399-400, Environmental Studies Research Seminar; Sociology 205, Economics 206, Economics 229, or another course in empirical methods. Related courses offered by other programs have included: Field Study in Natural History, American Environmental History, Introduction to Microeconomics, Urban and Regional Economics, Environmental Ethics, and Environmental Politics in the United States.

Introduction to Environmental and Urban Studies: Cities and Sustainability EUS 101 This introductory core course provides an overview of the interdisciplinary questions of environmental conservation and sustainable development (for example, how are critical resources such as water, biodiversity, and the air we breathe affected by urbanization?) by exploring their scientific, economic, political, cultural, and ethical implications.

Introduction to Environmental Science EUS 102 This course explores several key physical principles that are salient to numerous environmental problems, including conservation laws, thermodynamics, motion, and momentum. Issues discussed include climate change, eutrophication of waterways, energy sources, urban environments, and agriculture.

Colonial and Postcolonial Geographies EUS 104 CROSS -LISTED: HUMAN RIGHTS An intensive study of lived environments. With the help of tools provided by critical geography and related disciplines, students explore how various forms of knowledge of territory—such as maps, surveys, and oral histories—shape the way landscapes are lived. In particular, the course emphasizes how colonial histories shape present governance and struggles over land and resources. Examples considered from Egypt, Brazil, the American Southwest, New Zealand, Indonesia, Nigeria, and the Hudson Valley.

Urban Worlds EUS 118 As an introduction to the city, this course has two aims: to explore some of the essential concepts of urban theory, and to study in-depth urban experiences around the world. Topics may include the city and marginality, urban modernity, consumption, gender and public space; gentrification, suburbanization, transgression, and urban nature. Case studies may be from cities such as Lagos, New York, Paris, Dubai, and Rio de Janeiro.

Geographic Information Systems EUS 203 This course provides students with a comprehensive review of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and remote sensing technologies as they are used in a variety of social and environmental science applications. Students acquire an understanding of the structure of spatial data and databases, basic cartographic principles, and data visualization techniques, and learn methods for developing sound GIS project design and management practices.

Environmental and Urban Studies 217 Urbanism Unbound: Field Study in Mumbai EUS 204 An advanced study of the city that takes place in Mumbai, India, during the winter break and continues at Bard in the spring semester. By studying Mumbai’s vibrant streets, shantytowns, trains, and markets students gain a sense of the vast possibilities for organizing urban life. The course explores topics such as access to water; the politics of slum removal; informal waste recycling and sustainability; media and civic engagement; urban environmental activism; gender and urban development; popular culture; globalization and consumer culture; and the politics of heritage conservation.

partially palatable for the curious, motivated student. This seminar-style course explores several key papers of recent years covering climate change, water resources, and agriculture.

Urban Practicum: Kingston EUS 305 This course provides students with hands-on experiences that connect theory with practice in Kingston, New York. It examines the gamut of environmental justice, economic, and urban greening questions typically covered by an urban sustainability curriculum, as well as interdisciplinary connections within Bard, including topics of economics, ecology, sociology, preservation, urban anthropology, conservation psychology, human rights, and the arts.

Quantifying Planetary Consequences of Food Production EUS 205

Neotropical Ecology EUS 310

Can one produce local organic food with relative environmental impunity? Life-cycle analyses repeatedly show that, on a national average, transportation is relatively unimportant in food production’s overall environmental footprint. While this appears to cast doubts on the “local food” notion, the picture may change dramatically with organic food production because of the absence of environmentally adverse agrochemicals. The course makes use of an innovative campus greenhouse.

An introduction to the Amazon rain forest and its complex ecology. By studying the intricate web of relations between plants and animals in pristine ancient forests, students get a good understanding of why the Amazon harbors the highest biodiversity on earth. Topics considered include the continent’s geomorphology, going back in time to the Miocene, and the role played by the major tributaries of the Amazon in the speciation and radiation of species through genetic isolation of entire populations of plants and animals.

The Global Future of Food EUS 220

EUS Research Seminar EUS 399-400

In the United States, calories are plentiful and cheap—but with twin epidemics of obesity and diabetes, those calories are killing us. In many parts of the world, the opposite is true: more than a billion people go to bed hungry every night. This course examines one of our most fundamental problems: Is it possible to overhaul our badly broken system of industrial agriculture and feed Earth’s rapidly growing population, while also growing safe, plentiful, and nutritious food?

This seminar is required for students moderated in Environmental Studies. Students and faculty share tips on research methods and sources, academic writing, and strategies for designing and executing a successful project. Students are expected to take the seminar twice, during their junior and senior years.

Advanced Readings in Environmental Science I, II EUS 240, 241 While prohibitively technical at times, some fundamental advances in environmental science can be translated into English and made at least

EUS Colloquium: Cultural Politics and Design of Urban Landscapes This colloquium focuses on the built and natural environments of cities. Guest lecturers discuss the history, form, and meaning of ordinary urban landscapes. Topics include: the role of nature in urban design, urban heritage politics, landscape architecture, urban history, preservation, and sustainable open spaces.

218 Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations

Experimental Humanities Faculty: Maria Sachiko Cecire (coordinator), Ben Coonley, Lianne Habinek**, Thomas Keenan, Laura Kunreuther, Kristin Lucas, Susan Merriam*, Gregory B. Moynahan, Keith O’Hara***, Dina Ramadan, Benjamin Stevens * on sabbatical, fall 2012 ** leave of absence, fall 2012 *** on sabbatical, spring 2013

Overview: New media has transformed the ways that we communicate, apprehend, and produce knowledge as a global society. The Experimental Humanities (EH) concentration provides students with the historical context, theoretical background, and analytical and technical skills needed to engage productively with new forms of humanistic inquiry in our digital age. It also places emphasis on reconsidering “old” media in light of today’s technologies as well as inevitable developments on the horizon. Experimental Humanities is committed to the study of what it means to be human and, recalling the scientific impulse to experimentation, to physically testing theories in a controlled and informed environment. The concentration embraces the ethos of “practice” and “making” that characterizes the digital humanities even as it insists on the importance of writing and theory as humanistic practices in their own right. Students moderating into Experimental Humanities do so simultaneously with their primary program, with the option of doing a “practice-rich” Senior Project in conjunction with that program. Requirements: Experimental Humanities draws upon the courses offered by its core faculty and includes two dedicated and required introductory courses: A History of Experimentation and Introduction to Media. To moderate into EH students must have successfully completed (or be enrolled in) both of these courses and fulfilled the requirements of the primary program. All candidates for Moderation must submit a short paper that demonstrates a clear idea of how the Experimental Humanities concentration will work with their major program of study, and at least one member of the Moderation

board should be a faculty member affiliated with Experimental Humanities. To graduate, Experimental Humanities students must complete two additional EH or EH crosslisted courses, including one above the 200 level, and at least one production-based course beyond the standard arts requirement. Computer science courses are considered production courses for the purposes of Experimental Humanities. Courses: A History of Experimentation, a core course, grounds students in the history of the humanities—and its history of conceptual separation from the sciences. Students become familiar with major figures and experimental approaches, such as poetics, the philosophical thought experiment, and the scientific method, and are challenged to reconsider existing categories of and approaches to knowledge formation. Introduction to Media provides a foundation in media history and theory. It also explores how students can use aspects of traditional humanistic approaches (close reading, visual literacy, etc.) to critically engage with old and new media. Students consider how material conditions shape discourse and assess their own positions as consumers and producers of media.

French Studies Faculty: Marina van Zuylen (director), Odile S. Chilton, Christian Ayne Crouch, Emmanuel Dongala, Tabetha Ewing, Justus Rosenberg, Alice Stroup, Karen Sullivan, Eric Trudel Overview: Students in French studies are expected to reach a high level of competence in the French language. The program emphasizes in-depth study of literature, history, philosophy and theory, art history, and cinema. Areas of Study: The program allows students to choose one of three areas of specialization: French and francophone literature; civilization, culture, and history; and translation. For students beginning the study of French, an intensive pro-

German Studies 219 gram (one semester of study followed by four weeks in France) is offered every spring. Requirements: Prior to Moderation, students must take at least five courses (20 credits) that are accredited by the French Studies Program. Over four years, students must take 14 programaccredited courses (56 credits), including the 8-credit Senior Project. At least six of the 14 courses must be conducted entirely in French.

Gender and Sexuality Studies Faculty: Robert Weston (coordinator), Susan Aberth*, Daniel Berthold, Diana De G. Brown***, Nicole Caso**, Chistian Ayne Crouch, Robert J. Culp, Deirdre d’Albertis**, Michèle D. Dominy, Sarah Dunphy-Lelii, Elizabeth M. Holt, Cecile E. Kuznitz, Kristin Lane, Allison McKim, Emily Colleen McLaughlin, David Nelson, Kristin Scheible, S. Rebecca Thomas, Eric Trudel * on sabbatical, fall 2012 ** on sabbatical, spring 2013 *** leave of absence, 2012–2013

Overview: The Gender and Sexuality Studies (GSS) concentration embraces the importance of gender as a fundamental category of analysis across disciplines. The concentration seeks to explore how gender and sexuality are intertwined with structures of power and inequality. It is committed to the study of issues specific to women and the LGBT community, with added emphasis on understanding disciplinary models of knowledge. GSS considers masculinity and femininity, sexuality, and transgender issues in relation to other analytical frameworks such as race, class, age, and sexual orientation. Requirements: GSS is a concentration, not a primary program of study. In consultation with GSS faculty and program advisers, students may declare a concentration in GSS at the time of their Moderation into their primary program or thereafter at a separate Moderation. Students must fulfill the Moderation requirements of both the primary program and the GSS concentration, which requires at least two courses

cross-listed with GSS before Moderation. After Moderation students must take at least one advanced gender studies seminar or tutorial taught by GSS faculty. The Senior Project should focus on some issue related to gender and sexuality studies. Courses: Course offerings are subject to change. Sample courses include: Women Artists of the Surrealist Movement; Feminism and American Art; Gender and Social Inequalities in Latin America; Feminist Economics; Gender, Sexuality, and Power in Modern China; A History of European Women; The History of Sexuality; Feminist Philosophy; Women and Islam; Sociology of Marriage and Family; The Tragic Heroine in Western Imagination; Developments in Lesbian Fiction; Sexuality and the Media.

German Studies Faculty: Franz R. Kempf (director), Daniel Berthold, Leon Botstein, William James Griffith, Garry L. Hagberg, David Kettler, Stephanie Kufner, Gregory B. Moynahan, Justus Rosenberg, Peter D. Skiff, Thomas Wild, Tom Wolf* * leave of absence, spring 2013

Overview: The German Studies Program encompasses the language, literature, culture, history, philosophy, art, and music of the German-speaking countries. The cultural and historical expressions of German can best be understood by interdisciplinary study and by situating German, Austrian, and Swiss cultures within the larger European context. Requirements: A student moderates into German studies with a focus in a main discipline (such as history, literature, philosophy, or art history). Majors are required to take at least four semesters, or the equivalent, of German language courses, a survey course in German literature, and at least one semester of German or European history. After Moderation, the student is eligible to study abroad for a semester, ideally in the spring semester of the junior year. Bard offers an exchange program with Humboldt University in

220 Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations Berlin; ECLA of Bard, a Liberal Arts University in Berlin; and the Staatliche Hochschule für Gestaltung in Karlsruhe (see “International Programs and Study Abroad” in this catalogue).

Global and International Studies Faculty: Jonathan Becker (coordinator), Richard Aldous, Sanjib Baruah, Jonathan L. Cristol, Robert J. Culp, Sanjaya DeSilva, Michael Donnelly*, Omar G. Encarnación**, John B. Ferguson, Kenneth Haig, Thomas Keenan, Felicia Keesing, Mark Lytle, Walter Russell Mead, Gregory B. Moynahan, Michelle Murray, Yuka Suzuki, Michael Tibbetts * leave of absence, fall 2012 ** on sabbatical, spring 2013

Overview: The Global and International Studies (GIS) concentration is designed for students interested in engaging with world affairs. Students take GIS in addition to a primary divisional program. There are two tracks, Global and International Affairs (GIS–GIA) and Global Public Health (GIS–GPH). The objectives of GIS are to outline a clear path for the formal study of global and international affairs or global public health; provide students with the opportunity to obtain formal qualification in global and international affairs; encourage students to have an international academic experience; and link nonclassroom experiences, be they internships, lectures, or student programs (such as Model United Nations), with an academic field that focuses on international issues.

Students in the Global and International Affairs (GIS–GIA) track are required to take a total of seven courses in the following areas of study: three in political studies or related disciplines (including one each in the areas of international relations theory, theories and practice of globalization, and U.S. foreign policy); two in economics with an international focus; and two in different geographic areas (excluding the United States). They are expected to demonstrate basic proficiency in one language in addition to English. Students in the Global Public Health (GIS–GPH) track are required to take eight courses in the following areas of study: one in any social studies discipline that focuses on the social dimensions of health; three in the sciences (including one each in the areas of subcellular biology, organismal diversity, and biology of health/disease); two in political studies or related disciplines (specifically, international relations theory, and theories and practice of globalization); one in economics with an international focus; and one in statistics.

Human Rights Faculty: Thomas Keenan (director), Roger Berkowitz, Ian Buruma, Nicole Caso**, Noah Chasin, Christian Ayne Crouch, Mark Danner, Omar G. Encarnación**, Helen Epstein, Tabetha Ewing, Laura Kunreuther, Susan Merriam*, Gregory B. Moynahan, Michelle Murray, Gilles Peress, Dina Ramadan, Peter Rosenblum, John Ryle, Eric Trudel, Robert Weston * on sabbatical, fall 2012

Requirements: Entrance into the GIS concentration takes place parallel to, or following, Moderation in a major academic program. Students moderating into GIS should normally have taken three GIS cross-listed courses prior to Moderation. All students must submit the materials associated with their primary program; each student also is required to submit a plan of study to the GIS coordinator that demonstrates a coherent vision of global and international studies within his/her academic program.

** on sabbatical, spring 2013

Overview: Human Rights is a transdisciplinary program across the arts, social sciences, and literature. It offers courses that explore fundamental theoretical questions, historical and empirical issues within the disciplines, and practical and legal strategies of human rights advocacy. Students are encouraged to treat human rights as an intellectual question, challenge human rights orthodoxies, and think critically about human rights as a discourse rather than merely training for it as a profession.

Human Rights 221 Requirements: Students moderate into the Human Rights Program alone or in combination with another program (usually through a joint Moderation), by fulfilling the other program’s requirements and the following program requirements. All students must anchor their studies of human rights in a disciplinary focus program of their choice (e.g., anthropology, sociology, economics, etc.). Prior to or concurrent with Moderation, students are required to take at least three of the core courses, one additional course in human rights, and two courses in the disciplinary focus program. Following Moderation, students take at least three additional four-credit courses in human rights, at least one of these at the 300 level, and the junior research seminar (Human Rights 303); and an advanced course in the disciplinary focus program. The final requirement is completion of a Senior Project related to human rights. Internships and Affiliated Programs: Students are encouraged to undertake summer internships and participate in programs off campus, including the Bard Globalization and International Affairs Program; Smolny College; Central European University; Al-Quds Bard College for Liberal Arts and Sciences; ECLA of Bard, a liberal arts university in Berlin; and the International Human Rights Exchange in South Africa. Courses: Core courses include Human Rights 101, Introduction to Human Rights; Human Rights 218, Free Speech; Human Rights 233, Problems in Human Rights; Human Rights 235, Dignity and Human Rights Traditions. Additional core courses offered through other fields of study include Anthropology 261, Anthropology of Violence and Suffering; Art History 289, Rights and the Image; History 2631, Capitalism and Slavery; History 2702, Liberty, National Rights, and Human Rights; Political Studies 145, Human Rights in Global Politics; and Spanish 240, Testimonies of Latin America: Perspectives from the Margins.

Introduction to Human Rights Human Rights 101 What are humans and what are rights? Students consider the foundations of rights claims; legal and violent ways of advancing, defending, and enforcing rights; documents and institutions of the human rights movement; and the questionable reality of human rights in our world. Readings are drawn from Hannah Arendt, Nuruddin Farah, Michael Ignatieff, Kant, David Rieff, and Rousseau, as well as Human Rights Watch and the American Civil Liberties Union.

Constitutional Law Human Rights 134 / Political Studies 134 See Politics 134 for a full course description.

Human Rights in Global Politics Human Rights 145 CROSS -LISTED: GIS This course familiarizes students with the principal historical and sociological explanations behind the rise of human rights, and is divided into three sections. The first explores the origins of human rights, taking into consideration historical developments and sociological explanations. The second examines human rights activism in action, such as humanitarian interventions against genocide. The third examines the dominant debates within the human rights movement, such as how mature democracies, like the United States, often fail to conform to internationally accepted human rights norms.

A History of International Human Rights Law Human Rights 214 Is there a relationship between the rise of capitalism as a simultaneously globalizing/localizing force and the emergence of international human rights law? Are there intersections in the histories of the nation-state, humanitarian law, and international human rights law? This course questions the characterization of international human rights law as the evolution of human civilization and humanitarian sensibility. Legal declarations, treaties, conventions, agreements, and the writings of jurists and political philosophers are examined in order to reach a nonteleological understanding of the

222 Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations contemporary international human rights framework.

Free Speech Human Rights 218 / Literature 218 This course explores the intersection of literature and human rights, from the Greeks to hate speech on the Internet. What is freedom of speech? Where did it come from? What does it have to do with literature? These questions are examined across a variety of literary, philosophical, legal, and political texts.

1945, or the End of Wars Human Rights 225 How do countries recover from destruction and catastrophe? This course focuses on the immediate postwar period but draws parallels to current events. Topics range from the urge to wreak revenge on former enemies (and the use of war crime tribunals to contain such emotions) to such idealistic ventures as the United Nations. These subjects inform today’s hottest debates: the use of war to change political institutions, the role of culture in democracy, and universalist assumptions about human rights.

Dissent, Ethics, and Politics in Eastern Europe and Beyond Human Rights 227 CROSS -LISTED: GIS Václav Havel, in “The Power of the Powerless,” defined Eastern European dissidents as those who “live in truth.” This course examines political resistance in former Soviet Bloc countries, ranging from strategies of resistance to the mechanisms of political identification, the role of intellectuals and writers, and underground publishing. Readings include works by Havel, Jan Patoˇcka, Milan Kundera, Andrei Sakharov, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Czeslaw Milosz, and Miklós Haraszti.

From Retribution to Justice Human Rights 231 With a special focus on the Middle East, the course considers a variety of texts that illustrate the history of the ideas of justice and vengeance as well as the political and legal emergence of international criminal justice. Readings begin

with the Old Testament and continue through 19th- and 20th-century attempts to elaborate different codes of conduct in war and conflict.

Persons and Things Human Rights 232 The course explores the question of personhood in law, aesthetics, and culture. The fragility of the boundary between persons and things is a recurring structure in the history of human rights. How do persons become things, and vice versa? How can things have rights, and how do they claim and exercise them? Topics include the legal definition of “person”; “illegal”/undocumented aliens; reification and anthropomorphism; personhood as property; and Internet avatars. Readings include texts by Ovid, Locke, Kleist, Hawthorne, Heidegger, Lacan, Baudelaire, Plath, Harriet Jacobs, and Barbara Johnson.

Problems in Human Rights Human Rights 233 / Anthropology 233 This course looks at current issues such as slavery, genocide, body modification, and the rights of children and animals, and examines how human rights researchers deal with practical difficulties and ethical challenges posed by other cultures.

Dignity and Human Rights Traditions: A New Law on Earth Human Rights 235 CROSS -LISTED: POLITICAL STUDIES Lawyers in Germany and South Africa are developing a “dignity jurisprudence” that might guarantee human rights on the foundation of human dignity. Is it possible to develop a secular and legal idea of dignity that can offer grounds for human rights?

Rights and the City: Topics in Human Rights and Urbanism Human Rights 240 / Art History 240 See Art History 240 for a full course description.

Human Rights 223 Humanism and Antihumanism in 20th-Century France Human Rights 245 CROSS -LISTED: FRENCH STUDIES What is humanism’s legacy in 20th-century French thought? What happens to ethics and politics when what appears to be their very foundation is withdrawn? Does antihumanism signal the end of responsibility? This course surveys the debate between humanism and antihumanism throughout the century.

The Limits of Freedom Human Rights 256 This course deals with freedom of speech and thought in the context of contemporary issues such as hate speech, the First Amendment, and laws on incitement to violence. Also discussed is freedom in the arts, from the Marquis de Sade to Robert Mapplethorpe, and Isaiah Berlin’s concepts of negative and positive liberties.

Equality and American Democracy Human Rights 281 / Political Studies 281 See Political Studies 281 for a full course description.

Research in Human Rights Human Rights 303 What is it to do research in the field of human rights? What are the relevant methods and tools? How do political and ethical considerations enter into the conduct of research? The seminar explores a range of theoretical and methodological approaches to the field, reading a variety of examples across an interdisciplinary perspective.

Humanitarian Action Human Rights 314 CROSS -LISTED: GIS This seminar explores humanitarian action from the founding of the Red Cross in 1863 to the contemporary explosion of nongovernmental relief organizations. Central categories in humanitarian discourse—neutrality, emergency, testimony, and refugee—are addressed, with particular attention to recent crises.

War of Heroes / War of Machines: Atrocity, Total War, and the Epic Imagination Human Rights 315 CROSS -LISTED: CLASSICAL STUDIES, LITERATURE

For nearly two centuries war has been predominantly industrial, mechanical, impersonal. Yet our ideas of war are rooted in glory. They descend from the epic imagination, with the hero testing his power and life against his nemesis and against fate. This seminar traces the roots of the heroic imagination to its beginnings in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt. Readings: Epic of Gilgamesh, Atra-Hasis, Iliad, Aeschylus and Euripides, Mahabharata, Arrian and Plutarch, Aeneid, and Song of Roland.

Dreamworld and Catastrophe: New Orleans After Human Rights 326 An advanced seminar in critical urban theory that begins with an exploration of the ongoing reconstruction of New Orleans. The course considers questions of urban citizenship, spatial justice, and the contested meaning and direction of the NOLA recovery, while also situating New Orleans in a system of cities and cityregions, and in relation to increasingly global flows of people, ideas, capital, and commodities.

Theories of Human Rights Human Rights 328 CROSS -LISTED: PHILOSOPHY The emphasis of this course is on acquiring the skills and the ear to ask a variant of Nietzsche’s question: What is the value of the value of human rights? The readings are drawn almost exclusively from the works of Nietzsche, Foucault, and Derrida.

Cosmopolitanism to Globalization: World Citizen from Kant to Amin Human Rights 329 In “Perpetual Peace,” Immanuel Kant laid out his vision of a world community governed by a single global authority and inhabited by “citizens of the world.” This course explores how ideas of cosmopolitanism developed, from the late Enlightenment through recent debates.

224 Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations Readings range from Kant, Lessing, and Goldsmith to Samir Amin, Kwame Anthony Appiah, and other contemporary theorists.

Epidemiology: A Human Rights Perspective Human Rights 337 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, GSS

Is “Perpetual Peace” Sustainable? Human Rights 334 / Philosophy 334

Epidemiologists study how diseases and other health-related events spread through populations. They track down the sources of outbreaks, explore trends in cancer, heart disease, and mental illness, and try to understand the social forces that influence sexual behavior, weight gain, and other complex human phenomena. Students learn how epidemiological studies are designed and carried out; are able to generate hypotheses about the underlying causes of diseases based on prevalence and incidence data; and understand how the design of studies can restrict or expand man’s understanding of the human condition.

Immanuel Kant sketched a framework for national, international, and cosmopolitan law and made the case for a world court. This course studies Kant’s essay on perpetual peace to clarify the court’s conceptual framework. Students examine how and why sustainable peace depends both on the juridical process and on rights such as free speech and migration. They identify assumptions on which the legal reasoning rests, and analyze how Kant’s principles are mobilized in contemporary discussions. For example: Why intervene in Libya and not Syria? What can be learned from the European sovereign debt crisis?

Advanced Seminar: Human Rights and International Law Human Rights 335 CROSS -LISTED: GIS Since the end of World War II, human rights have gained in number under international law. What are these rights and how have they been enforced? How have crimes against humanity been defined since the Nuremberg Trials? How have individual rights been shaped since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948? Other topics include freedom from torture and slavery, rape as a war crime, and the extent of liberty in a time of terror.

Indigenous Rights and Biohistory of the Amerindians Human Rights 336 An examination of the history of the Amerindians, the original inhabitants of the Americas before 1491. The course begins by looking at what the New World was like at the time of Columbus. Who lived here? And how did it happen that, in a short period of time, a few Spanish conquistadores could wipe out millions of people living in prosperous, well-organized megacities? Also addressed is the recent history of native Amerindians in the Amazon.

Reproductive Health and Rights Human Rights 340 This course covers population growth and family planning, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, maternal mortality, gender violence, abortion, and homosexuality, among other issues. The primary focus is on policies and events in developing countries, with special emphasis on how U.S.-funded reproductive health programs in Africa, Asia, and Latin America have evolved over time.

Counterinsurgency, Law, and the Colonial Legacy Human Rights 341 This seminar focuses on the trickle-down effects of British colonial law and politics in the contemporary world of policing and counterinsurgency by focusing on two case studies: Northern Ireland and Israel/Palestine. Students study the impact of a tradition accumulated through British colonial and imperial attitudes from the 19th century to the present. Researching the legal frameworks as well as the practices documented in British imperial antiterrorism manuals, students examine divide-and-conquer strategy; laws of exception; and the shoot-to-kill policy and its incarnations.

Italian Studies 225 Child Survival Human Rights 360 CROSS -LISTED: GIS In Africa, Asia, and Latin America, some nine million children under five die annually, the vast majority from causes that cost pennies to prevent or cure. Why are child death rates still so high, and what is the international community doing about this calamity? This course describes efforts past and present by governments, health agencies, and foundations to prevent child deaths around the world, and explores why some efforts have been more successful than others.

Rereading The Family of Man Human Rights 412 Ever since its inaugural exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in 1955, the photographs in The Family of Man have been a topic of fascination and debate, critique, and enthusiasm. The seminar explores the images and the debates in order to reexamine the exhibit as an archive of the human rights imagination, and to investigate the powerful relation between contemporary human rights discourse and the photographic image.

Irish and Celtic Studies Faculty: Terence F. Dewsnap (coordinator), Deirdre d’Albertis*, Benjamin La Farge, Gregory B. Moynahan, Joseph O’Neill

Literature 2650, Irish Fiction, or Anthropology 269, Ireland and the Anthropological Imagination. Graduation requirements include two cross-listed courses and successful completion of the Senior Project.

Italian Studies Faculty: Anna Cafaro (director), Diana H. DePardo-Minsky, Joseph Luzzi, Benjamin Stevens, Karen Sullivan Overview: Italian culture is unique in the extent to which it affects other European and nonEuropean cultures: the Venetians in overseas trade and the Byzantine Empire; Savoy with France; Trieste, Venice, and Milan with the Austro-Hungarian Empire; Sicily with Normandy, Greece, Spain, and the Islamic world. Contemporary aspects of German and Eastern European history—fascism and the Balkans are obvious examples—cannot be considered in isolation from Italian history. At the core of the Italian Studies Program lies acquisition of fluency in reading, writing, and translating the Italian language. This is accomplished through courses during the academic year or through an intensive Italian language class, which includes a month of study in Florence, Italy, during the January intersession. The student selects an area of specialization and plans, in collaboration with a faculty adviser and other program faculty members, an individual, multidisciplinary curriculum.

* on sabbatical, spring 2013

Overview: The Irish and Celtic Studies (ICS) concentration offers access to three main areas: Celtic traditions in myth, religion, literature, and art; Anglo-Irish literature from the 18th through the 20th centuries; and the politics and history of Ireland. Requirements: Students moderate into a disciplinary program (e.g., art history, historical studies) and are responsible for the requirements of that program. Two members of the Moderation board should be Irish studies faculty. Students are advised to take two ICS crosslisted courses before Moderation, such as

Requirements: Before Moderation a student is expected to take three semesters (or the equivalent) of Italian language courses and two other courses focusing on some aspect of Italian culture. A student moderates into Italian studies by presenting to the Moderation board the customary two papers outlining both past academic achievements and a proposed program of study for the next two years. The Moderation board is composed of members of the core faculty and other faculty determined by the student’s particular interests and area of specialization. A student must present evidence of proficiency in the Italian language and demonstrate in some form (for example, a representative essay,

226 Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations performances, tapes, artworks) the ability to collect and integrate material with the skills needed to undertake and complete a significant Senior Project. One two-semester course in the student’s final year is devoted to the Senior Project, a major work demonstrating the student’s mastery of some aspect of the Italian language and culture. The project is not limited to a written study, but may be a film, photographic essay, or another form appropriate to the topic. In addition to the Senior Project, a student must take five elective courses in Italian studies.

Jewish Studies

Students are required to take a minimum of five courses in the concentration, including: a core course in Jewish studies, consisting of either Jewish Studies 101, Introduction to Jewish Studies, or one approved course from history and one from religion, such as Religion 175, Classics of Judaism; and at least 4 credits of instruction in a Jewish language, typically Hebrew. When choosing Jewish studies electives, at least one course must be outside the division of the student’s primary program; one course must be an Upper College conference or seminar; two Jewish studies courses should be taken prior to Moderation; and two semesters of Hebrew at the 200 level will count as one elective. Faculty: Cecile E. Kuznitz (coordinator), Mario J. A. Bick*, Leon Botstein, Bruce Chilton, Yuval Elmelech, Elizabeth Frank**, Norman Manea, David Nelson, Jacob Neusner, Joel Perlmann, Justus Rosenberg, Kim Yaffe * on sabbatical, fall 2012 ** leave of absence, spring 2013

Overview: The Jewish Studies concentration explores the many facets of the Jewish experience, with course offerings ranging across several millennia and continents. Students concentrating in Jewish studies also moderate into a divisional program. Students may focus, for example, on the classic texts of rabbinic Judaism, the modern Jewish experience in Europe, or the dynamics of contemporary Jewish life in Israel or the United States. Requirements: Moderation follows the procedure for the primary program. The board consists of the student’s adviser, who is a member of the Jewish Studies concentration, and two faculty members from the divisional program. The Moderation should demonstrate progress in both Jewish studies and the student’s divisional program. Senior Projects are directed by a member of the Jewish studies faculty. The Senior Project board should include at least one member of the divisional program into which the student moderated.

Beginning Hebrew Hebrew 101-102 This two-semester course introduces students to modern Hebrew as it is spoken and written in Israel today. Beginning with script and pronunciation, the course also covers a wide range of texts and topics that build active and passive lexicon as well as grammatical structures. Differences between standard and colloquial Hebrew and significant aspects of Israeli culture are highlighted.

Intermediate Hebrew Hebrew 201 This course concentrates on developing a significant level of linguistic and communicative competence in Hebrew. Active and passive lexicon is expanded and advanced grammatical structures are introduced through exposure to different kinds of texts. Aspects of Israeli culture and differences between the standard language and the spoken language are highlighted.

Intermediate Hebrew II Hebrew 202 Students continue to improve their Hebrew skills in reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Stress is put on syntactical and structural elements of Hebrew texts, grammar, and active use of communication. A mix of practical and literary texts is used, relating to Israeli culture, social issues, and politics.

Latin American and Iberian Studies 227 Introduction to Jewish Studies Jewish Studies 101 CROSS -LISTED: HISTORICAL STUDIES, RELIGION The primary focus of this course is the history of the Jewish people and Judaism as a religion, but students also examine topics in Jewish literature, society, and politics.

Beginning Yiddish Jewish Studies 112 An introduction to reading, writing, and speaking Yiddish. Students also learn about aspects of the East European Jewish culture in which Yiddish developed.

Introduction to Yiddish Language, Literature, and Culture Jewish Studies 115 Yiddish was the primary language of European Jewry and its emigrant communities for nearly one thousand years. The class explores the role of Yiddish in Jewish life and the rich culture produced in the language.

Jewishness beyond Religion: Defining Secular Jewish Culture Jewish Studies 120 This course explores the intellectual, social, and political movements that led to new secular definitions of Jewish culture and identity in the modern period. Examples are drawn from Western and Eastern Europe, as well as American and Israeli societies.

Jewish Rebels and Radicals Jewish Studies 216 In the modern period, radical ideas have repeatedly challenged traditional Jewish norms of belief and practice. Some have even posited that as an “outsider” minority, Jews have a particular affinity for revolutionary ideologies. This course looks at individuals and movements that rebelled against mainstream Jewish society, from Baruch Spinoza to the contemporary American Jewish “Heebster” movement.

Latin American and Iberian Studies Faculty: Nicole Caso (coordinator)***, Susan Aberth*, Mario J. A. Bick**, Diana De G. Brown****, Christian Ayne Crouch, Omar G. Encarnación***, Melanie Nicholson, Miles Rodriguez * on sabbatical, fall 2012 ** on sabbatical, fall 2012; leave of absence, spring 2013 *** on sabbatical, spring 2013 **** leave of absence, 2012–2013

Overview: The Latin American and Iberian Studies (LAIS) concentration incorporates such diverse disciplines as literature, political studies, anthropology, history, economics, art history, and dance. It provides an academic setting for the study of two regions inextricably bound by historical, cultural, linguistic, economic, and political ties. LAIS students emerge with the linguistic and analytical preparation necessary to understand the literatures and cultures of Latin American and Iberian countries; the history of Latin America in the pre-Columbian, colonial, and national periods; the formation of social and economic structures throughout the Hispanic world; the history and ethnography of Mesoamerica and the Andes; contemporary Latin American and Iberian politics; and the Hispanic experience in the United States. Requirements: Students may moderate into LAIS, but they must also moderate into a primary divisional program. Prior to or concurrent with Moderation, students are required to take at least two designated LAIS core courses. After Moderation, students are expected to take two additional elective courses and one 300-level seminar; these courses may be listed primarily in another discipline and cross-listed with LAIS. At least one and preferably two of the five required LAIS courses should be taken outside the student’s primary division. Students also complete the Senior Project, which must have a geographical, linguistic, or conceptual link with Latin America, Spain, or Portugal.

228 Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations Courses: Core LAIS courses include Spanish 301, Introduction to Spanish Literature, or Spanish 302, Introduction to Latin American Literature; Political Studies 222, Latin American Politics; Art History 160, Survey of Latin American Art; LAIS 102, “Latin” American History: From Ancient Native Civilizations to National Independence; and LAIS 203, Latin American Nations: Emergence and Distinctive Trajectories. Additionally, recent electives include: Religious Imagery in Latin American Art; Crossroads of Civilization: The Art and Architecture of Medieval Spain; El Greco to Goya: Spanish Art and Architecture; Spanish Literary Translation; Cervantes’ Don Quijote; The Hispanic Presence in the United States; Testimonies of Latin America: Perspectives from the Margins; Between the Acts: Spain’s Teatro Breve; Latin American Surrealism; Populism and Popular Culture in Latin America; United States–Latin America Relations; and Gender and Sexuality in Brazil.

“Latin” American History: From Ancient Native Civilizations to National Independence LAIS 102 CROSS -LISTED: HISTORICAL STUDIES An introduction to the history, politics, and societies of “Latin” America, from the major native pre-Colombian civilizations to the continental independence movements that carved out the countries of today. Due to the periods covered, there is an emphasis on Meso-America (Mexico and Central America), the Andean region, and Brazil, with a snapshot of the Caribbean at the time of discovery.

Latin American Nations: Emergence and Distinctive Trajectories LAIS 203 CROSS -LISTED: GIS, HISTORICAL STUDIES This course deals with the birth, rise, and consolidation of Latin American nations, with a focus on their distinctive trajectories and specific national patterns of politics, conflicts, identity, and culture. The course also examines cultural expressions of the various time periods, from gaucho poetry and antimodernist religious messianism to tango and soccer.

Medieval Studies Faculty: Karen Sullivan (coordinator), Maria Sachiko Cecire, Nancy S. Leonard, Marisa Libbon, Alice Stroup, Mairaj Syed Overview: The Medieval Studies concentration exposes students to the medieval civilizations of Europe and the Middle East through a range of disciplines. A broad approach is particularly appropriate to the study of medieval culture because the national and disciplinary boundaries to which the university has become habituated did not exist. French was spoken in England, Provençal in Italy, Arabic in Spain, and Latin everywhere. The dominant political organizations in Western Europe—the Church and Holy Roman Empire—were transnational by definition. Fields such as literature and history, astronomy and medicine, religion and philosophy, were not considered distinct. Students are encouraged to appreciate connections such as those between the Crusades and the epic, or the Cistercian movement and monastic architecture, so that they may grasp medieval culture as it was experienced. Areas of Study: In the Lower College, students take at least two semesters of a survey course (such as History 2110, Early Middle Ages; and 3117, High Middle Ages; Art History 220, Early Medieval Art and Architecture; and Literature 204A, Comparative Literature I, and 250, English Literature I). Students are required to have a reading knowledge of a foreign language by their senior year, and are encouraged to begin or continue work in languages as soon as possible. Students may choose to specialize in one discipline, but are also expected to become familiar with a variety of fields. Requirements: Students may moderate into medieval studies as well as a divisional program. They are expected to fulfill the requirements for both the divisional program and the Medieval Studies concentration, though they ultimately write one Senior Project combining work in both fields. In the Upper College, students turn to more specialized work, taking at least three additional courses in medieval stud-

Mind, Brain, and Behavior 229 ies. At least one of those must be a 300-level course. Before undertaking research for the Senior Project, students must demonstrate reading knowledge of at least one appropriate language, either medieval or modern. A student working on an art history project may be asked to learn French or German for access to scholarly works; a student concentrating on historical materials might learn Latin; a student involved in literature may become familiar with the relevant medieval language, such as Old English or Old Provençal, through a tutorial. A Senior Project emerging from this study plan is grounded in a breadth of knowledge acquired in the Lower College and the more advanced skills obtained in the Upper College. In the final year, students complete a Senior Project. At least two members of the Senior Project board must be affiliated with medieval studies. Courses: Recent courses include: in art history, The “Animal Style” in Art and Early Medieval Art and Architecture; in historical studies, Early Middle Ages, High Middle Ages, The Land of the Golden Cockerel: Introduction to Russian Civilization; in literature, Comparative Literature I, English Literature I, The Heroic Age, Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, and Medieval Dream Visions; and in religion, History of Islamic Society.

Middle Eastern Studies Faculty: Dina Ramadan (coordinator), Charles William Anderson, Yuval Elmelech, Elizabeth M. Holt, Joel Perlmann, Mairaj Syed Overview: The Middle Eastern Studies (MES) concentration promotes the intellectual exploration and analytic study of the historical and contemporary Middle East, from North Africa to Central Asia. MES provides an interdisciplinary framework with offerings cross-listed with history, literature, language, religion, sociology, anthropology, gender studies, political studies, art history, and environmental and urban studies. Students moderate into a primary program with a concentration in MES, allowing them to

formalize a focus on a region or period within the historical or contemporary Middle East. Requirements: Students concentrating in MES must meet the following requirements before Moderation: enroll in an MES core course and obtain one year of language proficiency in Arabic or Hebrew. At Moderation, usually held concurrently with the primary program, students must submit papers on past experience and projected work, as well as an academic paper about the Middle East written in one of their core or elective MES classes. At least one member of the Moderation board should be a faculty member affiliated with MES. After Moderation, students must enroll in four other electives to broaden understanding of the region, one of which should be a 300-level seminar that requires a substantial paper on some topic pertaining to the Middle East. At least one elective should be taken outside the student’s primary division. Students must also successfully complete a Senior Project that addresses aspects of the contemporary Middle East and incorporates themes that students have learned during their MES course work. While the twosemester Senior Project is based in a primary program, the Senior Project board must include at least one faculty member affiliated with MES. Courses: Core courses include: Religion 106, Introduction to Islam; Literature 2060, Modern Arabic Literature in Translation; History 185, History of the Modern Middle East. MES electives include: Arabic 101-102, Elementary Arabic; Arabic 201-202, Intermediate Arabic; Arabic 301-302, Advanced Arabic; Hebrew 101-102, Beginning Hebrew; Hebrew 201-202, Intermediate Hebrew; and History 2122, The Arab-Israel Conflict; among others.

Mind, Brain, and Behavior Faculty: Sven Anderson (coordinator), Sarah Dunphy-Lelii, Andrew C. Gallup, Lianne Habinek*, John Halle, Samuel K. Hsiao, Philip John, Kristin Lane, Barbara Luka, Frank M. Scalzo,

230 Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations Benjamin Stevens, S. Rebecca Thomas, Michael Tibbetts, Kritika Yegnashankaran

Russian and Eurasian Studies

* leave of absence, 2012–2013

Overview: The Mind, Brain, and Behavior (MBB) concentration seeks to understand how humans, animals, and robots are able to acquire, represent, and use knowledge. The discipline combines the insights from several other fields, including computer science, psychology, linguistics, animal behavior, genetics, neuroscience, and philosophy, to work toward an understanding of the brain, mind, and conscious experience. The MBB concentration is a secondary field of study that requires a student to complete a major in a primary discipline. Requirements: If possible, Moderation into Mind, Brain, and Behavior should take place simultaneously with Moderation into the primary program. To moderate, students must complete Introduction to Cognitive Science (Computer Science 131); and one course from two of the following disciplines: biology, computer science, linguistics, philosophy, and psychology. At least one member of the Moderation board must be a member of the core MBB faculty. To graduate, students must complete the course requirements for their primary program; “clusters” consisting of three courses from approved lists in two of the five disciplines that contribute to MBB; Cognitive Science Research (Computer Science 308), which is typically taken during the second semester of the junior year; and a Senior Project on a topic relevant to MBB, as determined by the student’s Senior Project board. Courses: The following core courses, among others, fulfill the requirements for Moderation: in the area of biology, Biology 141, Subcellular Biology; Biology 150, Evolution of Model Organisms; Biology 151, From Genes to Traits; in the area of computation, Computer Science 141, Object-Oriented Programming; Computer Science 143, Object-Oriented Programming with Robots; in the area of linguistics, Literature 201, Survey of Linguistics; in the area of philosophy, Philosophy 115, Introduction to Philosophy of the Mind; in the area of psychology, Psychology 103, Introduction to Psychological Science.

Faculty: Marina Kostalevsky (director), Jonathan Becker, Jonathan Brent, Oleg Minin, Gennady L. Shkliarevsky, Olga Voronina Overview: The Russian and Eurasian Studies Program (RES) focuses on the language, literature, history, and culture of Russia, the Soviet Union and the states that once were a part of it, and East and East-Central Europe, through a range of interdisciplinary contexts, theoretical perspectives, and analytical approaches. Both Lower and Upper College courses draw upon faculty expertise in history, literature, politics, economics, art, music, culture, and religious studies as they relate to Russia and Eurasia, either separately or in a comparative context. Proficiency in the Russian language is a key component of the RES major, with course offerings from beginning to advanced at Bard and opportunities for study in Russia at the Bard-affiliated Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences (Smolny College), St. Petersburg State University. Students may choose to specialize in a literature or social science track, or may combine Russian and Eurasian studies with another program of study. Requirements: To moderate into RES, a student must complete at least: 12 credits of Russian language (native speakers of Russian should consult with their adviser in Russian studies to determine how this requirement will be applied), one course in Russian literature, and one course from the Division of Social Studies in Russian/Eurasian studies (i.e., history, politics, economics, religion). For graduation, students should demonstrate language proficiency equivalent to at least the thirdyear level. For most students this means taking the second-year Russian sequence, plus at least one third-year Russian course. At least 12 additional credits (three courses) are required in the student’s major Russian studies track (either literature or social science). At least one of these courses must be at the 300 level or above (a major seminar with a substantial research paper). Since the RES curriculum strives for balance and breadth, it is also recommended that at least one

Science, Technology, and Society 231 of these courses treat Russia, Eastern Europe, or Eurasia in a comparative context. Also required are at least 4 credits (one additional course) in Russian studies of the other track (either literature or social science), and a Senior Project.

grounding for interests—such as science fiction, nonfiction science writing, the economy of social networking, toxicology, or even game design— that previously had no ready "home" in a primary program.

Opportunities for Practical Experience: RES majors are strongly encouraged to participate in Bard’s study abroad program at Smolny College, a joint initiative of Bard College and St. Petersburg State University, in St. Petersburg, Russia. Students may enroll in summer intensive Russian language courses and/or semester or academic-year programs at Smolny, where Bard students combine a liberal arts curriculum with linguistic and cultural immersion by taking classes side by side with Russian students, in Russian. For more information, see the “International Programs and Study Abroad” chapter in this catalogue.

The STS concentration hopes to foster a critical community engaged in understanding science and its relation to society, and to promote contact among students across different fields and divisions. Students in STS are encouraged, but not required, to have a practical “hands-on” technological, artistic, or policy component to their education, preferably in collective projects in their junior year. Models for such projects include constructing radio transmission equipment (Radio Free Bard), developing biodiesel equipment for school vehicles, and studying construction and engineering techniques for work in developing countries. Due to its interdisciplinary nature, students in STS are encouraged to take tutorials in fields pertaining to areas of interest for such projects, but should plan ahead so that they have taken any introductory courses in an area where they may later need to take a specific tutorial. A student interested in nautical design, for instance, could take basic physics or calculus before approaching faculty for a tutorial on designing a boat.

Science, Technology, and Society Faculty: Gregory B. Moynahan and Peter D. Skiff (coordinators), Robert Bielecki, Diana De G. Brown**, Laurie Dahlberg, Sanjaya DeSilva, Michael Donnelly*, Jacqueline Susan Goss, Mark D. Halsey, Felicia Keesing, Marina Rosenfeld, David Shein, Alice Stroup, Yuka Suzuki * leave of absence, fall 2012 ** leave of absence, 2012–2013

Overview: The interrelation of scientific and technological systems with social and political life has become perhaps the most pressing concern of modern society. Science, Technology, and Society (STS) provides a rigorous approach to this area in conjunction with a primary discipline in the social sciences, arts, literature, or the natural sciences. Students can use the resources of STS for the extradisciplinary exploration often demanded by contemporary issues in technology and science, while the primary academic or scientific field—for instance, anthropology, physics, or music—provides a base of methodological skills and perspective. One benefit of this structure is that STS can provide the institutional

Requirements: To moderate, students in STS must take two courses in the Division of Science, Mathematics, and Computing (not including Science History and Philosophy courses cross-listed with STS) and two core STS courses. The student’s plan for a sequence of courses at Moderation is of particular importance in such established fields of interest within STS as the “History and Philosophy of Science” and “Nonfiction Science Education and Documentation.” In these cases, students would be required to complete particular key courses in the program (see website for details). Reading competence in a foreign language or further science, mathematics, or computing course work is strongly recommended. To graduate, students must take one two-course sequence in a basic science (AP science courses may count toward this requirement); two additional courses in the Science, Mathematics, and

232 Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations Computing Division; two elective STS crosslisted courses, one outside the student’s home division; a methodology course (usually in policy analysis or statistics); and a Senior Project informed by themes relating to the social role of science and technology. A Senior Project in biology and STS, for instance, might look at a particular biological problem of epidemiology along with the economic, political, or public health dimension of disease prevention surrounding the specific disease. Courses: Core courses include: Economics 265, Development from the Ground Up; History 161, The History of Technology; Science History and Philosophy 222, The History of Science before Newton; Science History and Philosophy 223, Physical Science after Newton.

Social Policy Faculty: Yuval Elmelech (coordinator), Sanjaya DeSilva, Michael Donnelly*, Kris Feder, Kenneth Haig, Dimitri B. Papadimitriou, Joel Perlmann * leave of absence, fall 2012

Overview: Many Bard students are imbued with a desire to help make their society more just and humane. Social Policy introduces students to an important way in which they can act on this desire, namely through the analysis of social policy options. This includes asking such questions as what interventions have worked, and why? Course work provides a basic introduction to domestic social problems and examples of realworld policy change—for example, in schooling, police work, prisons, health-care systems, social security, income inequality, job satisfaction and security, and support for the arts. The student is also introduced to techniques that policy analysts use in assessing social programs. A crucial component of study is a research apprenticeship, in which the student is involved in the actual analysis of one or more social programs under the guidance of faculty and other experienced policy analysts.

Requirements: Social policy is a secondary concentration that can be taken in conjunction with any program in the College. Students must complete two introductory requirements: first, a quantitative methods course (e.g., Economics 229, Statistics, or Sociology 205, Introduction to Research Methods). Psychology 203, Introduction to Statistics for Psychology, meets this requirement when a 1-credit “bridging” module is also completed. The second requirement is a course on problems in American society, met by Sociology 120, Inequality in America, or Economics 226, Urban and Regional Economics. (Students may also wish to take the basic microeconomics course, although it is not required.) At least three additional courses are required. These may be specified 200- and 300-level courses; at least two should be 300-level courses. The two introductory courses and one of the other courses must be completed before Moderation. An apprenticeship seminar, the capstone course, also is required. Students moderate concurrently into social policy and a primary program. The Moderation board should include a member of the social policy faculty. In addition to regular Moderation papers, the student should submit a plan of study detailing the social policy component of his/her studies. The Senior Project should relate to both the major program and the Social Policy concentration. One member of the social policy faculty must be on the Senior Project board. Courses: Recent offerings include, in Economics, National Economic Policy, Economics of the Public Sector; in Environmental and Urban Studies, Environmental Studies Research Seminar; in Historical Studies, American Environmental History I and II, The Civil Rights Movement; in Philosophy, Environmental Ethics; in Political Studies, American Politics: Issues and Institutions, Politics and News Media, Environmental Politics in the United States, The Politics of Population Control; and in Sociology, Immigration in Contemporary American Society, Seminar on Social Problems, Sociology of Medicine.

Theology 233

Spanish Studies Faculty: Melanie Nicholson (director), Nicole Caso*, David Rodriguez-SolĂĄs * on sabbatical, spring 2013

Overview: The Spanish Studies Program offers a full range of courses in the language, literature, and culture of the Spanish-speaking world. By the time of Moderation, students are expected to have a solid grasp of the language as well as a familiarity with reading and writing about literary texts. Spanish majors are encouraged to spend a semester abroad in a Spanishspeaking country. Requirements: Prior to Moderation, students should have completed three semesters of Spanish language at Bard, or the equivalent. Students should also have taken two literature courses, which may include Spanish 301 or 302, Introduction to Spanish Literature and Introduction to Latin American Literature, respectively. After Moderation, majors should complete a minimum of three additional seminars in the program. They are also highly encouraged to take one or more courses in literature, taught in English, including literary theory. The Senior Project should be written under the direction of a Spanish Studies Program faculty member and should deal with a topic related to Spanish or Latin American literature.

Theology Faculty: Nancy Leonard (coordinator), Daniel Berthold, Bruce Chilton, Elizabeth Frank**, Robert Kelly*, Jacob Neusner, Kristin Scheible, Peter D. Skiff, Karen Sullivan, Mairaj Syed

conceived. Two principal approaches to that issue may be combined. The first approach is referential; it begins with the evaluation of texts, works of art, or other aspects of human production that claim to express the meaning and purpose of experience. The second approach is constructive; it involves the investigator in an analysis aimed at evaluating or contributing to religious discourse. While the critical study of religion is designed to describe and analyze religious systems within their historical settings, theology’s purpose is to engage what these systems claim to refer to. The ethical, political, literary, and cultural are all contexts in which theological elements may be significant. Requirements: The principal issues of theology demand competence in several disciplines. For that reason, the Theology concentration involves courses from every division and competence (in the form of Moderation) in a discipline. Moderation in theology is to be associated with Moderation in another discipline or disciplines. By Moderation, a student should have pursued three courses in theology. In addition to the Senior Project, majors should complete four cross-listed theology courses from at least two divisions. The board for Moderation and the Senior Project shall include at least one member of the theology faculty. During the semester of Moderation, students who wish to concentrate in theology are to participate in a seminar, which the director of the concentration arranges.

Working Theologies Theology 201 / Religion 201 See Religion 201 for a course description.


* on sabbatical, fall 2012 ** leave of absence, spring 2013

Overview: The Theology concentration enables participants to explore new directions that have emerged since the removal of theology as a dogmatic discipline from most liberal arts curricula. The focus is on how the divine or ultimate is

This seminar examines the way the social histories of Israel and the early Church shaped biblical texts. The variety of meanings inherent within the Scriptures are considered, without limitation to a particular theory of interpretation and with constant attention to issues of historical context.

234 Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations Visions of the Social Order in Formative Judaism and Christianity Theology 214 CROSS -LISTED: JEWISH STUDIES, RELIGION The focus of this seminar is how selected texts from Western antiquity envision human collectivity, and the normative pictures they construct and project of how human beings should live in community. The basic question of our inquiry is: How does religion imagine society?

The Gnostic Quest Theology 320 CROSS -LISTED: RELIGION Between the first century and fourth century of the Common Era, gnostics quested for a single, integrating insight into the divine world. The traditional religions of ancient society talked about transcendence, but restricted the delivery of their truths to their different constituencies, which were often mutually exclusive, defined by race, history, family, or status. Students look at how Gnosticism claimed to smash through those barriers, making it the most potent cultural force in this period of the Roman Empire.

Victorian Studies Faculty: Deirdre d’Albertis* and Terence F. Dewsnap (coordinators), Richard Aldous, Laurie Dahlberg, Peter D. Skiff * on sabbatical, spring 2013

Overview: The Victorian Studies concentration guides students in their exploration of the politics, culture, and society of Britain and the United States in the 19th century, a period during which both countries were undergoing massive expansion and change. Grounded in the significant relationship between history and literature, the concentration enables majors to plan their study around specific topics in these areas and in such diverse fields as economics, the history of science, anthropology, art history, and photography. Requirements: Students in Victorian studies moderate jointly with a divisional program and are responsible for meeting the requirements

of both programs. Faculty from the divisional program and Victorian studies sit on the Moderation board. Several elective courses in literature, history, anthropology, art history, and the history of science are cross-listed with Victorian studies each semester. Before Moderation a student concentrating in Victorian studies should successfully complete two cross-listed courses. Before writing a Senior Project, students are advised to take at least two Upper College seminars in Victorian studies. Students are encouraged to approach Victorian studies faculty to arrange tutorials or independent study projects on topics of special interest, in preparation for the Senior Project. Two faculty members from Victorian studies must be included on the Senior Project board.

Multidisciplinary Studies Multidisciplinary studies allows a student to select an area of study or develop an individual approach to an area and then design a program that integrates material from different programs and divisions in order to pursue that study. To concentrate in Multidisciplinary studies, a student must submit a proposal to the Executive Committee requesting approval for such a concentration. The ideal time for the proposal is in the second semester of the sophomore year, as a substitute for Moderation into an existing program during that semester. Students interested in Multidisciplinary studies should consult with the dean of studies for information on the application process and for guidance in formulating the proposal. For a proposal to be approved, the following must hold: the student must have a cumulative grade point average of 3.0 or higher; the proposed list of courses must include in-depth study in two or more disciplines; the proposed adviser and Moderation Board members must have the expertise to supervise the proposed plan of study.

The Bard College Conservatory of Music The Bard College Conservatory of Music opened in 2005, continuing Bard’s spirit of innovation in arts and education. All Conservatory undergraduates are enrolled in a unique five-year, dual-degree program leading to a bachelor of music and a bachelor of arts in a field other than music. In this way promising young musicians pursue all of their interests at one institution, taught by expert professionals in each field. The integrated five-year program combines the benefits of an intensive world-class musical education with the advantages of a broad exposure to the liberal arts and sciences. The Conservatory offers unparalleled musical opportunities for its students, including a concerto competition, chamber music concerts at Bard and elsewhere, and performance in the annual Bard Music Festival. Visiting performers and composers present master classes and concerts at the Conservatory, which are open to the entire Bard community. The curriculum for the B.A. degree is the same as for any Bard undergraduate, including the Language and Thinking Program, First-Year Seminar, Citizen Science, fulfillment of distribution requirements, Moderation, and a Senior Project. Conservatory students have access to the resources of the Bard Music Program (see page 50), including faculty, libraries, courses of instruction, and facilities. The Conservatory accepts applications from students of composition and the following instruments: piano, violin, viola, cello, bass, harp, percussion, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, French horn, trumpet, trombone, and tuba.

Curriculum The crafting of each student’s double-degree program is an individual matter, developed through careful consultation between student and faculty. As a general rule, the program requires five years (10 semesters) to complete. Courses and workshops prepare students to work successfully in the music world after graduation. All courses in the Bard College Music Program, including those in electronic music, jazz, and world music, are open to Conservatory students. The Conservatory experience comprises the following five dimensions, which are designed to integrate with the student’s work in the College. 235

236 The Bard College Conservatory of Music Studio Instruction Bard retains one of the key components of a traditional conservatory education: the opportunity for students to develop mentoring relationships with master artists. As an important center of professional musical activity in the New York City region, Bard attracts world-class faculty who believe strongly in the mission of its Conservatory. Studio instruction is required in every semester of enrollment.

Chamber Music Chamber music plays a particularly important role at the Conservatory, and participation is required of all performance majors, each semester. In addition to performing the standard masterworks of the chamber music repertoire, students work closely with the Conservatory’s Composition Program, performing works of the 20th and 21st centuries. Studio faculty members often participate in ensembles so that students can learn firsthand from the playing of more experienced musicians. The Chamber Music Program is further enriched by frequent master classes and concerts by guest artists.

Large Ensemble The growth gained by rehearsing and performing music with peers in a large ensemble is an irreplaceable part of the education of any orchestral musician. Bard places considerable emphasis on this aspect of the Conservatory experience; participation is required of all orchestral musicians, each semester. The Bard Conservatory Orchestra performs twice each semester in The Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts at Bard College. Under its music director, Leon Botstein, and distinguished guest conductors—such as Melvin Chen, Harold Farberman, Guillermo Figueroa, Xian Zhang, James Bagwell, David Alan Miller, Rossen Milanov, Marcelo Lehninger, and José-Luis Novo—the orchestra performs the core works of the symphonic repertoire.

Conservatory Seminar The Conservatory Seminar is a unique four-semester course that integrates the study of music theory and music history. Students perform works they are studying in their private studio lessons in order to demonstrate the topics under discussion. Using these works as illustration and point of departure, students deepen their knowledge of the diverse theoretical structures and historical contexts that inform the composition of a piece of music. In the third semester, students compose in a variety of historical styles; the fourth semester is devoted to free composition. In addition to the Conservatory Seminar, a two-semester survey of music from the Middle Ages to the present day is required.

The Bard College Conservatory of Music 237 Graduation Recital All Conservatory students are required to give a Graduation Recital, to demonstrate their musical strengths and artistic goals. Composition students produce a program of their work, which is performed by the Da Capo Chamber Players (in residence at Bard), their fellow students, faculty members, or other outside performers.

Requirements Requirements for the dual bachelor of music and bachelor of arts degrees are summarized below. For sample study plans and more information, see the websites of the Conservatory ( and the College ( Conservatory Requirements Studio Instruction (every semester) 40 credits Aural Skills (two semesters) 4 credits Conservatory Seminar (four semesters) 16 credits Music History (two semesters) 8 credits Chamber Music (every semester in residence for performance majors) Orchestra (every semester in residence for performance majors) Conservatory Senior Project (Graduation Recital) 4 credits Subtotal 72 credits College Program Requirements (see individual program descriptions for more information) Program Courses Moderation Senior Project Subtotal

40 to 56 credits 8 credits 48 to 64 credits

General College Requirements Language and Thinking Program (first-year students only: three weeks, beginning in August) Citizen Science (first-year students only; two-and-a-half weeks in January) First-Year Seminar 8 credits Distribution Requirements 24 credits Subtotal 32 credits Degree candidates must accumulate at least 160 semester hours of academic credit. At least 80 credits must be earned at the Annandale-on-Hudson campus of Bard College or at a program run directly by Bard. At least 40 credits must be outside the

238 The Bard College Conservatory of Music division of the student’s B.A. major. First-Year Seminar counts for 8 of the 40 credits. (For these purposes, the Conservatory is considered to be part of the Arts Division.) Advanced standing or college credit for College Board Advanced Placement courses is given for the grade of 5. Students who wish to request credit or advanced standing must submit the appropriate record of their grade to the Office of the Registrar. The following international diplomas may be accepted for advanced standing: International Baccalaureate, French Baccalaureate, Swiss Maturity, and German Abitur. A student may be allowed to accelerate for up to 32 credits (a normal full year) at the time of Moderation if the Moderation board so recommends. Students who have earned A-level passes may enter with advanced standing. There are nine distribution requirements (each a 4-credit course). Two can be fulfilled in the Conservatory (Practicing Arts and Analysis of Arts) and at least one (possibly two) within the student’s bachelor of arts major.

Admission In addition to applying to Bard College, candidates for admission to the Bard Conservatory must complete the Conservatory supplemental application and must audition, either in person or by DVD, if selected. Applicants in composition must send at least two scores with recordings. For details, visit conservatory/admission.

Fees and Expenses The annual tuition and fees for the Bard Conservatory are the same as for Bard College. Note, however, that the Conservatory program will usually require five years rather than four. All Conservatory applicants are considered for merit-based scholarships, in addition to aid administered by the College. For information on fees, expenses, and financial aid, see the “Finances” chapter in this catalogue.

The Bard College Conservatory of Music 239

The Conductors Institute of The Bard College Conservatory of Music The Conservatory is also home to The Conductors Institute, which offers a six-week summer program in conducting. The goals of the Institute are to promote technical clarity and precision in baton movement; disarm the competitive learning process so that conductors assist and support one another; and encourage American conductors to become advocates of American composers. The Institute offers a variety of combinations of study. The weeklong Visual Score Study/Baton Placement and Body Movement Technique unites the study of Institute repertoire with instruction in the Alexander Technique as it relates directly to the enhancement of performance skills and expression. The Conducting Program for Fellows and Colleagues is offered in two- or four-week sessions, during which participants work with the Institute orchestra on repertoire ranging from symphonies of Mozart, Beethoven, and Brahms to works by Prokofiev, Sibelius, Stravinsky, and Gershwin. The two-week Discovery Program is designed for conductors with limited experience who wish to improve their skills. The two-week ComposerConductor Program offers composers the opportunity to learn conducting techniques that apply to their own works, and for conductors to collaborate with composers as they prepare the work for public performance. Institute participants are exposed to a variety of expert opinions; lectures by scholars, composers, and conductors enrich the core programs.

Graduate Programs In 2006, the Conservatory began the Graduate Vocal Arts Program, which leads to the M.Music degree in vocal performance. Up to eight students per year are enrolled in a two-year curriculum designed by soprano Dawn Upshaw, who is artistic director of the program. For more information, see page 286. The Conservatory’s Graduate Conducting Program, Orchestral and Choral, began in 2010. This two-year master of music degree curriculum is designed and directed by Harold Farberman, James Bagwell, and Leon Botstein. For more information, see page 285. The Postgraduate Collaborative Piano Fellowships of The Bard College Conservatory of Music are awarded to pianists chosen in national auditions. Fellows spend two years being mentored in weekly group sessions and working with the Conservatory’s undergraduate and graduate students in master classes, lessons, and recitals. They receive room, board, and an annual stipend.

International Programs and Study Abroad Bard offers its students a wide range of opportunities to engage in international dialogue, both on campus and abroad. The College believes that such engagement is critical to a liberal arts education, and is committed to supporting and expanding its network of programs and partnerships that allow students to work with and learn from—not just about—people throughout the world. Nearly 50 percent of students participate in at least one international program during their time at Bard. Some spend a year, a term, or a summer studying abroad. Others work with leading international organizations or on community service projects outside the United States. Additionally, some academic programs use videoconferencing to hold joint courses with partner institutions overseas, while others offer the opportunity for off-site study and research. Bard students who wish to study abroad are encouraged to seek out programs that allow them to attend classes within foreign universities, as opposed to those offering courses attended solely by Americans. Bard offers such integrated programs at universities in Abu Dis, West Bank; Germany; Hungary; Kyrgyzstan; Russia; and South Africa. The College also participates in several exchanges, consortiums, and other special programs that can facilitate study abroad. Many of these programs are administered by the Institute for International Liberal Education, whose mission is to advance the theory and practice of the liberal arts education internationally (see Institute description below). Bard also sponsors faculty-led intensive language trips to China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Mexico, and Russia. In addition to Bard-sponsored programs, students can receive credit for participating in study abroad programs offered by other American colleges and universities, and they can also matriculate directly at foreign institutions, provided their participation in these programs is approved by Bard. All Bard students who want to study abroad for a semester must have a grade point average of 3.0 or higher. Students participating in programs not sponsored by Bard are subject to a fee for each semester of study away. (Note: International scholarship students participating in the one-year Program in International Education, described below, are not eligible to participate in study abroad programs.)


Study Abroad 241

Study Abroad International Partner Institutions Al-Quds Bard College for Liberal Arts and Sciences (AQB) Bard students may spend a semester or year abroad at the Al-Quds Bard College for Liberal Arts and Sciences in Abu Dis, West Bank. AQB is a four-year, dual-degree program with a curriculum that is similar to Bard’s; it includes the Language and Thinking Program, FirstYear Seminar, Moderation, and a Senior Project for all students. Anticipated majors are American studies, applied arts, biology, comparative literature, computer science, economics, environmental studies, fine arts, history, human rights, mathematics and computation, media studies, political science, and urban studies. The language of instruction is English; Arabic language classes are available. Bard students attending AQB pay Bard tuition and are responsible for their own living expenses; financial aid applies. Additional information about the Al-Quds Bard Partnership is available at American University of Central Asia (AUCA-Bard) Bard students may study for a semester or year abroad at the American University of Central Asia. The university is located in the Kyrgyz capital city Bishkek, in the heart of central Asia. Majors include American studies, anthropology, economics, European studies, international and comparative politics, psychology, sociology, and software engineering. Most classes are taught in English; some are taught in Russian. The student body is international; languages offered include Chinese, French, German, Japanese, Kyrgyz, Russian, and Spanish. Bard students pay Bard tuition and are responsible for their own living expenses; financial aid applies. Learn more at Central European University in Budapest (CEU) Central European University is an internationally recognized institution of postgraduate education in the social sciences and humanities that seeks to contribute to the development of open societies in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Faculty members from nearly 40 countries teach courses in English at CEU, which attracts approximately 1,100 students each year from more than 60 nations. Administered through the College, Bard’s program allows students from Bard and other undergraduate schools to take courses for credit at CEU. They may also participate in an internship program sponsored by CEU, in cooperation with the Bard Globalization and International Affairs Program. Upon completion of their undergraduate studies, students who qualify may have the option of matriculating in one of CEU’s master’s degree programs in the social sciences or humanities. For more information, go to ECLA of Bard: A Liberal Arts Univcrsity in Berlin In 2011, Bard assumed leadership of ECLA (European College of Liberal Arts), one of Europe’s earliest liberal arts education programs. At ECLA Bard, students from more than 30 countries and a select international faculty work together in small classes and one-to-one tutorials that encourage thoughtful dialogue. The language of instruction is English. Under Bard,

242 International Programs and Study Abroad plans to expand the curriculum include a Bard in Berlin study abroad program. Courses in economics, art, and history will take advantage of ECLA Bard’s location in one of the world’s most artistically vibrant and historically layered cities. Flexible programs will allow for visiting students to study at ECLA for a semester, a year, or more. For additional information, visit Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia (Smolny College) In 1996, Bard and St. Petersburg State University formed a partnership to establish Russia’s first liberal arts college. Smolny College ( opened in October 1999 with 78 students and now enrolls 475. In 2011, Smolny became a new division of the university called the Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences. The great majority of students are Russian. Graduates receive a dual B.A. in liberal arts and sciences from Bard College and Smolny College of St. Petersburg State University. Smolny has assumed an important role in the reform of Russian higher education: initiatives include the first undergraduate program in human rights in Russia, and, with support from the Russian government, a Russia-wide project to add a liberal arts dimension to Islamic institutions of higher education. The structure of the new division’s four-year B.A. curriculum resembles Bard’s. Students attend First-Year Seminar, pass Moderation, and complete Senior Projects. At the same time, programs and courses reflect Russian cultural and intellectual traditions and the interests of Russian faculty and students. The languages of instruction are Russian and English. Students may take intermediate- and advanced-level courses in Russian as a second language. A summer language intensive is offered for students who wish to improve their Russian skills. Bard students with sufficient knowledge of Russian, including Russian and Eurasian studies majors, are encouraged to spend a semester or more at Smolny. Students from Bard and other U.S. colleges and universities who attend Smolny for a semester or a year pay Bard tuition and earn Bard College credit. International Human Rights Exchange (IHRE) at the University of the Witwatersrand Bard’s collaboration with African universities, which began in 1995 after the end of apartheid, culminated in 2007 with the establishment of the International Human Rights Exchange as a full-semester program in partnership with the University of the Witwatersrand (“Wits”) in Johannesburg, South Africa. IHRE seeks to promote a critical understanding of human rights as part of a broad intellectual and social movement. It is offered every fall semester and includes a substantial internship with a local NGO or other human rights organization. Students from South Africa, Zimbabwe, and other African countries form the majority of the student body, along with young people from Bard and other North American colleges and universities. Visit for more information.

Study Abroad 243 Additional Study Abroad Opportunities American University in Cairo (AUC) The American University in Cairo was founded in 1919 by Americans devoted to education and community service in the Middle East. Today, fully accredited in Egypt and the United States, AUC is the region’s premier English-language university. Its nearly 5,000 undergraduates, who come from Egypt and more than 100 other countries, follow an academic program rooted in liberal education. The language of instruction is English. Bard students, who attend under a tuition exchange program, take courses throughout the curriculum and normally also study Arabic. Students participating in the exchange pay Bard tuition, an arrangement that guarantees they will earn credit for their work and also allows AUC students to study at Bard. Humboldt University in Berlin Humboldt has an active international program. The university’s enrollment of 36,000 includes more than 4,000 foreign students, many from Eastern Europe. Bard students typically attend German language and literature classes and may enroll in other courses. To be eligible, students must have completed at least two years of German and have moderated. Humboldt offers some courses in English. Students participating in the direct exchange program pay Bard tuition, in an arrangement that also allows Humboldt students to study at Bard. Intensive German classes are available prior to the beginning of the Humboldt semester; scholarship aid is available. Intensive and Immersion Foreign Language Study Most foreign languages taught at Bard can be studied in an intensive format that offers both an accelerated pace of learning and a one- or two-month summer or winter program in the country of the language under study. Current sites for these programs are China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Mexico, and Russia. The intensive format allows students to complete the equivalent of two years of language study in a few months. The immersion format, currently offered in German, is even more accelerated than the intensive format. For a more detailed description of intensive and immersion foreign language courses, see the Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Literatures Program description elsewhere in this catalogue. Kyoto Seika University in Kyoto, Japan, is an ideal exchange for Bard art students who have taken, or intend to take, the equivalent of one year (or more) of collegelevel Japanese. They may spend a semester studying oil painting, sculpture, ceramics, textiles, printmaking, video and media arts, graphic design, illustration, digital creation, communication design, interior design, architecture, cartoon art, manga art, or animation. Kyung Hee University, a comprehensive private institution in Seoul, South Korea, is one of Korea’s top universities. It has a mission of democratization and strong ties to the United Nations. In addition to an international global collaborative summer program, taught in English, the university offers semester-long exchanges for study of the Korean language as part of its tuition-exchange agreement with Bard.

244 International Programs and Study Abroad

Campus-Based International Programs and Institutes Institute for International Liberal Education (IILE) The Institute, founded in 1998, is a recognized leader in the establishment of joint ventures in liberal education with universities abroad. Working with partner universities that seek to introduce more democratic educational practices, IILE establishes dual-degree or dual-credit programs that realize the best features of American liberal arts education while respecting and incorporating local knowledge and ambitions. Programs administered by IILE include Bard’s joint ventures with St. Petersburg State University (Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Smolny College), University of the Witwatersrand (International Human Rights Exchange), Al-Quds University (Al-Quds Bard College for Liberal Arts and Sciences and Al-Quds Bard Master of Arts in Teaching Program), and American University of Central Asia. It manages the Program in International Education (see below), as well as tuition-exchange programs with the institutions listed in the previous section. The Institute has its own board of advisers and endowment. For further information, visit Program in International Education (PIE) In response to the end of the Cold War, Bard developed the Program in International Education, whose mission is to promote friendship and democratic thinking among future leaders from the United States and from regions of the world that are undergoing a transition to more democratic forms of government. Originally focused on the countries of Eastern and Central Europe, Russia, and the former Yugoslavia, PIE has since expanded to include the countries of Southern Africa and Central Asia. Since 1991, PIE has brought more than 200 students to Bard from 23 countries. These students spend one year at Bard, then return to their home institutions to complete their studies. While at Bard, each student participates with American students in a core seminar on aspects of democratization. Also of interest: Bard Globalization and International Affairs Program Based in New York City, this program offers students the opportunity to study with leading practicioners and experts in the fields of international law, international relations theory, and global public health, among others. For more information, see “Additional Study Opportunities and Affiliated Institutes” in this catalogue, or visit Center for Civic Engagement Based on the main campus, the Center coordinates a wide array of initiatives and service projects—locally and internationally—that address social programs, reach underserved communities, and tackle issues of public policy. For more information, visit

Campus-based International Programs and Institutes 245 Chinua Achebe Center for African Writers and Artists The Achebe Center, established to honor the legacy of the Nigerian author and Bard professor emeritus, sponsors readings, performances, lectures, and other events on campus, among other initiatives. For more information, see “Additional Study Opportunities and Affiliated Institutes” in this catalogue, or visit Global and International Studies This interdivisional academic concentration consists of two tracks: global and international affairs and public health. For more information, see “Interdivisional Programs and Concentrations,” or visit Graduate Studies and Scholarships The Career Development Office provides application information about scholarship and fellowship opportunities for graduating students who are interested in pursuing study or conducting research abroad. For more information, visit Human Rights Project This campus-based initiative supports internships, including many at international organizations; ongoing research projects, such as Music and Torture or the Bhopal Memory Project; and sponsors talks, films, and conferences on campus. For more information, see Rift Valley Institute This research and training nonprofit organization, dedicated to working with communities in Sudan and South Sudan, the Horn of Africa, and the Great Lakes region of Africa, has its U.S. office on the main Bard campus. For more information, visit

Additional Study Opportunities and Affiliated Institutes Bard offers a number of opportunities for learning outside the formal curriculum and course structure. Students planning professional careers can major in a liberal arts field and at the same time arrange their program to meet the requirements for admission to graduate or professional school. In some professional areas, students may choose a program in which they combine liberal arts study at Bard with professional graduate work at another institution. Pathways for independent work include special study and internship programs, study at another academic institution in the United States or abroad, and individual and group study projects. Additionally, Bard’s innovative approach to education has led to a number of affiliated programs and institutions that address the needs of younger students, disadvantaged students, and members of the Hudson Valley community. These programs range from alternative public high schools in New York City to lectures on campus for adults of retirement age. The main Bard campus is also home to several centers of scholarship that sponsor lectures, conferences, and other events, and offer internship and volunteer opportunities to undergraduates.

Additional Study Opportunities The following programs offer opportunities for Bard students to earn credits and/or transcript recognition outside of the regular curriculum.

Independent Work Bard undergraduate students can earn academic credit for the completion of an approved independent study project or noncredit-bearing transcript recognition for approved unpaid internships. Independent Study Projects Regular Bard academic credit may be awarded for successful completion of an independent study project outside the College’s regular course structure, provided the project has demonstrated academic value. After a proposed project has been approved by a faculty sponsor and the head of the relevant division or program, the student submits it to the dean of studies, who presents it for final approval to the Executive Committee, which consists of the dean of the college, the registrar (serving ex officio), and the chairs of the divisions. 246

Additional Study Opportunities 247 An independent study project may be undertaken in the fall or spring semester (for up to 4 credits) as part of the normal course load, or during January intersession or the summer (for up to 2 credits). Students may earn up to 12 independent study credits in total. January Intersession Intersession begins at the end of the winter holiday vacation and extends through the month of January. Students can gain academic or work experience or earn academic credits during this period in the following ways: •

Independent study A reading, research, or creative project for academic credit. The project must be planned with a faculty member and approved by the Executive Committee by the end of the fall semester.

Work project or internship Paid or volunteer employment or an internship at a newspaper or in a hospital, law office, theater, museum, or other institution. Although work, on or off campus, does not usually carry academic credit, students who think a particular work experience or internship is worthy of academic credit may apply for it or for transcript recognition.

Enrollment in a midyear course at another college or university Many colleges and universities with a one-month January intersession offer courses for credit that are open to students from other institutions.

Internships Students may request formal, noncredit-bearing transcriptual recognition of internships that are supervised, unpaid, and require at least 40 hours of work. Transcript recognition is not available for work performed through Bard College or for work conducted on any of Bard’s campuses. After a proposed internship has been approved by a faculty sponsor, the student submits it to the dean of studies for approval.

Study Away Study at Another Academic Institution in the United States Academic credit may be awarded to a student who successfully completes courses at another comparable college or university in the United States. Students who wish to obtain full credit must submit an application to the dean of studies before taking such courses. For courses taken during the summer or the January intersession, the application must be signed by the student’s adviser and divisional chair. For courses taken during the fall or spring semesters, the student must also obtain approval from the dean of studies for a leave of absence. Study Abroad Bard offers many opportunities for students to study internationally, at partner institutions, language immersion programs, direct exchange programs, and a variety of Bard-sponsored or approved credit-bearing programs. For additional information, see “International Programs and Study Abroad” in this catalogue or visit

248 Additional Study Opportunities and Affiliated Institutes Specialized Programs Archaeology Field School For a month in the summer, students in the Archaeology Field School earn 4 credits for excavation in pursuit of past cultural ecosystems in the Hudson Valley and the eastern woodlands. The field school emphasizes basic excavating techniques (digging with a trowel, recording field notes, drawing, and photography) and the initial steps in laboratory analysis. Previous projects have included the prehistoric Grouse Bluff campsite on the shore of the Hudson River and the foundation of the A. J. Davis–designed Gardener’s Lodge at Blithewood on the Bard campus. Recent archival research has located the community of Guinea, which comprised a large population of fugitive and freed slaves from the late 18th through the mid-19th century, in a rural area of what is now Hyde Park, 20 miles south of Bard. The Dutchess County Historical Society, the Town of Hyde Park, and Bard College are collaborating to research and preserve this endangered site and, through archaeological and historical research, to develop educational programs for students and the general public. For more information, visit Bard Globalization and International Affairs Program (BGIA) Located in the heart of Manhattan, BGIA brings together university students and recent graduates from around the world to undertake specialized study with leading practitioners and scholars in international affairs. Topics in the curriculum include political risk analysis, human rights law, the United Nations, international relations theory, humanitarian action, global public health, trends in terrorism and counterterrorism, international political economy, and writing on international affairs. Students are required to complete highly competitive internships at international organizations throughout New York City. Internships and directed research are tailored to the student’s particular field of study. BGIA is open to students from all majors who have a demonstrated interest in international affairs. For details, visit the BGIA website at Bard-Rockefeller Program Since 2000, Bard College and The Rockefeller University in New York City have collaborated on a program in science education. Rockefeller faculty offer courses to Bard students on subjects at the intersection of biology and medicine, and reserve places for them in the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program, which allows college students to work in Rockefeller research laboratories. Bard faculty may obtain adjunct status at Rockefeller, which enables them to participate in research projects in the university’s laboratories. The BardRockefeller Semester in Science began in the spring of 2007. A companion program to BGIA, it centers on competitive internships in Rockefeller research laboratories. For more information, visit Bard-YIVO Institute for East European Jewish History and Culture The Institute for East European Jewish History and Culture, a 2012 initiative of Bard and the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, presents an integrated program of study in the culture, history, language, and literature of East European Jews. Held during the January intersession, the program consists of nine minicourses taught by leading academics. Courses are designed to attract undergraduates, graduate

Professional Education 249 students, faculty, and members of the general public. Students may enroll in as many as three courses and have the option of receiving credit from Bard College. The program is based at the YIVO Institute in New York City. The Uriel Weinreich Summer Program, sponsored by Bard College and the YIVO Institute, offers instruction in the Yiddish language and an in-depth exploration of the literature and culture of East European / American Jewry. The core of the sixweek summer program is an intensive, 4-credit language course (at one of three levels—elementary, intermediate, or advanced) that is designed to develop proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing, as well as cultural literacy. The program is based at the Jewish Theological Seminary on Manhattan’s Upper West Side; some classes and events are held at the YIVO Institute. See the Bard-YIVO website at for information on program dates, applications, scholarships, housing, fees, and the curriculum. West Point–Bard Exchange (WPBE) Founded in 2006, WPBE provides opportunities for students and faculty from Bard and the United States Military Academy to exchange ideas in the classroom, through public presentations, and in informal settings. Bard students and West Point cadets have participated in several seminars in international relations theory. The classes met separately in Annandale-on-Hudson and at West Point, then came together several times during the term for sessions supervised by faculty from both institutions. West Point faculty have also taught courses at Bard in counterinsurgency, military history, and advanced international relations theory. Bard and West Point faculty, students, and cadets have held mixedteam debates on issues ranging from relations with Iran to pulling out of Iraq, and several Bard students have attended the Academy’s Projects Day to present the findings of their Senior Projects. For more information, visit the WPBE website at

Professional Education The following programs provide preprofessional advising and curricula for undergraduates preparing for postgraduate study or employment. Additionally, Bard offers several early admission plans, combined study plans, and joint-degree options to qualified students who wish to pursue particular professional careers.

Professional Preparation Prelaw Undergraduate Program Admission to law school is governed by the student’s college record, including the grade point average and letters of recommendation. The most important factor, however, is the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). No standard prescribed curriculum of undergraduate study specifically prepares students for a law career or is required by law schools, although most consider a

250 Additional Study Opportunities and Affiliated Institutes broad liberal arts program desirable. For further information, contact the Career Development Office or the prelaw adviser, Roger Berkowitz. Interested students can subscribe to the PreLaw Listserv by composing an e-mail message addressed to The body of the message is the following two lines: “subscribe bard prelaw” and “end.” Premedical Undergraduate Program Admission to medical school is governed by several factors: the college record, results of the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), recommendations, and an interview. Most important, however, is the grade point average. Students accepted to medical schools in recent years had a nationwide average GPA of 3.5 to 3.6. Early preparation and planning are important in order to do well on the MCAT and to fulfill health professional school requirements. Minimum requirements are introductory chemistry, organic chemistry, and one year each of physics, mathematics, biology, and English. Early in their academic careers, interested students should discuss their plans with the health professions adviser, John Ferguson.

Professional Option: Joint-Degree Programs The professional option allows exceptionally qualified students to combine undergraduate study at Bard with graduate or professional work in an approved participating program and, through the option, to qualify for a Bard B.A. degree and a degree from the other program. Students wishing to apply for admission to a joint professional degree program must first obtain a faculty recommendation from the division in which they are majoring. Those accepted into a participating program complete three or four years of study at Bard (according to the terms of the program) and then do further work at the other institution. To qualify for the Bard B.A., students must successfully complete their distribution requirements at Bard and the degree requirements of the other institution; students who are not at Bard for their senior year are exempt from the Senior Project. Engineering In affiliation with the schools of engineering at Columbia University and Dartmouth College, Bard offers several programs of study leading to a degree in engineering. Under the 3-2 program, a student transfers to the school of engineering at the end of the junior year at Bard and, upon completing that two-year program, qualifies for both a B.A. from Bard and a B.S. or B.E. from the other school. A Senior Project is not required for the 3-2 program. Dartmouth also offers a 2-1-1-1 program (two years at Bard, one at Dartmouth, one at Bard, and one at Dartmouth), in which the student spends the senior year at Bard, and therefore does a Senior Project. There are two 4-2 programs with Columbia: the student completes the entire fouryear program at Bard and after two years at Columbia qualifies for the Bard B.A. and either a B.S. or M.S. degree from Columbia. Admission to the Dartmouth program is competitive and contingent on fulfillment of Bard major and distribution requirements and certain preparatory courses. Admission to the Columbia B.A./B.S. programs is guaranteed, contingent on fulfill-

Affiliated Programs and Institutes 251 ment of Bard major and distribution requirements; completion of required foundational courses with grades of B or higher in each course; achievement of an overall grade point average of 3.3 or higher; and faculty recommendations. Interested students should consult the pre-engineering adviser, Simeen Sattar, early in their Bard careers. Environmental Policy / Climate Science and Policy The Bard Center for Environmental Policy (CEP) offers master of science degree programs for the aspiring environmental leader. The Center offers qualified Bard undergraduates a 3-2 option that allows them to proceed directly from three years of undergraduate study at Bard to a two-year master’s degree in either environmental policy or climate science and policy. The graduate program includes a full-time professional internship designed to facilitate entry into the job market. Graduates of the 3-2 program receive both a B.A. and an M.S. from Bard in five years. Interested students should consult with the dean of studies and the Bard CEP Admission Office. For more information, visit the 3-2 program website at Forestry and Environmental Management Bard offers a 3-2 program with the master’s degree programs in forestry and environmental management at Duke University. To plan appropriate course work for the program, interested students should consult with Professor William Maple of the Biology Program early in their Bard careers. Teaching The Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) Program at Bard offers undergraduates a five-year combined program leading to the bachelor of arts and master of arts in teaching degrees. Bard students who wish to enter the program upon completion of the bachelor’s degree, through a preferred admission process, should notify their advisers by November 1 of the sophomore year. To plan appropriate course work, students should contact Cecilia Maple, MAT director of admission.

Affiliated Programs and Institutes Campus-Based Programs, Centers, and Initiatives The following programs offer opportunities for undergraduates to attend talks, conferences, and other events, and to participate in noncredit-bearing programs, workshops, and internships to supplement their studies.

Bard Prison Initiative (BPI) The Bard Prison Initiative is restoring higher education to the prisons of New York and the United States. Prior to the 1990s, college-inprison programs had slashed rates of reincarceration from 60 percent to 15 percent. For more than 20 years, these programs expanded college opportunities for the most educationally isolated populations in the nation and represented the most cost-effective form of public correctional spending. Despite proven benefits, funding for such

252 Additional Study Opportunities and Affiliated Institutes programs was eliminated in 1995, causing the nationwide closure of some 350 college prison programs and ending the most affordable and transformative interventions in American criminal justice. BPI offers credit-bearing course work leading to associate and bachelor’s degrees at three long-term, maximum-security prisons and two transitional, lower-security prisons in New York State. At these five in-prison campuses, more than 300 incarcerated students are engaged in robust course work in the humanities, foreign languages, sciences, mathematics, and studio arts. Senior Projects range from American history to cultural anthropology to pure and applied math. Through BPI, Bard College has conferred nearly 250 degrees to incarcerated students. Increasingly, BPI alumni/ae are leaving the system and pursuing remarkable careers in private industry, the arts, social service, and academics. In addition to operating its five New York State sites, BPI has founded the national Consortium for the Liberal Arts in Prison, based at Bard College. The Consortium supports sister programs at other first-rate colleges and universities as part of an ongoing initiative to replicate the BPI model across the United States. Founded by Bard alumus Max Kenner ’01, the Bard Prison Initiative continues to have a profound effect on the intellectual life of the main Bard College campus. Each week, undergraduate students visit regional prisons and volunteer as tutors in advanced math, languages, and analytic writing. Bard undergraduates also enroll in a range of classes related to their experiences with BPI, and a number of Bard/BPI alumni/ae have gone on to organize similar programs across the country. For more information, visit BPI’s website at Bard Summer Research Institute Students in the Bard Summer Research Institute spend 10 weeks in residence over the summer working on individual research projects in either the social or natural sciences. Each student has a faculty mentor for the duration of the program and receives a stipend. Center for Civic Engagement The Center for Civic Engagement supports a wide array of initiatives that engage Bard students, faculty, and administrators with the most important issues facing society. The Center sponsors lectures, conferences, and workshops; facilitates internship, volunteer and service-learning opportunities; and awards fellowships that are designed to reinforce the links between education, democracy, and citizenship. For more information, see “Civic Engagement” in this catalogue or visit Chinua Achebe Center for African Writers and Artists The Achebe Center was established in 2005 to continue the legacy of Chinua Achebe, Charles P. Stevenson Jr. Professor Emeritus of Languages and Literature, to serve the future of global Africana arts. Among its goals are to become a center of excellence for the teaching of African literature, to support a new generation of African writers, and to encourage literary/cultural entrepreneurship. Undergraduate students at Bard may participate in numerous Center projects, including facilitating events that feature visiting

Affiliated Programs and Institutes 253 writers, artists, and scholars; helping with all aspects of book and chapbook editing and publication; and working with writer/artist residency projects. For more information about the Achebe Center and its activities, see Conductors Institute The Conductors Institute offers two- and four-week summer programs in various aspects of conducting. For more information, see “The Bard College Conservatory of Music” in this catalogue or visit Distinguished Scientist Scholars Summer Research Scholarship recipients may apply for a stipend (up to $1,500) for summer research projects following the sophomore and junior years. Hannah Arendt Center for Politics and Humanities The Hannah Arendt Center for Politics and Humanities at Bard College is an expansive home for thinking about and in the spirit of Hannah Arendt. The Arendt Center’s double mission is, first, to sponsor and support the highest quality scholarship on Hannah Arendt and her work, and, second, to be an intellectual incubator for engaged humanities thinking at Bard College and beyond. Thinking cannot be taken for granted; it requires cultivation. The Arendt Center is dedicated to nurturing engaged thinking about political questions. In 2009, at the height of the financial crisis, the Center held a conference at which participants were asked to step back from policy suggestions and finger-pointing and think about the deeper intellectual foundations of the financial crisis. The 2010 conference assembled leading public intellectuals, such as Ray Kurzweil and Sherry Turkle, and challenged them to confront the increasing inhumanity of our age that results from technological innovation. In two conferences in 2011—“Lying and Politics” and “Truthtelling: Democracy in an Age without Facts,” the Arendt Center shone a light on the untruths and powerlessness of facts that are corroding our politics. These annual conferences—in conjunction with the Center’s lecture series, website, blog, courses, fellowships, and publications—promote thinking that challenges commonsense assumptions and gives depth to public understanding. Bard undergraduates can take Arendt Center reading seminars alongside graduate student fellows, serve as research assistants, participate in lectures and workshops, contribute to the Center blog, and assist in conferences. To learn more about the Center and its activities, visit Hudsonia, Ltd. Founded in 1981 and based at the Bard College Field Station, Hudsonia is an independent, not-for-profit institute for environmental research and education. Funding for Hudsonia projects comes from government agencies, foundations, conservation and citizens’ groups, businesses, and individuals. Hudsonia focuses on wetland ecology, the Hudson River, biodiversity assessment, conservation biology of rare species and habitats, and ecology and management of invasive plants. Student interns and employees assist in project work, which currently includes assessment of the biological impacts of hydraulic fracturing for natural gas and the use of non-native weeds for bioenergy feedback. To learn more, visit

254 Additional Study Opportunities and Affiliated Institutes Human Rights Project (HRP) The Human Rights Project enables students to learn about, and engage in, the human rights movement. The Project links theoretical inquiry and critical explorations of human rights practice with active research and involvement in contemporary issues. Ongoing initiatives include projects on human rights forensics (with the Centre for Research Architecture at Goldsmiths College, University of London), music and torture, and the intersections between the visual arts and human rights (with the Center for Curatorial Studies at Bard). The Project also sponsors a regular lecture and film series on campus. Archival projects include an online and broadcast-quality digital videotape archive of the trial of Slobodan Milosˇevi´c at the International Criminal Tribunal in The Hague, and the Bhopal Memory Project, a web-based documentary resource about the 1984 chemical disaster in Bhopal, India. Since 2001 HRP has supported extensive research travel by students as well as dozens of student internships at human rights and humanitarian organizations, governmental and international agencies, local community groups, hospitals and clinics, and research centers from Albany to Peshawar. To learn more about Human Rights Project activities, visit Institute of Advanced Theology (IAT) The Institute was founded in 1996 to foster critical understanding, based on scholarship, that will make true religious pluralism possible. Through an interdisciplinary program of research, education, and outreach, IAT faculty and fellows seek to achieve a deeper understanding of biblical history, the New Testament, and other important religious dcuments. The Institute regularly sponsors lectures and conferences. For additional information, visit the IAT website at Institute for Writing and Thinking (IWT) Since its founding in 1982, IWT has been guiding teachers in developing and refining writing practices with the goal of enriching classroom learning. For more information on the Institute and its events, see “The Bard Center” in this catalogue or visit John Cage Trust The John Cage Trust was created in 1993 to maintain and nurture the artistic legacy of the late American composer, philosopher, poet, and visual artist John Cage. Since 2007, the Trust has been “in residence” at Bard College. Located in Griffiths House, near the main Bard campus, the Trust provides access to its diverse holdings through on-site research, courses, workshops, concerts, and other educational activities and programs. For more information, see Rift Valley Institute (RVI) The Rift Valley Institute is a nonprofit research and training organization that works with communities and institutions in Eastern Africa, including Sudan and the Horn of Africa. RVI programs, which connect local knowledge to global information systems, include field-based social research, support for local educational institutions, in-country training courses, and an online digital library. Fellows of the Institute are regional academic specialists and practitioners in the fields of development, conservation, media, and human rights. John Ryle, Legrand Ramsey Professor of Anthropology at the College, is chair of the Institute.

Affiliated Programs and Institutes 255 In 2006 RVI established a U.S. office on the Bard College campus. Bard students have opportunities to assist with RVI activities, including the Sudan Open Archive (, an open-source, open-access database of historical and contemporary documents about the region; field courses on Sudan and the Horn, run by the Institute; research into human rights issues; and editing of video material. RVI also organizes events and lectures on campus. For details, visit Trustee Leader Scholar (TLS) Program The Trustee Leader Scholar Program encourages and aids students in the design and implemention of a variety of service projects. Student leaders receive stipends in exchange for their participation in the program. For detailed information, see “Civic Engagement” in this catalogue, or visit the TLS website at

Off-Campus Programs and Partner Institutions The following affiliated campuses offer credit-bearing and degree-granting programs to local residents and underdeserved populations across the United States and throughout the world. Many of the international campuses offer study abroad options for Bard undergraduates and students from other universities and colleges.

Al-Quds Bard Partnership In 2009, Bard College joined forces with Al-Quds University, an institution located in the West Bank, to establish several new programs aimed at improving the Palestinian education system: The Al-Quds Bard College for Liberal Arts and Sciences and the Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) Program. The college and MAT Program offer dual degrees from Bard and Al-Quds—the first such initiative between a Palestinian university and an American institution of higher education. Additionally, Bard students can spend a semester or a year abroad at AlQuds Bard. For more information, see “International Programs and Study Abroad” or go to American University of Central Asia (AUCA) Bard’s partnership with this liberal arts college in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, allows both AUCA students and visiting students to receive Bard-approved credit for their completed course work. The AUCABard Study Abroad Program offers students interested in Central Asian and Russian studies and languages a unique opportunity to study side by side, in English, with peers from 25 different countries. To learn more, see “International Programs and Study Abroad” in this catalogue or go to the AUCA website at Bard College at Simon’s Rock: The Early College Bard College at Simon’s Rock is the nation’s only four-year residential college specifically designed to provide bright, highly motivated students with the opportunity to begin college after the 10th or 11th grade. At Simon’s Rock, students experience a transformative education in the liberal arts and sciences, led by pedagogically innovative, accomplished faculty members and in the company of smart, creative, self-motivated peers who share

256 Additional Study Opportunities and Affiliated Institutes their excitement for learning and their desire to be part of a vibrant intellectual community. Simon’s Rock enrolls approximately 450 full-time students, and awards both the associate of arts and bachelor of arts degrees. The Simon’s Rock campus is located in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. Founded in 1966, Simon’s Rock joined the Bard system in 1979. While Simon’s Rock maintains a separate identity and mission, partnership with Bard has added to the texture and depth of its academic experience, shaping many of the intellectual hallmarks of a Simon’s Rock education: Writing and Thinking Workshops, First-Year and Sophomore Seminars, Moderation, and the Senior Thesis. To learn more, visit the Simon’s Rock website at Bard College Clemente Course in the Humanities The Clemente Course provides college-level instruction, for college credit, to economically disadvantaged individuals aged 17 and older. Begun as a pilot project on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, the Clemente Course is currently in its 17th year of operation, with approximately 300 students matriculated at 14 sites around the country. Overall, the program has enrolled more than 3,000 students, of whom approximately 2,000 completed the course, 1,800 earned college credit, and 1,500 transferred to four-year colleges and universities or planned to do so. The program is based on the belief that by studying the humanities, participants acquire the cultural capital, conceptual skills, and appreciation for reasoned discourse necessary to improve their societal situation. Clemente students receive 110 hours of instruction in five humanistic disciplines and explore the great works of literature, art history, moral philosophy, and American history. Instruction in critical thinking and writing is also offered. The program removes many of the financial barriers to higher education that low-income individuals face: books, carfare, and child care are provided, and tuition is free. Bard grants a certificate of achievement to any student completing the Clemente Course and 6 college credits to those completing it at a high level of academic performance. Bard also provides information sessions on applying to colleges and offers a two-semester sequel program in New York City, Chicago, and Boston, for graduates who desire to continue their education but are unable to transfer immediately into a regular college degree program. For more information, visit Bard Early College in New Orleans (BECNO) Bard Early College in New Orleans is founded in the belief that the opportunities for critical inquiry offered by the best colleges in the country should be available to younger students who have the ambition to learn and the curiosity to engage difficult questions. The program acts on this belief by offering 11th- and 12th-graders a unique opportunity: Bard Early College students spend the second half of every school day as undergraduates of Bard College, completing the first year of a Bard College education during the last two years of high school. BECNO runs two half-day college campuses in New Orleans in partnership with the Louisiana Department of Education, enrolling more than 100 students from public high schools across New Orleans. For more information, visit

Affiliated Programs and Institutes 257 Bard High School Early College (BHSEC) BHSEC was singled out by President Obama in a July 2009 speech to the NAACP as an example of the kind of innovative education reforms needed to raise academic achievement and bring 21st-century standards to our schools. BHSEC is the first public early college established to allow high school students to complete an associate’s degree during their four years of high school. Founded in 2001 by Bard College and the New York City Board of Education, BHSEC is premised on the belief that high school–age students will thrive with more intellectually challenging academic work. BHSEC offers a diverse group of public school students the opportunity to embark on serious college work at age 16. During their four years at BHSEC, students can progress from ninth grade through the first two years of college, graduating with both a high school diploma and an associate in arts (A.A.) degree from Bard. Graduates may transfer BHSEC credits to four-year programs at colleges and universities. The first Bard High School Early College is located on Manhattan’s Lower East Side; a second BHSEC campus opened in 2008 in Long Island City, Queens. In September 2011, BHSEC Newark opened in Newark, New Jersey, as a partnership between Bard College and the Newark Public Schools. Together, the BHSEC schools enroll approximately 1,370 students. Each year, over 95 percent of BHSEC graduates enroll in the nation’s best colleges and universities to complete their four-year degrees. More than two-thirds of BHSEC faculty members hold Ph.D. or other terminal degrees in their fields of study. BHSEC students can choose from a rich array of classes across the disciplines, including the arts, and engage in a variety of independent studies under faculty tutelage. All BHSEC schools are tuition free. To learn more, visit ECLA of Bard: A Liberal Arts University in Berlin ECLA Bard offers an innovative, interdisciplinary curriculum with a global sensibility. Students come to Berlin from 30 countries in order to study with an international faculty (classes are in English); those who complete the four-year B.A. program may earn German and American bachelor’s degrees. Flexible programs allow students, including matriculated Bard undergraduates, to study at ECLA for a semester, a year, or longer. For more information, see “International Programs and Study Abroad” or visit Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences, St. Petersburg State University (Smolny College) The Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences (Smolny College) is Russia’s first liberal arts institution, and it is the only college in Russia to offer visiting North American students a broad range of courses along with a unique, nine-credit Russian as a Second Language program. Graduates of Smolny receive a bachelor of arts degree from Bard College and a bachelor of arts and humanitarian sciences degree from St. Petersburg State University. To learn more about Smolny and study abroad opportunities in Russia, see “International Programs and Study Abroad” or visit

258 Additional Study Opportunities and Affiliated Institutes Longy School of Music of Bard College The Longy School of Music in Cambridge, Massachusetts, merged with the College in the spring of 2012. The Longy School serves approximately 225 undergraduate and graduate students, and nearly 1,000 children and adults from the Greater Boston area. In addition to classes, lessons, and degree programs, Longy offers community programs and a public concert series, with performances ranging from baroque to jazz. For more information, see “Graduate Programs” in this catalogue or visit Paramount Bard Academy Paramount Bard Academy, a public charter school in Delano, California, opened its doors to 180 sixth- and ninth-graders in August 2009, with plans to enroll 700 students in grades six through 12 by 2012. In 2010, students in Bard’s Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) Program began their graduate course work and student teaching at Paramount Bard Academy, where they are fully integrated into the daily life of the school. The Academy is a joint project of the Delano community, Paramount Agricultural Companies, and Bard College. The Academy works in close collaboration with the faculty of the MAT Program to build a robust curriculum and maximize student learning. Paramount Bard Academy is committed to graduating students, with a minimum of 30 hours of college credit, who are prepared to advance to college and complete postsecondary degrees. A primary goal of the Academy is to graduate no less than 95 percent of all students, with the expectation that 75 percent or more of these students will go on to graduate from college. Learn more at the Academy’s website:

Community Programs and Services The following programs and initiatives serve residents of the Mid Hudson Valley region and members of the greater Bard community.

Nonmatriculated Students and Auditors A nonmatriculated student is enrolled in a course or courses for credit, but is not a degree candidate. There are three categories of nonmatriculated student: 1. Current high school students. Students currently enrolled in a local high school may take up to two Bard courses per semester, in addition to their high school work. Their participation is subject to the availability of space and requires written permission from their high school, their parent or guardian, and the instructor. Students pay a registration fee of $175 and a tuition fee of $220 per course. Auditors are charged $84 per course plus a $175 registration fee. The refund schedule is as follows. Prior to the first week of classes, 100 percent of tuition and fees is refundable. Beginning the first day of classes, the registration fee is not refundable; tuition only is refundable, as follows: if withdrawal occurs during the first week of classes, 80 percent is refunded; during the second week, 60

Community Programs and Services 259 percent is refunded; within four weeks, 30 percent is refunded. After four weeks, there is no refund for tuition. Application for enrollment is through the Admission Office, which maintains a record of grades and credits earned and provides transcripts as required. 2. Students who graduated from high school the previous semester and currently reside in the Hudson Valley region may take up to two courses for credit per semester. Application for enrollment is through the Admission Office; there is no application fee. Students must meet Bard admission requirements and comply with admission procedures: transcripts, essays, interview, and an application form. The semester charges applicable to regular undergraduate students are effective, and include: Tuition $1,381 per credit Enrollment Deposit 500 Room 3,208 (for students living on campus) Board 3,183 (for students living on campus) Campus Facilities Fee 153 (for students living off campus) Health Service Fee 226 Student Activity Fee 85 Security Deposit 225 ID Card Fee 5 (Additional fees for special programs may apply.)

3. Other nonmatriculated students. Other students over the age of 24 who wish to take courses for credit may register for up to four courses per semester. Application for enrollment is through the Returning to College Program.

Returning to College Program (RTCP) A cornerstone of Bard College’s mission is a commitment to the transformative nature of a liberal arts education and the role of the liberally educated student in a democratic society. This power to transform extends to students beyond traditional college age. For more than 30 years, the College served this population under the aegis of the Continuing Studies Program. In 2007 the program was redesigned as the Returning to College Program. RTCP is founded on the premise that returning students benefit from participating in the regular undergraduate curriculum, learning from and with their younger colleagues. While RTCP students engage in a rigorous encounter with their courses of

260 Additional Study Opportunities and Affiliated Institutes study, Bard recognizes the real-world difficulties in asking adult students for this level of engagement. To this end, Bard is committed to making the return to college more cost-effective than a traditional undergraduate program and to providing academic and other support to RTCP students. The program is for students who are at least 25 years of age and who have successfully completed some accredited college work.

Lifetime Learning Institute (LLI) The Lifetime Learning Institute at Bard offers noncredit and noncompetitive courses that provide LLI members with opportunities to share their love of learning and to exchange ideas and experiences. Sponsored by Bard College in affiliation with the Elderhostel Institute Network, LLI is entirely self-administered by volunteers, who are encouraged to become committee workers, presenters, planners, and course coordinators. Courses are held during the spring and fall semesters, and during a January intersession. Membership is open to older adults for a modest fee, on a space-available basis.

Landscape and Arboretum Program at Bard College The Landscape and Arboretum Program is charged with promoting tree conservation and preservation on the Bard campus, and offers horticultural education, outreach, and research. Noncredit, adult education courses—offered at the College through the New York Botanical Garden—are open to the public and to members of the Bard community. Other events sponsored by the program have included Arbor Day tree plantings, a falconry demonstration, and garden tours. Additionally, the Arboretum offers a summer internship to an undergraduate student.

Civic Engagement

Civic engagement is at the core of Bard’s identity as a private institution that acts in the public interest. Bard envisions a unique role for colleges and universities as the nexus of education and civil society. In its endeavors in the United States and abroad, Bard reflects a commitment to innovation, a willingness to take risks, and a fundamental belief in the link between liberal education and democracy. As a liberal arts college, Bard uses its resources to develop robust and sustainable projects that address social problems in practical ways, reach underserved and unserved populations, and tackle critical issues of education and public policy. The Center for Civic Engagement was established in 2011 to support, coordinate, and promote the College’s wide array of civic engagement initiatives; to seek out new partnerships and opportunities; and to encourage research that sheds light on the programmatic and policy implications of its programs. Many of the Center’s initiatives occur outside of the main Annandale-on-Hudson campus and represent the College’s commitment to addressing substantive issues in secondary and higher education on a national and international level. The Center and Center partners primarily focus on education reform, including secondary, postsecondary, teacher, and prison education; international partnerships, particularly dual-degree programs; student-led projects that engage regional, national, and international communities; local partnerships, including work with local governments, schools, and social service organizations; and innovations in science and sustainability. The Center also coordinates projects that provide direct opportunities for students to engage through community-based learning and internships, and promotes civic skills that the College considers fundamental to active global citizenship. Bard students are encouraged to participate in an ever-expanding variety of projects and to develop their own project proposals, because Bard believes in the entrepreneurial spirit of its students. For further information, visit the Center for Civic Engagement website at, or contact Erin Cannan, associate director of the Center and dean of student affairs, at The Center is directed by Jonathan Becker, vice president and dean for international affairs and civic engagement.


262 Civic Engagement

Student Engagement Bard undergraduates are actively engaged in a variety of service projects and volunteer efforts both on campus and off, during the academic year and during their intersession and summer breaks. The Trustee Leader Scholar Program oversees several dozen student-led projects each semester; examples of these initiatives can be found immediately below and throughout this chapter. The College also works with affiliated institutes, local and international partners, alumni/ae, and others to provide internship opportunities. Trustee Leader Scholar (TLS) Program In keeping with Bard’s ethos of encouraging active involvement at all levels of campus life, TLS students design and implement civic engagement projects based on their own compelling interests. Student leaders receive stipends in exchange for their participation in the program, and most projects run for multiple years. Examples of current TLS projects include helping inmates in local prisons prepare for the GED exam, building a library and supporting other education projects in Nicaragua, running ESL programs for migrant laborers in the Hudson Valley, and helping to build sustainable communities for lepers in Nepal. In 2011, the Bard Palestinian Youth Initiative (BPYI) won a $10,000 Davis Projects for Peace prize and took third place in the MacJannet Prize for Global Citizenship. The BPYI runs summer camps for children and other projects in the West Bank village of Mas’ha. A number of TLS projects have become permanent, College-sponsored initiatives, including the Bard Prison Initiative (see page 251); La Voz, a Spanish-language newsletter widely circulated in the mid Hudson region; and the Bard Early College Centers in New Orleans. Every Bard student is eligible to apply for TLS status. Applications are accepted on a rolling basis, and acceptance is based primarily on the student’s willingness and capacity to direct a large-scale project. TLS students meet one-on-one with the program director and assistant; take part in skill-building workshops; and prepare formal project proposals, budgets, and evaluations. They are offered handson opportunities to acquire skills in grant writing, lesson planning, and group facilitation. All TLS projects draw on the participation and support of volunteers from the student body and greater Bard community. For more information and a list of recent projects, visit the TLS website at Bard-sponsored Internships Bard offers a number of internship programs for students. On campus, internships are arranged through several offices, including the Center for Civic Engagement, Career Development Office, Human Rights Project, and Environmental and Urban Studies Program, and through In addition, Bard sponsors an array of off-campus programs, in the United States and overseas, which feature internship opportunities. These include the Bard Global and International Affairs (BGIA) Program in New York City; International Human Rights Exchange (IHRE) in Johannesburg, South Africa; and Central European

Education Reform 263 University in Budapest, Hungary. The Bard Center for Environmental Policy, a graduate program based on Bard’s main campus, also helps students obtain appropriate internships. A sampling of organizations that have sponsored Bard internships includes: Amnesty International, Asia Society, Bronx Defenders, Broadmoor Improvement Association, Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, Civil Society Watch, CNN, Council on Foreign Relations, Dutchess County Board of Elections, El Museo del Barrio, Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, Global Justice Center, Hudson River Heritage, Human Rights Watch, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, International Center for Transitional Justice, International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Namibia Water Corporation, the Nation, Overseas Press Club, Prometheus Radio Project, Public Interest Law Initiative, Red Hook Central School District, Roubini Global Economics, SAATHI Kathmandu, Save the Children, Steve Biko Foundation, the White House, and World Policy Institute, among others. Change in Action Leadership Workshops This certificate-granting leadership program strives to empower students to become effective agents of change. Through individual, group, and society tracks, the program offers workshops modeled on the seven critical values of the Social Change Model of Leadership Development: collaboration, common purpose, consciousness of self, congruence, commitment, controversy with civility, and citizenship. The workshops, held at Bard, provide training in leadership skills and techniques that help participants become effective and resourceful student leaders and community members. Also addressed are practical skills such as strengthening résumés and networking. For additional information, see

Education Reform Bard has been involved in efforts to transform secondary education since 1979, when it acquired Simon’s Rock Early College in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. It has since launched high school early college programs in New York City, New Orleans, and Newark, New Jersey. In partnership with its Master of Teaching Program, Bard has also inaugurated innovative programs aimed at transforming teacher education, establishing graduate programs on secondary school campuses in the Bronx and in the Central Valley of California. The Institute for Writing and Thinking, based on Bard’s main campus, was established in 1982 to guide teachers in developing and refining writing practices with the goal of enriching classroom learning through writing. The College addresses underserved communities through its support of the Bard Prison Initiative, a prison education program that began as an undergraduate Trustee Leader Scholar project; and the Clemente Course, a credit-bearing humanities course for disadvantaged individuals. Additionally, Bard has established a model school for younger students in California’s Central Valley. To learn more

264 Civic Engagement about these programs, see “Additional Study Opportunities and Affiliated Institutes.” Student-led Education Projects In addition to Bard’s institutional partnerships, Trustee Leader Scholar projects and other undergraduate initiatives have responded to pressing educational needs. Bard student volunteers work with emotionally challenged children at the Astor Home in Rhinebeck; participate in math circles, art workshops, and environmental education programs for local elementary and middle school students; provide after-school homework help and tutoring to students in nearby communities; and provide music lessons to children for whom private instruction would otherwise cause their families financial strain.

Innovations in Science and Sustainability Bard College is dedicated to addressing contemporary environmental challenges and committed to providing educational reform in the sciences. In 2011, the College introduced the Citizen Science Program (see page 18), a two-and-a-halfweek course required of all first-year students that promotes science literacy and introduces scientific methods by looking at a particular issue—infectious disease, for example—from different approaches. Program participation includes the opportunity to teach in one of five local school districts. Other innovative programs include the Bard Center for Environmental Policy, which cosponsors an M.B.A. degree program in sustainability with the Levy Economics Institute of Bard College; the Global and International Studies Program’s public health track; and partnerships with the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies and New York City’s Rockefeller University. Plans include the creation of an institute that addresses the teaching of science. Additionally, the campus community is actively involved in efforts to reduce energy, recycle, preserve the campus’s landscape and biodiversity, and work with local organizations on various energy and environmental concerns. Campus to Congress (C2C) C2C is a public policy initiative of Bard’s Center for Environmental Policy. The goals are to directly engage students at Bard and at colleges and high schools across the country with leaders in Congress, corporations, and city halls on issues of climate change and clean energy; move U.S. policy forward; and accelerate the learning curve for a cohort of students who must coalesce into a leadership generation. Video dialogues and conference calls on climate and sustainability topics provide students with unique educational opportunities, and also serve to voice the concerns of students across the nation. For more information and a schedule of national phone-in conversations, visit 10 Percent Challenge The 10 Percent Challenge, a project of Red Hook Together (see below), is a call to the community to reduce its annual energy consumption by 10 percent. The program provides information on a variety of ways in which

Local Partnerships 265 individuals and social networks can contribute, including composting, tree planting, changing transportation habits, building green, auditing home energy use, recycling, reusing items through swap and thrift shops, and shopping locally. For more information, go to Student-led Science and Sustainability Projects Recent TLS projects and other student initiatives include the Bard Biodiesel Collective, Bard Community Garden, Bike Exchange, Permaculture Initiative, Eco-Discoverers, Free Use Thrift Store, Bard Science Outreach, Math Circle, Green Pages; and the Young Artists of Rhinebeck Project, which helps middle school students explore environmental issues through drawing and sculpture.

Local Partnerships Bard works closely with local partners to provide students with opportunities for work, specialized study, internships, and civic engagement throughout the Hudson Valley. Projects respond to critical concerns facing neighboring communities, including poverty, sustainability, education, and immigration. Partnerships respond flexibly to needs, as students, community organizations, and local leaders work collaboratively to develop creative solutions and a vibrant community. represents the College’s efforts to inform students and the greater Bard community about local and national elections, and to help voters register, access absentee ballots, determine their correct polling sites, and use the voting machines. The website provides links and information about current elected officials; candidates for national, state, and local office; advocacy sites; information on selected voter issues; and a calendar of electionrelated events. Bard students and staff have also sponsored on-campus “Meet the Candidates” sessions. For details, see Red Hook Together This initiative of Bard College and the town and village of Red Hook promotes greater community cooperation. Spearheaded by Center Associate Director Erin Cannan and Elisabeth Giglio, associate director of Bard’s Career Development Office, the Red Hook Together coalition has been involved in such activities as career expos and sustainability efforts, including the 10 Percent Challenge (see above). The coalition also includes the Red Hook Central School District and Chamber of Commerce. Student-led Projects in the Hudson Valley Trustee Leader Scholar projects and other undergraduate clubs and initiatives provide a variety of opportunities for students to engage with local issues and address local needs. Bard students have partnered with the Red Hook Central School District to create a debate program; counseled abused women at the Grace Smith House; served as advocates for better housing and work conditions for migrant laborers; mentored youth in Hudson, New York, through a basketball clinic and after-school program; and worked with

266 Civic Engagement the Bard Microbusiness Support Initiative to help would-be entrepreneurs with little or no access to credit.

International Partnerships Bard believes that institutional change must be global in its orientation and reach, and that the task of creating open societies is integrally bound up with education and the involvement of citizens at home and abroad. The College has a long history of global outreach and innovative international programming, and the Center for Civic Engagement has or shares oversight of many of these established programs even as it seeks to explore new opportunities and build new partnerships. Recent collaborative ventures show Bard’s commitment to engage in places that are undergoing significant social change and have demonstrated interest in the democratic institutional reforms associated with the liberal arts education. Partnerships include the Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences, St. Petersburg State University (Smolny College), in St. Petersburg, Russia; American University of Central Asia in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan; Al-Quds Bard Partnership in the West Bank; ECLA of Bard: A Liberal Arts University in Berlin; and International Human Rights Exchange at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. For more information about these and other global initiatives, see “International Programs and Study Abroad” and “Additional Study Opportunities and Affiliated Institutes.” Student-led International Projects Many student-initiated—and student-staffed— projects are international in scope. Current TLS projects include leprosy relief in Kathmandu, Nepal; an HIV-awareness program in Guatemala; summer camps for Palestinian youth; and educational empowerment programs for young people in Nicaragua. Other recent projects have taken undergraduate volunteers to Ghana, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, among other countries. Student-led projects have also addressed global issues such as tuberculosis, children’s rights, human trafficking, fair elections, and poverty.

College Life

The focus of student life at Bard, both inside and outside of the classroom, is on campus. From its historic Hudson Valley setting to its state-of-the-art science and arts facilities, Bard offers an idyllic environment where students can enjoy a rich social life interwoven with their cultural and intellectual pursuits. The College provides a wide range of activities and opportunities for students to engage in challenging and rewarding ways with peers, the community, and the world at large. It also provides a support system of advisers, tutors, counselors, and related programs to help students successfully negotiate their undergraduate experience. Most students live on campus in a variety of residence halls—from gothic to eco-friendly, quiet to women only—that are within easy walking or biking distance of all academic, social, and recreational facilities. Many facilities are clustered at the center of the campus, including classrooms and libraries; science and computer labs; art studios and music practice rooms; the gymnasium and athletic fields; Kline Commons, with its student and faculty dining halls; and Bertelsmann Campus Center, which has a movie theater, post office, café, bookstore, and meeting, exhibition, and event spaces. Undergraduates share the campus with the students and faculty of several affiliated institutes, research centers, and graduate schools. These centers present lectures, concerts, exhibitions, panel discussions, and other events that are open to the entire Bard community; some welcome undergraduate assistance with research and events.

Campus Facilities: Green Initiatives Bard has pledged to reach carbon neutrality by 2035, and all new construction is built according to green principles. The Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts, Gabrielle H. Reem and Herbert J. Kayden Center for Science and Computation, László Z. Bitó ’60 Conservatory Building, Alumni/ae Center, and Robbins House residential hall expansion are examples of campus facilities that are geothermally heated and cooled. Solar thermal panels provide hot water to several residential halls, and an effort to replace metal halide lamps with outdoor LED lighting fixtures is expected to cut energy use by a third. Bard also participates in the car-sharing program Zipcar, an alternative to car rental and car ownership.


268 College Life Additionally, the entire 540-acre campus has been designated as an arboretum, with the goal of preserving and cultivating the College’s horticultural assets. Among its many gardens is the Bard College Community Garden, where students and staff plant, tend, and have access to vegetables, fruit, and flowers. Beginning in 2012, the Bard Farm will allow students to learn about growing food in an ecologically sound way. For more information on Bard’s green programs and policies, including student-run initiatives such as the biodiesel co-op and bike share, visit the Environmental Resources Department website at

Campus Facilities: Libraries Charles P. Stevenson Jr. Library, Hoffman Library, and Kellogg Library The library’s mission is to support the goals of the College and to improve the quality of learning and teaching by providing information services and collections in a variety of formats that serve the needs of its users. In support of this mission the library seeks to (1) sustain and improve its collections and the services and pathways that give access to them; (2) clarify needs and develop programs to help students become more independent, more confident, and more resourceful; (3) create an information gateway through the thoughtful use of technology; (4) promote staff learning through collaborative planning, teamwork, and continuing education; and (5) ensure that library facilities are safe, inviting, and well maintained. As a result of a generous gift from College Board of Trustees Chair Charles P. Stevenson Jr., Bard’s library complex consists of the Charles P. Stevenson Jr. Library, designed by the award-winning architectural firm of Robert Venturi, and the Hoffman and Kellogg Libraries. The resources of the Stevenson Library and satellite libraries in the Levy Economics Institute, Center for Curatorial Studies, and Bard Graduate Center: Decorative Arts, Design History, Material Culture include 400,000 volumes and more than 14,000 journals available in print or online. For a full description of the library’s collections and services, please visit the Stevenson Library website at

Campus Facilities: Academic Milton and Sally Avery Arts Center The Avery Arts complex houses the Jim Ottaway Jr. Film Center, home to the Film and Electronic Arts Program; and the Edith C. Blum Institute, home to the Music

Campus Facilities 269 Program and, with the adjacent László Z. Bitó ’60 Conservatory Building, The Bard College Conservatory of Music. Blum Institute facilities include a practice space for students and staff, faculty offices, classrooms, a listening library, a fully equipped soundproof recording studio, an editing studio, a computer music studio, a composition studio, a jazz band room, and a jazz percussion studio. Students have access to grand and upright Steinway and Yamaha pianos, donated to the College by the manufacturers. Music facilities in the Bitó Building are described below. The Ottaway Film Center houses a 110-seat theater equipped with 16mm and 35mm film and video projection, performance space, a shooting studio with control room, an analogue editing suite and computer lab, two screening/seminar rooms, a darkroom, editing suites for sound and video, faculty offices, and a film archive and media library. Students in production classes may borrow supplies and equipment housed in the inventory office. Visiting artist talks, screenings, symposia, and cosponsored events are regularly scheduled in the theater.

Bard College Exhibition Center (UBS Gallery) The Exhibition Center is a 16,000-square-foot gallery and studio space in nearby Red Hook. The off-campus facility, formerly the Universal Builders Supply building (UBS), provides a professional-level space for exhibitions by graduating seniors and master of fine arts candidates in the Milton Avery Graduate School of the Arts.

Bard College Field Station The Bard College Field Station is on the Hudson River near Tivoli South Bay and the mouth of the Saw Kill. Its location affords research and teaching access to freshwater tidal marshes, swamps and shallows, perennial and intermittent streams, young and old deciduous and coniferous forests, old and mowed fields, and other habitats. A library, herbarium, laboratories, classroom, and offices are open to undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, and environmental researchers by prior arrangement. Also based at the field station are laboratories of the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and Hudsonia Ltd., an environmental research institute (see page 253). The field station is owned by the College and operated with support from the Research Reserve, Hudsonia, and other public and private funding sources.

Bard Hall Bard Hall, erected in 1852, is the College’s original academic building. It is used by the Music Program and other programs for lectures, recitals, rehearsals, and classes. Bard

270 College Life Hall was completely restored in 1986 with generous assistance from the late John H. Steinway ’39, who had been a trustee of the College.

László Z. Bitó ’60 Conservatory Building The László Z. Bitó ’60 Conservatory Building, a gift from László Z. Bitó and Olivia Carino, is a freestanding, 16,500-square-foot structure that is connected to the Avery Arts Center’s music wing by a covered walkway. Designed by Deborah Berke & Partners Architects LLP, the building is scheduled for completion in January 2013, and will be used primarily by students in The Bard College Conservatory of Music. Facilities include a 145-seat performance space that can be configured several ways, allowing students to reimagine the traditional concert space; 15 teaching studios; a lounge; and a large classroom. The Bitó Conservatory Building also has one-touch audio and video recording and live streaming capabilities.

Blithewood Blithewood is the home of the Levy Economics Institute of Bard College. The mansion, built in 1900, and its site, originally designed by renowned landscape architect A. J. Downing, were renovated with a gift from the family of Bard trustee Leon Levy. Undergraduates have access to the Institute’s library by appointment and through the campus electronic network, and some undergraduate courses are taught there.

Edith C. Blum Institute See Avery Arts Center description for details.

Center for Civic Engagement The Center for Civic Engagement is located in Barringer House on Annandale Road, north of the library. The two-story former residence houses offices, including one with videoconferencing capabilities, a kitchen, and work space. Plans include an addition that will provide space for events and the technical equipment necessary for shared lectures and other interaction with partner institutions off campus. The addition would be shared by the Hannah Arendt Center for Politics and Humanities and the Human Rights Project, which are based next door at McCarthy House. For more information about Center activities, see “Civic Engagement” in this catalogue.

Center for Curatorial Studies and Art in Contemporary Culture The Center for Curatorial Studies at Bard College (CCS Bard) is an exhibition, education, and research center dedicated to the study of art and curatorial practices

Campus Facilities 271 from the 1960s to the present day. The original 38,000-square-foot facility was completed in 1991 through the generosity of Marieluise Hessel and Richard Black. In addition to the CCS Bard Galleries and the Hessel Museum of Art, which opened following major expansion in 2006, CCS Bard houses the Marieluise Hessel Collection of more than 2,000 contemporary works, as well as an extensive library and curatorial archives that are accessible to the general public. In 2012, one of the main galleries in the Hessel Museum was named in honor of photographer Robert Mapplethorpe, in gratitude for the Robert Mapplethorpe Foundation’s support. Exhibitions are presented year-round in the CCS Bard Galleries and Hessel Museum, providing students and the public with an opportunity to interact with world-renowned artists and curators. The museum café and outdoor terrace are open Monday through Friday, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., and on Saturdays and Sundays, from 1 to 5 p.m.

The Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts at Bard College Designed by internationally acclaimed architect Frank Gehry, the 110,000-squarefoot Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts at Bard College opened in 2003. The Fisher Center, named for the former chair of Bard’s Board of Trustees, houses two theaters as well as the Felicitas S. Thorne Dance Studio, Stewart and Lynda Resnick Theater Studio, and professional support facilities. The Sosnoff Theater, an intimate 900-seat theater with an orchestra, parterre, and two balcony sections, features an orchestra pit for opera and an acoustic shell designed by Yasuhisa Toyota that turns the theater into a first-class concert hall for performances of chamber and symphonic music. Theater Two is a flexible, black box theater with adjustable, bleacher-type seating that is used for teaching and for student and other performances. The Fisher Center is home to the undergraduate Theater and Performance and Dance Programs, the Bard Music Festival, which entered its 23rd season in August 2012, and Bard SummerScape, an annual festival of opera, theater, film, and dance.

The Richard B. Fisher and Emily H. Fisher Studio Arts Building The Fisher Studio Arts Building, which includes the Procter Art Center, houses large studios for painting and drawing, printmaking, cybergraphics, woodworking, and sculpture. It also contains a welding shop, individual studios for students working on their Senior Projects, a large exhibition area for student shows, and meeting areas.

Hegeman Hall and Rose Laboratories Hegeman Hall houses general-use classrooms and physics teaching laboratories. The Rose Laboratories house research laboratories for the Physics Program as well as additional teaching laboratories. The Physics Program has a broad array of research electronics and optics equipment.

272 College Life Information Technology Services at Henderson Computer Resources Center Bard Information Technology Services provides broadband Internet access and a multigigabit backbone to the Bard community. Wireless networking is available in many locations on campus. Wired 100Mb Ethernet ports are in all dormitories and many public areas. Support for academic computing includes a fully updated learning and teaching environment, multimedia classrooms, and video teleconferencing. Many students bring computers to Bard, although they are not required to do so. Public computing labs, providing Macintosh and Windows computers, scanners, and printers, are located around the campus. One lab is always open 24 hours a day. The Bard Help Desk, located in the Henderson Technology Laboratories, provides support and training to students, faculty, and staff. See for details.

McCarthy House McCarthy House, located on Annandale Road toward the north end of campus, houses the Hannah Arendt Center for Politics and Humanities and the Human Rights Project. The house was occupied by novelist and critic Mary McCarthy when she taught English at Bard from 1946 to 1947, and when she returned, from 1986 to 1989. McCarthy and Hannah Arendt were good friends for many years, and McCarthy served as Arendt’s literary executor from 1976 until her death in 1989. The conference room in the house features Arendt’s desk from her last apartment in New York City.

Music Practice Rooms Opened in the spring of 2012 and located near the Avery Arts Center, this facility contains 12 practice rooms that are available to all students.

Franklin W. Olin Humanities Building The Franklin W. Olin Humanities Building, constructed with a grant from the F. W. Olin Foundation, is the main facility for anthropology, history, philosophy, religion, literature, creative writing, foreign languages, art history, and music history classes. The building contains a 370-seat auditorium for concerts, lectures, and conferences. It also includes small lecture rooms, seminar rooms, an art history room with projection equipment, a music history room with demonstration facilities, a poetry room with a library of poetry on tape, study and lounge areas, and an interior court and exterior terrace used for special receptions.

F. W. Olin Language Center The two-story F. W. Olin Language Center was added to the Olin Humanities Building in 1995 through a special grant from the F. W. Olin Foundation. The facility features high-tech seminar rooms, a lecture hall, and the Center for Foreign Languages

Campus Facilities 273 and Cultures (CFLC). The CFLC, with an international staff of 20, offers a wide range of tools and audiovisual resources for foreign-language learning, various tutoring spaces, and a writing lab.

Jim Ottaway Jr. Film Center See Avery Arts Center description for details.

Jim and Mary Ottaway Gatehouse for International Study Home to the Institute for International Liberal Education, the hexagonal gatehouse to the Blithewood estate is one of the oldest buildings on campus. Designed by Alexander Jackson Davis and constructed in 1842, the building is a designated state and federal historical landmark. In 2004, the gatehouse was renamed for James Haller Ottaway Jr. and Mary Hyde Ottaway, who have generously supported Bard’s international programs and students since 1988.

The Gabrielle H. Reem and Herbert J. Kayden Center for Science and Computation This state-of-the-art, 70,000-square-foot science facility opened in 2007 and is home to the Biology, Chemistry, and Computer Science Programs. The Lynda and Stewart Resnick Science Laboratories wing opened in 2009. Designed by Rafael Viñoly Architects, the dramatic two-story building includes nearly 17,000 square feet of dedicated laboratory space. Biology equipment in the facility includes DNA and protein electrophoresis instruments, a digital gel imaging system, an array of standard PCR machines, a Real-Time PCR machine, two fluorescent microscopes, and a wide range of ecology field equipment. Chemistry equipment includes an advanced 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (NMR), a liquid chromatograph– mass spectrometer, two gas chromatograph–mass spectrometers, and more. The computer science space includes a cognitive systems lab, robotics lab, and hardware teaching lab. The building also features the László Z. Bitó ’60 Auditorium, which seats 65; seven high-tech classrooms for multimedia presentations, two of which are set up for videoconferencing; faculty offices; and a series of open spaces for studying, computer work, and informal meetings.

Woods Studio Woods Studio houses the classrooms, labs, studios, offices, and exhibition gallery of the Photography Program. The program’s facilities include two black-and-white group darkrooms; color facilities, including nine 4 x 5 enlargers and a processor for 20 x 24 prints; private darkrooms for seniors that are equipped with black-andwhite and color enlargers for negatives up to 8 x 10; and a mural printing room. A

274 College Life 5,000-square-foot addition houses an exhibition gallery, a classroom, a 900-squarefoot studio, and an advanced digital imaging lab. A basic digital lab, with 12 workstations and a printer capable of handling widths of up to 44 inches, is located in the basement of the nearby Brook House residence hall.

Campus Facilities: Social and Recreational Alumni/ae Center and Two Boots Bard The Alumni/ae Center, an 8,500-square-foot building located across the street from the College’s main entrance, opened its doors in 2012. In addition to housing the Office of Development and Alumni/ae Affairs, the newly constructed space is configured to allow alumni/ae to host small functions, gather informally, set up readings and exhibitions, and interact with faculty and students. The Center is also home to the Bard branch of Two Boots, a New York City–based pizza restaurant. The purchase of the property was made possible by donations from an anonymous alumnus and a small group of alumni/ae.

Heinz O. and Elizabeth C. Bertelsmann Campus Center The Bertelsmann Campus Center, a 30,000-square-foot facility that opened in 1999, is a central meeting place on campus. It contains the college bookstore and post office; the Career Development, Trustee Leader Scholar Program, and Student Activities Offices; Down the Road Café; the 100-seat Weis Cinema; lounge areas; public e-mail terminals; multipurpose and conference rooms; a student computer lab; meeting rooms for student clubs and organizations; and art gallery space. The signature exterior feature is a spacious second-floor deck on the building’s south side. The Campus Center is named for Heinz Bertelsmann, professor of international relations at Bard from 1947 to 1977, and Elizabeth “Lilo” Bertelsmann, a teacher of German and noted photographer, whose generous gift funded its construction.

Community Garden and Bard Farm Since 1997, the Bard College Community Garden has been a haven for agricultural enthusiasts from Bard and beyond. People gather in the circular garden for weekly potlucks and work parties during the growing season and help to maintain its fruit, vegetable, and flower crops. The student-initiated Bard Farm, established in 2012, is located behind Ward Manor on the North Campus. The 1.5-acre farm allows students to grow food in ways that are ecologically sound, demonstrate the methodologies for sustainable food production, and be responsive to the latest scientific and agricultural practices for growing substantial crops.

Campus Facilities 275 Finberg House Finberg House provides overnight accommodations for distinguished guests of the College. It is named in honor of Alan R. Finberg, a longtime trustee of the College and husband of the late Barbara D. Finberg, a close friend of the College and member of the board of the Bard Music Festival.

Kline Commons Kline Commons, the main dining facility, contains a large main dining room, smaller alcove dining rooms, meeting rooms, and a faculty dining area. An expansion during the summer of 2011 added almost 200 seats, including sofas and other informal seating. Further improvements in 2012 include enhancements to the kitchen and servery, which provide multiple stations and a variety of cuisines. Through a continuous service plan, students on the meal plan enjoy the flexibility of dining at the hour of their choice. Information is available at The Green Onion Grocer, which serves as the campus market, is located in Kline Commons. A variety of produce, dairy, and staple items are available for students to purchase with cash or Bard Bucks. The Green Onion is open Monday through Friday, from 11 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.

Manor House Café The Manor House Café is steps away from the Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts and features two dining rooms with views of the Catskill Mountains and an outdoor dining terrace. The café is open weekdays from 8:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m. for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Resident students may use their meal plan at Manor House Café as a meal exchange. Bard Bucks are also accepted.

Stevenson Athletic Center and Outdoor Facilities The newly expanded Stevenson Athletic Center is an athletic and recreational complex made possible by a gift from Charles P. Stevenson Jr., chair of the Bard College Board of Trustees. In the fall of 2011, construction began on a 7,500-square-foot addition to the gymnasium, thanks to a gift from Stevenson and two anonymous donors. The project also includes improvements to existing facilities. The complex features a 25-yard, six-lane swimming pool, fitness center, locker rooms, classrooms, cycling spin room, and 12,500 square feet of gymnasium space that includes basketball and volleyball courts, fencing strips, badminton courts, and seating for 700 spectators. The addition, scheduled for completion in 2012, features four international squash courts with a mezzanine viewing area, staff offices, a meeting

276 College Life space with multimedia capabilities, and a new entry and lobby area. The second phase of the renovation will include converting three old squash courts into additional cardio and weight rooms, renovating spaces for yoga and other classes, and making improvements to the women’s locker room. Outdoor facilities include six lighted hard-surface tennis courts, a lighted platform tennis court, miles of cross-country running and Nordic skiing trails, the Lorenzo Ferrari Soccer and Lacrosse Complex, Seth Goldfine Memorial Practice Rugby Field, and adjacent multipurpose fields.

Student Activities and Services Dean of Student Affairs Office The Dean of Student Affairs Office (DOSA) is concerned with the quality of student life. The office serves as an information resource for nonacademic matters and tries to accommodate individual circumstances that ensure students’ success while at the College. DOSA and the student services staff create long-range plans to enhance student life and develop cocurricular experiences. The oversight for different components of student life is distributed among the dean of student affairs, associate dean of student affairs/director of first-year experience, assistant dean of student affairs/director of sophomore-year experience, and director of residence life. The director of multicultural affairs acts as the primary contact for students, staff, and faculty in promoting an inclusive campus climate. Other services include health and counseling, athletics and recreation, and student activities. Three peer groups, including residential peer counseling, peer health, and a peer crisis hotline, supplement the College’s professional support services.

Athletics and Recreation The Department of Athletics and Recreation offers a wide range of programs to meet the needs of a variety of active lifestyles and sporting interests, from traditional intercollegiate competition to intramural sports and recreational pursuits. The College sponsors intercollegiate programs for men and women in soccer, crosscountry, volleyball, swimming, tennis, lacrosse, track and field, and basketball. Men also compete in baseball and squash. Athletic teams compete under the auspices of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA Division III). Bard is also a member of various athletic conferences, including the Liberty League, United Volleyball Conference, Eastern Collegiate Athletic Conference, and College Squash Association.

Student Activities and Services 277 The Athletic Center and outdoor venues provide the setting for a range of intramural and recreational offerings. Intramural programs include soccer, basketball, floor hockey, tennis, volleyball, softball, kickball, badminton, and squash. At the club level Bard offers rugby, fencing, horseback riding, and Ultimate Frisbee. Classes are offered in such lifetime pursuits as yoga, Pilates, spin cycling, fitness, kickboxing, karate, belly dancing, swimming, and aikido. Aerobics classes include step, Zumba, cardio kickboxing, low impact, and Tae Bo. Certification courses in CPR/AED and lifeguarding are also available. In addition, the College’s rural setting makes it easy to engage in many outdoor activities, such as running, cross-country and downhill skiing, snowboarding, hiking, cycling, mountain biking, rock climbing, and ice skating. Facilities for golf, bowling, and horseback riding are nearby.

BRAVE BRAVE, Bard’s Response to Rape and Associated Violence Education, is a professionally directed student-service organization whose members provide anonymous and confidential crisis intervention, supportive counseling, advocacy, and ongoing education to the Bard community. Although BRAVE staff members receive particular training in issues relating to sexual assault, sexual harassment, relationship violence, and sexuality, BRAVE counselors also receive training in eating disorders, depression and suicide, sexual orientation, loneliness, isolation, anxiety, and social and academic issues. BRAVE services are available on a 24-hour, seven-day-a-week basis; call campus extension 7777 to be put in touch with a BRAVE counselor.

Career Development Office The mission of the Bard College Career Development Office (CDO) is to help students find a professional purpose and to offer a clear understanding of jobs in the 21st century. In addition to career counseling, job and internship guidance, and career events, CDO resources include job and internship website subscriptions and a career reference library. Informal talks, career-specific panels, and formal symposia are held throughout the year to help students learn about various professions and connect with alumni/ae and employers. The CDO hosts a website at that enables students, alumni/ae, and employers to connect electronically. This online board lists jobs, internships, volunteer opportunities, and announcements of career events. The Career Development Office website,, presents the gamut of CDO services and offers the Bard Basic Job Guide, which includes sample résumés and tips for the job search. Students and alumni/ae are always welcome to use the CDO to seek assistance in exploring their career options and life’s work.

278 College Life Chaplaincy The chaplaincy at Bard is committed to helping students, staff, and faculty explore and develop their spiritual identities. The College belongs to the Colleges and Universities of the Anglican Communion, but that membership does not limit the scope of religious interests. At Bard, the diverse perspectives of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism are not only studied, but practiced. The chaplaincy has on staff two Episcopal priests, a Catholic priest, an imam, and a rabbi. All are available for pastoral care with students, staff, and faculty. The clergy offer study on a formal and informal basis. The chaplaincy supports and advises the Jewish Students Organization, Muslim Students Organization, Christian Fellowship, Buddhist Meditation group, Sanskrit group, and Catholic community. It helps these students organize and celebrate regular holy observances and develops programming for the campus at large. Worship services for the various faith traditions take place weekly. The chaplaincy also coordinates and participates in a series of ecumenical events during the school year.

Events Events on campus reflect academic, social, artistic, athletic, recreational, and purely casual pursuits. Distinguished scholars, artists, and performers visit Bard regularly as featured guests in the John Ashbery Poetry Series, Anthony Hecht Lectures in the Humanities, and The Bard Center’s Distinguished Scientist Lecture Series and Lecture and Performance Series. The conferences and lectures sponsored by the Levy Economics Institute and Center for Curatorial Studies are open to undergraduates, as are the concerts of The Bard College Conservatory of Music and Bard Music Festival. Staff, faculty, and students also bring to the campus a variety of speakers and artists, arrange showings of movies nearly every night of the week, and present their own work in drama and dance concerts, recitals, musical theater, art shows, poetry and fiction readings, lectures, and films. Working with the Office of Student Activities, staff and students also organize hikes, concerts, dances, parties, comedy nights, substance-free entertainment alternatives, and athletic events. The Student Publicity and Activities Resource Center (SPARC), located in the Student Activities Office, serves as a resource for all clubs and individual students looking to plan and publicize events on campus.

Learning Commons The Learning Commons provides academic support to all students, offering creditbearing courses in ESL, writing, and math, as well as one-on-one peer tutoring in all subjects offered at the College. Students may also meet with staff members for more focused assistance. Workshops are offered throughout the year on specialized

Student Activities and Services 279 topics, including the Senior Project. Critical thinking, note taking, time management, and general study skills are also addressed. Additionally, the Learning Commons administers quantitative literacy tests to help students determine which math courses they should take. Services for students with disabilities include classroom and testing accommodations (see detailed description below). Assistive technology is also available for student use.

Miscellaneous Services College Bookstore The bookstore carries texts and other books, newspapers, magazines, art supplies, stationery, toilet articles, food items, and novelties. Students may put money into a “bookstore account� via Student Accounts to make purchases with their student ID card. Regular charge cards and Barnes & Noble gift cards in any denomination may also be used for purchases. E-mail and Internet Services The College issues all students with computer network user accounts that provide access to Internet, e-mail, and library services. General IT support and antivirus software are provided for free through the Bard Information Technology Services Help Desk. A high-speed (100Mb) Ethernet connection to the campus computing network and, through that, to the Internet, is provided free to all students living in Bard residence halls. Mail Service Each student has a mailbox at the Annandale-on-Hudson Post Office, located in the Bertelsmann Campus Center. The post office provides all the usual postal services and accepts UPS and private express-mail deliveries. UPS shipments can be sent through the Build