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Trabalho de projecto apresentado como requisito parcial para a obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Gestão pela Faculdade de Economia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa

Case Study "Image, Identity and Recommended Marketing Plan for REDKEN for Men Brand in Portugal" Bárbara Leão

Trabalho de projecto elaborado sob orientação de

Profª Catherine da Silveira

DATE 15/06/2007

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Abstract This work project aims to: 1) define REDKEN for Men’s (a L’Oreal hair products Brand) Brand Image trough a professional market research developed to measure how its’ consumer targets perceive the brand in Portugal; 2) define brand identity trough the application of a theoretical model, supported with both research conclusions and international experts’ papers; 3) recommend a new Identity and Positioning for REDKEN for Men Brand in the Portuguese Market (personal creativity and reasoning based on the previous analysis was used); 4) present a complete Marketing Plan that will enable REDKEN for Men to implement the recommended Identity and Positioning.

Keywords: REDKEN for Men Brand Image Brand Identity Marketing Plan

Special Note: I tried to follow the structure of the project work final report presented by the scientific council as much as I could, however, as the structure does not correspond to the common structure of a regular branding project work, and as agreed with my advisor, I had to adapt some items and include an important part of the information in appendix not to exceed the required number of pages. 2


Index Page 1. Project’s purpose: general overviews

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2. Case narrative 2.1 The Brand: REDKEN 2.2 The Sub-brand in analysis: REDKEN for Men 2.3 The three fields of study of this Project

5 5

2.2.1 Brand Image a. The Brand Image Measuring Process b. The Marketing Research Methodology: Research design and Sampling adopted

6 8

Main Research Results

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2.2.2 Brand Identity and Positioning a. REDKEN for Men’s Current Identity in Portugal b. REDKEN for Men’s Recommended Identity and Positioning

13 16

2.2.3 Marketing Plan a. Recommended Marketing Plan for REDKEN for Men in Portugal The 4 P’s: Product; Price; Place and Promotion

19

3. Discussion questions

22

4. Discussion note

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5. Appendix A - Primary Data used to measure current Brand Image

I

• Qualitative Research • Quantitative Research B - PARADOX Product Line C - Additional Data

III XIV XLV LIII

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1- Project’s purpose: general overview The aim of this Project Work is to analyse the current image and identity of RFM (REDKEN for men); suggest an improved identity and positioning in the Portuguese market and develop a Marketing Plan with the propose of implementing the recommended identity and positioning. The reasoning of this project is illustrated in figure 1. Marketing Plan

Current Brand

Brand

Image

Identity

Recommended

Brand

Brand

Positioning

Identity

Figure 1. Reasoning of the work project. The idea of working on RFM’s brand came from the fact that, I was invited to represent FEUNL in the L’Oreal marketing competition Brandstorm where the brand in study this year was RFM. Since access to information and guidance would be easier if both the Project Work and Brandstorm were done simultaneously, and with the concordance of Professor Clara Costa Duarte and my advisor Professor Catherine da Silveira, I propose myself to study in this project the: "Image, Identity and recommended Marketing Plan for REDKEN for Men Brand in Portugal". Actually, being involved in L’Oreal Brandstorm, lead me to go far beyond of what was expected for this project work. I ended up doing a much deeper analysis of the brand in order to support every single detailed presented (due to high levels of exigency of the competition). In fact, a regular communication plan was what we were supposed to do for the competition (including brand new product line development; communication guidelines definition; touching points selection and communication boards creation with a real communication agency). But the final result was the formulation of a complete marketing plan (including in it the full communication plan) considering also a strategic approach to

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be able to cope with the high level students I was competing against. Nevertheless, always I had in mind that I would above all mostly gain in terms of practical learning, experience and professionalism with this duplication.

2 - Case narrative 2.1 The Master Brand: REDKEN REDKEN was founded by Hollywood actress Paula Kent in the 1960’s after hairstylist Jheri Redding developed a tailor made product using for the first time protein and acidic Ph to relieve the actress’s overstressed hair concern: the REDKEN (RED for “Redding” and KEN for “kent”) saga was born with the idea of a brand for use by hairstylists to treat hair problems. th

The California based brand was acquired by L’Oréal in 1993 and moved to NYC 5

avenue after the 1994 earthquake, giving the brand its full legitimacy as an inspiration above all that goes on in the streets of the city to hairdressers worldwide. Redken’s core values are: FASHION - Urban creativity inspired by the spirit, energy and style of the streets of NYC translates in Redken’s bold images and sleek merchandising design; SCIENCE - Groundbreaking formulas through pioneering research and patented innovations offer advanced professional services and retail products to answer specific hair needs or create style without limit; INSPIRATION - Dedicated interactive education to enhance salon professionals’ technical and business skills and help them “learn better, earn better and live better.”1 2.2 The Subbrand in analysis: REDKEN for Men RFM, was created to fulfil a market gap after the identification of a growing presence of hair care and grooming male segments throughout all distribution channels. Present in the Portuguese Professional Hairdressing Market since the 90’s, it is composed by a comprehensive line specifically adapted to men’s hair needs. It is considered to be a brand

1

In Brandstorm Materials

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it self because of its “for Men” signature in the logo2, nevertheless, it incorporates the core values of its master brand REDKEN. 2.3 The three fields of study of this Project Theoretical model of bran identity and image relationship3 Scientific literature presents different models of brand identity and brand image. Still, analyzing various processes of brand image building, three closely connected elements are identified: brand identity; brand positioning and brand image.

Figure 2. Theoretical model of brand identity and image relationship The two-way bottom arrow of this model, illustrates brand image studied from two: company’s and consumer’s perspectives. If one is studying the implications of brand identity in brand image, the company’s perspective is being taken into account. If one looks to the process in the other way round, consumer’s perspective is what is being analysed.

2.3.1 Brand image a. Brand image measuring process Although there are many definitions of brand image in marketing literature, various scientists present the conception of brand image from the consumer’s perspective4:

2

See the logo in figure C.1 page LIV Vytautas Janonis, Aistė Dovalienė, Regina Virvilaitė in “Relationship of Brand Identity and Image”, ISSN 1392-2785 ENGINEERING ECONOMICS. 2007. No 1 (51) 4 Vytautas Janonis, Aistė Dovalienė, Regina Virvilaitė in “Relationship of Brand Identity and Image”, ISSN 1392-2785 ENGINEERING ECONOMICS. 2007. No 1 (51) 3

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Table 1. Conception of brand image Thus, in this case study, one will also focus on measuring brand image through consumers’ perspective in the course of a marketing research project. The Marketing Research First of all, is important to define what one understands by “consumer” in this project. RFM’s consumers are divided in two main target groups: Final Consumers5: Men aging 25-60 years old; middle upper class; urban; active; sophisticated; self-confident; conscious and informed. Today’s trends identify men as being: freer to re-imagine and reinvent themselves; interested in expanding their horizons. Though they may want the same benefits as women, men want their grooming choices to be utilitarian rather than self indulgent, therefore, they demand for practical, plain and simple products. One will focus on these individuals because they are the ones who actually buy RFM. Clients (retailers): This second target group is composed by premium hairdressing salons. L’Oreal defines premium salons by being the ones with modern look in terms of decoration and charging more that 20 euros per male hair cut. They are also service and quality focused; with the ability to differentiate themselves though innovative services. They have considerable bargaining power since they normally belong to big international chains, being therefore highly concentrated. They also have medium-high costs when

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Final Consumer = Final consumers of RFM + potential final consumers

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switching suppliers. Salons are of an extreme importance in this study, because they actually represent the main distribution channel (along with internet but in a much smaller scale). Research problem Therefore, in this project, our research problem is: “To understand how RFM’s image is conceived by both clients and consumers and to provide recommendations for the brand’s marketing plan in Portugal”. Methodology: Research design and Sampling adopted In this project, one used external secondary data such as L’Oreal’s internet published materials. As internal secondary data one used information provided by Brandstorm Awards. Our primary data is organized in the two main groups: clients and consumers. (see table 2)

Clients Qualitative Research

• 9 in-depth interviews

Quantitative Research

Final Consumers

• 15 in-depth interviews • 121 “face-to-face”

questionnaires

Table 2. Primary data organization To analyze clients’ topics, one has conducted a Qualitative analysis applying an exploratory research using the direct method trough 9 in-depth interviews6. The interviews lasted approximately 45min and were recorded (with the respondent’s permission). This allowed us to collect both verbal and non-verbal information. The clients were selected form a list provided by Brandstorm and followed the quotas: 100% REDKEN’s Hair Salons; 100% Hairdressers involved in the Salons Management.

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See clients’ interview guide in appendix A page VIII

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To analyse consumers’ topics, one has conducted both Qualitative and Quantitative analysis: •

For the qualitative analysis one has conducted an exploratory research using the direct method trough 15 in-depth interviews7. This allowed us to collect both verbal and non-verbal information. The interviews lasted approximately 45min and were recorded (with the respondent’s permission). The selection of the consumers followed the quotas: 100% Male Consumers; 100% Attend to premium salons at least 4 times per year; 100% age 25 to 60 years old; 100% are RFM’s final consumers or RFM’s potential final consumers. For the quantitative analysis one has conducted an descriptive research trough 121 “face-to-face” questionnaire8 to consumers. Our sample9 followed the same quotas as the qualitative analysis.

Time Requirements Step 1 2

Tasks Proposal for the Brand Image Preparation Proposal

Start

End

05-Mar

14-Mar

14-Mar

14-Mar

3

Meeting with Professor

15-Mar

15-Mar

4

Depth Interviews

16-Mar

21-Mar

5

Formulação questionário

16-Mar

19-Mar

19-Mar

30-Mar

2-Abr

6-Abr

6

Fieldwork

7

Statistical Analysis

8

Appendix preparation

10-Abr

10-Abr

9

Final Details

10-Abr

13-Abr

Research Part Presentation

13-Apr

13-Apr

10

7

See consumers’ interview guide in appendix A page IV

8

See questionnaire in appendix A page XV

9

See sample characterization in appendix A page XXIV

March

April

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Research Results Although one has developed a comprehensive marketing research project, one will only present the relevant conclusions, due to page limit constraints. Despite of this, a great part of the contents of the project is presented in appendix A (Primary Data used to measure current Brand Image). Major Findings on Clients Since the following conclusions are based only in qualitative inputs10, one cannot quantify the information. Despite of the sample generated from this method was small (below desired inferior limit of n > 15) and not representative in terms of statistical point of view, it is still consistent with the problem and sufficient to collect valid in-puts for the research. - About their Male Costumers (RFM’s consumers) Interviewed senior hairdressers describe their male costumers to be: mostly executives but although they have a high purchasing power, they are more price sensitive than woman. They are practical, meaning that they tend to choose simple product instead of complicated treatments. They believe they prefer to experiment before buying. They are also more loyal to their hair products than woman, since they don’t even try other brands if they are satisfied with the actual one. They look for products with the following characteristics: 1) Quality (products that really work and do not damage hair); 2) new options/new solutions (they appreciate innovation); 3) simplicity on daily care instead of complicated treatments; 4) freshness along the day. -

About RFM’s

Image: The three most frequent words that hairdressers used to describe the brand were: 1) Serious; 2) Sophisticated and 3) Masculine. Although they find its communication strong and appealing, they believe that Portuguese consumers don’t identify themselves with the American models presented. They would rather see communication aligned with the Portuguese standards. 10

The reason why only qualitative research was applied in this target is explained in this document on page 24 in balance and limitation

section.

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Portfolio: All the interviewed truly believe in the efficacy of REDKEN’s products, therefore, they are absolutely satisfied with the hair results provided. They find RFM’s portfolio complete and well adapted to the target needs. Still, they would like RFM to have a softer “frequent use” product line, with gentle ingredients that would enable their costumers to use it on a daily basis. Major Findings on Consumers The following conclusions are based in integrated information provinient form both qualitative and quantitative inputs. - About themselves Because 43%11 of our sample washes hair very frequently (more than 6 times per week), one of the main concerns pointed out by the consumers was: chemicals in hair products. Since the majority of our respondents find their scalp sensitive12, and consider scalp problem as main hair concern, consumers are looking for something that they can really trust, but still something that they can use on a daily basis, something that does not damage their hair. On the other hand, one could also found in the study that men want strong and masculine communication. - About RFM’s Image Since from the qualitative research one concluded that spontaneous brand awareness levels for RFM were considerably low, thus, one performed brand recognition (by showing a RFM package and a communication board to the respondents) in the quantitative research to measure both brand awareness and brand personality, in order to obtain relevant results.

11

See in figure A.9 in statistical outputs page XXVII

12

See in figure A.6 in statistical outputs page XXVI

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1) Brand Recognition Q.2 Já conhecia a marca REDKEN for Men antes?

29%

Sim Não

71%

n=119

We suggest that low awareness levels might be due to two main reasons: 1) Strategic reasons: distribution in selected and exclusive salons, meaning that, for that reason, REDKEN is present in few POS (points of sale); 2) few REDKEN communication events. 2) Brand Personality When measuring brand image, one can see a considerable amount of attention given to brand personality, which refers to the set of human characteristics associated with a brand. Researchers have focused on how the personality of a brand enables a consumer to express is or her own self (Belk 1988), an ideal self (Malhotra 1988), or specific dimensions of the self (Kleine, and Kernan 1993) trough the use of a brand. In this project, one has focused on measuring Brand Image trough the 5 Dimensions of Brand Personality of Jennifer L. Aaker (1997)13. (see used scale in B2_Q.1 page XX) Since the dimensions with higher mean and lower standard deviations were: c) Competent and d) Sophisticated, one can conclude that the consumers perceive RFM to be Sophisticated and Competent. (See detailed results figure A.18 page XXXII) In this analysis, one also has, performed cross tabulations, in order to understand if that were differences between opinion and respondents age. But, according to Pearson ChiSquare test, there is no statistical evidence to reject the null hypothesis (H0 = there is no association between the variables)14. 13 14

Aaker, Jennifer L. “Dimensions of Brand Personality”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. XXXIV (August 1997), 347-356 See the two statistical tests in appendix A page XL

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Summing up, one can identify 3 main risks for RFM in Portugal15: 1) chemical ingredients might be perceived as harmful by the consumers, leading them not to trust in the actual portfolio; 2) absence of gentle/ natural ingredients leads to a portfolio gap (being the market for this gap not only large but also might it represent a tendency for future trends); 3) low awareness levels negatively affects sales volumes. 2.2.2 Brand Identity and Positioning a. REDKEN’s Current Identity in Portugal. Research and empirical studies in Brand Identity definition have been carried out by such scholars as L. de Chernatony (1999, 2001), D. Aaker and E. Joachimsthaler (1997, 2003), L. Keller (1993,1998), F. Melin (1997), L. Upshaw (1995) and others16, however, the Jean-Noel Kapferer model “Brand identity prism”17 will be used to analyze and present the current Identity of the Brand. This was the model chosen, because it proved to be the most complete and adequate for this project. The Kapferer’s Prism of brand identity The composition of brand identity is characterized by the prism of identity (Kapferer, 2003): PICTURE OF THE SENDER Personality

Relationship

Reflection

Culture

INTERNALISATION

EXTERNALISATION

Physique

Self-Image

PICTURE OF THE RECIPIENT

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See more in SWOT analysis in appendix C page LIX Vytautas Janonis, Aistė Dovalienė, Regina Virvilaitė in “Relationship of Brand Identity and Image”, ISSN 1392-2785 ENGINEERING ECONOMICS. 2007. No 1 (51) 17 Kapferer, J.N. The New Strategic Brand Management. London: Kogan Page, 2004. 16

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The six facets of Brand identity: 1 -) Physique: Is the external specificity, which is the core of brand and its value added. The first step building up a brand is the definition of physical factors, identifying what it is, what it does and how does it look like. Physical appearance is closely connected with a brand prototype, revealing the quality of a brand; 2 -) Personality: Is the way by which any brand “talks� about its goods and services and indicates a particular human person. The trait of personality within the prism of identity is inner source. Brand personality is described and measured using those features of consumer personality that are directly related to brands. It might be measured using dimensions of brand personality of Jennifer L. Aaker (1997); (Kapferer, 2003); D. Grundey (2002) among others. 3 -) Culture: Brands possess culture features from the place which they originated. Cultural features are correlated with external principles of brand management, thus, culture is in the core of brand. It plays an essential role in brand differentiation as it indicates what moral values are embodied in goods and services. This feature helps identifying the strongest brands because sources, basic ideals and a set of values are revealed; 4 -) Relationship: Brands frequently take the most important place in the process of human transactions and exchange. This is extremely reflected in the sphere of services and retail companies, because, service is by definition a relationship. This facet defines the mode of conduct that most identifies the brand. A lot of actions on how brands influence and provide services in connection to their consumers determine this feature; 5 -) Reflection. Consumers can easily define what goods of a particular brand are produced for a particular type of consumers. Brand communication and goods aim at reflecting a consumer, for whom those goods are addressed. Consumers use goods of certain brands seeking to create their own identity. It is, therefore, the image of the target. 6 -) Self-image: This facet is important in the explanation of consumer behaviour as consumers purchase goods, corresponding to their self-image. The conception of consumer self-image includes an amount of individual ideas, thoughts and feelings about him in relationship with other objects within socially defined boundaries (Onkvisit ir Shaw, 1994). The conception of self-image is a set of beliefs about oneself, retained in memory. The prism of brand identity maintains a vertical subdivision that provides brand with: external and visible expression (image) on the left; and internal expression that is connected with the inside of a brand and its soul trough the elements on the right.

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After defining target’s perceived image of RFM in topic 2.3.1 of this project, one can identify: 1) its physic as being: a hair care product for men brand (by the presence of the packaging in communication); black (the great importance given to this colour by the bottom black bar containing the logo); 5th avenue NYC (signed in the logo); exclusive presence in premium hair salons (clearly stated by the information in the bottom left corner of the communication18, implicitly transmitting a selective distribution of its products); 2) personality: Sophisticated and Competent, as measured in the quantitative research; 3) culture: American and urban layout communicated by the presence of the NYC (New York City) buildings behind the model, and by the model its self; 4) relationship: unique positioning, as it claims out science expertise and highlights the high performance of its products by its composition of proteins and carbs19; 5) reflection: the model shown in the communication, perfectly recalls us of a men with good social standing, urban, active, intelligent and informed; 6) self-image: the RFM’s consumers would describe themselves as: “I am fashionable”; “I know what I want” and “I am the elite”. Therefore, and applying the Kapferer’s Prism of Brand Identity, one can conclude that RFM’s identity is: Hair care products for men Black

Sophisticated

5th avenue NYC

Competent

Premium Hair Saloons

Unique Positioning: High performance hair care solutions powered by proteins and carbs

REDKEN for Men’s current identity

Men with a good social standing, urban, active, intelligent and informed

18

See actual communication guide lines in figure C.4 page LIV

19

See actual product line in figure C.2 page LV

American Urban

I am fashionable I know what I want I am the elite

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b. REDKEN for Men’s recommended Identity and Positioning in the Portuguese Market. According to the marketing research results, and in overall terms, RFM’s identity is really close to what company’s intend its identity to be. Also, it fulfils most of the target’s needs and expectations. Actually, both clients and consumers are pretty satisfied with the brand communication, values and product efficacy. Nevertheless, there are 2 facets of the identity prism needing review: Relationship In this facet of the prism, one proposes to replace “High performance solutions powered by proteins and carbs” by “High Performance in a Mild Product”. This new claim, will allow RFM to: 1) keep the strong communication side that men want to see in a product conceived for them and also assures its consistence in terms of quality of the results provided by its hair products until now with “high performance”; 2) “in a mild product” will allow to fulfil this market gap for gentle products to use on a daily bases identified in the research. With this claim, RFM will be able to provide its consumers with strong communication allied with effectiveness using mild products gaining consumer’s trust. Physic To accomplish the previous change in the brand’s claim, one tested in the market different colours in order to understand which one would enable consumers to perceive this new perspective accurately. Blue, was the colour to which the respondent’s identified as the most natural (absence of harmful chemical ingredients) but still masculine. Keeping the existing black premium association, one proposes to add (trough the packaging and communication) the colour blue for the reason explained above.

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Thus, the recommended RFM Identity Prism should be: Hair care products for men Black / Blue

Sophisticated

5th avenue NYC

Competent

Premium Hair Saloons

Unique Positioning: High performance in a Mild Product

Men with a good social standing, urban, active, intelligent and informed

REDKEN for Men’s recommended identity

American Urban

I am fashionable I know what I want I am the elite

Positioning Theoretical studies of Aaker and Joachimsthaler (2003), Kapferer (2003), Keller (1998), de Chernatony (2001) and other authors state that the correspondence between brand identities, revealed while building brand image, and the coding of meaning by consumers should exist trough positioning. More precisely, Kapferer defines positioning by: “emphasising the distinctive characteristics that make the brand different from its competitors and appealing to the public�. Thus, the facets of the brand identity that one will communicate are: physic; relationship and culture. Furthermore, and using the positioning matrix proposed in the Marketing Communication classes on can conclude that:

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Motivates Action?

Yes

(3) Promote Competitors

(4) Winner

(1) Loser

(2) SUTR

No

No Yes Reflects Advantage? Actual RFM’s Positioning American generalist professional brand20 Premium & accessible Alternative, innovative, trendsetting, urban Actual RFM positioning reflects advantage, because its product line differentiated from the market, but still has a way to go in terms of motivating action, since low awareness levels, and chemical composition of the products, might be an obstacle, to an even better winner positioning.

Recommended RFM’s Positioning One understands that, in overall terms, and according to the marketing research results, RFM’s positioning is aligned with target’s needs and expectations. Despite of this, and as mentioned before, the consumer can still be more motivated to buy RFM, if he trusts more in the product. How to motivate action in RFM’s consumers is what we are going to propose in the marketing plan.

20

In Brandstorm materials

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c. Recommended Marketing Plan for REDKEN for Men in Portugal.

The 4 P’s: Product21

PARADOX: High Performance in a Mild Product How can a paradoxical concept such as “High Performance in a Mild Product” be transformed in a product line? The inspiration was the water, being it the element that better combines at the same time natural purity and strength having in its own nature a paradoxical sense. However water it-self applied in hair products wouldn’t be enough for the standards of RFM. It would lack in substance. So it was decided to test in the market water related ingredients, sea plants vs blue algae the most appreciated by the interviewed were Blue Algae and Acqua Thermal Minerals 22. From these ideas one came up with a product line composed by four products that encloses in them-selves a paradox: 1) “Strongly Soft”23, shampoo to respond the men’s need for frequent use without hair damage; 2) “Intensely Smooth”24, a conditioner to satisfy the demand for hydration and smoothness; 3) “Steadily Mild”25, the defining pomade, came up to guarantee a groomed but natural look required by our target; 4) “Boldly Relaxed”26, an innovative cream massage was added to the line as it was observed in the market research the possible combination of a scalp treatment with a luxury and pleasant service. In fact, one observed through our qualitative analysis that one of the services that men enjoy the most in a salon is the scalp massage. (Notice that the two words in each one of them have a precise objective: the first one is a strong adverb and the second one is a soft adjective enclosing in them a paradox as well).

21

See product line in figure B.1 page XIVII

22

To know more about the concept, see appendix B page XLVI

23

See Strongly Soft in figure B.2 page XLVII

24

See Intensely Smooth in figure B.3 page XLVIII

25

See Steadily Mild in figure B.4 page XLVIII

26

See Boldly Relaxed in figure B.5 page XLIX

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Price Since the majority of ones respondents, answered that wouldn’t pay more than 20 euros for a hair product27, and since REDKEN’s prices in Portugal are aligned with this requirement28, one should keep the same prices as the actual. • Shampoo Strongly Soft , 400ml – 16,95€ • Conditioner Intensely Smooth, 400 ml – 18,65€ • Defining Pomade Steadily Mild, 50ml – 17,90€ • Massage Cream Boldly Relaxed, 300 ml –20,00€ Place Paradox will only be available in Premium Hair Salons and Internet, keeping therefore, the actual distribution strategy. Promotion Communication Guidelines Since Redken’s core values are fashion, science and inspiration and are well defined in Redken’s actual communication, one decided to maintain their guidelines which are: use of New York City image background highlighting a man to focus on the hair result that would communicate trough its look the products benefits and personality. The core values of REDKEN were followed in our communication trough the strong side29 of the paradox (the left side). The strength of the brand is reflected in modern and urban buildings in NYC characterized by movement, dynamism and a fast moving spirit; reflecting technology, top of knowledge sophistication and status. The soft side30 of the paradox is illustrated by the reflection of the modern urban buildings in a bubble turning them blue and mild. The bubble acts like a filter that allows the consumer to see the city from a milder perspective.

27

See in figure A.8 in statistical outputs page XXVII

28

See actual RFM prices in figure C.3 page LVI

29

See strong side of the paradox in figure B.7 page L

30

See soft side of the paradox in figure B.8 page L

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The Model The model meets ones target since he is urban and active and self confident, but also have blue eyes and soft expression, he is also conscious and informed transmitting protection and serenity and trough a soft expression along the mild side of the paradox. But most importantly, he is Portuguese! This will allow raising the identification level in the Portuguese market. The Touching Points The following touching points were found to be the most relevant and effective for ones communication plan: a) In the salons31: Since 53,7%32 of our sample had the first contact with RFM in the salon it self, one decided to present an option for a salon vitrine. This choice was also due to the fact that the salons represent the main distribution point and it is a effective touching point with the consumer. We introduced volume to emphasis the presence of our elements, as one can see in the different plans. Being this vitrine not expensive, it is more appealing to the consumer and adds value in the moment of the negotiation with the client. b) Press Media33: From the quantitative analysis, one found that 77%34 would like to see their hair products announced in masculine magazines, and considering the importance that RFM gives to closer relationship with the press editors, we can tell that media is a strong communication vehicle. We chose for the national approach the launching in Portugal in Maxmen (since 43%35 of our sample read this communication vehicle); thus one created two solutions: 1) Double-page teaser with the strong side of the paradox on the up front, and the mild side on the inside with the description of the product line; 2) Simple double page in a more detailed way and with a jornalististic fashion. The intention is to give more credibility to the product and to reduce publishing costs.

31

See salon vitrine in figure B.9 page LI

32

See in figure A.31 in statistical outputs page XXXVIII

33

See figure B.10 page LI

34

See in figure A.33 in statistical outputs page XXXIX

35

See in figure A.31 in statistical outputs page XXXIX

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c) Outdoor36: In order to increase visibility, awareness and create “buzz”, one came up with an innovative idea: an outdoor placed in the ground in the middle of a shopping street. This outdoor would follow our general communication guidelines but it it-self will “change personality” depending on which point of view you are. d) Sampling37: Another result from our qualitative analysis was that men, contrary to women, need an extra incentive to buy a product that he doesn’t know before hand. Therefore we created a set of samples and a nécessaire presented as a kit that is offered to the consumer when buying a RFM product. No extraordinary event or really expensive advertising will be part of the communication plan due to PARADOX’s low profile. Communication is therefore and on purpose: simple; right to the point; low cost; selective (in terms of touching points) and effective. Summing up, this communication plan will allow RFM to go from the current identity to the recommended identity and positioning because keeping all the actual brand’s guidelines that proved to be effective towards its target; it focuses exclusively on changing the points that needed revue.

3 - Discussion questions Main conclusions of this project Brand Image In overall terms, RFM fulfils consumers and clients needs and expectations. Because its actual product line is perceived in the market as effective (in terms of hair results) in such a way that hairdressers highly recommend it to their costumers, the loyalty levels are high and consistent. In terms of brand personality, RFM is perceived by its consumers as being Sophisticated and Competent.

36

See outdoor in figure B.11 page LII

37

See sampling kit in figure B.12 page LII

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Despite of this, there is still work to be done in terms of: 1) Brand Awareness – Even though REDKEN for Men’s low brand awareness is, in great part, due to its premium positioning, exclusive place and communication, one understand that this might represent as well a problem, since that, sales volumes are probably being affected by this factor. 2) Portfolio Gap – Although REDKEN for Men’s portfolio is considered to be pretty much complete, the extent of how technology and science is communicated by REDKEN, might lead the consumers to perceive RFM’s products as harmful for their hair, since they can associate technology and science with chemical products composition. Therefore, this situation opens a gap in RFM’s portfolio with the demand for gentle/natural hair products. Brand Identity RFM’s identity is really close to what the brand managers want it to be. This means, that a good job is being done. Nevertheless, there are 2 facets of the identity prism needing

review: 1) Relationship - Replacing the claim “High performance solutions powered by proteins and carbs” by “High Performance in a Mild Product”, will allow RFM to: keep strong and masculine communication, but still fulfil the market need for gentle hair products; 2) Physic - Keeping the existing black premium association, it was proposed the introduction (trough the packaging and communication) of the blue colour (perceived by the respondent’s to be the most natural but still masculine), to overlap the harmful chemical ingredients perception.

Marketing Plan PARADOX product line was formulated to carry out the implementation of the recommended Identity and Positioning. It focuses exclusively on changing the points that

needed revue. The concept bases itself on the use of a strong communication (keeping RFM core values), in parallel with gentle ingredients (Blue Algae and Acqua Thermal Minerals) required by the consumers with the claim: “High Performance in a Mild Product”. It is composed by four products: the shampoo Strongly Soft; the conditioner Intensely Smooth; defining pomade Steadily Mild and the massage cream Boldly Relaxed. Pricing and Place strategies should remain the same. And it should be communicated trough saloon vitrines; press media; ground outdoors; and sampling in salons.

23


Questions for future studies !" What would be the best strategy: 1) to implement PARADOX as a product line adding it to the actual portfolio; 2) substitute all REDKEN for Men’s portfolio for PARADOX? !" If PARADOX is implemented as a product line, what would be the cannibalization levels? To which products in particular?

4 - Discussion Note (Balance and limitations) It is my own belief that I learnt a lot doing this work project, since it provided me with a deep knowledge of advanced research techniques; theoretical models understanding and personal skills development such as individual work and creativity. Measuring Brand Image, I had consolidated the Research techniques that I had previously learnt in the Marketing Research course done last semester. More precisely in the exploratory research, I went through all the steps, from elaborating a research proposal and an interview guide to actually conducting in-depth interviews. I faced the limitation of working with a sample that from a statistical point of view was not representative (below desired

inferior limit of n > 15), but still produced consistent and valid in-puts for the research, namely, it gave me a good insight on the different topics in order to get a list of relevant variables to test in quantitative analysis. Furthermore, I also developed competences in descriptive research. Constructing one more questionnaire, always using adequate language and scaling, gave me additional experience in terms of fieldwork. I also learnt how to apply theoretical scales (such as “5 Dimensions of Brand Personality” of Jennifer L. Aaker) in real image measuring processes. But what I think I mostly gain with this research was de analytical skills development, since statistical analyses always have to be accurate; supported and consistent. I’m convinced I achieved this with the econometrics applied. As limitations for this part, it was my initial intention to conduct quantitative analysis on clients too, with the purpose of crossing with consumers’ quantitative information topic by topic. But due to the reduced number of premium hair salons available, and hairdressers time constraints, I was only able to conduct qualitative analysis. To measure and recommend Brand Identity and Positioning, I had to spend many hours to go trough all the databases provided by FEUNL in order to be able to find and select the most relevant papers that would support my reasoning. Nevertheless, this process and my

24


mentor’s advising were crucial for my personal understanding of how to put theory in to practice, since that a real Brand was being analysed. But, and as this field of study was completely new to me, I believe that it would had help me a lot, if I had had the opportunity

to attend to a full Branding course previously. The Marketing Plan presented was built based in all marketing course work materials and learning’s during my 1st and 2nd cycle in FEUNL, and was done in parallel with L’Oreal Brandstorm Awards. For this reason, I had to follow the contest rules and did not complete the communication plan with the structure suggested in MARCOM class (as it was established in the beginning of the semester), and therefore, I was lead to focus more in building a strong marketing plan. Nevertheless, creating a product line from the beginning, going through all the steps such as: portfolio gap identification; ingredients and layout selection; products naming; packaging formulation and design; communication guidelines development; touching points selection; creativity agency coordination (to board’s development); strategy considerations and so on… was in itself and extraordinary experience and I truly developed myself both in professional and personal terms. I just regret I couldn’t show all the work done for this project due to page limit constraints. There was secondary but interesting information that had to be put aside since I had to prioritize the conclusions to be presented. I understand that the synthesis and objectiveness are important skills to be developed and a requirement for this project work, but since that every detail of this work is supported by some valid reason, it would give the impression of being somewhat vague if I did not include all the relevant information. Therefore, I was obliged to slightly exceed the maximum number of pages. Apart from this, I focused my self to include only the essential. Despite of all this, I believe I could come up with a good marketing plan that will in fact lead RFM from its current identity to the recommended one if implemented, and therefore,

accelerating the business for RFM to (why not?) become the #1 men’s brand in the salon professional industry in Portugal.

25


5 – Appendix

A - Primary Data used to measure current Brand Image 1. Qualitative Research a. Interview Guides b. Qualitative Outputs 2. Quantitative Research a. Questionnaire b. Sample characterization c. Statistical Outputs d. Statistical Tests B - PARADOX Product Line 1. Product 2. Communication Guidelines 3. Touching Points C – Additional Data 1. REDKEN for Men 2. 4 C’s Analysis

I


APPENDIX A (Primary Data used to measure current Brand Image) 1. Qualitative Research a. Interview Guides b. Qualitative Outputs 2. Quantitative Research a. Questionnaire b. Sample Characterization c. Statistical Outputs d. Statistical Tests

II


(Qualitative Research) A.1.a. Interview Guides A.1.b. Qualitative Outputs

III


INTERVIEW GUIDE CONSUMIDOR

Marรงo 2007 IV


1. Filtros Filtro 1

Filtro 2

Tem entre 25 e 60 anos?

-

Sim: Entrevista

-

Não: Fim de Entrevista

Frequenta este salão ou outro semelhante

-

Sim: Entrevista

pelo menos 4 vezes por ano?

-

Não: Fim de Entrevista

2. Guiding principles − Warm-up / questão inicial Estamos a fazer um estudo sobre hair care junto da população masculina para percebermos melhor as características e necessidades dos consumidores masculinos. Para tal estamos a usar um método directo, o que significa que eu não vou colocar questões específicas sobre este tema como num questionário normal. Após a questão inicial, que eu vou colocar seguidamente, poderá livremente falar tudo aquilo que entender sobre este assunto. Se não se importar vou gravar esta entrevista, que terá uma duração de no máximo 30 minutos. A minha questão é: 1. “Que necessidades tem o seu cabelo?”

V


− Tópicos a desenvolver:38 Imagem - Que preocupações tem com a sua imagem? - Sente-se satisfeito com a sua imagem? Porquê? - O que faz para melhorar a sua imagem? - Como é que o uso de produtos de tratamento de cabelo contribui para uma maior satisfação com a sua imagem? - Como é que a ida ao cabeleireiro pode contribuir para a sua imagem? - Pode-me definir o “homem na moda”

Hábitos de Cabelo - Tem uma preocupação regular com o cabelo? - Qual é o seu ritual para o cabelo? - Que produtos usa para além do champô? - Encara a lavagem como uma simples lavagem?

- Lava o cabelo para obter um resultado ou apenas por higiene? - Quantas vezes lava o cabelo por semana? - Frequenta salões Premium? - Com que frequência vai ao Cabeleireiro? - Qual é em média a duração da sua visita ao cabeleireiro?

Produto em Si - O que procura num produto para Cabelo? - Que resultado final espera? (ex: cabelo macio; lavado; cheiroso; etc…) - O que o atrai para comprar o Produto para cabelo? Cheiro? Consistência? Feito à

38

Tópicos assinalados com

* tratam-se de tópicos forçados pelo entrevistador caso o entrevistado não se refira a

eles espontaneamente.

VI


base de …? Qualidade? Packaging? - Existe algum cheio ou consistência que o atraia particularmente?

Soluções para o Cabelo − Que tipo de problemas associa ao seu cabelo? Ou que acha que são os problemas que os homens associam ao seu cabelo? − Que produto acha que poderia resolver os seus problemas de cabelo

*

Compra dos Produtos

- Quem compra os seus produtos para o cabelo? - Onde os compra? - Em que circunstâncias?

Sensações ligadas ao cabelo. - Em que é que um produto para cabelo pode contribuir para o seu estado de espírito? - Tem alguma sensação que pudesse ser compensada com um produto para cabelo?

Produto com Significado - Acha interessante que o produto tenha um contributo para a Sociedade

*

− Consumiria mais, sabendo que o produto tem alguma Responsabilidade social?

VII


INTERVIEW GUIDE SALร•ES

Marรงo 2007 VIII


1. Filtros Filtro 1

Filtro 2

Este salão vende a marca REDKEN for

-

Sim: Filtro 2

Men?

-

Não: Fim de Entrevista

É cabeleireiro masculino neste salão?

-

Sim: Entrevista

-

Não: Fim de Entrevista

2. Guiding principles − Warm-up / questão inicial Estamos a fazer um estudo junto dos salões de cabeleireiro que vendem a marca REDKEN para identificarmos qual é a opinião que os clientes têm acerca da marca. Para tal estamos a usar um método directo, o que significa que eu não vou colocar questões específicas sobre este tema como num questionário normal. Após a questão inicial, que eu vou colocar seguidamente, poderá livremente falar tudo aquilo que entender sobre este assunto. Se não se importar vou gravar esta entrevista, que terá uma duração no máximo 30 minutos. A minha questão é: “Qual é a sua opinião acerca das necessidades em termos de produtos/serviços para cabelos que os seus clientes homens têm?”

IX


− Tópicos a desenvolver:39 Imagem do Homem - Que preocupações acha que o homem tem com a sua imagem? - Como a sua imagem o satisfaz? Porquê? - O que faz para melhorar a sua imagem? - Como o uso de produtos de tratamento de cabelo contribui para uma maior satisfação da sua imagem?

Hábitos de Cabelo. - Com que frequência vêm os seus clientes masculinos ao cabeleireiro? E qual é a duração da sua visita?

- Têm alguma preocupação especial com o cabelo? Em que circunstâncias? - Que produtos usam para além do champô?

-Vão ao cabeleireiro apenas para cortar ou sentem que associam a visita a um determinado resultado/tratamento?

Produto em Si - O acha que o Homem mais aprecia num produto para Cabelo? - O que o atrai para comprar o produto para cabelo? Cheiro? Consistência? Feito à base de…? Qualidade? Packaging? -O que pode levar o homem a comprar mais?

39

Tópicos assinalados com

*

* tratam-se de tópicos forçados pelo entrevistador caso o entrevistado não se refira a

eles espontaneamente.

X


Soluções para o Cabelo − Que tipo de problemas é frequente ver no cabelo dos seus clientes? O que acha que são os problemas que os homens mais associam ao seu cabelo? − Que necessidade acha que o Homem tem e que não estão satisfeitas pelos produtos oferecidos no mercado? − Que tipo de perguntas lhe colocam sobre o cabelo? − Que produto acha que poderia resolver problemas de cabelo

*

REDKEN for Men - O que acha da Marca em termos globais? - O que alteraria na comunicação da marca? - O que alteraria no portfolio da marca? - Porque escolheu REDKEN for Men para seu parceiro?

XI


A.1.b. Qualitative Outputs 1. Clients •

“O (sell-out) passa pela marca influenciar o próprio cabeleireiro” (Gestor cabeleireiro)

“O mais importante é o aconselhamento na lavagem” (Gestor Cabeleireiro)

“Há certas pessoas que são imagem do salão (..) que depois nós dizemos utiliza o produto x ou y” (Gestor Cabeleireiro)

“(A montra) dá muito impacto, chama muito atenção” (Gestor Cabeleireiro)

“Primeiro é necessário convencer a esposa e a namorada” (Gestor Cabeleireiro)

“Para o homem não é fácil entrar no cabeleireiro” (Gestor Cabeleireiro)

“A REDKEN não tem publicidade” (Gestor Cabeleireiro)

“ Eu compro às pessoas e não às marcas” (Gestor Cabeleireiro)

“Muito eficientes, rápidos e que não haja ruptura de produtos” (Gestor Cabeleireiro)

“(compra se) saber que posso confiar” (Gestor Cabeleireiro)

“Umas das exigências quando escolho um fornecedor é ter direito à formação” (Gestor Cabeleireiro)

“Quando dão a formação eles acabam por aconselhar o seu próprio produto” (Gestor Cabeleireiro)

“É fundamental os vendedores serem técnicos (...)” (Gestor Cabeleireiro)

XII


2. Consumers •

“Gosto das embalagem com luz (…) transparentes” (Consumer 35 years old)

“Quero poder saber do que os produtos são feitos” (Consumer 27 years old)

“Gosto de adquirir coisas que sejam diferentes” (Consumer 29 years old)

“Uma embalagem em forma redonda em género de boião” (Consumer 25 years old)

“A forma do produto é a primeira coisa que me atrai, (…) depois se tiver a imagem de um executivo ao lado, melhor (…) tinha que me rever na imagem. E então só depois ia tocar no produto e ver o verso.” (Consumer 51 years old)

“Em termos de imagem, tem que ser uma imagem forte; urban (…)” (Consumer 31 years old)

“Quando saio do cabeleireiro sinto-me melhor” (Consumer 35 years old)

“(…) quando me lavavam a cabeça fazem-me umas massagens e é óptimo” (Consumer 25 years old)

“Eu gosto de quando lavo a cabeça e meto o amaciador gosto de ter a sensação de ter o cabelo solto” (Consumer 27 years old)

“A cera é muito prática porque mantêm o tom natural do cabelo” (Consumer 25 years old)

“Começo a não ser muito fã do gel (…) porque torna o cabelo muito artificial” (Consumer 29 years old)

“(Resultado final) Mais macio, mais suave.” (Consumer 25 years old)

“A mudança justifica-se por aconselhamento do cabeleireiro” (Consumer 35 years old)

XIII


(Quantitative Research) A.2.a. Questionnaire A.2.b. Sample Characterization A.2.c. Statistical Outputs A.2.d. Statistical Tests

XIV


QUESTIONÁRIO “CARA-A-CARA”

ABRIL 2007

ID: |_|_| NOME:_____________________________________ QUESTIONÁRIO N.º |_|_|_|

FILTROS E QUOTAS Bom dia / tarde, sou estudante da Faculdade de Economia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa e estamos a conduzir uma pesquisa acerca do comportamento dos homens relativamente a salões de cabeleireiro e/ou estética. Importa-se que responder a um breve questionário? Terá a duração de aproximadamente 15 minutos.

Atenção cumprir quota de 100% Homens! F.1- Tem entre 25 e 60 anos? Sim Não

(1) (passar a FILTRO 2) (2) (Fim de entrevista)

F.2- Frequenta salões de cabeleireiro e/ou estética pelo menos 3 vezes por ano? Sim Não

(1) (Começar entrevista) (2) (Fim de entrevista)

BLOCO 1: O CONSUMIDOR / TIPO DE CABELO / SERVIÇOS

Q.1 – Importa-se de me dizer que importância dá à sua imagem numa escala de 1 – nada importante a 5 – muito importante? (1) Nada Importante

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5) Muito Importante

XV


Q.2 – Qual a sua maior preocupação com o cabelo? (Ler opções; assinalar apenas 1 resposta) Queda / Cabelos Fracos Caspa Cabelos Brancos Oleosidade Cabelos Finos Outro

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

Q.3 – Que tipo de produtos utiliza? (Ler opções; assinalar todas as respostas desejadas) 0 – Não Seleccionado; 1 - Seleccionado a) Gel b) Cera c) Champô d) Amaciador e) Outros

□ □ □ □ □

Q.4 – Quais as duas características que mais valoriza nesse tipo de produtos? (Ler opções; assinalar até 2 respostas) 0 – Não Seleccionado; 1 - Seleccionado a) Cheiro b) Naturalidade que proporciona ao cabelo c) Efeito correspondente ao esperado d) Facilidade de utilização e) Frescura f) Outros

□ □ □ □ □ □

XVI


Q.5 – No máximo, quanto estaria disposto a pagar por cada um dos seguintes produtos? Champô

Cera

(Q.5.1) <= 20 euros 21-25 euros >25 euros

Creme

(Q.5.2) (1) (2) (3)

(1) (2) (3)

(Q.5.3) (1) (2) (3)

Q.6 – Com que frequência lava o seu cabelo por semana? (LER OPÇÕES) (Seleccionar quantas opções desejar) < 3 vezes por semana Entre 3 a 5 vezes por semana >= 6 vezes por semana

(1) (2) (3)

Q.7 – Quando vai ao cabeleireiro para tratar o seu cabelo, o que faz? (LER OPÇÕES) (Seleccionar quantas opções desejar)

Só corta o cabelo Utiliza produtos de Styling e modelação (ex: gel; cera; etc…) Só lava o cabelo Lava e corta Lava e pinta Outro

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

XVII


Q.8 – No cabeleireiro, que tipo de champô usa? (LER OPÇÕES) (Seleccionar quantas opções desejar) Normal Especifico pedido por mim Especifico aconselhado pelo cabeleireiro

(1) (2) (3)

Q.9 – É fiel a um cabeleireiro em particular? Sim Não

(1) (2)

Q.10 – Se um cabeleireiro lhe recomendasse o uso de um produto para o cabelo aceitaria a sugestão? Sim Não Talvez

(1) (passar a Q.11) (2) (passar a Q.11) (3) (passar a Q.10.1)

Q.10.1. Qual dos seguintes factores poderia influenciar a sua decisão? (Ler opções; assinalar apenas 1 resposta) Confiança no cabeleireiro Tipo de produto recomendado Reconhecimento de que tem um problema no cabelo Outros

(1) (2) (3) (4)

XVIII


Q.11 – Onde são principalmente adquiridos os produtos que usa para o cabelo? No supermercado Farmácia Cabeleireiros Perfumarias Outro

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Q.12– Quem compra os seus produtos para cabelos? (LER OPÇÕES) (Seleccionar quantas opções desejar) Eu próprio A minha mulher ou companheiro(a) Outra mulher (ex: irmã; mãe; etc…) Outro homem (ex: irmão; pai; etc…)

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Q.13– Quem escolhe os produtos que utiliza? Quem compra é quem escolhe Eu próprio

(1) (2)

XIX


BLOCO 2: REDKEN FOR MEN

Q.1 Vou agora mostrar-lhe uma embalagem de um produto REDKEN for Men e um cartão com 5 adjectivos que a REDKEN pode ter. Diz-me, por favor, numa escala de 1 – Discordo totalmente a 5 – Concordo totalmente, se concorda que a REDKEN é: (MOSTRAR CARTÃO 1 + EMBALAGEM) Discordo

Concordo

Totalmente

Totalmente

a) Sincera

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

b) Excitante

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

c) Competente

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

d) Sofisticada

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

e) Dura/Áspera

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Q.2 Já conhecia a marca REDKEN for Men antes? Sim Não

(1) (passar a Q.3) (2) (passar a Q.5)

Q.3 – Como teve conhecimento desta marca (Redken for Men)? Revistas e jornais Nos cabeleireiros Amigos ou conhecidos Familiares No site da marca Outro

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

XX


Q.4 – Já experimentou/usou algum produto Redken for men? Sim Não

(1) (2) (passar para Q.5)

Q.5 – Qual a sua opinião geral sobre esse produto numa escala de 1 – muito mau a 5 – muito bom? (1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Muito mau

Muito bom

Q.6 – Conhece alguma das seguintes marcas de produtos para cabelo para homem? (pode assinalar mais do que uma opção) 0 – Não Seleccionado; 1 – Seleccionado a) American Crew b) Wella c) Schwarzkopf

□ □ □

(se não conhece nenhuma, passar para Bloco 3 Q.1) Q.7 – Como teve conhecimento da(s) mesma(s)? Revistas e jornais Nos cabeleireiros Amigos ou conhecidos Familiares No site da marca Outro

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

XXI


BLOCO 3: POTENCIAIS PARCERIAS

Q.1 – Que revistas masculinas lê? Maxmen GQ FHM Men’s Health Outra Nenhuma

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (passar para B3)

Q.2 – Gostaria de ver publicidade da sua marca de produtos para cabelo na(s) anterior(es) revista(s) masculina(s) mencionada(s)? Sim Não

(1) (2) BLOCO 4: PROFILE DO RESPONDENTE

Q.1- Importa-se de me dizer qual a sua idade? (NÃO LER OPÇÕES) apenas apontar a resposta 25 – 30 anos 31 – 40 anos 41 – 50 anos 51 – 60 anos

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Q.2- Importa-se de me dizer qual a sua profissão? (NÃO LER OPÇÕES) apenas apontar a resposta

Estudante Funcionário Público Trabalhador por conta de outrém Trabalhador por conta própria Outro

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Muito obrigado(a) pela sua colaboração XXII


CARTテグ 1

Discordo

Concordo

Totalmente

Totalmente

a) Sincera

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

b) Excitante

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

c) Competente

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

d) Sofisticada

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

e) Dura/テ《pera

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

XXIII


A.2.b. Sample Characterization n =121 100% Male Consumers; 100% Attend to premium salons at least 4 times per year; 100% age 25 to 60 years old. Figure A.1 – Importa-se de me dizer a sua idade? (B4_Q.1) 50

47

45

40

33

Frequency

35

30

25

22 19

20

15

10

5

0

25 - 30 anos

31 - 40 anos

41 - 50 anos

51 - 60 anos

n=121

Figure A.2 – Importa-se de me dizer qual a sua profissão? (B4_Q.2) 70

64 60

50

Frequency

39

40

30

20

14 10

4 0

Estudante

Funcionário Público

Trabalhador por conta de outrém

Trabalhador por conta própria

n=121

XXIV


A.2.c. Statistical Outputs (SPSS outputs) The information on this section is organized according to the questionnaire parts. FILTROS E QUOTAS

Figure A.3 - Tem entre 25 e 60 anos? (F.1) Frequenc y Valid Sim

121

Percent 100,0

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

100,0

100,0

Figure A.4 - Frequenta salões de cabeleireiro e/ou estética pelo menos 3 vezes por ano? (F.2) Frequenc y Valid Sim

121

Percent 100,0

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

100,0

100,0

BLOCO 1: O CONSUMIDOR / TIPO DE CABELO / SERVIÇOS

Figure A.5 – Importa-se de me dizer que importância dá à sua imagem numa escala de 1 nada importante a 5 - muito importante? (B1_Q.1) 70

63 60

47

Frequency

50

40

30

20

10

6

5

0 0

1 - Nada Importante

2

3

4

5 - Muito Importante

n=121

XXV


Figure A.6 – Qual a sua maior preocupação com o cabelo? (B1_Q.2) 50

47

45

40

Frequency

35

30 30

27

25

20

14

15

10

3

5

0

Queda/Cabelos Fracos

Caspa

Cabelos Brancos

Oleosidade

Cabelos Finos

n=121

Figure A.7 – Que tipo de produtos utiliza para o seu cabelo? (B1_Q.3) 140

121 120

109

106

100

91

Frequency

88 80

60

40

33

20

30 15

12 0

0

a) gel

b) cera

Não Seleccionado

c) champô

d) amaciador

e) outro

n=121

Seleccionado

XXVI


Figure A.8 – No máximo, quanto estaria disposto a pagar por cada um dos seguintes produtos? (B1_Q.5) 120

112

108 100

92

frequency

80

<=20 euros 21 - 25 euros > 25 euros

60

40

22 20

10 3

7

7

2

0

champô

cera

creme

n=121

Figure A.9 – Com que frequência lava o seu cabelo por semana? (B1_Q.6) 60,00%

56,20%

50,00%

43,00%

Frequency

40,00%

30,00%

20,00%

10,00%

0,08% 0,00%

< 3 vezes por semana

Entre 3 a 5 vezes por semana

> 6 vezes por semana

n=121

XXVII


Figure A.10 – Quando vai ao cabeleireiro para tratar o seu cabelo, o que faz? (B1_Q.7) 33

35

31 28

30

26

Frequency

25

20

15

10

5

2

1

0

Lava e corta

Utiliza produtos de styling e modelação

Só corta o cabelo

Só lava o cabelo

Lava e pinta

Outro

n=121

Figure A.11 – No cabeleireiro, que tipo de champô usa? (B1_Q.8) 120

106 100

frequency

80

60

40

20

7

8

Específico pedido por mim

Especifico aconselhado pelo cabeleireiro

0

Normal

n=121

XXVIII


Figure A.12 – É fiel a um cabeleireiro em particular? (B1_Q.9)

19%

Sim Não

81%

n=121

Figure A.13 – Se um cabeleireiro lhe recomendasse o uso de um produto para o cabelo aceitaria a sugestão? (B1_Q.10)

20%

15%

Sim Não Talvez

65%

n=121

XXIX


Figure A.14 – Qual dos seguintes factores poderia influenciar a sua decisão? (B1_Q.10.1) 85

90

80

70

frequency

60

50

40

30

17

20

17

10

2 0

Confiança no cabeleireiro

Tipo de produto recomendado

Reconhecimento de que tem um problema

n=121

Outro

Figure A.15 – Onde são principalmente adquiridos os produtos que usa para o cabelo? (B1_Q.11) 70

60 60

frequency

50

37

40

30

20 20

10

3

1

0

Em supermercados

Em cabeleireiros

Na farmácia

Em perfumarias

Outro

n=121

XXX


Figure A.16 – Quem compra os seus produtos de hair care? (B1_Q.12) 70

58

60

frequency

50

40

36

30

26

20

10

1 0

Eu próprio

A minha mulher ou companheiro (a)

Outra mulher

Outro homem

n=121

Figure A.17 – Quem escolhe os produtos que utiliza? (B1_Q.13) 100

91 90

80

frequency

70

60

50

40

30 30

20

10

0

Eu próprio

Quem compra é quem escolhe

n=121

XXXI


BLOCO 2: REDKEN FOR MEN

Figure A.18 – Vou agora mostrar-lhe uma embalagem de um produto REDKEN for Men e um cartão com 5 adjectivos que a REDKEN pode ter. Diz-me, por favor, numa escala de 1 – Discordo totalmente a 5 – Concordo totalmente, se concorda que a REDKEN é: (B2_Q.1)

a) Sincera

b) Excitante

c) Competente

121

121

121

121

121

0

0

0

0

0

Mean

2,79

3,34

4,68

4,80

1,98

Median

3,00

3,00

5,00

5,00

2,00

3

3

5

5

2

1,178

,822

,487

,440

,741

Range

4

3

2

2

4

Minimum

1

2

3

3

1

Maximum

5

5

5

5

5

N

Valid Missing

Mode Std. Deviation

d) Sofisticada

e) Dura/Áspera

Figure A.19 – a) Sincera 40

36 35

28

frequency

30

28

25

21 20

15

8

10

5

0

1 - Discordo Totalmente

2

3

4

5 - Concordo Totalmente

n=121

XXXII


Figure A.20 – b) Excitante 70 62 60

frequency

50 40 32 30 20

15

12

10 0

0

1 – Discordo totalmente

2

3

4

Concordo Totalmente

n=121

Figure A.21 – c) competente 90

83

80

70

Frequency

60

50

37

40

30

20

10

0

0

1

1 – Discordo Totalmente

2

3

0

4

5 - Concordo Totalmente

n=121

XXXIII


Figure A.22 – d) Sofisticada

120 99

100

frequency

80 60 40 20

20 0

0

2

1 – Discordo Totalmente

2

3

0

4

5 - Concordo Totalmente

n=121

Figure A.23 – e) Dura/Áspera

80 69

70

frequency

60 50 40 30

29 20

20 10

2

1

4

5 - Concordo Totalmente

0 1 - Discordo Totalmente

2

3

n=121

XXXIV


Figure A.24 – Já conhecia a marca REDKEN for Men antes? (B2_Q.2)

29%

Sim Não

71%

n=119

Figure A.25 – Como teve conhecimento desta marca (Redken for Men)? (B2_Q.3) 100 87

90 80

frequency

70 60 50 40 30

22

20

12

10 0 Nos cabeleireiros

Amigos ou conhecidos

Outro

n=121

XXXV


Figure A.26 – Já experimentou/usou algum produto Redken for men? (Q.4)

18%

Sim Não

n=119

82%

Figure A.27 – Qual a sua opinião geral sobre esse produto numa escala de 1 – muito mau a 5 – muito bom? (B2_Q.5)

20

18

18 16

frequency

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

2 0

0

1 – Muito Mau

2

3

2

4

5 - Muito bom

XXXVI


Figure A.28 – Conhece a marca American Crew? (B2_Q.6) 80

76

70

frequency

60 50

45

40 30 20 10 0 Não Seleccionado

Seleccionado

Figure A.29 – Conhece a marca Wella? (B2_Q.6) 64 63

63

62

frequency

61 60 59 58

58 57 56 55 Não Seleccionado

Seleccionado

XXXVII


Figure A.30 – Conhece a marca Scwarzkopf? (B2_Q.6) 100 87

90 80

frenquency

70 60 50 40

34

30 20 10 0 Não Seleccionado

Seleccionado

Figure A.31 – Como teve conhecimento da(s) mesma(s)? (B2_Q.7) 0,6

53,7% 0,5

percent

0,4

29,8%

0,3

0,2

0,1

6,7%

5,0%

5,0%

Em jornais e revistas

Familiares

0

Nos cabeleireiros

Amigos e conhecidos

Outro

n=121

XXXVIII


BLOCO 3: POTENCIAIS PARCERIAS

Figure A.32 – Que revistas masculinas lê? (B3_Q.1) 0,5

0,45

43%

0,4

0,35

28%

percent

0,3

0,25

0,2

0,15

9%

0,1

8%

6%

6%

FHM

Men's Health

0,05

0

Maxmen

Nenhuma

GQ

Outra

n=120

Figure A.33 – Gostaria de ver publicidade da sua marca de produtos para cabelo na(s) anterior(es) revista(s) masculina(s) mencionada(s)? (B3_Q.2)

23%

Sim Não

77%

n=121

XXXIX


A.2.d. Statistical tests The purpose of these statistical tests is to test the association between variables. I used cross tabulation to describe the joint distribution of the variables and the chi-square to test the statistical significance of the observed association in the cross tabulation. Chi-square statistic: According to the literature40, a significance level of 0.05 is adequate for marketing research statistical tests. This means I will reject the null hypothesis (no association) in the statistical tests that returned a p-value≤0.05.

χ2 – chi-square value α – p-value df – degrees of freedom fo – observed frequencies (count) fe – expected frequencies (expected count)

nr – number of rows nc – number of column n – total sample size After identifying, the two adjectives that define brand personality for REDKEN for Men (Competent and Sophisticated), one decided that would be relevant to understand is there was a relationship between opinion and respondent’s age. Thus, one performed the following statistical tests: 40

MALHOTRA, Naresh; BIRKS, D. (2006). Marketing Research – an applied approach. Prentice Hall

XL


Statistical Test 1: Objective: Understand if there is a relationship between the opinion that REDKEN for Men is Competent and respondent’s age.

Figure A.2.d.1 – Variables of the test Variable Description Importa-se de me dizer qual a sua B4_Q.1 idade? Competente B2_Q.1_c

Values 25-60 years old

Data Nominal

4 to 5 opinion scale41

Interval

Null hypothesis: “there is no association between the opinion that REDKEN for Men is Competent and respondent’s age” Figure A.2.d.2 – Cross Tabulation

c) competente

4 – concordo

Count Expected Count

5 – concordo Count totalmente Expected Count Total

Count Expected Count

Importa-se de me dizer qual a sua idade?

Total

25 - 30

31 - 40

41 - 50

51 - 60

anos

anos

anos

anos

12

11

9

6

38

14,8

10,4

6,9

6,0

38,0

35

22

13

13

83

32,2

22,6

15,1

13,0

83,0

47

33

22

19

121

47,0

33,0

22,0

19,0

121,0

We can observe that 25 – 30 years old respondents count less then expected count in what concerns agreement and more than expected count in which concerns total agreement. 3160 years old respondents behave the opposite way. This suggests that 25 – 30 years old respondents tend to agree more with the statement than 31- 60 years old respondents.

41

We recoded from the original scale 1 to 5 because, cross tabulation with original scale returned not valid

results: 4 cells (33,3%) had expected count less than 5

XLI


Figure A.2.d.3 – Chi-Square Test Asymp. Sig. Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases

df

(2-sided)

1,732(a)

3

,630

1,720

3

,633

,775

1

,379

121

a 0 cells (,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 5,97.

• Chi-square statistic: Main conclusion: Even though, that from a descriptive perspective, one might have though that 25 – 30 years old respondents tended to agree more with the statement than 31- 60 years old respondents, at a 0.05 significance level, the null hypothesis can not be rejected, and therefore, one can not confirm this association.

XLII


Statistical Test 2: Objective: Understand if there is a relationship between the opinion that REDKEN for Men is Sophisticated and respondent’s age.

Figure A.2.d.4 – Variables of the test Variable Description Importa-se de me dizer qual a sua B4_Q.1 idade? Sophisticated B2_Q.1_d

Values 25-60 years old42

Data Nominal

4 to 5 opinion scale43

Interval

Null hypothesis: “there is no association between the opinion that REDKEN for Men is Sophisticated and respondent’s age” Figure A.2.d.5 – Cross Tabulation

idade_recoded 25 - 30

d) sophisticated

4 – concordo Count

Expected Count 5 – concordo Count totalmente Expected Count Total

Count Expected Count

Total

31 – 60

10

12

22

8,5

13,5

22,0

37

62

99

38,5

60,5

99,0

47

74

121

47,0

74,0

121,0

We can observe that 25 – 30 years old respondents count more then expected count in what concerns agreement and less than expected count in which concerns total agreement. 3160 years old respondents behave the opposite way. This suggests that 25 – 30 years old

42

We recoded from the original age segmentation, cross tabulation with original one returned not valid

results: 6 cells (50,0%) had expected count less than 5 43

We recoded from the original scale 1 to 5 because, cross tabulation with original scale returned not valid

results: 6 cells (50,0%) had expected count less than 5

XLIII


respondents tend to agree less with the statement than 31- 60 years old respondents. Figure A.2.d.6 – Chi-Square Test Asymp. Sig. Value Pearson Chi-Square

df

(2-sided)

,495(b)

1

,482

,213

1

,644

,488

1

,485

,491

1

,484

Continuity Correction(a) Likelihood Ratio Fisher's Exact Test Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases

121

a Computed only for a 2x2 table b 0 cells (,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 8,55.

• Chi-square statistic: Main conclusion: Even though, that from a descriptive perspective, one might have though that 25 – 30 years old respondents tended to agree less with the statement than 31- 60 years old respondents, at a 0.05 significance level, the null hypothesis can not be rejected, and therefore, one can not confirm this association.

XLIV


APPENDIX B (PARADOX Product Line) Product line Communication Guidelines Touching Points

XLV


B.1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Product Line More about the concept The softness of each product is guaranteed by the natural ingredients as blue algae and thermal minerals that donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t damage the hair. In the shampoo the hair benefits of a strong cleansing and purification leaving the hair softer and completely detoxified. The conditioner leaves the hair becomes smoother, manageable and shiner. The defining pomade guarantees a groomed but natural look. This styling product was named steadily mild to reinforce a high definition but flexible control. Finally the massage cream eliminates scalp problems and works as a densifier giving maximum thickness and volume to the hair all this giving a long lasting fresh sensation. In order to follow the actual society environmental concerns the packaging should be 100% recyclable. The line strength is in its effectiveness and is reflected in the masculinity of a minimalist but premium packaging. After testing in the market several shapes of packaging and colours we chose a tall cylindrical bottle with a metal cover and a dark petrol blue bottom that also remotes to itsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; blue algae extracts. The packaging lay out will be uniform for each one of the products.

XLVI


Figure B.1 - Product Line

Figure B.2 – Strongly Soft

Gentle Shampoo for Daily Use

Blue Algae based: Natural Proteins, organic minerals and PH neutral

Restore: Cleansing & Purificatuin

Result: Softer and detoxified Hair

XLVII


Figure B.3 – Intensely Smooth

Natural Moisturizing Conditioner

Blue Algae based: natural protein, minerals salts and moisturisers

Restore: Energy, Hydration and Moisturizers

Result: smoother, manageable and shinier hair

Figure B.4 – Steadily Mild

• Acqua defining pomade for all hair types • Acqua thermal mineral based: natural protein, minerals salts and moisturisers • Restore: energy, protection and smoothness • Result: high definition, flexible control, shine

XLVIII


Figure B.5 – Boldly Relaxed

termal minerals based, hair massage cream for scalp reconstruction

• Acqua thermal mineral based: densifiers, salt minerals and moisturisers • Restore: scalp problems elimination, fresh sensation •

Result: maximum thickness and volume

Association of a Product to a particular Service: Massage + Boldly Relaxed = Scalp Reconstruction

XLIX


B.2 – Communication Guidelines Figure B.7 – Strong side of the paradox

Figure B.8 – Soft side of the paradox

L


B.3 – Touching Points Figure B.9 – Salon Vitrine

Figure B.10 – Press Media

LI


Figure B.11 – Outdoor

Figure B.12 – Sampling Kit

LII


APPENDIX C (Additional Data) REDKEN for Men 4 C’s Analysis

LIII


C.1 – REDKEN for Men Figure C.1 – REDKEN for Men’s logo

Figure C.4 - REDKEN for Men’s actual Communication Guide Lines

LIV


Figure C.2 - REDKEN for Menâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s actual Packaging

LV


Figure C.3 - REDKEN for Men’s actual Pricing Positioning

Retail Size

Retail Price

GO CLEAN shampoo

400 ml

16,95€

BODY UP shampoo

400 ml

16,95€

FINISH UP conditioner

400 ml

18,65€

POLISH UP pomade

50 ml

17,90€

C.2 – 4 C’s Analysis

Market Definition - 4 C’s Analysis: • Consumers • Clients • Competitors • Company

LVI


Market Definition Worldwide Men's Professional Hair care Market * Total Market = $2.2B (+30% from 2002 - 2007) Portugal Men's Professional Hair care Market Total Market = $72.69 M (+16.85% from 2002 2007)

4 C’s Analysis Consumers Men’s Professional Hair Care Market

Clients

Company Company

Competition

*Secondary data in Brandstorm Materials and Philip M. Parker, INSEAD, 2005

Consumers Two types of consumers: From those who attend premium salons

BUY professional hair care products

DON’T BUY YET professional hair care products

BIGGEST OPPORTUNITY

LVII


Clients Premium Hair Salons: Satisfied with the brand:

LOYALTY

• Delivery times • Distributors and Educators support • Workshops • Vitrine and Merchandising support

Competitors At the same distribution channel: Premium Hair Salons Schwarzckof: Client Oriented “Hairdresser as a partner”

• Fashion establisher – Look as an accessory • World wide known Education School

American Crew: •

Consumer oriented

• Classical Image • Continuous satisfaction of men’s expectations

LVIII


Competitors Other distribution channels:

Mass market • Low price positioning • Multiple distribution points

Main REDKEN’s competitor in Portugal because:

• High promotion and sampling levels • Lower perceived quality • Highly available products • Available in convenient selling points • Wider target groups reached

Growing quality level of the products at a lower price

Company REDKEN for Men SWOT Analysis

Strengths

Opportunities

Weaknesses

Threats

LIX


Company Fashion

Strengths

• American Roots is seen as an added value in Portugal • Masculine and Strong identity of the packaging • Products names are attractive and clear • Big packaging (400 ml) appreciated by the target

Science

• Short and complete Line. Easy to understand

• Products High quality and effectiveness- Science applied to the products

Inspiration

• Fulfill Expectations- New products

• Education

meet consumer needs

Company Weaknesses

Fashion • American identity might not be accepted by all European countries

Science •Science might remote to the use of chemicals

Inspiration Few POS $ low sales volume $ low marketing investment $ low awareness

Low Visibility

LX


Company Threats

Fashion • Association to urban concept, might be loosing impact in consumers mind • Under represented in some men’s grooming growing markets (ex: Europe) due to late entry

Science • Growing environmental concerns, might lead to perceive the unnatural ingredients as harmful

Company Fashion • Growing interest of Men in the Grooming Market.

Opportunities

• European Market can have special interest in American Products • Promotions such as Fashion related events, big campaigns. • More luxury salons

Science • Men’s growing demand for health orientated products – New lines

Inspiration • Products that fulfill Men’s Social and

environmental concerns

•Enhance business performance, increasing sell-out with sampling

LXI

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