Page 1

No April 30, 2010 edition

Responsible Social Sector Information

Banana Export presents its new Banana Newsletter today with sectoral information online. Read the latest developments and advances in production and comercilizaci贸n sector in the comfort of your office. Digital information helps us to be more responsible with the environment. Do not cut down a tree to provide the same information as always.


EDITORIAL

This year the banana did not enter the market with the right foot. In the very beginning of the season fell to the floor price in check by putting producers and exporters. The market response was not high season and before the expected week 12 prices fell sharply in consumer markets, especially the Russian one of the most bet for Ecuadorian producers. Market analysts are puzzled by the drop in prices in peak season. Some rehearsed reasons such as weather and others accuse the prolonged recession and markets a growing crisis of the ruble, in the case of the Russian market. This is affecting not only exporters but also the thousands of banana farmers producing regions of Ecuador, which have broken down the price of the banana box spot within USA $ 3.00. The official price set by agreement MAGAP Interministerial Ministry of Foreign Trade and U.S. is $ 5.40, but only a small number of producers benefit from this price, those who have refused to sign annual contracts for the sale of their produce with exporters. A large bulk of fish producers is the best spot market prices that the officer, because it does not sign contracts. This is not always a good deal for producers, although in previous years have been quite lucky because of factors such as climate and pressures of administrative structure in the plantations of competing countries that allowed them to get good prices, even in low season . The average price of the last three years has been U.S. $ 5.60 box of bananas. This is considered a good price at the farm level. The problems with government officials appear when prices fall spot box to unsustainable levels of less than U.S. $ 2.00. So leaders are tearing the clothes of a bad deal and threaten to cripple the banana producing provinces. Everyone talks about how bad the industry is going because of the exporters and start the witch hunt against those who buy bananas without a contract. But all this farce never seen the really guilty. The authorities say they can not do beyond what the law allows. No specific allegations are not responsible firm or evidence of crime, therefore there are no suspects. Everything that exists is a great racket for a box of bananas below its cost of production that adds to the uncertainty of thousands of small producers. What to do?. How to correct the distortion between the banana box?. These questions are not difficult to answer. You really have simple answers. Not even require a great analysis. The country according to information from the Association of Exporters of Ecuador, has a universe of 230 000 hectares of bananas, of which almost 50% are outside the law. This is already a problem, but the crux of the problem and say the comedian Cantinflas lies not only on the illegality of almost 50% of world banana planting, but low productivity in the country today. According to estimates by the same body on Ecuador is barely average productivity of 1300 boxes per ha. year. This if it is a big problem. We have not exceeded the rate of productivity in more than a decade of government, who allegedly bet on the field. Research organizations such as the agricultural universities INIAP or do not have a program for the small producer to help him pay higher yields per hectare, so we anchored in previous decades. This low yield per hectare returns to Ecuador the country less competitive in the region. Costa Rica and Colombia, second and third respectively in the list of exporting countries have yields in excess of 2500 boxes per hectare per year, which obviously have less social friction for the price of their box of bananas. This must be the great challenge of all agriculture minister of Ecuador. Achieve in its flagship product, the banana, the best performance possible with the highest standards of quality, social responsibility and environmental friendliness. Price is important, it encourages. But more important than price is productivity when it comes to competitiveness. Ecuador can achieve. We could halve our areas of banana crops and export the same. The remaining 100 000 hectares could be used for other export crops: cocoa, pineapple, sugar cane. Ecuador has everything it takes to succeed. Producers with great momentum. Land full of vitality and especially a wonderful climate, that is the envy of our competitors. We just need not to fight for the price of the banana box, but to achieve the productivity of our neighbors.


Banana News

Page # 3

International Banana Forum 2010

Ab. Eduardo Ledesma, Executive Director AEBE

The seventh edition of the International Banana Forum sponsored by the Association of Exporters of Ecuador (AEBE), starts today amid high expectations of the sector, reflecting a fall in the price of the box, as a result of the heightened the crisis in international markets. The event takes place in the city of Guayaquil, in the Hotel Hilton Colon, 19 to April 21, aims to exchange information on present and future behavior of the international market, the analysis of new technologies both in planting, growing and packing of the fruit and the monitoring of consumer behavior in destination markets and review of the latest trends in transportation logistics, strategic and important issue in this business. These three areas will be covered in lectures and discussions will be given during the three day event, The event is also the perfect opportunity for companies to promote their products and services to a wide range of attendees will gather at the Forum. The presence of more than 1,500 participants each day is a special reason to be present at our event so we can partake of the good news in the field of technology and services, ensure AEBE managers.

2010 a year with many perspectives

After eighteen months of reduced consumption of bananas in the world, the prospects that this will increase this year are high because there are signs of economic recovery, especially in the markets of U.S., European Union Russia, which depend heavily on the decision of families to increase the percentage of their income to expenditure on fruits and vegetables. This concern is part of the lectures are given in the International Banana Forum 2010 opens today. During the third day of the event will consider the issue of production in major exporting countries. RubĂŠn Ortiz will present the main features in the Latin American production. Philipe Mavel will do the same with the ACP countries' production, Charles Wulf address the problems that producers now have the European Union and a delegate of the Association of Producers of the Philippines, will speak on the challenges that this country has in its goal of diversify their markets, especially the U.S. and Middle East. The four speakers have extensive experience is these issues and in some cases are producers, so they know the subject of banana production in its entirety. These conferences will provide the necessary information to know what to expect in 2010.


Banana Opinión

Página # 4

Emilio People Now times are tough, it is very dangerous to write. Beware of adjectives or claim to literary roots, the worst insult unless you insult someone's shadow and I was not even aware media, which these days is absurd for even the flies buzz. I say this because what is happening to the journalist Palacios. This man had the courage to call for his tricky adjective to the name of a militant political caste that is thought untouchable, mind you do not live in India or on its outskirts but by poverty of some of our fellow human beings are alike. I am looking for more than five feet in the articles of yore "Camilo Hector," I can not find legal synderesis for the prosecution of a lawsuit for libel and worse so disproportionate failure three years in prison and a fine of ten thousand dollars for legal costs against the accused Palacios. What if you notice and largeness of view, is that the rope broke at the weakest: The freedom of expression. I argue this because it has been brought to trial rather than the journalist, who has been if you want to very soft in your referral to the treacherous attack which was the subject newspaper "El Universo", and that's what grounds the article in dispute which Saman public figure was unquestionable, the official who has been considered in reference and outraged by the Palacios courageous pen. The treacherous attack on freedom of expression it has been loved in this mock trial presented as "insulting" by making Parker a vulgar quality accused of bully that official, when public opinion and imputed reasonably qualifier to the same day he sent a crowd of people and threatening attitudes matoniles outside the newspaper "El Universo".

Lcdo. Kleber Exkart R.

The exercise melliferous journalist did but pick up the poisonous action of the officer of the CFN and its adléteres and affix firmly with his own hand and head "Camilo Hector", this by way of complaint. The cowardly act of trying to intimidate the crowd journalistic action might have gone unnoticed or had not taken more than two lines in the newspaper or any other means realizing the pelafustanes, but no. The action required more than two lines. It needed a brave pen, which will identify the true perpetrator. That bare his political parapet untouchable caste and gave him the nickname of "bully" that is used to show it off shamelessly. This time the trappings of justice wanted a just man, courageous, dignified, to humiliate him because of its transparency and sentence him to ignominy. Will we allow the abuse of the strong against the weak?. How many voices will rise to chant one enough?. Emilio Emilio not only is the common people who want to tell the outrages of the moment "Canuta samba."


Banana Prices

Pรกge #5

The price of a box of bananas in overseas markets has always been a myth and one of the best kept secrets of the export sector. It was not until very recently with the globalization of information through the Internet that the veil of banana prices and products in general left to see the reality of the markets. By segment, "Banana Price" will post the information online that different sources give us, especially those believed to be reliable from the technical point of view through the observation points in the market. Marker price offer the U.S. market that provides the USDA as a reference. The information in this section was taken on April 15, 2010. Your online contribution will also be important. You can participate by sending information in the price of a box of bananas or a kilo in the place you reside. To advertise your product in this segment can contact those responsible for the publication.


16.00 17.00

17.00 18.00

19.00 19.00

-

ATLANTA 04/15/2010 BANANAS - cartons institutional pack -

ATLANTA 04/15/2010 BANANAS - cartons

ATLANTA 04/15/2010 BANANAS - Organic cartons containerized -

ATLANTA 04/15/2010 BANANAS - BABY 15 lb cartons -

23.00 23.00

BALTIMORE 04/15/2010 BANANAS - Organic -

14.00 14.00

BALTIMORE 04/15/2010 BANANAS - RED - 20

BALTIMORE BANANAS MANZANO - 15 lb cartons -

lb cartons -

15 lb cartons -

13.00 13.00

13.00 13.00

BALTIMORE 04/15/2010 BANANAS - BABY -

containerized -

04/15/2010

16.50 16.50

BALTIMORE 04/15/2010 BANANAS - cartons

cartons -

16.50 16.50

04/15/2010

BALTIMORE BANANAS - 20 lb

40 lb cartons -

cartons -

17.00

17.00 -

04/15/2010

BANANAS - 40 lb

BALTIMORE -

17.00 19.00

04/15/2010

BALTIMORE BANANAS - 40 lb cartons -

containerized -

13.50 14.00

LowHigh Price

04/15/2010

ATLANTA BANANAS - 40 lb cartons -

Date

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

17.50 19.00

-

-

-

-

-

IMPORTS

IMPORTS

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NONE

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STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

ABOUT No offerings STEADY.

ABOUT STEADY.

ABOUT STEADY.

ABOUT STEADY.

ABOUT STEADY.

NONE

NONE

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NONE

NONE

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Mostly Origin Origin Item Color Enviro Unit of Quality Condition Appearan Storage Crop Repac Trans Offering Market Price Comment LowDistrict Size nment Sale ce ked Mode s Tone Comment s High

Banana Prices Page #6


16.00 -

15.50 17.00

BOSTON 04/15/2010 BANANAS - cartons institutional pack -

04/15/2010

24.00 24.00

-

CHICAGO 04/15/2010 BANANAS - Organic 40 lb cartons -

CHICAGO 04/15/2010 BANANAS - BABY 15 lb cartons -

17.50 18.00

17.50 18.00

13.00 13.00

18.00 20.00

18.00 18.50

COLUMBIA 04/15/2010 BANANAS - cartons

COLUMBIA 04/15/2010 BANANAS - cartons

COLUMBIA 04/15/2010 BANANAS MANZANO - 10 kg cartons -

DALLAS - BANANAS 04/15/2010 - 40 lb cartons -

DALLAS - BANANAS 04/15/2010 - 40 lb cartons -

containerized -

containerized -

13.50 13.50

04/15/2010

COLUMBIA BANANAS - 40 lb cartons -

17.00

17.00 -

04/15/2010

BANANAS - 40 lb cartons -

CHICAGO -

cartons -

19.00 19.00

04/15/2010

CHICAGO BANANAS - 40 lb

BANANAS - cartons containerized -

BOSTON -

22.00 24.00

BOSTON 04/15/2010 BANANAS - Organic 40 lb cartons -

17.00

13.00 13.00

Price

LowHigh

BALTIMORE 04/15/2010 BANANAS - BURRO - 15 lb cartons -

Date

-

19.00 19.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

16.00 17.00

16.00

16.00 -

-

-

High

GUATEMA LA

COSTA RICA

IMPORTS

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NONE GREEN

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lge

petite

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FINEAPPEAR

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STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

few higher

ABOUT no offerings STEADY.

ABOUT STEADY.

ABOUT

STEADY.

ABOUT STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

NONE

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Mostly Origin Origin Item Color Enviro Unit of Quality Condition Appearan Storage Crop Repac Trans Offering Market Price Comment LowDistrict Size nment Sale ce ked Mode s Tone Comment s

Banana Prices Page #7


26.00 -

17.00 17.50

DALLAS - BANANAS 04/15/2010

04/15/2010

DETROIT -

15.85 15.85

14.75 15.25

DETROIT 04/15/2010 BANANAS - BABY 20 lb cartons -

DETROIT BANANAS MANZANO - 20 lb

12.00 14.00

22.50 23.00

04/15/2010

LOS ANGELES BANANAS - 40 lb cartons -

LOS ANGELES - 04/15/2010 BANANAS - Organic 40 lb cartons -

15.50 17.00

04/15/2010

04/15/2010 .86 - .90

04/15/2010 .34 - .35

LOS ANGELES BANANAS - 40 lb cartons -

BANANAS DOMINICO - cartons -

GUADALAJARA -

BANANAS TABASCO - cartons -

GUADALAJARA -

cartons -

40 lb cartons -

04/15/2010

24.00 24.00

DETROIT 04/15/2010 BANANAS - Organic -

cartons -

16.00 16.50

04/15/2010

DETROIT BANANAS - 40 lb

BANANAS - 40 lb cartons -

26.00

22.50 22.50

DALLAS - BANANAS 04/15/2010 - BABY - 40 lb cartons -

- RED - 20 lb cartons -

16.00 17.00

LowHigh Price

DALLAS - BANANAS 04/15/2010 - 40 lb cartons -

Date

-

13.00 13.00

15.50 16.00

.90 - .90

.35 - .35

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

IMPORTS

MEXICO

IMPORTS

NONE

NONE

NONE

UZ

NONE

NONE

NONE

MEXICO VERACR NONE

CAN

NONE

NONE

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NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

MEXICO MICHOA NONE

COLOMBI A

IMPORTS

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IMPORTS

IMPORTS

IMPORTS

COLOMBI A

MEXICO

NONE

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PER KG

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SLIGHTL occas low as Y 19.00 HIGHER.

SLIGHTL Y HIGHER.

condition lower

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

few lower

NONE

SLIGHTL few second Y labels low as HIGHER. 12.00 poorer

NONE

NONE

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

NONE

NONE

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Mostly Origin Origin Item Color Enviro Unit of Quality Condition Appearan Storage Crop Repac Trans Offering Market Price Comment LowDistrict Size nment Sale ce ked Mode s Tone Comment s High

Banana Prices Page #8


NONE

NONE

-

-

12.00 12.00

16.00 16.00

MIAMI - BANANAS - 04/15/2010 40 lb cartons -

MIAMI - BANANAS - 04/15/2010 40 lb cartons -

MONTERREY 04/15/2010 .98 - .98 BANANAS - RED cartons -

-

11.00 12.00

12.00 12.00

20.50 20.50

MIAMI - BANANAS - 04/15/2010 40 lb cartons -

cartons -

19.68 20.50

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE GREEN

MEXICO TABASC NONE O

IMPORTS

IMPORTS

IMPORTS

MEXICO CHIAPAS NONE

O

04/15/2010 6.56 - 6.97 6.56 - 6.56 MEXICO TABASC NONE

MEXICO CITY - 04/15/2010 BANANAS DOMINICO - 18 kg

BANANAS TABASCO - 18 kg cartons -

MEXICO CITY -

CHIAPAS - 18 kg cartons -

04/15/2010 6.56 - 6.97 6.56 - 6.56 MEXICO CHIAPAS NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

petite

MEXICO CITY BANANAS -

MEXICO

COLOMBI A

ECUADOR NONE

ECUADOR NONE

ECUADOR NONE

04/15/2010 7.38 - 7.79 7.38 - 7.38 MEXICO CHIAPAS NONE

11.00

11.00 -

-

-

11.00 11.00

-

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

PER KG

NONE

NONE

NONE

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FINE QUAL

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NONE

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Boat

Boat

Boat

Boat

NONE

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NONE

NONE

NONE

STEADY.

STEADY.

STEADY.

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

Y HIGHER.

SLIGHTL

HIGHER.

NONE

NONE

few higher and lower

few lower

few lower

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

SLIGHTL occas high as Y 18.00

SLIGHTL Y HIGHER.

SLIGHTL occas high as Y 12.50 HIGHER.

SLIGHTL Y HIGHER.

NONE

NONE

NONE

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Mostly Origin Origin Item Color Enviro Unit of Quality Condition Appearan Storage Crop Repac Trans Offering Market Price Comment LowDistrict Size nment Sale ce ked Mode s Tone Comment s High

MEXICO CITY BANANAS CHIAPAS - 18 kg cartons -

12.00

11.00 -

LOS ANGELES - 04/15/2010 BANANAS - BURRO - 40 lb cartons -

MANZANO - 20 lb cartons -

15.50 16.00

12.00 13.50

LOS ANGELES - 04/15/2010 BANANAS - RED - 20 lb cartons -

04/15/2010

10.00 11.00

LOS ANGELES - 04/15/2010 BANANAS - BABY 15 lb cartons -

LOS ANGELES BANANAS -

16.00 16.50

LowHigh Price

LOS ANGELES - 04/15/2010 BANANAS - cartons institutional pack -

Date

Banana Prices Page #9


04/15/2010 7.79 - 9.02 8.20 - 8.20 MEXICO TABASC NONE O

16.50 17.00

04/15/2010

04/15/2010

04/15/2010

PHILADELPHIA BANANAS - 40 lb cartons -

PHILADELPHIA BANANAS - 40 lb cartons -

PHILADELPHIA BANANAS - 40 lb cartons -

12.00 13.00

16.00

11.00 11.00

NEW YORK 04/15/2010 BANANAS - BABY 15 lb cartons -

16.00 -

23.00 23.00

-

-

17.00 17.00

-

-

-

NEW YORK BANANAS - 40 lb cartons bagged -

NEW YORK 04/15/2010 BANANAS - Organic 40 lb cartons bagged -

-

MONTERREY 04/15/2010 6.56 - 6.56 BANANAS VERACRUZ - 18 kg cartons -

17.00 18.00

-

MONTERREY 04/15/2010 .82 - .82 BANANAS DOMINICO - cartons -

04/15/2010

-

MONTERREY 04/15/2010 .98 - .98 BANANAS MANZANO - cartons -

IMPORTS

IMPORTS

IMPORTS

IMPORTS

IMPORTS

IMPORTS

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

sml

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

MEXICO VERACR NONE UZ

MEXICO TABASC NONE O

MEXICO TABASC NONE O

MEXICO CHIAPAS NONE

MONTERREY BANANAS TABASCO - 18 kg cartons -

-

04/15/2010 9.02 - 9.02

MONTERREY BANANAS CHIAPAS - 18 kg cartons -

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

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NONE

NONE

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NONE

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PER KG

PER KG

NONE

NONE

NONE

FR QUAL

FR QUAL

NONE

NONE

NONE

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FINE QUAL

NONE

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NONE

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NONE

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Mostly Origin Origin Item Color Enviro Unit of Quality Condition Appearan Storage Crop Repac Trans Offering Market Price Comment LowDistrict Size nment Sale ce ked Mode s Tone Comment s High

04/15/2010 8.20 - 9.02 8.20 - 8.20 MEXICO CHIAPAS NONE

LowHigh Price

MONTERREY BANANAS CHIAPAS - 18 kg cartons -

Date

Banana Prices Page #10


17.50 17.50

11.00 11.00

12.00 16.00

17.00 18.00

16.50 18.00

22.00 24.00

10.00 11.00

20.00 22.00

12.00 13.00

16.80 17.80

PHILADELPHIA - 04/15/2010 BANANAS - cartons containerized -

PHILADELPHIA - 04/15/2010 BANANAS - BABY 15 lb cartons -

04/15/2010

04/15/2010

04/15/2010

PITTSBURGH BANANAS - 40 lb cartons -

SAN FRANCISCO - 04/15/2010 BANANAS - Organic -

SAN FRANCISCO - 04/15/2010 BANANAS - BABY 15 lb cartons -

SAN FRANCISCO - 04/15/2010 BANANAS MANZANO - 20 lb cartons -

SAN FRANCISCO - 04/15/2010 BANANAS - SABA 40 lb cartons -

04/15/2010

PITTSBURGH BANANAS - 40 lb cartons -

SAN FRANCISCO - 04/15/2010 BANANAS - 40 lb cartons -

04/15/2010

PITTSBURGH BANANAS - 40 lb cartons -

ST. LOUIS BANANAS - 40 lb cartons -

ST. LOUIS -

40 lb cartons -

21.80 -

16.50 18.50

18.50 18.50

04/15/2010

BANANAS - cartons institutional pack -

PHILADELPHIA -

16.50 16.50

Price

LowHigh

04/15/2010

PHILADELPHIA BANANAS - 40 lb cartons bagged -

Date

-

-

-

-

11.00 11.00

-

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17.75 18.00

17.75 18.50

-

-

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IMPORTS

IMPORTS

MEXICO

COLOMBI A

GUATEMA LA

IMPORTS

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N

N

N

N

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N

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N

N

N

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NONE

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NONE

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NONE

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fair qual 14.00-15.00

NONE

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Mostly Origin Origin Item Color Enviro Unit of Quality Condition Appearan Storage Crop Repac Trans Offering Market Price Comment LowDistrict Size nment Sale ce ked Mode s Tone Comment s

Banana Prices Page #11


DESTINO DE LAS EXPORTACIONES / ENERO Según volumes de embarque

NONE

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Page #12

VOLUMEN MAR DEL NORTE / BALTICO MEDITERRANEO RUSIA ESTADOS UNIDOS CONO SUR AFRICA MEDIO ORIENTE ORIENTE OCEANIA EUROPA DEL ESTE TOTAL

27,85 23,81 18,38 17,94 6,09 2,18 2,15 0,87 0,42 0,32

25.141.876

100,00

COMPARATIVO DE LAS EXPORTACIONES POR DESTINO 2009 / 2010 Según volumes de embarque acumulado (Enero)

NONE NONE

TOTAL

IMPORTS

NONE

NONE

PER KG

NONE NONE

MEDIO ORIENTE CONO SUR MAR DEL NORTE / BALTICO MEDITERRANEO RUSIA OCEANIA ESTADOS UNIDOS ORIENTE AFRICA EUROPA DEL ESTE

-

%

7.002.979 5.986.644 4.619.967 4.510.327 1.531.142 546.872 541.375 217.817 105.505 79.248

2009

WARSAW 04/15/2010 1.33 - 1.49 BANANAS - cartons -

BANANAS - Organic 40 lb cartons -

Date

LowHigh Price

21.80

Mostly Origin Origin Item Color Enviro Unit of Quality Condition Appearan Storage Crop Repac Trans Offering Market Price Comment LowDistrict Size nment Sale ce ked Mode s Tone Comment s High

Banana Prices

2010

218.770 1.109.306 5.492.929 5.789.295 4.697.760 121.827 5.333.274 268.812 712.116 1.156.031

541.375 1.531.142 7.002.979 5.986.644 4.619.967 105.505 4.510.327 217.817 546.872 79.248

24.900.120

25.141.876

%

-

147,46 38,03 27,49 3,41 1,66 13,40 15,43 18,97 23,20 93,14 0,97

Las exportaciones de banano del Ecuador a la semana 12 sumaron 66.143.023 cajas, con un promedio semanas de 5.511.919 cajas. De continuar esta curva ascendente las exportaciones del país se situaran al final del 2010 en aproximadamente 285 millones de cajas, que pondría al país en la cresta de un nuevo record. El mercado de Estados Unidos viene de una recuperación de su consumo en el 2009 por lo que productores y exportadores están optimista de su evolución en el presente año. En el primer trimestre suman aproximadamente 15 millones de cajas, casi el 18% de las exportaciones del país. En el 2009, según reportes del sitio Web de la Asociación de Exportadores de Banano del Ecuador, EE.UU., lideró las importaciones con el 21,73% del gran acumulado Enero – Noviembre del 2009 de 246.880.332 cajas exportadas por el país. El precio de la caja de banano en Ecuador esta regulada por el Acuerdo ministerial No 111 en USA $ 5,40. En Costa Rica la caja de banano de 18 kilos es de $7,69 luego que las autoridades económicas autorizaran un incremento de 0,10 centavos de dólar por caja.

La información de precios de los EE.UU., ha sido tomada del sitio web: http://www.portalfruticola.cl. La información estadística de Ecuador ha sido tomada del sitio Web: www.aebe.com


Banana Prices

Page #13 DESTINO DE LAS EXPORTACIONES / FEBRERO Según volumes de embarque VOLUMEN MAR DEL NORTE / BALTICO ESTADOS UNIDOS MEDITERRANEO RUSIA CONO SUR AFRICA ORIENTE MEDIO ORIENTE OCEANIA EUROPA DEL ESTE TOTAL

%

5.435.761 5.120.904 4.768.788 4.178.097 1.218.344 535.699 232.777 157.697 109.490 -

24,98 23,54 21,92 19,20 5,60 2,46 1,07 0,72 0,50 -

21.757.557

100,00

ACUMULADO DE LAS EXPORTACIONES 2010 Según volumes de embarque acumulado (Enero/Febrero) VOLUMEN

%

MAR DEL NORTE / BALTICO MEDITERRANEO ESTADOS UNIDOS RUSIA CONO SUR AFRICA MEDIO ORIENTE ORIENTE OCEANIA EUROPA DEL ESTE

12.438.740 10.755.432 9.631.231 8.798.064 2.749.486 1.082.571 699.072 450.594 214.995 79.248

26,52 22,93 20,54 18,76 5,86 2,31 1,49 0,96 0,46 0,17

TOTAL

46.899.433

100,00

COMPARATIVO DE LAS EXPORTACIONES POR DESTINO 2009 / 2010 Según volumes de embarque acumulado (Enero - Febrero) 2008

2009

%

MEDIO ORIENTE CONO SUR MAR DEL NORTE / BALTICO AFRICA OCEANIA MEDITERRANEO RUSIA ORIENTE ESTADOS UNIDOS EUROPA DEL ESTE

288.706 2.065.722 10.011.152 1.004.342 199.724 10.592.772 9.729.982 507.279 11.145.797 1.842.416

699.072 2.749.486 12.438.740 1.082.571 214.995 10.755.432 8.798.064 450.594 9.631.231 79.248

-

142,14 33,10 24,25 7,79 7,65 1,54 9,58 11,17 13,59 95,70

TOTAL

47.387.892

46.899.433 -

1,03

La información de precios de los EE.UU., ha sido tomada del sitio web: http://www.portalfruticola.cl. La información estadística de Ecuador ha sido tomada del sitio Web: www.aebe.com


Banana International

Page #14

He rejects suggestions APEB Minister Elena Espinoza.

Through a public letter sent to the secretary general of the Canary Islands regional PSOE, José Miguel Pérez, Leopoldo Cologan, President of the APEB, has rejected suggestions made by the branch of agriculture minister of Spain, Ms. Elena Espinoza, in Congress Deputies, where the staff would have to understand that the fall in banana prices canary is due to exogenous market manipulations.

Fear among the Canary banana exports from Brazil. Cologan Leopold, President of the APEB., Said in a statement recently that was unthinkable a few years ago that Brazil exported bananas to Europe, however this is now possible through the multinational Del Monte. Exports of this Latin American country, considered the largest South American banana producers have been increasing has been soaring, in 2009 placed an additional 110,000 tons at a tariff of 176 euros per tonne. The president of the APEB estimates that lowering of tariffs will occur with the EU's bilateral agreements with Latin American countries, Brazil is clearly benefited, as their ships take between nine and 11 days cruise to the European continent compared to 16 days to take the goods from Central America. The main concern of Leopoldo Cologan, is the signing of bilateral agreements signed with Europe has some Andean countries, including Colombia and Peru, giving it clear advantages tariff on imports of bananas. Cologan has warned that these agreements would cause extremely grave consequences for the production community.

Cologan responded "The only thing missing was us and the Minister accuse us of" handlers. "For Everyone knows that bananas are sold on arrival canary" green "and from that price, taking into account the average different categories, is reduced by between 0.37 and 0.40 euros depending on the destination, giving accurately the money coming to the producer. I wish the rest of the Spanish agricultural products have this transparency. The Minister knows perfectly well where are the big profit margins, and the least we could do is act on them, not only for the Canary banana but for all Spanish products. " The chief of the Association of European Producers of Bananas (APEB) emphasizes in his communication that if the Geneva Accord of December 15, 2009, it seems harmful to take the tariff of 176 euros to 114 euros on average 10. Moreover considered burdensome to the interests canaries recently signed bilateral agreements with two Andean countries, which would fall to 75 euros a TM., Latin American banana imports. Cologan In his public letter concludes by complaining of the work of the current administration. "I want to finish manifestándote for me was a real honor to work in its day, now almost 20 years, with Jeronimo Saavedra as President of the Canarian Government, Pedro Solbes Minister of Agriculture and Felipe Gonzalez as President of the Spanish Government. Unfortunately I can not say the same of the current government. Notwithstanding the foregoing, I am entirely at your disposal for any collaboration that is offered. As stated a few days ago Jerónimo Saavedra, first we have to be canaries and after the political party that is. "


Banana International

Page #15

APEB REPORT OF THE AGREEMENT ON THE EU., WITH COLOMBIA AND PERU.

On March 1, 2010 the negotiations were concluded between the European Commission on one hand and on the other hand, Peru and Colombia with a view to signing the bilateral agreement between the EU and the Andean countries. The text of the agreement also contains a regional integration clause leaving the door open to other Andean countries. The agreement reached with two countries that meet the EU requirements for benefits other agricultural export products such as dairy, pork, wine and spirits, malt and olive oil. As to be referred to the banana sector, the EU has committed to reduce tariffs to 75 € / tonne for the January 1, 2020, applying a clipping these countries tariff lower than agreed in Geneva in December, starting this years with 145 € / ton as is apparent in the table attached, instead of 148 € / tonne applies to other countries. The preferential tariff reduction for Colombia and Peru on this prod-

uct runs parallel to the tariff reductions agreed at the multilateral level, with a final tariff of 75 euros per tonne by 2020. It also provides, during the transitional period of 10 years to reach 75 € / MT, for both countries a safeguard mechanism (called stabilization clause) volumes based on boundaries: Colombia is awarded 1.35 million by 2010 TM and thereafter an annual increase of 67,500 tonnes. Keep in mind that to date, the highest point reached by the country's imports in the EU is 1,278,111 tons in 2008. In regard to Peru, is awarded for the year 2010 67.500 TM can reach back to an annual increase of 3,750 tonnes. To date, the highest point reached by the country's imports in the EU is 43 929 tonnes in 2009. If you exceed these volumes, you can suspend the preferential rights for the remaining period of the calendar year in question, with a maximum of three months, returned in that case the MFN tariff (Geneva

multilateral agreements). These quotas will disappear in 2020 when they begin to apply the customs duty of 75 euros per tonne, so that this level of tariff was applied without any quantitative restrictions being free export volumes of these countries. The general agreement that affects all products includes a bilateral safeguard clause allowing either party to suspend the preferential treatment granted when the increase in imports of a product of the other party can cause serious damage to a particular sector. It has also established a specific clause to take into account the interests of the outermost regions of the EU, which allows the suspension of preferences for direct imports of a product in a remote region in the event that such imports are causing or threatening to cause serious deterioration of the economic situation of the outermost region. It is understood that this special clause would protect only the regional market.


Banana International

Page#16

In separate negciaciones producers Colombia and Peru did these tariffs, under long deliberations within the framework of Free Trade Agreement with the European Union, which is now a concern of producers canaries. Meanwhile, Ecuador, continues without reaching an agreement. Producers or exporters are not represented at the negotiating table to advance the commission sent a negotiating agenda, which is surely the banana dish. A単o

Aranc. Gin.

Aranc. Bil.

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020

148 143 136 132 127 122 117 114 114 114 114

145 138 131 124 117 110 103 96 89 82 75

Dif. Aranc. 3 5 5 8 10 12 14 18 25 32 39

The competitiveness of Ecuadorian bananas may also be affected by this table tariff benefits the neighboring countries of Colombia and Peru. Costa Rica is another country that would have achieved an agreement of this nature. The authorities of the Trade Mnisterio MAGAP and made no comment on the possible consequences of these bilateral agreements to become the country out of this round of negotiations. Producers wonder why there is no industry representative on the famous commission sent to Brussels.


Banana Opini贸n

Page #17

BANANAS FOR IRAN Journal Article taken from "The Universe on April 14, 2010

Gabriela Calder贸n de Burgos gabriela.calderon@cato.org Last week our President met with Arturo Valenzuela, the right hand of Hillary Clinton in Latin America. When Valenzuela said the U.S. government's concern about Ecuador's relations with Iran, the President said something that adapts to a foreign policy practice: "Ecuador is willing to maintain friendly relations with all countries in the world. If that means selling more bananas to Iran, the better. " This implies that the relationship with Iran is due to a pragmatic commercial interests. But what was the business relationship with Iran during the last decade? Between 2000 and 2009, Ecuador exported to Iran an average of $ 424,903 per year. During the same decade, Ecuador exported to the United States an average of 4.571 million dollars a year (9930 times more than Iran), the European Union of $ 1.272 million (2995 times), Colombia $ 508 million (1,196 times more), Peru $ 738 million (1737 times), and Venezuela $ 282 million (664 times). Given these numbers, it's hard to believe that the Ecuadorian government's interest with Iran is due to practical considerations such as "sell more bananas to Iran." It is also hard to believe that the foreign policy of the government of Correa is free of ideological considerations when trade relations with major trading partners like the United States and the European Union, whose markets are the largest in the world, obviously not a priority. The governments of Colombia and Peru, however, they have maintained a pragmatic foreign policy to prioritize relations with its major trading partners. Both have signed a free trade agreement with the U.S. and finished negotiating another with the European Union. All this has been done without impeding trade with countries that have little ideological orientation (Bolivia, Cuba, Venezuela, among others). The trade with authoritarian governments, after all, is one of the few channels of contact with the outside world that these companies have. Foreign trade undermines authoritarian control that they exercise over their citizens. So it is good that Ecuador has never broken off relations with Iran or Cuba, and to be allowed Cubans easily migrate to Ecuador, where there is definitely more civil liberties and greater economic prosperity on the island. To stay in business with Iran is not necessary for our President to undertake high-profile visits to Iran, or that there are agreements between the Central Bank of Ecuador and the Export Development Bank of Iran (EBDI) as it hizo.1 That all that is achieved some distance from our major trading partners. Instead, our President could exploit his relationship with the Iranian government to express their disagreement with the repression of dissidents


Banana Companies

Page #18

The multinational Chiquita Brands again in the eye of the storm

A decent little relationship to say the least, with the Colombian paramilitaries took this multinational exporter of fruits and vegetables to the courts, which ordered him to pay $ 25 million. Deny The company has to pay those values. The apprehension of new players opening the way back to the Colombian justice system to re-sit in the dock.


Banana Companies

Page #19

Chiquita with new problems in the U.S.

The recent arrest last week of t h r e e prestig i o u s entrepreneurs who would be linked to Colombian paramilitaries a n d according to justice would have ordered crimes to maintain their status in the banana region of Uraba, put back in trouble with the powerful Chiquita. The multinational banana-successor to the United Fruit Company-paid $ 1.7 million (1.25 million euros) for the paramilitaries to protect its employees from the guerrillas, and U.S. courts ordered the companies to pay fine of $ 25 million. Bananer businessman JesĂşs Emilio Rueda, 76, surrendered to the paramilitaries, according to research, a list of 200 farmers who he said were collaborating with the guerrillas and were to be killed. Uraba area, located northwest of Colombia was severely hit by the guerrillas in the 90s. It is estimated that for more than 15,000 murders committed throughout the country and are responsible for the displacement of thousands of Colombians. The Colombian judiciary has continued digging until we have more reliable evidence to enable it to

come up with Chiquita's relationship with the paramilitaries. Chiquita's relationship dates back to 1997 when the legal adviser of the multinational, Reinaldo Escobar de la Hoz make the link between the principal subsidiary of Chiquita, Charles Keiser and the late Carlos CastaĂąo. According to Escobar told police, the meeting took place between Keiser and Brown. The matter dealt with was the cleaning of the area of guerrillas. The treatment consisted in the payment of a fee per box of bananas in exchange for cleaning, it was like called the extermination of any guerrilla outbreak. The recruited members of the AUC of CastaĂąo. Although the case was apparently closed by the payment of $ 25 million levied by the Colombian justice Chiquita Brand, the arrest of known farmers of the region can provide elements that could be criminally liable former officials of the multinational and could lead to the opening of a new lawsuit in international courts by those affected.


Regional Banana

Page #20

Ecuador: MAGAP put into effect new deadline The Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture and Fisheries-MAGAP-issued Decree 101, which extends the deadline for the regularization of the banana growers in Ecuador. In Article 1 of that document reads, verbatim: "Expanding in 120 days from March 31, 2010, the deadline set in Article 4 letter a) of Executive Order 114, in order to allow producers to update their records in the regional deputy minister concerned and obtain their credentials banana producers. "

According to figures from the Association of Banana Exporters of Ecuador (AEBE), the country has about 230,000 hectares of cultivated bananas. Until the year 199, when he went out the National Banana (GNP), were enrolled 130,000 ha .. Ecuador has the highest record of exports of boxes of bananas in the world, yet its average productivity is one of the lowest in the region.

The aforementioned Decree signed on 31 March by the Minister of Agriculture, Ram贸n Espinel, thus leaving current Executive Order 300, issued on the same date and delegate to that Ministry to extend the deadline. Likewise, the Minister informed that it was institutionalized Espinel National Conference on Food Sovereignty through Executive Decree 301 of March 31, 2010. Mr. Ram贸n Espinel, Minister of Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture and FisheriesMAGAP ", is a renowned entrepreneur and teacher of agriculture teachers.

In his last public Appear Ram贸n Espinel assure the press that enjoys the confidence of the President, on the request of resignation that made him agrcultores central area of the country.


Banana Technology Transfer

Page # 21

GUIDE TO THE DIAGNOSIS OF THE QUALITY AND SOIL HEALTH BANANA This important study was presented at the

Acorbat 2006 Researchers: E. Franklin Rosales, Luis E. Pocasangre Javier Trejos, Edgardo Serrano, Oscar Acuna, Alvaro Segura, Eduardo Delgado, Tony Pattison, Werner Rodriguez & Shawls Staver.

Distribution of soil Ecuador: Agriculture 26% Livestock 20% 45% Forest; unproductive 6% 3% Galapagos. Planting of banana has a surface of 230,000 hectares.


Banana Technology Transfer

Page #22

Banana soil: study INIBAP (International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain) and MUSALAC (Network of Research and Development of Banana and Banana LAC), with funding from FONTAGRO (Regional Fund for Agricultural Technology) is promoting an initiative in Latin America and the Caribbean, which has allowed a series of actions designed to provide a greater understanding of health and quality of soils, in order to restore or maintain the productivity of the banana plantations. One of the most important regional initiative is the development of guidelines for the diagnosis of the quality and soil health. The guide was developed with the identification and study of 22 leading indicators (68 variables) covering physical and chemical components of soil and microbiological parameters. The research was done on 42 farms in four countries of LAC. To verify the convenience and functionality of the various indicators, the guide was tested on farms with different levels of production and agricultural management (export farms, conventional and organic farms to local markets, small, medium and large). At the same time each property was marked on production sites, good, fair and poor. It explains the process and the established methodology for the development of the guide (final selection of indicators and index construction).

BACKGROUND

At the end of 2004 consolidated a regional initiative promoted by the INIBAP (International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain), MUSALAC (Network of Research and Development and banana for LAC) and FONTAGRO (Regional Fund for Agricultural Technology) . The latter funded the project known as "technological innovations for quality management and health of banana soils in Latin America and the Caribbean." Its main objective is to help restore or maintain the productivity of the banana plantations based on improving the physical, chemical and biological soil mainly.

The importance of soil and its components

Soil fertility, texture and structure are important to agriculture because it determines the greater or lesser ease of working the land, soil resistance, erosion, water infiltration capacity, conditions of development roots, soil temperature, the activity of organisms (bacteria, fungi, worms, etc.), the movement of air and water and many other qualities. Organic matter plays a very important role in the dynamics and multiple soil properties: is the medium providing nutrients for microorganisms; contributing to the genesis and stability of soil structure, increases soil life and plant resistance to pests and diseases. The humus influences soil fertility and crop productivity.

The floor is also home to many microorganisms, which directly or indirectly impact the crop growth across multiple functions, which come on the decomposition of organic matter into nutrients available to plants. They make the Humus improves soil structure, produce substances that help crops to grow, to fend off pests and diseases, among other functions. The bacteria are most active in the decomposition of organic matter, but when the soil is acid, are replaced by fungi, and when the soil is very dry, the work is done by actinomycetes. Therefore, the soil with each of the components that are either in their chemical function, physical or biological, is a key natural resource for agriculture and natural ecosystems support, and the water cycle and chemicals, including carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Therefore, to produce either a soil should contain all these components into a well-balanced proportion in both quantity and quality.

What do we mean by quality and soil health?

There are many definitions given for "soil quality" but the simplest definition has been given by the Society of Soil Science of America (SSSA by its acronym in English) in 1994 who defined it as "the ability the soil to function "in a general sense we could say, work well for a specific use. However, the term "soil health" is used (as Doran and Zeiss, 2000) more broadly to indicate the soil's ability to function as a vital system to maintain biological productivity, promote environmental quality and maintain health human and animal. In this sense we see that the "soil health" is synonymous with sustainability.

Although there are differences in concepts, the terms "soil quality" and "soil health" are often used synonymously. Both concepts have evolved, especially the "quality" to which you have added new features such as sustainability and environmental quality (Roming et al., 1995., Karlen et al., 1997). Also, several authors consider it necessary to unify criteria, so in this presentation we will use as equivalent. In agricultural systems, soil quality and health provides a productive and sustainable growth of crops with minimal impact on the environment, thanks to its high availability of nutrients and aeration, good water infiltration and retention, good structural stability and high level of biological activity.


Banana Technology Transfer

Page #23

It is generally accepted that conventional agricultural production causes a decrease in soil quality, but many do not understand the multiple functions that the soil provides a basis for sustainable management. Many of these functions and their interactions with the soil biological create a complexity that is not yet sufficiently known, understood or appreciated by the scientific community, especially its relationship with production. This applies especially to the banana industry that develops in tropical soils and climates where much research is still needed in this regard.

Are they losing their health banana soils?

Despite the application of techniques and high-cost inputs, including the intensive use of agrochemicals in commercial banana plantations in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has been recorded in the last ten years a considerable reduction in productivity, due to the change and accelerated deterioration of physical, chemical and biological soil. The interaction of these last three factors has been poorly studied and researched, but is now considered fundamental to solving the problem of burnout and low productivity of plantations. There is evidence of the direct relationship between reduced productivity and loss of quality and soil health, the adverse impact of conventional production system (Gauggel et al, 2005; Pattison, 2005). The banana plantations have been established in areas that previously were tropical forests. In natural ecosystems balanced relationship between its components produce an efficient, stable and high capacity of resistance to change. Monocultures and intensive culture of banana caused substantial changes in this environment, such as declining biodiversity, loss of soil resources through erosion, and chemical imbalances, physical and biological soil above. The high burden of polyethylene waste in banana soils, intensive use of biocides for combating nematodes and black Sigatoka and application of fertilizer rates over the extraction capacity of the crop management are critical elements that have contributed to a greater or lesser extent the decline in banana soils. The productivity of the banana plantations in several countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, for example in Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Costa Rica have shown considerable fluctuations over the last decade (Figure 1) There is no well documented evidence that these production declines are associated with a general decay of the culture or what is known as depletion or exhaustion of the soil, which has caused the abandonment of many areas of production no longer profitable to trade. result of data manipulation less farms with better production than the production units abandoned. By contrast, banana production in Venezuela and the Dominican Republic, characterized by greater use of organic production systems or less use of chemical inputs, has maintained a remarkable stability durnte he past ten years. (Figure 1).

Ecuador has excellent agricultural soils with a high depth of mulch. The fertilizer is important for the recovery of soils. This issue is often overlooked by farmers. The country is below the rate of fertiizaci贸n in the region, that in a few years IRDP exhausting the soil according to experts.


Banana Technology Transfer

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Colombia

Costa Rica

Ecuador

Panamá

República Dominicana

Venezuela

60

R endim iento Tm /ha

50

40

30

20

10

0 1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Fuente FAOSTAT.

Figura 1. Rendimiento (TM/Ha) en seis países productores de banano en América Latina y el Caribe.

Productividad Area acumulada sembrada despues de 1987 Area total en producción

3000

60000

2500

40000 30000

2000

20000 10000

1500

0 1987

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005

Fuente CORBANA

Figura 2. Productividad (cajas /Ha) y área total sembrada durante el periodo 1987-2005 en Costa Rica.

(ha)

(Cajas/ha)

50000


Banana Technology Transfer Both Agenda 21, arising from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992, as the so-called GATT trade agreement have synthesized the concern of the international community on environmental issues, establishing fees to encourage sustainable management systems agricultural production (ISO 14000). This new political and commercial environment imposes restrictions on conventional forms of production and creates opportunities for those companies that achieve design better management plans for their export crops.

Page #25 necessary to understand the causes and dynamics of the process of deterioration and to design alternative technological innovations. This evolution of Latin American banana industry towards a more friendly and sustainable agro-ecology is essential to ensure long-term productivity and proper integration into the global market, where consumers tend to demand higher levels of environmental protection.

DEVELOPMENT OF A GUIDE FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF THE QUALITY AND HEALTH BANANA SOIL

The need to diagnose and monitor soil health to help solve Currently, the methods used to measure the productive capacthe problem of falling productivity. For over a hundred years ity or potential of a soil for the cultivation of bananas, are it has grown bananas in several countries of tropical America mainly based on the study of physical and chemical properties and Latin America leads the world economy of this crop for of itself and its relations with some special features such as their share of world trade. It is unquestionable the importopography and climatic conditions predominant. These methtance of the banana industry in the economic and social ods rarely consider the level or state of health of the soil and are development of the LAC countries especially in the generanot sufficient to explain the complex interactions of soil and tion of direct and indirect jobs and foreign rhizosphere (Pattison, 2004). exchange earnings, as the region exports more than 80% of bananas in the world . If The need to diagBy the initiative of INIBAP and its partners con-We think that in 2000 (FAOSTAT) the mentioned above, is developing a total value of banana exports was about nose and monitor diagnostic guide the quality and soil U.S. $ 7,000 million, revenues from import soil health to help health, for which we selected a set of under this heading are extremely importaking into account the physical, tant for the region. solve the problem of indicators chemical and mainly biological soil. As a falling productivity. basis for the initial selection of the indicaThis social and economic importance of tors used by some of the criteria identified banana in LAC, it is necessary to critically For over a hundred by Doran and Parkin, 1994 and Pattison review the systems of production and years it has grown (personal communication), which are make technological innovations that listed below: Able to describe ecosystem ensure sustainability in search of a better bananas in several processes, repeatable, sensitive to quality of life. This desire implies the countries of tropical changes in soil management, sensitive to integral preservation of natural resources, climatic variations, capable of operating in within which the soil component is of vital America and Latin different soils and environments, easy to importance. The principles of green understand, accessible to many users and revolution developed in the middle of last America leads the applicable to field conditions and that can century, determined the design of highworld economy of be correlated with other physical, chemilevel technological packages of inputs, cal and biological soil. allowing higher levels of production and this crop for their profitability of the crop. share of world trade. The information presented in this written This move led many countries to promote version is based on the progress achieved the planting of crops following the same in mid-2006, based primarily on data from scheme as an alternative to economic growth, but as menCosta Rica. The process and the methodological steps tioned earlier in the case of bananas expectations have not described below are already established and will be used to been sustainable over time and system maintenance is analyze the remaining data from the other three partner counbecoming more and more costly from a financial and tries. At the end of the process we hope to ratify or change the environmental. indicators so far established, which in turn would change the final constitution of soil health index banana, which is the focus The application of a guideline for the diagnosis and monitorof this presentation. ing of quality and soil health banana allow banana producers characterize the most important critical factors of the soil The vision of developing the guide has been to move from and identify best management practices to prevent deteriocomplex to simple, looking for the final version of it can meet ration or to restore lost health to the extent possible. It is most requirements for selection of indicators mentioned good to remember that soil degradation can occur in a short above. The development of the Guide began with the identifiperiod as a result of poor management but that its restoracation and study of 22 leading indicators were classified into 11 tion is slow and expensive. The description of the current groups of data (see Table 1) which together accounted for 68 state of soil health and its further development is the basis of different variables. information


Banana Technology Transfer

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Table 1. Key indicators and selected variables at baseline and examined during the process of developing guidance.

Leading Indicators Group Phytonematode

Variables Studied Total root weight (g) functional root weight (g); Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus milticintus, total phytonematode.

Free-living nematodes

Free-living nematodes, plant nematodes, total nematodes;% of free-living nematodes;% of phytonematode.

Endophytic fungi Characterization System radical Total population count Microbial respiration

Number of Trichoderma isolates, Number Fusarium isolates, other fungi, total fungi isolated fungi Total purified. 2 Weight radical root length, area (cm), 3 diameter (mm), volume (cm), index of necrosis (%) Bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. -1 Mg 100-1g 10 days.

Microbial biomass

Values in mg C · 100 g dry soil at 105 ° C; Flow-C Flow C / Factor 0.45, fumigated and not fumigated.

Microarthropods Counts

№ of individuals and № families

Chemical component indicators soil

-1

pH, Al, exchangeable acidity, Ca, Mg, K, total cations, Ca / Mg, Ca / K, Mg / K,% K sat, sat% Ca, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn,% M.O.,% Alfe,% phosphates,% sat bases

Physical component indicators soil

Effective depth, texture,% sand,% silt, % Clay, shear strength, resistance to penetration, bulk density, particles, infiltration, porosity

Production indicators

Circumference mother plant, number of hands / bunch and height of child

It produced a Guide (working version) and distributed to project partners to make a diagnosis at field level in 42 farms in the four countries. The work began with the selection of farms, which to be included in the study should have historical data and production management with a minimum of three years, as this information is extremely important when analyzing the results of diagnostic and also to design alternatives that would improve the quality and soil health. To verify the convenience and functionality of the various indicators, the guide was tested on farms with different levels of production and agricultural management (export farms, conventional and organic farms to local markets, small, medium and large). At the same time each property was marked on production sites, good, fair and poor. In this way the indicators could be measured and evaluated for their discriminatory quality in productive environments at the macro level (differences between farms) and micro level (differences within the same building). For a better understanding of the process we will use as teaching material in Figure 3 that outlines all the work done.

Figure 3. Process design, testing and selection of indicators and indexes to guide diagnosis of banana soils.


Banana Technology Transfer

In each of the identified areas, opened four "minicalicatas" (one hectare) with a dimension of 60 cm. X 60 cm. X 60 cm., The length, width and depth, respectively, for a total of 8 to 12 pits per farm studied. In Costa Rica, which was the site of testing, we used three contrasting areas per farm, but the difficulty of identifying with certainty the intermediate production sites after it was decided to use in other partner countries, only extreme differences as sites production to be good and bad production. At the end of the activity with the pits, samples were taken for microbiological testing. Once the fieldwork and laboratory, we proceeded to the quantitative analysis of data using a methodology that allows for assessing the effectiveness and relationship between different indicators, ie proceeded to evaluate the performance of each of the Indicators their ability to "indicate" the differences between contrasting sites within and between farms studied. Initially it was a Discriminant Factorial Analysis of data from pre-diagnosis to check the classification of areas within the farm (high and low productivity) was done correctly, the discriminant analysis showed that the previous classification was appropriate. The selection of the most significant variables was made first, based on linear regression step by step (both forward and backward), using productivity as a dependent variable. At the same time he became a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with all physical, chemical and microbiological tests to study the relationships between different variables and again to see if the information provided with some of these can be obtained from other variables.

The weight was estimated from the importance of the corresponding variable in the first two principal components analysis with all variables of MDS. For its part, the response curve is constructed based on the opinions of specialists in the field. Thus we obtain a general index that describes the quality and soil health from the indicators, taking also a graphical representation of it for easier understanding of the integrated results of all indicators. Indexes also are constructed for particular physico-chemical and microbiological.

3 .- Microbiological (7): Total population of bacteria. Total population of fungi. Weight radical. Free-living nematodes / gender), free-living nematodes fungĂ­veros, percentage of phytonematode, Biodiversity (microarthropods)

Once the Pre-diagnosis and placed the sampling sites, we proceeded to implement the "diagnosis" per se. The "minicalicatas" are the vehicle that allowed the collection of field data through the implementation and measurement of indicators for the study of the physical, chemical and microbiological soil.

This variable selection process, formed the Minimum Data Set (Minimum Data Set), which was revised by cluster analysis, or automatic classification, showing the relevance of the chosen variables and their independence. Each of these variables in the MDS, then entered a mathematical index with a weight and a response curve.

2 .- Chemical (6): pH, phosphorus (P), Ca / Mg., Phosphorus retention, acidity and exchangeable Mg / K.

During the Pre-diagnosis, on each farm were selected three areas (good, fair or poor). Each area had a size of approximately four hectares and each of the four plots were demarcated areas of 20x50 meters each (or in a square), corresponding to 1000 m2, where population density was calculated and then 20 plants were identified calved in the last three tapes close to harvest for the determination of production parameters, for a total of 80 plants on 4 hectares. A selected plant data were taken: height and circumference of the mother plant and number of hands, which are the indicators of production.

Furthermore, we examined the behavior of farms by two separate principal component analysis, which showed full consistency between the variables and the variables of productivity, and thus new variables were selected for the set. With the information obtained from different analysis indicators or variables eliminated inefficient or because of their high correlation with other indicators easier or cheaper production could be appreciated without having to be studied per se.

1 .- Physical (2): Infiltration of water and porosity

A simultaneous and complementary step to the selection of farms, was the activity called "Pre-test" and is where you get the history of the property, based on interviews with producers, secondary data and in situ verification of the production situation of the farm through the application of the indicators of production.

Page #27


Banana Technology Transfer

Mostrar forma romanizada Currently, based on existing studies, you are editing a draft of the Guide for a technical review by international experts. This first version is composed of a Minimum Data Set of 15 key indicators for the physical, chemical and microbiological numbers 2, 6 and 7 indicators for each of them respectively. Indicators are variables that help us evaluate the condition (quality and health) of soil. The Index, in our case, refers to the instrument that brings together several indicators to analyze and quantify in a simplified form the various phenomena and interactions that occur in the rhizosphere and that may be affecting the productivity of banana soils. The reference indicators are as follows: (See chart onpage 27). For each of the indicators have been developed response curves and the ranges indicative of their beneficial or detrimental condition for the production of bananas. There are also a program that produces a graphic representation of the General Index of the quality and soil health, which facilitates the interpretation of the critical factors that are affecting the production of a farm in particular. AVAILABILITY OF THE GUIDE Once the adjustment and refinement of indicators, and with the feedback from the International Scientific Committee responsible for reviewing the preliminary version of the Guide shall be the final edition of the same. The issue in its Spanish version will be financed printing and distribution in LAC FONTAGRO and regional partners. IPGRI-INIBAP for its part, will take charge of the English and French versions, both in print and in their distribution worldwide.

Page #28

Banana Export English  

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