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Migration in the past, the present and the future-problems and opportunities

2012-1-DE3-COM06-27184-2


INDEX • Migration in Turkey

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3

• Migration in Italy

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65

• Migration in Estonia

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97

• Migration in Poland

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154

• Migration in Germany

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180

• Migration in France

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196

• Stories and interviews

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205


TURKEY


• EMIGRATION: In a country people move to another city/country because of some reasons

:

• IMMIGRATION People move from their city/country to another city/ country because of some reasons • UNEMPLOYMENT : Needing a job .


• If there is an unemployment in a country people want to go to another city/country to find a job /better job and earn money. so we say this migration is labour migration.


THE LABOUR MIGRATION OF TURKEY It started in 1960 . Nowadays: -88,7 % of emigrant Turkish workers have emigrated to Western European countries like Germany, France, Holland, Denmark, Belgium. -8,5 % of them have emigrated to the middle east countries, North Africa and Arabic countries . - 0,5 % of them have gone to the other Turkish Republics . -In Australia there are 30.000 Turkish workers. And in the USA there are 130.000 Turkish workers.


But a lot of workers tend to come back to Turkey because they can’t accommodate in the countries which have different cultures


ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

• The Turkish workers that emigrated have a big contribution to country economy . • The country which gives migration has a foreign currency income • The economic relations are developed between countries

• When a country gives migration , its number of labour force potential and skilled workers decrease. • Because of migration there can be conflict between cultures .


• 1- MARMARA REGION


2-AGEAN REGION


3-THE MEDITERRENEAN REGION


MIGRATION

OF EDUCATION


In Turkey, the migration of education raises after many universities are opened. Until 1950, there were just 3 universities in Turkey. Two of them are in Istanbul (Istanbul University and ITU), one of them is in Ankara (Ankara University). The foundation universities are started to build in 90s and this was an important event in education. As a result, the number of universities and also the number of student were raised. After 1993 in total, there were 75 universities in Turkey . Until 1980, the capacity of universities was limited. In 2006, 32 state universities were opened and in this way there were no cities without university. After all those progress in education, the rate of migration in education raises .


Refugee migrations are also in the category of forced migrations


• Migration as a necessity of life, migration is the result of some environmental factors. Migration, the demographic structure of the society, which is effective in identifying one of the basic indicators. • People from the past, migrated because of armed conflict, oppression, violence and natural disasters‌


Some reasons of refugee migration: • Disputes, conflicts because of political reasons • Jeopardizing the safety of life and property because of disputes , conflicts which caused some problems(for example political reasons)


MIGRATION TO TÜRKIYE


INFORMATION • Before 1921,only voluntary organızations cared,and they helped them • We can see refugee migration everywhere in the world • The number of immigrants were 1.203.936 between 1923 and 1960 • The most unexpected migration was after Körfez war ,and 400.000 kurdish immigrants came to Türkiye from Iraq • 1951 Terms of agreement ,not suitable for their immigration .But Türkiye agreed this immigration because of the seriousness of the situation.!!!!!! • Between 1923-1997, 1.648.077 people migrated to Türkiye from other countries. • Türkiye has problems because of illegal immigrations. • In 2009 ,34.345 and last 15 years 796.494 people migrate with illegal ways to EU countries. • If refugees want to stay ın Türkiye they must apply to UNHCR Türkiye Office • %30-40 of applicants are entitled to be refugee status • Finally there are 120.140 (June 2013)refugees in Türkiye and it has been increasing day by day and the conflict has been growing up all over Türkiye.


THE CHILD PROTECTION AGENCY


THE CHILD PROTECTION AGENCY The Child Protection Agency have made a research about Syria war since two years. This search is determine the impact on children. The Child Protection Agency explain it with 'Children Under Fire' report. In this report talk about the children had to leave their home with family and then they started to live in the cove, they can't go to school because the schools are being targeted, they had food and medicine problem etc. 2 millions children need of assistance. They die or they are killed. They can't see their family ,friends. When they are 8 ,they have a gun. Elisabeth Dahlin of Radda Bornen General-Secretary said that we couldn't allow to do 覺t. In refugee camp , girls and young women get married because they run away from camp.


Being Lebanese refugee children The most affected on children by war, they are struggling under difficult conditions of life. Their toys are made of plastic bottles.


The most affected by the crisis in Syria are in ĂœrdĂźn, it has opened a new camp space. In this camp will live 5 thousand refugees. It has got water and electric way.


Refugee camps full of dramatic stories In Syria running away from civil war Syrians are coming to Turkey. Some newcomers Syrians come back their country to fight. In refugee camp there is full of pain and tear. Most of people know they will never see their family again. But they are happy because their children are safe in Turkey now. Everyday , 250 Syrians come to Turkey. Men against Esed are coming back to save their country. So the refugee camp is full of women and children. There are 110 000 Syrians in Turkey.


ORPHANED SYRIAN CHILDREN


Syrian Heysan came to him 2 child and wife to Turkey and then he come back their town save him sister but he was shot by the soldiers. Grandfather lost him two son and now he look after little three children. Hamza, Emine, Ahmed . Hamza is 1 years . They don't know why they had come. Last year come to Turkey and stay a tent city in 64 years , Ahmed Marandi believes that the persecution will end and he always prays .


Gaziantep refugee camp


In Antep camp is not bad according to refugee camp but I heard from two officials 'If we continue to cover up problems, it will be an iceberg'.


American Turkish reporter


Recently, İstanbul reporter Hilmi Hacaoğlu came to the refugee camp, he spoke refugee and people in the region . He got the opinion of them about Syria . He listened people in the region is problems too. He start to tell us your note.

According to The United Nations High Commissioner for refugee in Türkiye , Syrias run away from the war stay in seven camp number of refugee 24.600. The biggest camp is a container camp in Kilis . It is a house for 10 thousand refugee. The oldest and the most famous camp is a tent city in Hatay in Yayladağı. In this camp is living 5 thousand refugee. Muhammed Labut said that generally everbody was happy but they always think their country. Whatever the circumstances nowhere couldn't be your homeland. He come to Turkey three months ago. He spoke him sister on phone. Everybody is talking fearing.


Chechen refugees photos


They are refugee not parasite ! Volkan Görendağ wrote about news related to the Hatay: Recently Turkey located in mainstream media in the news, and some of the writings of refugees oriented discriminatory language used in the corner. With this news and the articles, a negative prejudice against refugees and asylum seekers tried to create. However came to Türkiye to escape violence in Syria, the vast majority women and children civilians reflected as in the armed factor this is causing to be ignored the Syrian refugees' justices. Asylum seekers and refugees in accordance with international law and under protection needs at the same time as Türkiye's humanitarian responsibility. So aslylum seekers and refugees shouldn't be seen as a 'parasite', they should be seen as a person who is having justices.


MIGRATION DUE TO TERRORISM AND SECURITY


Meaning of the word is terrorization, homicide,vandalism and intimidation There is a terrorist organization in Turkey. Its name is PKK which is known Kurdistan Workers Party by the world .PKK was first organized on 27 November 1978 by Abdullah Ă–CALAN.People think PKK is KĂźrdish people organization but it is not true because no one gives harm to their own people . PKK consists of PKK's tricked illeterate people.


PKK actions have often been seen in the eastern and southeastern Anatolia. External and internal forces support the PKK.PKK is a big problem because they have been killing a lot of soldiers and people. The PKK give harms to the public and the institutions which have been built by the state and private sectors ,so people migrate to the western cities of Turkey


They seize property, they give harm to government agencies and employees, they want to include people in the PKK by forcing. People don’t want to join in PKK, so they migrate to other cities


According to founders’ claims PKK was founded to establish a state in Turkey’s east and southeast, Iraq’s north, Syria’s northeast and Iran’s northwest.


Almost 40.000 people have been killed by PKK.49.593 family and 310.921 people heve migrated because of PKK attacks so far.


By the help of informing the people in those regions and negotiations with the European countries and the USA, people have understood the real aim of PKK. Now PKK have been retreating so people are migrating to their own towns and cities again. 100.000 people migrated to Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia Region because PKK have lost their power.


A lot of people migrate because of PKK because they have been giving harm to a lot of schools and factories so the state and private sectors have difficulties in investment .People can’t invest and they can’t make money. PKK have lived off smuggling drug, gun and human.


ITALY


Reasons which urge so many people to leave their country 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Population explosion in many Southern countries and scarce resources Conflicts between different ethnic groups Dictatorships Attraction to Western models of life Natural disasters


Migration flows towards Italy • Italy has been affected by immigration much later than other EU nations (France, Germany, England). Today the foreigners legally present constitute 2.8% of the Italian population, to these ones the so-called "illegal" should be added, ie those who do not have a residence permit


Places of Origin Romania

Albania Morocco

China Ukraine

Philippines Moldova India Poland Tunisia Peru Ecuador Egypt Bangladesh

The majority of immigrants today come from Eastern Europe. Then there are Africans, Asians and, to a lesser extent, Americans of South America. With regard to Latin America, the majority of emigrants come from Brazil, Argentina and Peru . With regard to Africa, the states affected by the phenomenon are: Morocco, Egypt, Senegal, Ghana, Ethiopia and Somalia. Instead the immigrants coming from Asia are of Philippine, Chinese and Indian nationality.


Main activities carried out by immigrants The great majority of them live from their work. The regular ones are employed in restaurants, in hotel services, businesses cleaning, construction, as porters, such as street vendors and laborers. A lot of them also provide crucial support in fishing. 100%

60%

17,50%15,50% 2%

1%

occasional activities

building

0% workers and domestic

trade

agriculture

Women, in particular, devote themselves to caring for the elderly, they are domestic workers or nurses. In some cases the communities have their own specialization: the healthcare workers are from Eastern Europe, the fishermen are Tunisians, Maghreb are the fruit pickers and most of the maids are Philippines.


The Journey to Hope Italy with its nine thousand kilometers of coastline, is one of the favorite destinations for immigrants. The ports of Lampedusa, Puglia and Sicily are the privileged places for landings of illegal immigrants. In fact, almost always it takes place in the underground. The immigrants travel on crumbling boats, the so called “floating wrecks� running very often the risk of being shipwrecked Sometimes it's the patrol boat of the Finance or the Navy or the Carabinieri who save them from certain death because the illegal smugglers, not to be arrested, abandon them as soon as they are in the Italian territorial waters. They are then rescued, restored, cared for if they need it, then housed in reception centers. After evaluating each case, the authorities decide on their fate: they are usually deported, only those who prove to be war refugees are accepted.


The troubles The problems that immigrants have to face, after arriving at their destination, often have to do with the actual exploitation. They are obliged to accept the most hazardous and tiring jobs, sometimes without having the same wage of Italian citizens and live in overcrowded homes rented at very high prices. Sometimes the girls are forced into prostitution.


The immigrant communities Sometimes the new immigrant can contact a relative or even a villager as often happens among the Chinese. In this case he has some more chance to find a temporary job while waiting for a job as a worker in some Northern industry, since this is the final goal most of them aspire. To these problems we must add those of a social nature: hostility, loneliness and emargination, not to mention the difficulty in understanding the language and the impossibility to attend places of worship


The Italian communities’ aid The Italian state found itself unprepared for this phenomenon that has doubled in the last four years. Therefore the immigrants who arrived in Italy have also received help and assistance from volunteers and some Catholic organizations, including the Caritas. According to the Caritas’survey, within the next ten years, the foreign population will double. If so, we must ask the question: “Will our country be equipped to cope successfully with it?" It doesn’t seem so. Yet immigration is structural to our economy as shown by the millions of foreigners who work and pay taxes and contributions.


A way of integration As regards integration, families and schools have a decisive role, they must develop in the young people the respect for different racial groups, educating them to live with civic engagement in an increasingly multiracial and multicultural society.

School is the most willing institution to accept foreigners. It is important for foreign children to attend school because it means : • Establishing equal relationships with their peers • Educating themselves. • Meet the children's need to feel equal to others • Overcome the distrust of the "other. The goal is not to eliminate differences but to stimulate "a flexible and open identity able to see the stranger as an opportunity and not as an obstacle."


THE ITALIAN LAWS


The 80’s: The Discovery • A specific legislation is lacking. Immigration is governed by the Police Act of 1931,

which simply imposes a control on foreigners. Access to employment is governed by circulars from the Ministry of Labour. • In 1986 the law 943 was issued – “Rules on placement and treatment of the

immigrant foreign workers and against illegal immigration ": it is the first normative regulation on the working activity of foreigners. • The law has some important rules on placement, treatment of foreign workers,

family reunification and penalities for illegal immigration.


1990: Martelli law • The law 39/1990, or Martelli law, is the first real attempt to discipline the reality of

migration and, above all, the first occasion on which Italy officially recognizes immigration as a stable presence of foreigners living and working in the country. • Urgent provisions for political asylum, entry and stay of non-EU citizens are

established, trying to regulate exhaustively the whole issue of immigration. • Subjects migrants are entitled to the fundamental human rights, not only those of

workers, and a kind of citizenship linked to residence..


Turco-Napolitano Law  Law 6 March 1998 n. 40 – “Discipline of immigration and status of foreigner ", implemented and integrated into the legislative decree of the25th July 1998 n. 286 of the Consolidated Law.  Planning of the entry quotas for work; • fight against illegal immigration (establishment of CPT); •

aggravation of penalties for illegal immigration;

• rules of the residence permit ; • rules for the protection of the family; • school integration; • equality of social and health care; • repression of discrimination and equal legal protection.


Bossi-Fini Law Law 189/2002. Main points: •

greater border control - strengthening of the police powers;

aids to States cooperating in the fight against illegal immigration and trafficking in human beings, reduction of quotas for states that do not cooperate;

immediate expulsion of illegal immigrants;

extension to 60 days of the period of detention in the Cpt;

Increase in penalty for trafficking in illegal immigrants;

fingerprinting of foreigners;

regular admission only after nominative or numerical call and closely related to: residence contract, suitable accommodation and commitment to pay the costs for the return by the employer;

reduction from one year to six months of the "awaiting employment“ permit;

issue of the residence permit after six years of legal stay, and not five.


Immigrant groups before and after regularization Origin

Legalized immigrants

01/01/2003

Total

Increase

Romania

132.769

95.834

228.603

138,5

Marocco

46.918

172.834

219.752

27,1

Albania

47.060

168.963

216.023

27,9

Ucraina

100.035

14.035

114.170

713,5

China

32.805

62.314

95.119

52,6

Filippine

11.773

62.257

74.030

28,5

Poland

30.343

35.077

65.420

86,5

Tunisia

9.657

51.384

61.041

18,8

Senegal

11.761

36.310

48.071

32,4

Per첫

16.061

31.115

47.176

51,6

India

12.792

34.080

46.872

37,5

Ecuador

33.983

12.108

46.091

280,7


Nowdays • According to the latest data released by the Caritas, the migrants in our country at the end of 2005 were 3,035,000, representing 5.2% of the Italian population. • 70% are below 40 years of age. • The majority of the residence permits is stable: 62.6% for work and 29.3% for family reasons.. • In the labor market foreigners represent 10% of the employed. • 130.969 business owners. • 424,683 students in the Italian schools are children of immigrants. Only

38,298 enrolled at the university are foreigners.


Minors • The total number of children

in Italy i s hardly detectable. Caritas estimated, at the end of 2005, a presence of 586,483 foreign citizens aged from 0 to 18, equal to 19.3%. • They were 128.000 in 2001. • The unaccompanied foreign

minors are, according to the Committee for foreign children, 7,583, mostly from Romania, Morocco and Albania.


The immigration Centers CDA These structures are designed to ensure first aid to irregular foreigners tracked throughout the country. The welcome center is limited to the time necessary to establish the identity and the legality of their stay on the territory or to require their expulsion. CEI These centers are intended to prevent the dispersion of irregular migrants on the territory and allow the execution, by the police, of expulsion issued against irregular immigrants. The foreigners can stay in these centers for a maximum of 18 months.


The refugee center in the island of Lampedusa is the most crowded of Italy Due to its location between the North African coast and south of Europe, the island in last decade has been privileged point of landing of immigration, especially illegal immigration, and one of the main tourist routes of African migrants in the Mediterranean. It was built a temporary accommodation center, run by the Interior Ministry, which provides identification of migrants and their transfer. Especially during the summer migrants and refugees, Tunisian and Libyan parties from the ports, arrive on the coast of Lampedusa and Linosa and they are rescued at sea by the Coast Guard


Unfortunately, sometimes hope turns into despair‌


Italians in The World The Italians living abroad are 4.208.977 and affect the resident population in Italy to the extent of 6,9%. The people of Italian extraction in the 5 continents are at least 60 million The number of Italians abroad has increased by more than 200 thousands units since last year


The Migration Flows: directions 100 90 80 70

The majority of Italians emigrates to the European countries (56,7 %) and the USA (36,9 %)

57,6%

60 50

36,9%

40 30 20 3,4%

10 0

Europe

USA

Oceania

1,3%

Africa

0,8%

Asia


Regions of provenience

15% NORD OVEST

14% CENTER

37% SOUTH

15% NORTH EAST

19% ISLANDS

The majority of Italians emigrates from the South (36,2 %) and the islands (19,4 %)


Age of Italians abroad

More than half of the Italians living abroad are young people under the age of 35,it is the so called “brain drain� because it concerns mainly graduates in science and technology.


Objectives & Reasons Italian researchers are absorbed mostly by the U.S., Great Britain , Germany France, Canada In 2010, 40% of the Italian scholars were in the 10 most famous British universities European countries and U.S. , in particular , offer : •

higher wages,

positions of responsability despite the young age,

transparent and merit-based selections,

clear and well defined career opportunities,

welfare state closer to young people, especially if

unemployed (thanks to minimum wage)


ESTONIA


Table of contents • Emigration from Estonia • 1991-2003 (since restoration of independence) • 2004-2013 (since joining EU) • Estonians in Finland • Estonians in Australia • Jaan Poska Gymnasium students about migration • 2 interviews with Estonians living abroad


Emigration from Estonia in 1990s • Estonia regained its independence in 1991 • It was possible after 50 years of Soviet power to travel to the Western European countries as a tourist. • When the borders opened more, part of Estonians managed to emigrate from Estonia.


Migration net rate before and after 1991 • Population of Estonia was 1.56 million in 1991 • Positive migration net rate till 1991 due to Russian employees & military moving to Estonia • Negative migration net rate since 1991 due to the Russian employees & military leaving Estonia


Population changes 1990–2010

nationality

1989

2000

2010

total Estonians

1.56 million 61%

1.37 million 68%

1.34 million 69%

Russians

30%

26%

25%

Ukrainians

3%

2%

2%


Changes in national composition 100% 90%

6% 3%

80%

4% 2%

4% 2%

26%

25%

68%

69%

2000

2010

30% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30%

61%

20% 10% 0% 1989

Estonians

Russians

Ukrainians

Other nations


Emigration from Estonia in 1990s

• In 1990s emigration exceeded immigration • Who left Estonia? • Russians moved mainly to Russia: Soviet Army was brought out and state border and visa regime was established between Estonia and Russia • Karelian Finns were invited to move to Finland • Estonians started to emigrate to Western countries

• In 10 years the population decreased by 200 000 people


Changes in national composition

100% 90% 80%

6% 3% 30%

4% 2%

4% 2%

26%

25%

68%

69%

2000

2010

70% 60% 50% 40% 30%

61%

20%

10% 0%

1989

Estonians

Russians

Ukrainians

Other nations


Border between Estonia and Russia


Paldiski: a town deserted by Soviet military forces Paldiski used to be the Naval base of Soviet Army. There were about 30 military objects.


Why Estonians left Estonia in 1990s? • It became easier to apply for foreign visas • Main destinations were Finland, Sweden, Germany, Ireland. • It was possible to use better transportation: ferry boats to Helsinki and Stockholm, international flights all over Europe. • The standard of living in the West was much higher.

• There was very difficult period in Estonia: unemployment, lack of stability, inflation • Employment agencies & organisations helped to find a job abroad


http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-2Mml0A7zU68/UinZgy8gwHI/AAAAAAAAAA8/nf8CcDZFcCk/s760/Estonia_ferry.jpg


Working abroad in early 1990s

• first jobs: • temporary jobs in the farms and construction sites • seasonal jobs (picking strawberries) • Au pairs

• People got experience & information about life and labour market in other countries


What changed after Estonia joined EU in 2004?

• visa-free travel with EU countries • access to the labour market in EU • It increased emigration of Estonians to Europe and elsewhere


Emigration from Estonia in 2004-2012

12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000

Number of people leaving Estonia

0

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012


Migration net rate in 2004–2012 the number of people by which emigration exceeds immigration 0 -1000 -2000 -3000 -4000 -5000 -6000 -7000 -8000

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012


Who are leaving? • People under 30. This is the age group of highest mobility. • Mostly Estonians. Emigration is less popular in other national groups. • Mostly (skilled) workers: about 50% of leavers have secondary education • People with university degree: there are more women than men ( the proportsion of women exceeds men by 15%)


Changes in population 1990-2013 Total of all age groups 1800000 1600000 1400000 1200000

1000000 800000 600000

400000 200000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2012* 2013

0

Mehed ja naised


Reasons for leaving • Younger people are going

- to study at European and US universities - to take part in volunteer programs abroad - to work abroad • • • •

Older age groups: to work Males go primarily to work Females leave for personal reasons rather than work Children are moving along with their families


What makes it attractive to work abroad?

• job: a better job with a higher salary • family: a family member is already abroad • challenge: looking for new challenges • climate: finding a warmer place to live • sociability: people are more open-minded, friendy and helpful


Destinations

• Finland: overwhelmingly most popular • the UK, Russia, Sweden, Norway, but by far less popular than Finland • Australia, the US: especially popular with the youth looking for challenges


Destinations • Austria, Germany and Switzerland opened their labor markets officially to workers from Eastern European countries in 2011. • They expect medical specialists, seasonal workers in hotels and the catering field.


Other European countries Other countries

Russia

Ukraine

UK

Finland

Germany

Sweden

Emigration and immigration in Estonia

Immigration Emigration


Emigration and immigration in Estonia

IMMIGRATION EMIGRATION


Immigration into Estonia by countries Number of immigrants 2500

2000 1500 1000 500 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Eesti

*

Venemaa

Soome

Muu riik

*Estonians returning to Estonia: the highest share among the immigrants


Emigration negative impacts on Estonia

• • • •

lack of skilled labour less money for pensioners: tax-payers are leaving population decreases “brain drain”: highly educated people leave for richer countries • “brain in vain”: highly qualified specialists accept a non-specialist job abroad due to differences in wages


Emigration positive impact on Estonia

• Emigrants receive new work experience • People improve foreign language skills • New prospects for cooperation due to personal contacts • Migrants share their experience when back in Estonia • Emigrants support financially the family in Estonia • Higher tolerance towards migrants due to personal migration experience


Famous Estonians abroad

Thomas Edur and Age Oks in London

Supermodel Carmen Kass


Toomas Hendrik Ilves • He was born in Stockholm, Sweden. His parents were Estonian refugees. • He grew up in the United States. • 1988–1993 the Director of Estonian editorial board Radio Free Europe • 1993–1996 the Ambassador of Estonian Republic in USA, Canada, Mexico • 1996–1998 and 1999–2002 The Foreign minister of Estonian Republic 2004–2006 Member of European Parliament Since 2006 President of Estonian Republic


Emigration to Finland


Highest emigration rate to Finland: why?

• Finland is geographically close enough to commute between Finland & Estonia • Finnish language is close to Estonian: similar grammar and some common vocabulary • Finn’s character and nature are rather close to Estonian’s


Highest emigration rate to Finland: why?

• Wage level is higher in Finland, for example in health care, construction, service sector etc • unemployment in Estonia


Unemployment rates in Estonia 1993–2011 (%)


Estonians leaving for Finland: 2 major waves • First wave in late 1980s and early 1990s: peak in 1993

• mostly Karelian Finns: invited to “return” to Finland • mostly leaving with whole families • Second wave since 2004: peak in 2005

• economic depression in Estonia • no need for visas: easy to leave • At the beginning one family member leaves alone, the family would follow later


Estonian population in Finland

• Before 1991: about 1000 Estonians • 2009: about 22 000 permanent Estonian residents • 2013: about 35 000 Estonians • 46% of Estonian immigrants in Finland are skilled workers.


People position in Estonia and Finland 40% 35% 30% 25% 20%

15% 10% 5% 0%

Among the people working in Estonia Among the people who have emigrated to Finland

Senior Technicians executives and and associate professiona professiona ls ls

Officials and customer service

Skilled labor

Unskilled labor

25%

13%

16%

36%

10%

22%

11%

23%

35%

9%


Tarja Halonen: I hope that Estonians like living in Finland. Eesti P채evaleht, 23.11.2013

Estonians who moved from Estonia over Gulf of Finland are not emigrants or immigrants. Estonia and Finland have never been in a state of war, and the border between Estonia and Finland should not be as distinct as with the other countries.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tarja_Ha lonen_1c389_8827-2.jpg


Young Estonians in Australia Reasons for leaving To earn money in farms, mines, cafes, restaurants, wine plantations To acquire education in rated universities To discover the world To learn English To escape from the cold climate in Estonia under the hot sun in Australia

• • • •


Young Estonians in Australia

Most Estonians live in major cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. ● Young people use Working Holiday Visa which allows to work officially in Australia for 1 year. ● In 2009–2010 about 1400 young Estonians moved to Australia with WH visa.


• His name is Martin and he is 23 years old • He has had four different jobs in 1,5 year


• His minimum wage has been 14 euros in hour • Cost of living is about 140 eurs per week, plus additional costs (parties, clothing)


• He said that Australian employers like Estonians because they do work more faster and neater than the locals


Estonian communities in Australia keep together and communicate with each other


They take trips and celebrate together Estonian holidays


The ones who share the apartment have dinners, where they eat Estonian food - Martin said that food and family are the things he misses most.


How do JPG students feel about migration? • The survey took place in the 10th grade. • 64 students answered the questionnaire • We asked them 15 questions about migration.


JPG students' attitudes to migrants %

negative rather negative no opinion

rather positive positive 0

5

10

15

20

25


What do you think looking at this picture?

Illegal Pakistan immigrants captured http://tworque.blogspot.com/2009/07/emigration-to-save-life-or-country.html


Some answers • It’s sad that people must leave their own country in such a dangerous way. • Illegal enter to another country is not safe, one should look for legal possibilities. • The home country brings them back anyway regardless of the situation. • This situation does’nt bother me.


Is emigration from Estonia somehow specific?

Some answers • Nowadays Estonians are leaving because of the lack of job. Previously they emigrated from the fear of foreign powers (Soviet Union). • In the past it was perhaps necessary or forced. Now it is voluntary. • There is no difference, people move to another countries to seek better life and adventures. • There is no difference, it is just much easier to emigrate from Estonia because the borders are open with many countries. • The immigration into Estonia is not very high.


The differencies between Estonians and immigrants Some answers • The immigrants speak rather poor Estonian and part of them do not want to learn Estonian • Their cultural background is different • Immigrants are more open, tempered and friendly than Estonians • Many of them are wealthier than Estonians since they are interpreneurs


Estonian newspapers about immigrants in Estonia Tha Japans in Estonia: Estonians know how to enjoy life Eesti P채evaleht, 09.11.2013.

Two young men from Japan Masashi Tsuda (29) ja Daigo Takagi (32) opened a restaurant in Tallinn, they say that moved to Estonia partly because wished to escape strict rules and standards of their homeland. http://epl.delfi.ee

The man from Columbia about Estonians: you should be proud of yourself! Eesti P채evaleht, 23.11.2013. Young man Carlos from Columbia married Estonian woman, moved to Estonia and works as a teacher. He says that he relishes the stillness of Estonian forests and taste of apple juice. Their daughter Sofia grows up amid three languages: she speaks Estonian with mother Kersti, Spanish with father Carlos, the parents speak English with each other.


Estonian-French couple Taoubi from France : Eesti Päevaleht, 19.10.2013 Fashion shopkeeper Nadim ja President Ilves former French teacher Hanna-Leana Taoubi are doing business in Estonia. They have never thought to returt to France where they met each other in 2008.

French hairdresser brought froglegs to Estonia Eesti Päevaleht, 05.10.2013 Patrice Daniel keeps with his Estonian wife French gourmetshop in Tallinn. One can find French wine, cheese, oyster, froglegs, fresh croissants and baguette’s, cakes and champagne in his shop. Each month there is something new to taste.


POLAND


The aims of the survey • To present a broad image of Polish citizens, who live abroad in chosen european countries • to investigate, whether Polish people l iving abraod a re still interested in Poland and if they miss the country • to check their returning plans to Poland.

• Method:

METHODOLOGY

• web survey among internauts , who live abroad and visit websites like: Onet.pl, WP.pl, Interia.pl and Gazeta.pl. • Target group: people , who live in one of the 11 western european countries for at least three months . • Chosen countries: countries with at least 300 respondents . • Time of the survey : 3-17 December 2008. • Number of respondents: 20 006 people .


Questionnaires according to countries

659

804

20 006 respondents. 1 906 889

8 126

3/4 respondents were from 3 countries: the UK, Germany and Ireland.

473 4 740

955

370

643 550


Who are they and where did they go ?


74% of asked emigrants went to the UK, Ireland or Germany

Great Britain

40%

Germany

24%

Ireland

10%

France

5%

Netherlands

4%

Sweden

4%

Norway

3%

Italy

3%

Spain

3%

Belgium

2%

Austria

2%


What was the main reason for leaving Poland? The main aim was to improve financial situation and to learn more about the world.

Procentowy udział rodzajów motywacji wyjazdów

family

development

money, job

lifestyle

20%

34%

44%

37%


How long are they abroad? 43% of emigrants are abroad less than 3 years (distinction between „new” and „old emigration” based on the length of the stay) Total

5%

Ireland Great Britain

5%

33%

5%

4%

5% 10%

Netherlands

8%

10%

9%

Italy

7% 5%

Belgium

7%

France

8% 4% 4%

Austria

4% 4%

5%

17%

45%

19%

47%

19%

50%

15%

59%

15%

0%

3 – 6 months

44%

22%

19% 18%

34%

21%

22%

5%

30%

18%

23% 24%

18%

16%

34%

5%

12%

21%

36%

6%

5%

36% 43%

6%

Germany

38%

43%

8%

Sweden

30%

49%

NorwegiaNorway

Spain

27%

60% 50%

7 – 12 months

1-3 years

100%

3-5 years

>5 years


Most of the emigrants are young – 70% of the respondents are between 21 and 35 years old


Those who left were in most cases well- educated – 90% respondents claimed at least secondary education

Educational status of ther emigrants, who underwent the survey and comparison to census performed by statistical office (GUS

Emigrants 2008

Data of GUS 2002 11%

primary and professional education

54% 28%

secondary education

33% 19%

college and higher uncompleted 3%

42%

higher and postgraduate 10%


How are they doing financially and professionally?


Nearly half of the emigrants are manual workers 27% work as specialists or on headship posts (in Poland 20%) 65% emigrants work full time, emigration

in Poland 20%

Physical labour not-requiring the clas sification

12% 28%

Physical labour requiring the classification Office work not-requiring the classification

20% 4% 6%

19%

High qualified specialist

other

7% emigrants are on probation, they work part-time or as research workers.

13% 15%

Office work requiring the classification

A managerial position, management, managing staff

9% emigrants have their own business,

19% respondents don’t work (they study, keep t he house, look for job.)

14% 8% 6% 8% 27%

Having business i s most popular among emigrants in Germany (17%) and Austria (16%) And least popular in I reland (3%) and the UK (7%)


What is the best description of your financial status? What is the best description of your financial status before leaving Poland

Most respondents believe their financial situation has improved abroad Total 6%

66%

Ireland 5%

16%

79%

Great Britain 6%

72%

Norway 8%

68%

Netherlands 6%

59%

Sweden 8% Italy

15%

20%

69% 52%

Belgium 8%

65%

10%

14%

59%

20% 5% 10%

Germany 6%

59%

20% 5% 10%

Austria 7%

60%

19% 5%10%

25%

50%

75%

100%

26%

27% 26%

27%

24%

9%

23%

25%

22%

8% 13%

27%

25%

22%

26%

24% 18%

0%

25%

12%

29%

50%

9%

9%

24%

28%

14%

12%

25%

28%

8%

17%

23%

75%

7%

15%

11%

25%

6%

7%

14%

31%

23%

19%

16%

34%

26%

25%

8%

France 6%

0%

4%

14%

32%

30%

18%

7% 8%

13% 22%

9%

35%

29%

13%

14% 7% 12%

32%

15%

9% 6%

66%

Spain 5%

12%

9%

8% 11% 11%

16% 11%

10%

11%

14%

9%

100%

I am wealthy it is enough for all expenses it isn't enough for bigger expenses it is necessary to refuse itself many things so that it is enough for life it isn't enough even for the most urgent needs it's difficult to tell


Why do you save money? They have enough money to live and to save some as well

Purposes of saving 38%

tourism, travels, recreation

33%

hous e/flat in Poland

20%

house/flat outside Poland

19%

purchas e of the car

18%

financial investments

15%

education of children

14%

pens ion protection

13%

as s istance of the family in Poland

9%

opening the company in Poland

opening the company outside‌ other none

Emigrants in Ireland and Norway save to buy the house in Poland or to open their own company in Poland.

13%

own education

health: treatment, rehabilitation

74% emigrants save min. 5% of the income, 35% emigrants – min. 1/3 of the income.

4% 3%

Emigrants in Germany and Austria save for additional retirement .

4% 6%

Whereas according to CBOS, in 2008 only 23% of Polish citizens had savings.


What are their goals, what is it that they care about, do they feel good abraod?


Is there anything in particular that you would like to acheive ? Most important for them is familly and personal happiness Purposes for the achievement Emigrants in Ireland want to have their own house/ flat . family happiness

40%

happy private life

37%

own house, flat

32%

good health, frame of mind

30%

appropriate financial level

Emigrants in Norway are more interested in helping their famillies .

28%

travelling, getting to know world

25%

satisfactory work

24%

professional career

16%

education

13%

own company

12%

a lot of free time

8%

assistance of the family

8%

happy, interesting social life

6%

it's difficult to tell

1%

other

1%

According to CBOS in 2008 the most important goals for Polish citizens were: healthy and long life (35%), improvement of financial situation, higher salary, financial prosperity (23%), Familly a nd personal h apiness (12%)


How do you feel abroad?

Most respondents feel good living abroad unsteadily

7%

unhappily

3%

8%

disappointed

3%

8%

strange

4%

left alone

6%

16%

41%

34%

29%

37%

33%

16%

18% 25%

4

familiar

16% 75%

3

fulfilled

14%

30% 50%

2

happily

17%

32%

31%

1

23%

39%

33%

0%

safely

100% 5

amongst friends plesed with the new place


Are you happy‌.? Respondents are in most cases satisfied with living conditions, financial situation and relationship with other people

conditions of live

55%

level, the standard of living

46%

condition of the health

27%

33%

employment status

37%

35% 0%

rather yes

41%

47%

relationship with persons in Poland

9%

39%

35%

family life

10% 3%

34%

38%

relationship with persons

8% 3%

38%

50%

financial circumstances

yes

31%

33% 25%

neither yes, neither not

50%

rather no

14%

5% 4%

15%

5% 3%

12%

5% 6% 3%

17% 16%

7% 4% 6%

75%

No

4%

it's difficult to tell

7% 100%


Did you suffer from an unfair treatment because of your Polish background ?

38% respondents mentioned unpleasantness because of Polish nationality 62%

no , no thing

22%

to uchy jo kes

16%

wo rs e co nditions o f employment

ins ults s landers

6% 5%

theft, fraud

4%

d es troying p ossessions (s mashing panes at ho me, damaging the car)

3%

threats

1%

b attery

1%

haras s ing o ther

1% 2%

In Holand - 50% of the emigrants mentioned unpleasant situation,that was the highest number, whereas In Spain it was the least problematic – 29%.


Are they interested in situation in Poland? Do they miss the country?


Is there anything in Poland that you miss in particular?

Only 32% of the respondents miss the country as such, but almost every respondent has „small yearnings”

family

66%

friends,

51%

food

26%

lovely places

22%

nature, landscapes, sea, mountains

21%

Polish national identity, mentality of Poles

15%

lifestyle from before the emigration

10%

cultural life (museums, galleries,…

7%

Polish TV programmes, the radio and…

7%

pets books, music, films

Emigrants in Spain and Norway miss Polish food.

7%

5%

sports events

2%

other

2%

nothing

Family and friends are the most popular reasons for yearning no matter what country they emigarted to.

6%

Emigrants in Germany miss Polish mentality.


Do you follow the information in Poland? If yes, what are you interested in?

If the emigrants follow any information in most cases it is politics, economy, and regional information

politics

44%

economy

34%

my city, region in Poland

33%

costs, living conditions

27%

job and the remuneration

22%

culture (film, music, theatre, etc.)

21%

sport

17%

real estate (prices of flats, construction of the house)

17%

ife of stars, of well-known persons

10%

law and taxes

6%

health service

5%

education and possibilities of the education

3%

credit and conditions of admitting

3%

Information about real estate are very often followed by people who live in Ireland. Information about politics and culture are often f ollowed by emigrants in France.


Do they plan to go back to Poland?


What is the best description of your plans/ situation?

One in three wants to stay abroad People living in Ireland want to return to Poland

Total

10%

Ireland

17%

9%

15%

Great Britain

11%

Norway

10%

Netherlands

13%

Spain

12%

Sweden

6%

5%

29%

29%

19% 18%

8%

14%

6%

7%

Italy

9%

16%

Belgium

8%

16%

France

9%

11%

Germany

7%

11%

Austria

6%

13%

34%

6%

31%

29%

37%

30%

11=20 years

30%

35%

31%

8%

32%

31% 33%

7%

5-10 years

29%

46%

50% 1-4 years

28%

26%

6%

0% <1 year

16%

33%

6%

8%

26%

25%

26%

9%

8%

6%

4%

6%

30%

29%

6%

6%

7%

4%

4%

12%

16%

11%

11%

10%

New emigration

it's difficult to tell

35% 100% I don't want to come back to Poland


Conclusion


Improvement of financial status and getting to know the world are two main reasons for Polish people to emigrate . Those who left were young, well-educated and in most cases left with the family .

81% of the emigrants work . Most of the emigrants can see the improvement of their financial situation. Not only do they have money for living, but they can save as well . Familly and personal happiness are the most important goals for the emigrants .


Most of the emigrants feel good abroad . Only one in third miss Poland.

38% of the respondents had some unpleasant situation because of their Polish nationality . Emigrants are interested in Poland and they use Polish language media . If they miss something ,it is familly and friends in most cases.

One in three wants to stay abroad permanently. Based on: Polscy Emigranci w Europie. Prezentacja wyników internetowego badania polskiej emigracji 2008; Warszawa, 2009; Andrzej Garapich, Sławek Pliszka, Edward Korbel


GERMANY


FRANCE


Cartoon Immigration


We made you come for 2 reasons : Do one job that nobody wants For a pay of which not anyone wouldâ&#x20AC;Ś


Europe intensify his fight against illegal immigration ÂŤ Let go your weapon !! Âť


The property fall down ÂŤ This isn't us!! Âť


Immigrants : 2 third of french people estimate that the immigrants are better threat than them « If we are threat better … So what must be to them … I feel sorry, the poors ... »


Immigration « Freedom » you really want to pass of « hero » to « dirty immigrant » ?


Stories and interviews


The story of David’s migrations

Graduate of the VB class of Automotive Technical vocational school in Gdańsk in 2005


GERMANY When I was attending the high school, I went to Germany to work during holidays for the firs time. I had a place to work and a place to stay, because I went to the same employer that my father used to work for. My employer was a farmer who had more than 200 hectares of land and the work depended on the season of the year. I was going there during summer, so in most cases my work started from grubbing out the weed on the white beat fields.

Then we moved on to potato lifting and potato sorting out, crop making and the worst of all, the most tiring work hay moulding . All in all, we worked for at least 12h a day, 6 days a week, but it was fairly easy to handle. On white beat field we used to work all day without t-shirts and sunbathe . Potato sorting out was a really monotonous work ,that could drive you crazy , but hay moulding that lasted about 3 weeks, was a really hard work. When it started we had to work 16 and sometimes 20 hours a day, plus on Sunday 8-10h. Everything depended on the weather . In the morning we used to upload the moulded hay packed In bunches, and right after unloading the trailers we went back to upload the trailers again. It was on and on for 3 weeks.


During one day you had to upload and unload about 6 trailers. In each trailer there were about 300 bunches; each bunch weighted at least 15kg. So as you can see during one

day we used to offload 54 tonnes of hay each. It was a tremendous effort and I remember waking up In the middle of the night, because I had such cramps that I had tears in my eyes. Accommodation wasn’t better at all. We could sleep either In the basement without windows or In the garage. In both cases the toilet and the shower were outside across the backyard. Money wasn’t too good too ( at that time it was 4,5 Euro/h now it’s 5-6 Euro, I think ), but counting all the hours, the amount of money was really good, in Poland you could only dream of it. I should mention that it was all work with no permit.


JERSEY I went there a few times, until In the fifth grade I met a girl that I started dating. She was from a twisted family with some financial problems too. Short before A-level exams she told me she was going to Jersey to her brother, who worked there. Jersey is a small Island that belong to Great Britain , it is situated on La Manche channel. I wasn’t too happy about it, because I planned that we would go to Germany to work together there, but she was stubborn and she did what she said. So I started to think about another solution so that we could be together again. After a while I decided that I would go to Germany after graduating to earn some money and then I would go to her. I kept to the plan. For the 5 years at school, or I should say 6 years I didn’t pay much attention to learning and In most cases I hardy went from one class to another, but in the last class I decided to pull together to perform well at A-level exams. For my A-level exams I chose Polish and German languages, it was a huge problem for the school at the beginning, because it was the first time someone wanted to write the exam in German language. I remember, once the headmaster asked me out of the lesson and said: „Are you crazy? You are not too good in Polish language, and you want to take an exam in German ?” When I assured the headmaster that I’m not going to change my mind she asked my parents to come to school. After their visit I was told that my exam will take place in the schoolboard, because they don’t have the examination board, or other students who would take German language. Later I found out that they created the examination board only for me but everything went after my heart. I surprised many of my teachers when I passed German (I got 6 in oral exam and 4 in written exam). I didn’t do so good in Polish as it was expected but all in all, I had one of the best results among my peers at school.


Being happy with my result I packed and went to Germany. After working for 2 months I went back to Poland for just 4 days In order to grab some things and say goodbye to my family. I remember that , when I was driving to Saint Malo In France (1900km ) I was driving like crazy, because I had to hurry for the ferry . I will never forget the reaction of road policemen in Czarna Woda.The limit there was 50 but I was driving 250km/h and I didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t even bother to stop In the mirror I saw the policemen trying to do something but they soon gave up. It took me 14 hours to get to France (including tanking breaks and German border) When I got to the ferry it took me another hour to get to Jersey. Again, it was a completely different world there â&#x20AC;&#x201C; it was sunny and hot, it was the beginning of September I should have taken a rest after the journey, but instead I went for a walk with my girlfriend. I had never seen so many beautiful landscapes before. The Island was great. There were beautiful beaches, cliffs, palm trees and many other beautiful things.


I had the place to say but I had to look for the job, so on the next day my girlfriend took me to the job center. There I discovered that sleeping during my English lessons at school had more than one bad result. After two weeks I found a job in gastronomy. They had two posts available: Waiter and so called KP (Kitchen Porter) in other words a dishwasher. Taking into account my level of English I took the Job of a dishwasher. I have to be honest it was the worst job in my life. It was extremely hot in there and I was doing something that I really hated. There was so much work that you couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t even go the the bathroom, because that ment risking that the amount off frying pans and pots would be so great that it would be impossible to deal with them. I was working In so called Split Shifts, that ment from 10a.m.-2p.m. and then from 4p.m. to the last customer six day a week.


My mornings started with doing the breakfast for all the employees and picking up 25 kg of potatoes and preparing smashed potatoes. Next I had to clean about 30kg of clams, shrimps and squids and do all the works appointed by the kitchen chef. Meanwhile I had to do the washing up of course. When the first quests arrived the horror started and I had to do my best. The bottom of the sink was at the level of my knees so you can imagine what my position was for most of the day. I found some peace at work at the end of autumn, but there was still a lot of work to do. The work was legal, but my boss didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t pay for the overtime and the tips were collected to the common pool and later divided between all employees at the end of the week. Unfortunately for me, the so called front (waiters and bartenders) got 60%, and the kitchen 40% and we had far worse job and there were more of us. The tips from the credit cards were also divided at the end of the month and it was a really nice moment. After a few months I broke up with my girlfriend and to be honest I wanted to go back to Poland, because I was there all alone and I didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t like my Job and I was homesick. But there was something that I liked about my Job namely people. There were different people on the Job: 1 Kenyan, 1 Portuguese, 1 Lithuanian, 3 British and 5 Polish.


Even when there was a hard time on the job we had great fun. We all had Mondays free, so on Sunday evenings we drank different alcohols In the kitchen In secrecy, so when we were leaving the restaurant we were already in great moods. We used to catch taxi and go out to town. We had a lot of fun, sometimes I think too much After some time I got promoted and I started preparing deserts and later I started cooking. It was a lot easier when I got promoted, however it was still hard to make ends meet because of the parties. That’s why I decided to move on and leave Jersey. My former girlfriend made the decision even easier. I must also say that during my stay on the island I became homophobic. There were so many geys at the parties there that sometimes some of them were trying to touch you. First time it happened I started the fight but later you just didn’t pay attention, because it was too often. I think that at least half the employees In the restaurants were homosexuals too, but knowing them I knew they were OK. After a year abroad I went back to Poland with only 5000 zl in my pocket. When I got back it turned out the army was looking for me, so I decided I would go and so I did. I wanted to volunteer but it took so long that I had to find a job to get some money. I started by working in UPS, later I worked In construction. Then I changed job again and went to university and thanks to that the army didn’t get me. Finally, I found a good job and I stopped thinking about going abroad. I had a good salary, and after graduating I got promoted to the post of production manager and everything seemed ok. But there was something I didn’t like namely I worked 12 hours a day for 5 years and it was too much. I had problems with the bosses and I had to quit. I left the job and started working as an international forwarder, earning about 1/3 of what I had In the previous job. After some time Polish working reality got me .My new boss was a real pain in the ass and I knew that I would not get the promised pay rise.


NORWAY That’s why I decided to go abroad again. This time I decided to go to Norway. I made this decision, because my girlfriend’s parents lived there and talked well about this country. Once I asked if they could help us find a place to live and a job of course. After two weeks my future mother-in-law phoned and said that the flat was arranged, there was a job for me. We had 4 days to close everything in Poland and got on a ferry to Sweden. I had one problem I didn’t get my last salary and knowing my boss I couldn’t tell I was leaving or I wouldn’t get the money. So I stayed on the job until the last day. I made all the arrangements and when I got the money I put the company phone on my boss’s desk and left. On the next day In the morning I was on the ferry to Sweden. My former boss got really angry with my actions. This time he was cheated. On 15th August 2012 we arrived In Sweden. After 12 hours on the ferry I had to drive for 1200km. Sweden and Norway is known for huge fines, so I couldn’t drive too fast. I was really careful and the whole journey took me quite a long time. There was nothing interesting to see in Sweden on the way, but in Norway the mountains were really beautiful, so beautiful that I wanted to stop many times to admire the views. When we got to Norway I took a nap in my parents-in-law house and later we went to see our new flat. The flat was small and not really nice, but the view from the terrace was lovely.


Soon I started looking for a job. At the beginning it wasn’t easy at all, because future employers weren’t very happy when I wanted to speak English with them. People In Norway know English but the Job market is almost full, like In England or Germany, so most companies require Norwegian language. Fortunately, I was lucky, and I got a Job In a motocycle garage. After two weeks of looking. At the beginning I was on a probation period for 3 months. After that time I was supposed to get a rise and permanent Job. They did as promised , so I’m working there until now and I think I will not change the Job for a long time. I’m satisfied from the start In this company They have decent working conditions and good salary and they treat employees with respect.


If I hadn’t come to Norway I wouldn’t have believed my parents-in-law. I’m really satisfied. I’m working as a mechanic and I repair everything from scooters to quads, and I really like my Job especially that I can drive each of these things In March I’m starting my driving licence course that will be paid for by my boss. This course costs 15 000 zl here and it would be easier for me to do the course in Poland but my company decided it would take too long and they want me to do it here. There is one difference in Norway in comparison to other countries that I worked In .Here everything is on paper. I work 37,5h/week. I can work overtime but I don’t have to ( overtime is paid better). But of course there are some drawbacks, not everything is so beautiful in Norway. Food is very expensive. it is so expensive here that it is easier and cheaper to by the plane ticket to Poland and do the shopping there. Below you can find some prices so that you can see what I mean: smokes 50zł (in Poland – 12zł), beer 15zł (4zł), vodka 250zł (25zł), bread from 5 to 20zł (3zł), 1,5 of mineral water from 4 to 15zł (2zł), 1 liter of gasoline 8,20zł (5,5zł), 1kg chicken breasts 55zł (15zł), 0,5l of ketchup 10zł (6zł), BigMac In a set 50zł (25zł)or big pizza 150zł (40zł)etc. There is one more drawback, the flats are really expensive here. If you are alone and 12m2 room is enough for you, you have to spend about 2000zł/month (800zł).


If you want a flat you have to spend at least 3000zł (1800zł). The bigger the flat the more expensive it is. What’s more there are less flats than people looking for them. The flat owners organize „castings” and decide on the future tenant. We spent 2 months looking for a new flat and it was really crazy time. After 6 visits we were lucky to find a cheap, nice flat which is twice bigger than our former flat. It’s also better located. Another disadvantage In Norway, at least for me, are the car prices. To be honest I don’t know where do they take them from. The car here costs 2-4 times more than in Poland. It’s useless to bring car from abroad because the tax and excise is more than the value of the car. It’s also expensive to pay for car parts or to repair cars. 1 hour of my work costs 500zł, 1l of oil 100zł etc. Few tips: 1. If you can’t find a Job In Poland don’t think you will find the work easier abroad. 2. If you don’t know at least English, don’t try your luck. 3. When you think about earnings take into account the expenses as well, so you won’t regret In the future. 4. Remember that you leave In Poland All that you know – your family and friends, it’s never easy. 5. There is one more thing, a very important one, that you should think about when you go abroad. If you can don’t use middlemen ( especially Polish people), don’t work for Polish citizens abroad and be sure that if you get cheated it will probably be your fellow countryman. Greetings for everybody who will read this and I hope you will find it useful. Special greetings for Barbara Dembek Bochniak alias BDB Take care, Dawid Roda


The story of Leonarda Dibrani


INTERVIEW Inés : Few weeks ago, the expulsion of Leonarda Dibrani, a young Rom pupil, and her family, to their original country caused a true scandal. In fact, the Home Secretary, Manuel Valls, has been hardly criticized. Here and there, students started a strike to express their anger and fear. To explain this situation, I am pleased to welcome Mister Valls himself. Inés : What do you think about the reaction of the students who seem very concerned by this expulsion ? Evin : Their reaction is quite understandable but must separate the emotion from the reason !

Inés: Sorry to interrupt you, I am told that a high school student would like to give her point of view. Laurie : Good morning, my name is Laurie. As a student, I wanted to say that Leonarda must come back to study in France. Evin : She can as well continue her studies in Kosovo Laurie : Most of the Roms have no degree, they have no education


Evin :But France is not a trash can ! Laurie : France is opened to every people, so why not her ? What are your criteria ? She is not a threat for our society! Inés : Calm down Evin : Immigrants take jobs from French people. Laurie : No ! They get the odd jobs nobody wants to do ! Evin : It’s a real cost for the country and the benefit is not significant, I remind you that the father of this girl lied for asylum, it is unnacceptable! Laurie : You’re talking nonsense! these are only clichés! Ines : Please, don’t be provocative ! Laurie : But in Kosovo, they’ll have a miserable life wheras they could have in France a decent home. There is more : Leonarda is not responsible for things her father said or did ! Evin : Anyway, there are laws that we have to follow. Nobody can live out of the law


Laurie :You can not send her in a country where she never lived ! Don’t you think she feels more like a French Citizen than a Kosovar ? Evin: But if we accept all the foreigners, who will be able to say what’s our identity ? Laurie : All those reason are wrong! Please, answer my question! why should France accept some foreigners and not her ? Is it about money? What are your criteria? Ines : QUESTION : Since 2003 – 2006 (« Sarkozy’s laws »), the immigration in France is closely checked : is it a good way to fight against illégal immigration ? is it compatible with the human rights ?

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