MOSQUES and Islamic Architecture in Kuala Lumpur
To know and understand more about the Islamic Architecture of Kuala Lumpur Mosques, we have been go through thin and thick to study and identify certain values and meanings of architecture or rather nationâ€™s identity through discussions among of us. Th Through the collections of data and information, we are now to produce a set of book to share with people our learnings and understanding about the uniqueness of the chosen Islamic Architecture of Mosque in the urban Kuala Lumpur areas. There are 5 mosques that we conduct a study which are Masjid Negara Kuala Lumpur (National Mosque), Masjid Wilayah Kuala Lumpur (Federal Mosque), Masjid Al-Mukarramah Bandar Sri Damansara, Masjid Asy-Syakirin and Masjid Al-Bukhary Kuala Lumpur. As the head of the editor, I would like to thank and give a big applause to our team for their hard works in order to complete this project successfully. Upon completing this project I would like to extend our gratitude towards our respectful lecturer, Puan Norhayati binti Ramli for guiding and supervising us throughout the whole process of completing this project to ensure that we are on the right track. We were also blessed and feel much appreciate with numerous helping hands. Last but not least, a huge thank you to the team for their cooperation and put their best effort in writing for the articles with our tight schedule and due dates in order to finish it on time.
The meaning of architecture is not simply just about designing or making building but more to the impressive dignified accounts of the “architecture of buildings” and “building architecture”, which brought to a bigger context that is the emergence of civilizations. As architecture is the product of people that evolved with the progression of the needs and means of people thus the understanding of architecture required a reference to the origin by means of exploring back through history of the people and the fundamental principle of architecture that headed the emergence of such distinctive civilization. Islamic Architecture arisen with the emergent of monotheist Islam and therefore it is the architecture of faith. It is the architecture of an expression of faith to the Almighty and Glorious One and only God Allah s.w.t. through the declaration of Shahada (Creed- testimony of Belief) which through it unites all Muslim (Ummah) globally at all levels: ontological, social, and politically. Islam is not merely as any religion but as Ad-Din – a way of life that embraces three elements: iman (belief), ibadat (religious obligation) and ihsan (right doing) as reveals by the Quran through Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. the last and finality of prophet-hood. The heart of Islamic unity and continuous awareness of the omnipresent of Allah as a way of life is through the expression of obedience to the five pillars of Islam. This book consist of the outcomes of the research based on two main projects. For Project 1, team must complete a research on the timeline of mosques and Islamic architecture in Kuala Lumpur. Then, each members must conduct a study on all the dogmas for each member’s chosen mosques. The dogmas mention here are the fundamental principles of Islamic civilization as well as the fundamental of Islamic architecture, which can further be interpreted as the principles of Islamic architecture, namely: a. The Seven Unifying principles of Islamic architecture: i. Architecture as Tawhid: Unity & Uniquity of Allah ii. Architecture of Ihtiram: Respect iii. Architecture with Ikhlas: Sincerity iv. Architecture as Pursuit of ‘Ilm: Knowledge v. Architecture for Iqtisad: Balance vi. Architecture of Haya’: Modesty vii. Architecture as Dikr: Remembrance b. The Diversifying principle of Islamic Architecture i.e Architectural principle of ‘Urf The study of the chosen mosques are as followed: Masjid Negara (1965) by Einas Maizran Masjid Asy Syakirin (1996) by Aimi Ruzanna Masjid Al-Mukarramah (1997) by Nur Aiman Masjid Wilayah (2000) by Nur Bahirah Masjid Al- Bukhary (2006) by Farah Farhanah Islamic architecture is an architecture that was arisen with the rise of Islam. As Islam is not merely a religion but a comprehensive way of life that completely covers every aspects of human existence, the practice of Islam undoubtedly generates a thorough culture and civilization that express the philosophy, principles, teachings and values of Islam. Therefore, Islamic architecture is certainly architecture of faith with the fundamentals of Islam form as its main ground of existence. This project encompasses of a study of literature and a fieldwork survey on mosques architecture in relation to Islamic philosophies, principles, teachings and values. The research through the fieldwork survey intends to investigate the spiritual experience of the mosque patron encountered when utilizing the mosque space. These two approaches of research will provide insights to the application and integration of the Islamic philosophies, principles, teachings and values in a mosque design and development. For Project 2, each member is required to perform literature review based on the selective research questions. The outcome of the literature will be a set of 10 questions to be compiled and arranged to form as the class’s questionnaires. Students in groups are also required to visit and conduct a survey study of a mosque. The research topic that was chosen by the members are: Architecture and Sufism by Einas Maizran Spiritual Sense of Place by Aimi Ruzanna Phenomenology of Islamic Architecture by Nur Aiman Mosque and Sacred Architecture by Nur Bahirah Spriritual Islamic Architecture by Farah Farhanah
Jamiul Ehsan Mosque (1883)
rom the 13th through the 17th century, Sunni Islam, carried chiefly by Arab and Indian merchants, spread widely through peninsular and insular Southeast Asia. The new religion was adopted peacefully and offered o equal-opportunity social advancement through spiritual devotion. Islam also embodied a complex theology that held much appeal for farmers and merchants in the coastal regions. By the 15th and 16th centuries it was the majority faith of the Malay people.
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There are many architecture featured buildings that residesKuala Lumpur ever since Islam being the official religion of Malaysia in 1957. Buildings like the National Mosque, and Islamic Center have Islamic geometric motifs ontheir structuresignifying Islamic restriction on drawing nature. Some buildings such as the Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia , have been built to masquerade itself as a place of worship, complete with dome and minaret, when in fact is a place of knowledge. Naturally, Islamic motif are evident in religious structure such as Masjid Wilayah and other mosques all around the city. Religious places will have more Arabic calligraphy drawn on the columns and other places of the building.Here, we listed a part of the mosques and islamic architecture timeline in different districts of Kuala Lumpur
National Mosque (1965)
Jamek Mosque (1909)
Az-Zubair Ibnu Awwam Mosque (1973)
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Al-Akram Mosque (1969) 5IJT NPTRVF XBT CVJMU BCPVU NPOUIT BGUFS UIF CMPPEZ FWFOUT XIJDI IBQQFOFE PO .BZ *U IBT CFFO BMNPTU B NPOUI UIF SFTJEFOUT PG ,H %BUP ,FSBNBU XFSF VOBCMF UP HP JO BOE PVU UP QFSGPSN QSBZFST 5IF NFO DPVME POMZ HP PVU UP QFSGPSN 'SJEBZ QSBZFST JO UIF PME NPTRVF UIBU MJFT JO CFUXFFO -PSPOH BOE EVF UP DVSGFX PO GPMMPXJOH .BZ JODJEFOU "GUFS UIF DPOTUSVDUJPO XBT DPNQMFUFE PO .BZ .BTKJE "M"LSBN XBT TBJE UP CF UIF QSFUUJFTU BOE UIF NPTU NPEFSO NPTRVF JO ,VBMB -VNQVS BU UIBU UJNF *O "VHVTU UIJT OFX NPTRVF XBT öSTU VTFE BT B QMBDF PG XPSTIJQ EVSJOH 3BNBEIBO JO XJUI GFX PG FRVJQNFOUUSBOTGFSSFEGSPNUIFPMENPTRVF4UBSUJOHPGZFBS XIFOUIF$PNNJU FRVJQNF UFFPG&YQFSUTFTUBCMJTIFEöSTU.PTRVF"ENJOJTUSBUJPOIFBEFECZ.S"LSBN.PIE *ESJTCJO*CSBIJN EVSJOHUIBUQFSJPE BOEIJTEFQVUZUIFMBUF.S)BKJ.PIE:BTJOC)BKJ 4BMMFI WBSJPVTBUUFNQUTIBWFCFFONBEFUPQSPWJEFBMMUIFGBDJMJUJFTGPSUIFDPOWF OJFODFPGQJMHSJNT5IFIJHIMJHIUPGUIFEFWFMPQNFOUBOETVDDFTTPG.BTKJE"M"LSBN TUBSUFEJOXIFOBMMUIFQJMHSJNTQVUBMPUPGFòPSUUPNBLFTVSFUIFNPTRVFJTJO UFOTJöFEGSPNZFBSUPZFBS
Al - Mujahideen Mosque (1983)
Saidina Abu Bakar As-Siddiq Mosque (1982)
Al - Makmuriah Mosque (1991)
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Tabung Haji Building (1980)
Abu Ubaidah Al-Jarrah Mosque (1986)
As-Syakirin Mosque (1996)
Ibnu Sina Mosque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
Sayyidina Usman bin Affan Mosque (1988)
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Al-Imam Ash-Shafie Mosque (1993)
Islamic Museum (1998)
Masjid Al-‐‑Mukarramah, Bandar Seri Damansara in Kepong (1997)
Kota Damansara Mosque (2008)
Al-Muttaqin Mosque (2002)
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Federal Territory Mosque (2000)
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Al-Bukhary Mosque (2006)
Istana Negara (2011)
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Khalid Al-Walid Mosque (2011)
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Masjid Negara National mosque
Source: h p://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=438753&page=13
The National Mosque of Malaysia, located in Kuala Lumpur, still stands today as a unique approach to mosque architec-‐‑ ture, as well as a symbol of the importance of Islam as the national religion of Malaysia. In a le er from Tunku Abdul Rahman, the Prime Minister of the country at the time, the National Mosque was envisioned to be a place to gather and discuss the growth and progress of the religion of Islam, and also the unity of all Malaysians. The building sits in the centre of a 13-‐‑acre piece of land along Jalan Perdana, while the footprint of the building itself measures roughly 3 acres in total. The mosque has a capacity of 15,000 people and the built-‐‑up area of the main hall is 22,500 square feet. The cost of the project was 10 million ringgit and it was the largest mosque in Malaysia until the erection of the Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz mosque in Shah Alam. The idea to construct a national mosque to commemorate Malaya’s independence was brought up by the Federal Executive Council on the 30th of July 1957, a month before the country celebrated its independence. In another meeting in 1958, Chief Ministers of the eleven states in the-‐‑then Federation of Malaya proposed to name the mosque after the country’s ﬁrst Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-‐‑Haj. The Tunku however declined the honour, and instead suggested the mosque be named “Masjid Negara” to symbolise the unity and multi-‐‑cultural harmony of the country. It was also a way of giving thanks to Allah for the country’s peaceful independence which was achieved without a single drop of blood being shed. After approximately 3 years of designing process, construction was started in 1963 and completed two years later in 1965. On the 27th of August 1965, the National Mosque was oﬃcially opened by Tuanku Syed Harrun Putra ibni Al-‐‑Marhum Jamalul-‐‑ lail, the Yang di-‐‑Pertuan Agong of Malaysia at the time.
Figure 2 : Countries orientaion towards the Ka’ba
Figure 3: Analysis of ﬂoor plan
Figure 1: Tawaf around the Kaba
Source : weatheimphoto.com
Figure 4: Direction of Qibla from masijd negara
Figure 5: Unity of people praying friday prayers
The design of the folded plate roof resembles a royal umbrella which signiﬁes the unity of people in Malaya. and the importance of the building as a national monument.The main prayer hall is therefore roofed by an “open umbrella” as if to embrace the worshippers. The minaret resembles a closed umbrella pointing upwards, signifying the strength and unity of the people. Building Community : It is considered the center for muslim social life. It hosts : -‐‑ Heroes'ʹ Mausoleum or Makam pahlawan -‐‑ Ladies gallery -‐‑ Dewan or Hall -‐‑ Library
Ladies gallery Prayer hall
Figure 6: Masjid Negara ﬂoor plan
Architecture of Ithiram translates into the presence of showing respect, propriety and good manners to God, to fellow mankind and to oneself. As a guideline Muslims follow the 5 pillars which are shahada, salat, zakat,fasting and haji which encourages and shows respect to the faith and God. In forms of architecture, Ihtiram is portrayed by not using images of ani-‐‑ mals and statues, Instead the use of Khat (Arabic calligraphy) and sym-‐‑ bolically through harmonious and the purity of divine geometric shapes. In the National Mosque, geometric shapes of screen walls can be found in every point of the building. The majistic roof of masjid negara is another element which is in gemortic form . The minaret is constructed at a higher scale as compared to the rest of the building. Showing that God is mighty and humans are small com-‐‑ pared to Him. The minarest are the focal point of the mosque. Also the atmosphere in a mosque is quiet as muslims do not raise their voices as this causes distrubances to other people’s prayers.
Source : www.redbubble.com
Architeccture of Ilm : Pursuit of Knowledge As narrated by the Prophet Muhammed (S.A.W) “it is mandatory upon every Muslim to gain or have knowledge in oneself” The masjid is known to be a place of worship as well as a place for Islamic teachings. it has a library , gallery and oﬀers religious teaching for children. Knowledge is frequently expressed in Islamic architecture through Quraanic scriptures where calligraphy is wri en or carved in Arabic.
Figure 5: Library and oﬃces
Figure 6: Mihrab with Quranic scriptures
Ladies gallery Prayer hall
Figure 7: light pass through the screenings and is reﬂected oﬀ polished ﬂoor tiles. light and shadow create a pa ern along the stairway
“And withal,they were not enjoined aught but that they should wor-‐‑ ship God, sincere in their faith in Him alone, turning away from all that s fase; and that they should spend in charity; for this is a moral law endowed with ever-‐‑time soundness and clarity.” AlQuran 98:5 Ikhlas was demonstrated through an outward physical actions of the body. For example: prayers are inward actions of the heart where it is achieved by removing doubts from thoughts. Sincerity is expressed through the inner heart that involves from the deep con-‐‑ templative spiritual nature of man. Architecturally, this is expressed and translated through the union of sincerity and purity where spaces are constructed in the absence of human imaginary and instead idolizes the arts of geometric ornamentation.
Source : malaysia.curiouscatnetwork.com
Figure 1: Water pool and water features
Figure 3: Diagrammatic studies of dome sketches
Figure 2: Water fountain in the garden in mosque compound
Figure 1 : Diagrammatic studies of dome sketches
Another way of expressing ikhlas is by realizing paradise. This can be done by the use of ﬂowing waters and gardens as a depiction of paradise.
Architecture of Dikr : Remembrance Islamic buildings are made to be a remembrance of Allah as it is an act and a process of being reminisced. This theme is expressed throughout Masjid Negara with repeated geometric form ornaments. Quranic inscriptions use Arabesque design which is an element of Islamic design using elaborate and repeating geometric forms that symbolizes inﬁniteness. More subtle approaches are that of columns being uniformly arranged in a rhythmic precision.
Source : www.ﬂickr.com/masjid negara
Figure 4: Landscape around the mosque
Figure 3 : Sketch showing the columns precise and rhythmic placement
An islamic building should be a remembrance of Allah as it is an act and a process of being reminisced. Therefore, most of the islamic buildings are usually covered with not only with repeated geometric forms but also trees and ponds and courtyards remind the believers of Allah’s creations and givings. They make worshippers realise the inﬁnity and abundance of Allah’s creations.
It is the essence of Islamic architecture where it as an act of achieving balance between functional and spiritual elements. When there is bal-‐‑ ance in humanity and spirituality as well as harmony between natural and built form. Balance is achieved through the structural plan of this mosque in terms of golden ration, proportion and spatial sequences. As shown in the diagram, the form of Masjib Negara is basically geometric shapes that are almost symmetrical to each side of the plan as well as the ele-‐‑ vation.
Figure 2: Balance between natural and built form
Figure 1: Floor plan of Masjid Negara with symmetry lines
Architecture of Haya : Modesty
Figure 3: Roof showing the equilibrium of the shape
Modesty is illustrated in this mosque through the usage of geometrical screenings. The architect of Masjid Negara interpreted this Islamic quali-‐‑ ty and translated it into keeping the interior hidden from the surround-‐‑ ings with private screenings that provide not only the building with aesthetic quality but also act as environmental feature. Mashrabiyya, known as a type of projecting oriel window enclosed with carved wood la icework is one of the essential element of Islamic architecture, which functions as a privacy screen that integrates with aesthetic features Betwen men and women in masjid negara there is geo-‐‑ metric screening to ensure privacy while praying. Also the ablution blocks are far apart, in order to respect each gender. Fgure 5 : Ladies gallery
Figure 6: Screens used to seperate men from women
Figure 6: Night view of lit up screenings
Architecture of Urf: Among the factors that shape the charcter of a mosque are aggregate in-‐‑ dicidual and collective building practices of people. These building prac-‐‑ tices have been accepted and recognized by the society as tradition in time series. It is the adaptation of climatic features and technological fea-‐‑ tures. It values the unique identity of people by preserving custom. It values the idea of diﬀerence as long as it does not contradict the shariah.
Figure 1: The umbrella, synonymous with the tropics.
Adopting to the tropics The most renowned feature of the National Mosque is the generous ﬂoating verandah that forms a horizontal plane hovering shy of the earth surface. [ There is no mosque to date that has a verandah space that is larger than the loosely enclosed space under the umbrella like roof (prayer hall). Surrounding the prayer hall and the courtyard is the wide verandah, also known as the Anjung Khas. It functions the walkway connecting all other space throughout the mosque. The wide open design of the verandah accommodates Malaysia’s tropical weather as it is not en-‐‑ closed and cool air is allowed to pass through throughout the veran-‐‑ dah space. There are also pools of water and water fountains in be-‐‑ tween the verandah to cool the air so that there is no need for electrical highly visible in the astonishing design of the National Mosque.
Figure 2: View of verandah from lower level
Figure3: verandah on upper level
SOURCE: Â www.klccconventioncentre.com
Map Â showing Â location Â of Â Masjid Â Asy-Ââ€?â€‘Syakirin Â in Â Kuala Â Lumpur Â map
‘Urf is an Arabic Islamic term referring to the custom, or 'ʹknowledge'ʹ, of a given society. ’Urf is what is liked by people or in terms of archi-‐‑ tecture, it is the architecture that is suitable to be built with the sur-‐‑ rounding environment, that is the tropical climate, the culture and more. The term ‘urf means "ʺto know"ʺ, refers to the customs and practices of a given society. Although this was not formally included in Islamic law, the Sharia recognizes customs that prevailed at the time of Mu-‐‑ hammad but were not abrogated by the Qur'ʹan or the tradition (called "ʺDivine silence"ʺ). Practices later innovated are also justiﬁed, since Is-‐‑ lamic tradition says what the people, in general, consider good is also considered as such by Allah.
Source : www.panoramio.com
Source : thriftytraveller.wordpress.com
Since Masjid Asy-‐‑Syakirin is located in the middle of the city of Kuala Lumpur, it should be easily access by public. The mosque is located nearby the park as well thus making it easy to be access by public. It has a wide opening with a simple yet a ractive design of the mosque with marble as the ﬂoor ﬁnishes. Since Malaysia is always hot and humid, marble ﬂoor is a good choice as the ﬂoor ﬁnishes because when one walk on a marble ﬂoor they won’t feel as hot as when walk on a carpet. Other than that, it makes it easy to clean the space as well. The carpet. roof of the mosque cover all the space inside the mosque from direct sunlight. The mosque is also surrounded by trees and greenery. Source : 500px.com
The ﬂoor ﬁnishes inside the prayer hall is diﬀerent from the outside prayer hall. Carpet is used as the ﬂoor ﬁnishes inside the prayer hall to give more comfort to the user. There is the usage of air-‐‑conditioner inside the prayer hall so that the user will not be feeling as hot as at the outside of the mosque. Although it’s a prayer hall which is a li le bit enclosed, there is still sunlight coming in from the dome. Although it is located in the middle of the city of Kuala Lumpur with a sophisticated architectural design, it still function as a place for Mus-‐‑ lims to perform their prayer while at the same time appreciate the ar-‐‑ chitecture value of the mosque. The mosque was also designed to adapt with the climate. The mosque has an open space both on ground ﬂoor and ﬁrst ﬂoor which makes it easy for the user to walk especially when its the peak time. User can also pray anywahere outside the prayer hall because they always keep the space clean and ready to use for prayer. Other than that the open space allow air to ﬂow in the mosque.
SOURCE: Â h p://puteralapismahang.blogspot.com/2015/02/058-Ââ€?â€‘senibina-Ââ€?â€‘masjid-Ââ€?â€‘wilayah-Ââ€?â€‘persekutuan.html
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The Â mosque Â was Â constructed Â on Â 19th Â January Â 1996 Â and Â funded Â by Â Tan Â Sri Â Wan Â Azmi Â (leader Â in Â Bandar Â Sri Â Damansara Â area). Â On Â 31st Â December Â 1997, Â it Â was Â began Â to Â open Â to Â public Â and Â during Â that Â time Â is Â the Â ďŹ rst Â month Â of Â Ramadhan Â (1 Â Ramadhan Â 1418H). Â The Â original Â name Â of Â this Â mosque Â is Â Al Â Mujahirin Â and Â later Â chaned Â its Â name Â in Â Year Â 2000 Â to Â Al Â Mukarramah Â and Â remain Â as Â today. Â The Â mosque Â was Â inaugurated Â by Â the Â Sultan Â of Â Selangor Â on Â 10th Â November Â 2000. Â Furthermore, Â the Â concept Â of Â Masjid Â (Mosque) Â Al Â Mukarramah Â is Â inspired Â by Â the Â architec-Ââ€?â€‘ ture Â of Â Middle-Ââ€?â€‘East Â (O oman Â Turkish Â and Â Egypt). Â A Â Jivanjee Â Architect Â were Â appointed Â as Â Islamic Â design Â architect Â and Â detailing Â consultants Â by Â Kumpulan Â Senireka Â (Sdn Â Bhd). Â The Â features Â of Â this Â mosque Â display Â the Â traditional Â and Islamic Â Architecture Â through Â isolation Â of Â interior Â from Â the Â outside Â view Â by Â having Â the Â walls Â of Â granite Â on Â top Â of Â granitic Â upper Â wall. Â This Â mosque Â is Â located Â on Â the Â top Â of Â the Â hill Â in Â the Â Bandar Â Sri Â Damansara Â suburbs. Â Through-Ââ€?â€‘ out Â the Â next Â pages, Â wil Â be Â displaying Â the Â The Â Seven Â Unifying Â principles Â of Â Islamic Â architecture Â and Â The Â Diversify-Ââ€?â€‘ ing Â principle Â of Â Islamic Â Architecture: Â Architecture Â Principle Â of Â â€˜Urf Â that Â could Â be Â found Â in Â this Â Al-Ââ€?â€‘Mukarramah Â mosque.
Location Â of Â Al-Ââ€?â€‘Mukarramah Â mosque Â in Â Kuala Â Lumpur
Imam leads the Ma’mum during prayer time in Al-‐‑Mukarramah Main Prayer Hall
SOURCE: h p://www.khirkhalid.com/2014/11/rawatan-‐‑jarak-‐‑jauh-‐‑al-‐‑qayyum.html
Location of Al-‐‑Mukarramah Mosque in Bandar Sri Damansara
SOURCE: h ps://kufarooq98.wordpress.com/2014/01/12/countries-‐‑orienta-‐‑ tion-‐‑towards-‐‑the-‐‑kabah/
The orientation of the mosque facing ka’bah direction.
The orientation of Masjid Al-‐‑Mukarramah is facing towards North West direction, thus shows where the kaabah is situated on earth. Based on the diagaram above, it shows that all mosques in diﬀerent countries are facing on the same direction too. Indirectly, this shows the unity of Muslim people no ma er which part of the place they are coming from and still believe in the same faith. Besides that, the Al-‐‑Mukarramah Mosque also portrays the principle of unity and uniquity of Allah (Tawhid) through having Main Prayer Hall in the middle of mosque as a (T gathering point for all muslims to pray together with the lead of imam facing one qiblat which is the place of kaabah.
The diagaram above showing that Al-‐‑Mukarramah Mosque become the focusing point for this Bandar Sri Damansara area and this mosque is sit-‐‑ uated on the top of the hill. Al-‐‑Mukarramah Mosque is surrounded with the residential areas and there are also a few nearby education center and commercial area. There are two accesible roads that can be used to go to this mosque which are Persiaran Perdana Road and Dam-‐‑ ansara-‐‑Puchong Highway. With the facilities provided, it is easy for all the Muslims to go to this mosque to perform prayers. Since this mosque become the center point in this area, it unites all the Muslims in Bandar Sri Damansara thus achieve the concept of Architecture as Tawhid.
The understanding of Ihtiram is the self-‐‑conscious acts, courtesy to Allah in all actions. Ihtiram also means respect by having good manners espe-‐‑ cially to God, fellow man and oneself. In terms of architecture, structures and buildings are built to serve the pillar of religion which act as the heart and uniﬁer of the Muslim community.The architecture practice in turn contributes in purifying and improve the conduct and build up inner and outer self fulﬁlment, by submi ing own will to that of Allah.
Bird-‐‑eye view of Al-‐‑Mukarramah Mosque From Al-‐‑Mukarramah mosque we can see that it is situated on the top of the hill and surounded with greeneries. The architect designed the lan-‐‑ scape and ensured the landscape blends well with the context. This shows that the architect showing a good manner and give mindful thought in portraying the concept of Ihtiram in Islamic Architecture. Islamic Architecture greatly shows symbolism, harmony and the purity of geometric shapes. These are found in sacred Islamic architecture throughout the Islamic world. The great example that we can refer is Ka’bah. The Ka'ʹBah also represents the traditional, fundamental mixture of space which is greatly lined to the idea of "ʺcenter"ʺ. Islamic artwork can recreate natural pa erns but also in the form of a re-‐‑ ligious message. The idea of these pa ern is to create unity within art. Therefore, it shows a connection to divine a design as well as unity among people. Overall, the design of these artworks is much like the uni-‐‑ verse and these arts allow people to remember that all of us is connected. That universe was designed with geometry in mind.
At the front inside the Main Prayer Hall The muqarnas (ceiling decoration) as shown above is made from the smooth transition from the rectangular basis to the vaulted ceiling. It still have the characterictics of geometrical pa ern and that pa ern gives the elegant looks to the mosque. This muqarnas is inﬂuenced from the Mid-‐‑ dle-‐‑East.
This geometrical elements can be found both in and out of Al-‐‑Mukarra-‐‑ mah Mosque
Inside of the Main Prayer Hall
The geometrical pa ern at the entrance wall has a ﬂower pa ern
The 99 names of Allah in calligraphy could be found arrange nicely inside of the dome in the prayer hall. Instead of pu ing it at the below area, the architect designed it to put at the most top inside of the building to show the respect towards The Almighty Allah.
Architecture with Ikhlas is an architecturally translate the Union of Sin-‐‑ cerity and Purity thru design motivation to build within conformity to God’s Will. The sign of sincerity shown through a space as shown in photo (Al-‐‑Mukarramah Main Prayer Hall) that is not consist of Human imaginary, idols and existing ﬁgures but sublime silence, projecting soul thru geometric subtraction. The ornamentations that can see inside of this mosque is the ornamentaions of geometrical pa ern integrate from the prominent role of math, a sacred nature of Islamic arch, inseparables the from nature of Quranic rev.
In Al-‐‑Muqarramah mosque, the sincerity also portray through the callig-‐‑ raphy of Quranic verse on the wall thus showing the devotion towards the religion.
There is no any other existing ﬁgures place in the Main Prayer Hall The ﬂoral ornamentation are widely used in Al-‐‑Muqarramah mosque which inspired from the nature. It shows through the wood carving and wall carving they have in this mosque.
The photo above showing the presence of an enclosed garden in Al-‐‑Mu-‐‑ karramah mosque which shows the taste of of paradise. The space is bright thus gives the openess felling and it is also an abstarct rigid archi-‐‑ tecture of a garden with untrammelled nature and ﬂowing water (in the pool) as mention in Qur’an: ‘gardens through which waters ﬂow’.
As a Muslim, Islam encourages us to pursuit knowledge wherever we go and whenever they are. The architecture as pursuit of knowledge “ilm” deﬁned as architecture of inscriptions by having art of Calligraphy Arabic or reveal “ilm” and wisdom words of Quran which can be found on Al-‐‑Mukarramah mosque. They are also carved the Islamic calligra-‐‑ phy like 99 names of Allah and Quran vers on the wall to encourage people to gain knowledge.
The architecture of light shows the expression and gives the sensory of architectural space. This is shown when the sunrays and moonlight illu-‐‑ minate the space, where the light penetrates in through the doors and windows.
The panaromic view inside the Main Prayer Hall where the natural light bright up the space without depending on the artiﬁal light during the day time. The light that comes in from the above gives the spiritual sense to the people who is worshipping inside.
99 Names of Allah carved on the white surface inside the biggest dome of this mosque.
The light comes in from the windows refract into the space area that leads to the ﬁrst ﬂoor.
The Quran vers were carved on the wooden surface at the front of the Main Prayer Hall.
The Main Prayer Hall also can be used for multipurpose like having var-‐‑ ious learning programs or having a religious class. This shows that pur-‐‑ suit knowledge among Muslims are very important in gaining more knowledge.
Al-‐‑Muqarramah was designed symmetrically and proportionally as shown on the ﬂoor plan above. In terms of architecture, the analysis of balance are usually analyzed through the proportion and geometric of a building plans. This mosque use the shape of square for their main hall prayer and it repeats the same square shape layout plan for the outside which is for the passage and rooms. Besides that, this mosque was de-‐‑ signed in i’tidal manner (harmony) where it transforms a space into a quantitative and qualitative. quantitati
Doors in the Main Prayer Hall
The basic architectural com-‐‑ ponents that relate back to the architecture of balance are the dome, the arches and the muqarnas vaults that could be found in the mosque. SOURCE: h p://islamic-‐‑archcorner.blog-‐‑ spot.com/2013/10/the-‐‑unifying-‐‑principles-‐‑of-‐‑islamic_23.html
Arches at the passage (outside from the Main Prayer Hall) shows balance and symmetry LEGENDS: Space for men (Muslimin) Space for women (Muslimah)
ABLUTION SPACE (MEN) MAIN PRAYER HALL
View towards the front facade inside the Main Prayer Hall These are the muqarnas vaults that can be seen inside the Main Prayer Hall. They were designed with the same size and shape and repetitively use inside the mosque. They are also act as the structures which balance and support the space inside. Besides the muqarnas vaults, there were also arches used for the passage way outside the Main Prayer Hall. Plus the repetitive arches use at the doors also part of the structure which support the building too. All the loads from the roof or dome will distribute well through these structures thus makes the building in stable and balance condition.
ABLUTION SPACE (WOMEN)
The division of space inside the mosque was distribute equally among the space for men (Muslimin) with women’s (Muslimah) space. It is also based on the frequently users use the space. As shown above, The prayer area for men are quite bigger than the women’s area. This due to the pri-‐‑ ority and compulsary (wajib) for men to perform prayer with imam at the nearby mosque or surau compared to women which they are al-‐‑ lowed to pray at home only. The main prayer hall will be fully occupied by men especially during Friday Prayer. Basically for the ablution space for both are equally divided.
Architecture as the statement of ‘modesty’ retain the value of Muslims in their everyday existence, sacred action and family lives. Modest also has 3 elements which are Tawado’ (humility), Ih’tesham (decency) and Iste-‐‑ syah (awareness). The preservation of dignity can be seen through incor-‐‑ porate screen, sanctuary and privacy in the mosque.
The divider use to separate the men and women space thus giving privacy for both.
The carving of geometrical pa ern in the women ablution space. This is used to give the privacy for women from outsider but yet still allow the natural light and ventilation go through inside the space.
The boundary on the ﬁrst ﬂoor (women prayer area)
Remembrance is reﬂected in the architecture of monotony, where repeti-‐‑ tion in the structure or building and its rhythmic precision mirrored in the contemplative chanting of God'ʹs innumerable a ributes (dhikr). The manifestation of contemplation maintains a sense of unity through rhythm, seen as the eternal and inﬁnite nature of God'ʹs essence. There-‐‑ fore, all complex, almost memerizing pa erns are said to resemble ryth-‐‑ mic chanting thus become a perfect architectural example of the princi-‐‑ ple of Dhikr, the remembrance of God. In Al-‐‑Mukarramah mosque, the principle of remembrance shown through when the archi-‐‑ tect designed in a way he put the 99 Name of Allah above the ceiling inside the dome to show that the only things that we should re-‐‑ member in every action we do basically Allah is the main reasons. The photo shown on left side to show the remembrance the Quran vers as basically we called it The Allah’s Words.
Overall, the adoption of veil to as acceptance of Muslim woman of what she needs to cover and control in front of stranger thus showing the humbling a itude towards herself and God Manisfestation. In addition, it indirectly shows her belief to Allah and the veil as sanctuary and sacred space for her frelly to express herself. The veil also act as a guard, covering right ‘”to see” and “not be seen”. The purpose is to gain respect, privacy and trueself identity. All these elements show the principle of modesty in its architectural.
Courtyard with the fountain outside of the mosque SOURCE: h p://www.ajivanjeearchitect.com/project/masjid-‐‑al-‐‑muhajireen-‐‑bukit-‐‑damansara-‐‑ kuala-‐‑lumpur-‐‑malaysia-‐‑with-‐‑kssb/
This Al-‐‑Muqarramah mosque was inﬂuenced by both Moham-‐‑ med Ali Mosque and Fatih Mosque as shown in photos above. It shown through the ex-‐‑ terior design of these mosque. As overall design, this mosque was inspired by Mohammed Ali Mosque based on the design of the minaret towers, the dome and the building itself. Al-‐‑Mu-‐‑ karramah mosque has same ar-‐‑ rangement of small domes like Fatih Mosque but the architect designed it to be the domes sur-‐‑ rounded the main building.
The Federal Territory Mosque, more commonly known as Masjid Wilayah Persekutuan, is one of the main mosque in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is situated close to MATRADE complex off Jalan Duta. It was built between 1998 to 2000 and was opened to the public on the 25th October 2000. The mosque can accomodate 17,000 worshippers at a time and it looks different than other Mosques in Kuala Lumpur with unique influences from the world over. The two minaret towers have the influence from the Egyptian design, while the turquoise domes are influenced by Persian architecture, and most of the decoration and carvings are Moorish design. In general, the design is heavily influenced by the Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey. The mosque is beautiful and well-worth visiting. It is also one of the tourist attraction in Kuala Lumpur because of its fine and unique architecture. The following information will discuss in detail of the eight principles of Islamic Architecture that is applied at this mosque.
The Blue Mosque, Turkey. [Retrived from http://onestep4ward. com/10-unesco-world-heritage-sites-turkey/]
The five Pillars of Islam:
The essence of Allah SWT that is unity and uniquity, is called Shahada “There is no God but Allah, and Prophet Muhammad SAW is the Messenger of Allah SWT”. The main architecture of Allah that represents Unity and Uniquity, is the Kaabah. The Kaabah acts as a unifying architecture which muslims all over the world face for their firve daily prayers. Looking at the location , the shape, the order and the orientation of the Kaabah defines its absolute unity characteristics.
The diagram shows the surrounding communityof Masjid Wilayah. Masjid Wilayah is surrounded by community centres and government complex. MASJID WILAYAH - LEVEL 2 & LEVEL 3
Source: http://www.matabulat.my/2014/01/15-ki sah-kaabah-yang-tidak-diketahui-ramai.html
SALAH The Kaabah serves as the main structure as Qiblat direction for prayers and it is the Holiest Place in Islam. Muslims all over the world come here, united, in order Source: http://www.masjidwilayah.gov.my/v1/index.php?option=com_content&view=article &id=298&Itemid=58
The principle of tawhid can be seen in the mosque whereby the main prayer hall acts as the centre where all pilgrims unite to perform their prayers. During Ramadhan, the banquet halls for are allocated for Muslims to have their Sahur or to break fast. The hall is used to distribute food for the Muslims. During other months, people may use the banquet halls for other occasions. The Mosque’s Administrative Office is where people go to to pay their Zakah. Masjid Wilayah does not only serves as just a mosque, there is also small islamic classes here at level 2. The mosque serves as multi-purpose as a whole and provides many facilities for the Muslims.
The Urban Planning of a place is important in unifying the city. The mosque should be easy to access whether we are at home, office, market, etc. The location of the Federal Territory Mosque is strategic as it is easy accesible to our every day action and behavior. The mosque is maintaining its practical & spiritual character.
Source: http://masjidwilayah.gov.my/v1/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1 20&Itemid=135
The figure above shows that the orientation of the mosque is facing the Kaabah (qiblat direction) as the Mihrab is the main prayer hall is facing in that direction.
The picture above shows the pilgrims during Friday Prayers. The main prayer hall allows large crowd without having any structural interruption in the middle. This picture defines a lot of how the principle of Tawhid is applied at this mosque.
BUILDING AS A SANCTUARY The landscape of the mosque is very wisely designed and aesthetically beautiful. The shallow water feature surrounding the mosque not only adds the beauty, but also gives an illusion of a floating mosque. It also serves to cool the building by absorbing the surrounding heat during daytime. Moreover, Masjid Wilayah is surrounded by greeneries and is located on top of a hill and the landscape is designed in such a way to respect the surrounding context. This shows the mindful act of the architect in showing a good, respecting manner in signing the best for God and for the community. Not only the landscape, but the overall selection of materials are very well-thought and give a great impact in portraying the principle of Ihtiram.
The image above shows the paving on the plastered ceiling was shaped and carved delicately based on the mould. Islamic artwork can recreate natural patterns but also in the form of a religious message. The idea of these patterns is one of creating unity within art. By creating a unity across artworks it demonstrates a connection to a divine design as well as a unity amongst people. This is much like the universe and the design of the artwork is to allow people to remember that we are all connected and that the universe was designed with geometry in mind.
The aerial view of Masjid Wilayah, showing the mosque and its landscape feature and the context.
ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE SYMBOLS : GEOMETRY AND MOTIFS
The figure above shows the adaptation of cosmological principle at Masjid Wilayah. Masjid Wilayah is a hypostyle plan with a rectangular ineer court which is surrounded by prayer halls. The idea of centre and each face is corresponding to the primary direction of Zenith and Nadir, and the cordial point of the universe. Islamic Architecture greatly shows symbolism , harmony and the purity of geometric shapes. These are found in all sacred Islamic architecture throughout the Islamic world. The greatest example would be the Ka'Bah. It represents the traditional , fundamental synthesis of space which is greatly lined to the idea of "center". In Masjid Wilayah, geometry is widely used. From floor plans, to elevations, sections and the design elements of the entire mosque is using the geometry shapes.
The first picture shows the delicate and detailed unique carving of cement stone walls finishes which can be seen throughout the mosque. Second picture shows the wood carving motifs adorning the mosque shaped like clouds which is inspired from five different types of fragrant flowers which are buffalo stabbing flower, Chempaka, Kenanga,cape, jasmine and green leaves like ferns. The third picture shows the clear element of Ihtiram (respect) in the use of decorative Islamic calligraphy instead of images of figures. Islamic calligraphy also shows respect to the Quran verses.
ORNAMENTATION AND THE ABSENCE OF HUMAN IMAGINARY IDOLS
A sign of honesty and sincerity is demonstrated through the art of architecture within the conformity to God's will by removing/covering an existing figure (human, animals, angles etc) in ornamentations.. EThe effort of ornamentations is introduced by integrating the science of mathematics to come out with and apply the geometrical ornamentations. At Masjid Wilayah, spaces that show a sense of devotion in terms of factors such as decorative finishes such as calligraphy of Islamic inscriptions, portray sincerity through the devotion to the religion. The use of beautifully designed floral motifs with the abstraction of idols or figures from this structure shows sincerity. Source: https://www.flickr.com/groups/mosques/pool/with/12613945593/lightbox/
Masjid Wilayah is surrounded by astonishingly beautiful water pool. Not only that, there is also a water fountain at the very spacious courtyard on the most upper floor.These features creates an expression of heaven th rough the design of landscape and water feature. The aim is to present a mosque whereby people can feel the goodness of being alive to worship the most gracious God. The landscape that is surrounding the mosque also creates a peaceful ambience. INTERGRATION OF MATHEMATICAL GEOMETRY Floral motifs are widely used at Masjid Wilayah in their wood carving of the doors, Mihrab and other interior feature. Geometry designs are carved througout the elements at the mosque to show sincerity and removing human imaginary idols.
The mosque is designed from basic geometry shapes. The diagram on the left shows that the mosque is designed by forming geometry on the facadeand intergrated with the perfect golden mean calculation.
LIGHT AS WISDOM OF EXPRESSION
The mosque served as an educational seeking point, where people gather and receive/trade knowledge.The knowledge of ornamentation and carvings has been spread and applied in the construction of Islamic architecture while the knowledge of geometrical system, architectural technology and the Islamic calligraphy has been improved and still being widely used in the modern age.Thuluth calligraphy plays an important role and is very meaningful as decorative element at Masji Wilayah. It is applied in both the interior and exterior of the mosque. The inscription is used surrounding the main prayer hall and alsothe wall near to the Mihrab. At the exterior of the mosque, the calligraphy is inscripted on the main entrance of the prayer hall. The inscription comes from the passages of the Holy Quran.
The light penetration design that uses glass roof at the top of the main prayer hall which wa constructed to infuse the natural lighting, creates a sense of God is coming from the top. The lighting that comes from above also highlights the inscription that has been carved on the walls.
EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS Various learning programs, talks, and other activities are always welcome at Masjid Wilayah. Apart from the prayer hall, multi-purpose hall is also provided at the mosque for islamic functions. The picture on the right shows an example of an Islamic learning program.
BALANCE IN PLAN AND ELEVATION
Masjid Wilayah is designed in symmetrical balance. The mosque is designed harmoniously in terms of qualitive and quantitive. The number of domes are all equal at both symmetrical sides and the construction of the mosque is very detailed to maintain its balance.
SPATIAL USAGE The building itself is balanced as a complete structure. Through its functional spiritual elements, it is harmonious at the point of intersection of the hypostyle hall. The mosque is also balanced in terms of spatial usage, between men and women. This makes the users feel the sence of equality when they are using the spaces. Balance of Islamic inscriptions on ceiling wall
Balance in geometry
Balance in light distribution Balance of seperating male and female pilgrims.
The arches has a unique balance, repeating throughout the mosque design.
Looking at the section of the mosque, we could see that the mosque is designed balance in both functional and spiritual elements which contributes to the stability of the soul.
PRESERVING DIGNITY OF THE MOSQUE
THE SEPERATION OF GENDER
Masjid Wilayah has a grandeur courtyard at the uppermost level of the mosque, which portrays the act of preserving dignity in mosque architecture. Another preservation of dignity for Muslims is through hijab for women and for men, they have to cover their Aurah. At the women’s section in the main prayer hall, there are wood carvings that acts as mashrabiyya which allow Muslim women a bit of freedom so that their Aurah are not exposed to the men when wearing their Hijab at the women’s section; humbling herself.
The second floor of the mosque shows the spaces that are used by either male or female user (muslimin and muslimat. The rooms on the second floor which seperates the genders are wudhu/changing rooms, feasting hall and toilet. The seperation of gender also applies in the prayer hall whereby the muslimin prays in front and the muslimat prays at the back and the upper level.
The wood carvings at the women’s setion seperates the women from the sight of men in the main prayer hall. The women section is at an upper floor.
The Mihrab shows a lot of Dikr principle in terms of the rhythm and repetition of the geometry, the motifs and also the inscription.
At the hallways of the mosque, the principle od Dikr is applied through monotomy, in which the pillars are built upon pillars and arch upon arch. Not only that, the ceilings are donned with rhythmic precision too. The inscription that are carved or placed all around the mosque reminds oneself of the almighty Creator and to always be humble.
This picture shows the repetition of arches around the uppermost level of the mosque. This design is repeated throughout the mosque on each level, showing rhythmic precision which is mirrored in the contemplative chanting of Allah's innumerable attributes. The manifestation of contemplation maintains a sense of unity through rhythm. This implied as the eternal infinite nature of Allah's essence. The repetitive geometry of square and rectangle are also used for the base plan and semisphere for the domes.
The floor plan shows that the design is repeated on each floors and there are repeated domes at the centre and at the sides of the mosque.
The floral wooden carvings were carved by local professionals form Kelantan and Terengganu. This traditional feature signifies the manifestation of contemplation of the teachings of the Quran and hence it maintains a sense of unity through rhythm. Besides that, this feature highlights the traditional quality of the mosque which differs it from the Blue Mosque.
THE MEANING OF URF AS ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLE
CONTEXT AND LOCAL CLIMATE Although Masjid Wilayah is known for its Turkish Architecture and how it resembles the Blue Mosque in so many ways; from the interior to the exterior, the key element of this mosque would be its landmark as the Federal Territory mosque of Kuala Lumpur. It is located at the heart of Kuala Lumpur and acts as a centre whereby it is conveniently accessible from all over Kuala Lumpur.
Urf in general means the custom or knowledge of a given society. ‘Urf must be compatible with the Sharia law to be recognized in an Islamic society. The principle of ’Urf is the only diversifying principle in Islamic Architecture that makes one building unique than the other. Urf refers to the custom or knowledge and practices of local context where their design language of a culture is expressed into the architecture.
One of the aspect of the mosque is that the design responded well with the local climate. There are ample use of cross ventilation that has been intergrated with the mosque design. Throughout the mosque, there are countless number of arches and concrete motifs wall which allows air to flow and circulate through the spaces inside the mosque.
THE ADAPTATION FROM OTTOMAN ARCHITECTURE Majid Wilayah has a great influence from the Ottoman Architecture. This style of architecture developed from the earlier Seljuk architecture and was influenced by the Byzantine architecture. Ottoman archiecture is widely known as Turkish architecture. The Iranian and Islamic Mamluk traditions after the conquest of Constantipole by the Ottomans. Later on, This style of architecture is synthesized with architectural traditions of the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Some of the features of the Ottoman Architecture are: i. Seemingly weightless but yet massive domes ii. Achieving perfect harmony between interior and exterior spaces iii. Articulated light and shadow iv. Extensive decorations v. Dynamic architectural volcalaburay of vaults, domes, semi domes and columns Moreover, the ‘openness’ concept is intergrated well as there are water pool feature surrounding the mosque as part of the design. This water feature helps in featu cooling down the building during the day as Malaysia has hot and humid weather. Besides, the site is surrounded by greeneries, which contributes more in bringing cool air into the building.Masjid Wilayah is a very well-thought design of mosque. The contractor of this mosque are Ahmad Zaki Resources Berhad in a 50% Joint Venture with Johawaki Sdn Bhd, who also built the KLIA mosque. MALAY TRADITIONAL ART
Overall, Masjid Wilayah adopted a lot from the Blue Mosque, Masjid Sultan Ahmed in Istanbul. Source: http://pixgood.com/sultan-ahmedmosque-history.html
The massive towering structure of the minarets are inspired by those of Masjid Nabawi in Medina, Saudi Arabia. Source: http://topappandroid.com/page/ 66/ Source:http://masjidwilayah.gov.my/v1/index.php?option=com-content&view=article&id= 114&Itemid=153&limitstart=2
The domeof Masjid Wilayah is highly influencedby Masjid Imam of Isfahan, Iran. Source: http://dreamofiran.com/the-most-b eautiful-mosques-in-iran-part-1/
The material used for the decorations for the doors, windows and the interior elements such as the mashrabiyya and the mimbar at Masjid Wilayah are from wood that are carved by professional local craftsmen from Kelantan and Terengganu.
Masjid Al-Bukhary (Al-‐‑Bukhary Mosque)
The Al-‐‑Bukhary mosque at Jalan Hang Tuah came into existence in the year 2006, built by the Al-‐‑Bukhary Foundation (headed by Tan Sri Mokhtar Al-‐‑Bukhary) as an eﬀort to rebuild the existing 147 year old Mussolla on site named the Babbul Jannah. The mosque has an area of 2700m2 and occupies a 1 acre land which previously served as a cemetery for the prisoners of the nearby Pudu Jail. The land occu-‐‑ pied by the Babbul Jannah was gifted to a caretaker of Pudu Jail, Syed Lal Shah Al-‐‑Bukhary by both the former headmaster and priest of Victoria Institution(situated right behind the cemetery) and later by the then Sultan of Selangor state in 1860, Almarhum Sultan Abdul Samad for the purpose of building a mu-‐‑ then Sultan of Selangor state in 1860, solla. Syed Lal Shah Al-‐‑Bukhary was the main instigator in the existence of the Babbul Jannah on this site and he continued to serve and care for both the musolla and its adjoining cemetery until his death at which his remains were interred on the grounds of the musolla as a sign of respect towards his dedica-‐‑ tion. When the Al-‐‑Bukhary foundation decided to rebuild Babbul Jannah in 2004, religious authorities were consulted and an approval (fatwa) was issued for the bones of the prisoners to be reinterred to an other plot of land while the body of Syed Lal Shah Al-‐‑Bukhary was to be kept. The current Masjid Al-‐‑Bukhary was completed in 2006 and is now a magniﬁcent example of Islamic Architecture and to this day, the maqam of the former caretaker is kept beautifully within its grounds
“There is no god but Allah s.w.t. and Muhammad is his prophet”
The shahadah is a verbal and mental contract in Islam to ensure one’s salvation and constitution to adhere to the Islamic Laws. Unity -‐‑ Islam as a cohesive force of unity amongst ethical & cultural divides. Every man is equal regardless of their wealth, rank and inheri-‐‑ tance. Uniquity of Allah -‐‑ there is no other God except Him.
(1st)Jemaah converging in Al-‐‑Bukhary Mosque. (2nd) Pilgrims encircling
2.Notion of Tawhid Haqiqa -‐‑ Architecture as the form-‐‑ less essence between the nature of space, forms, order, and orients and the place where man connects with the presence of Divine Unity Example: Ka'ʹbah -‐‑ Muslim -‐‑ uniﬁed, borderless community transcending race, rank & wealth.
1.Islam as AdDin -‐‑ Architecture as submision to Allah. The main prayer hall(image above) of Al-‐‑Bukhary Mosque depicts purity and a respectful consciousness to God with geometric designs and cal-‐‑ ligraphy of Quranic phrases extensively adorning the walls and interior of the dome on a background of pure white. This creates a holistic at-‐‑ mosphere within, where one feels enveloped by the divine presence.
DOME Main prayer hall Main entrance
(Left) Cube geometry of the Kaaba. (Right) Simpliﬁed plan of the Al-‐‑Bukhary mosque indicating the use of repetitive geometry to achieve central planning.
2. Islamic Architecture Symbolism The Kaabah(the cube) is the sacred symbol of mankind given by God. The cube geometry represents a linked idea of ‘center’ for the Islamic ummah, Al-‐‑Bukhary Mosque manifests this concept into its form which is apparent in its plan.
Source(h p://wikimapia.com) Source(h p://h p://thestar.com.my) (Left)Map shows Al-‐‑Bukhary Mosque’s location and surrounding areas. (Right)-‐‑ Public transportation directly opposite the mosque’s compound.
3. Building Community & Urban Planning Mosque – unifying ‘Umma Example: Center for Muslim Social Life: -‐‑education, administration, court, public service, economic platform, military planning, govern country, religious event The Al-‐‑Bukhary Mosque is located within the heart of the city centre. The The mosque is situated near a crossroads of several high traﬃc roads and serves its immediate surroundings which include commercial, in-‐‑ stitutional, and residential buildings as well as a monorail and bus sta-‐‑ tion in extremely close proximity. Thus the Al-‐‑Bukhary Mosque creates a thoroughly borderless unity among the divided community solely through their connection to shahada.
Source(h p://artmelayu.blogspot.com) Sheltered porticos and galleries surrounding the mosque.
3. Building as a Sanctuary As a center serving its community, the mosque should also act as a sanctuary for its Umma’. Al-‐‑Bukhary Mosque displays this princi-‐‑ ple through the sheltered galleries and porticos at the entrance and surrounding the prayer hall, oﬀering shelter to those in need.
An architectural expression of submission by building within conformi-‐‑ ty to God’s will. The notion of ikhlas is translated architecturally through design motivation by:
Islam encourages its Umma’ to always pursue knowledge, which is considered the light of truth. The notion of Ilm is interpreted in archi-‐‑ tecture through several elements:
1. Space Construction Pointed absence of human imagery and idols, to prevent idolatrous worship which may deviate Umma’s worship.
1. Architecture of Inscriptions Calligraphy as a major design feature/element, Quranic verses inscript-‐‑ ed onto walls, domes, etc. to convey poignant messages to Umma’.
2. Art of Sublime Silence Art that is devoid of images but instead conveys and comands sublime silence. Subtraction of geometry becomes the idea of art itself whereby it becomes aplicable to any architectural element.
2. Architecture of Light as Expression. illuminating eﬀects of natural and artiﬁcial light are utilized to express and highlight the inscriptions. 3. Architecture as Pursuit of Knowledge. The structure itself plays a role in contributing to the notion of Ilm, by serving as a centre of knowledge that a racts culturally and religiously diverse muslims to gather and share/exchange knowledge.
Source(h ps://farm3.staticﬂickr.com/2364/2203093694_f169d778f8_z.jpg) (Above) The main prayer hall is beautifully and inspiringly lit by lighting placed to ex-‐‑ press the extensive calligraphy on the interior walls and ceiling of the hall.
Source(h p://nasa-‐‑suatuperjalanan.blogspot.com) (Above)Geometric ornamentation on the interior and surroundings of the dome of Al-‐‑Bukhary mosque.
Source(h ps://ibnujeman90.blogspot.com) (Left) A congregation of muslims a ending a reli-‐‑ gious talk to edeepen their religious knowledge at the mosque. (Right) A part of the mosque’s main public space’s wall with calligraphy inscripted onto Source(h p://mforum.cari.com.my/) it, lit by ambient lighting.
Source(h p://nasa-‐‑suatuperjalanan.blogspot.com) (Above)Extensive use of variations of geometric pa erns in combination with calligra-‐‑ phy and strategic lighting on the interior walls of the mosque exudes and renders sub-‐‑ lime silence to command respect and consciousness of God’s presence.
Source(h p://fuievouvoltar.com) (Left) Geometry in design motiva-‐‑ tion portrayed in overall form of mosque. (Right) Geometric orna-‐‑ mentation on part of mosque wall.
Source(h p://mforum.cari.com.my/) (Above) The interior of the dome that hovers over the main prayer hall is inscripted with beautiful calligraphy and set on a pendentive with screens/windows punctured into the base that allow daylight to penetrate and make the dome appear as if it is ﬂoating. This increases the holistic and peaceful atmosphere within the mosque, alowing for deeper focus when pursuing Ilm within the Al-‐‑Bukhary Mosque.
The essence of Islamic architecture is to maintain a delicate balance be-‐‑ tween the functional and spiritual elements. The nature of aesthetics is expressed through essential considerations of moderation and balance, meanwhile the aesthetic composition provides a model for creative and artistic activities in relation to lifestyle. 1.Moderation and Balance Nature of aesthetics with a profound impact on the architecture. 2. Notion of “Heart” Anonymous external facades of Islamic buildings. 3. lslamic Composition for Aesthetics Ta’Iif (composition), I’tidaI (harmony) and Nizam (order).
Statements of ‘modesty’ is expressed in architecture by retaining Muslim values of their everyday existence, actions and family lives. Preservation of dignity is important in Islam, the concept of providing screening, sanctuary and privacy is based on the idea of the adoption of the veil by Muslim women(humbleness between her and Allah). These screens not only conserve privacy but also serve as an aesthetic and en-‐‑ vironmental feature to provide ventilation and shading. Preservation of dignity: • Tawado (humility) • Ih’tesham (decency) • Istehyah (awareness)
(Above) Floor plan of Al-‐‑Bukhary mosque shows balance and moderation according to space and functionality.
Source(www.123rf.com) (Above)Geometric pa erned screens(in green boxes) shades and protect the privacy of the interior as well as providing aesthetic value and allowing ventilation to occur.
Source(h p://www.besudesuabroad.com/2014/03/many-‐‑architectural-‐‑styles-‐‑malaysia/) (Above)The external facades of the building consists of moderate and simplistic orna-‐‑ mentation compared to the interior.
Source(www.123rf.com) (Above)The idea of a linked centre is also apparent from the interior, with the spaces and ornamentation all revolving around the main space(prayer hall) in perfect harmo-‐‑ ny and symmetry.
Source(h p://h p://adhiemenulis.blog-‐‑ spot.com/)
Source(h p://johariaziz.blogspot.com/) (Left) A ventilation outlet screening the gallery within. (Right) Buﬀer zones between the main prayer hall and the outer skin of the mosque provided by the sheltered and screened galler-‐‑ ies.
Source(h p://h p://mforum.cari.my) (Above)The activities and main interior space of the mosque are well screened from the high volume Kuala Lumpur traﬃc outside and beautifully masked by the ornate screens.
1. Monotony in architecture. Repetition of architectural elements, such as pillar upon pillar, arcade upon arcade 2. Repetitive and contemplative chanting of God’s innumerable at-‐‑ tributes mirrors rhythmic precision.
1.Urf Refers to customs and practices of a given society. 2. The integration of the design language of a culture into Islamic buildings provided they do not compromise any Islamic princi-‐‑ ples.
3. An embodiment and manifestation of contemplation in architec-‐‑ ture maintains an essence of unity.
Source(h ps://farm6.staticﬂickr.com/5067/5631618979_979c360c70_b.jpg) (Above) The form and spaces of Al-‐‑Bukhary mosque consists of layered and modular repetitions.
Source(h p://artmelayu.blogspot.com/2008/02/mas-‐‑ jid-‐‑albukhary-‐‑albukhary-‐‑mosque-‐‑in.html) Both photos show a series of repeated colonnades forming porticos and galleries around the mosque.
Source(h ps://www.pinterest.com/pin/517139969682387579/) (Above)A wall with calligraphy motifs of repeated name of God and Quranic verses, higlighted in gold and decorative lighting at night.
(Above)Elements of local vernacular architecture of Malaysia that are well adapted with the tropical climate of its country is adopted in Al-‐‑Bukhary mosque. Apparent through its high ceiling heights with ventilation outlets at higher portions of the building to allow rising hot air to escape.
The National Mosque of Malaysia islocated in Kuala Lumpu. It still stands today as a unique approach to mosque architecture, as well as a symbol of the importance of Islam as the national religion of Malaysia. In a letter from Tunku Abdul Rahman, the Prime Minister of the country at the time, the National Mosque was envisioned to be a place to gather and discuss the growth and progress of the religion of Islam, and also the unity of all Malaysians. The national mosque was constructed in the centre of a 13-acre piece of land along Jalan Perdana, while the footprint of the building itself measures roughly 3 acres in total. The mosque has a capacity of 15,000 people and the built-up area of the main hall is 22,500 square feet. The cost of the project was 10 million ringgit and it was the largest mosque in Malaysia until the erection of the Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz mosque in Shah Alam. The Federal Executive Councilbrought up the idea to construct a national mosque to commemorate Malaya’s independence on the 30th of July 1957, a month before the country celebrated its independence. In another meeting in 1958, Chief Ministers of the eleven states in the-then Federation of Malaya proposed to name the mosque after the country’s first Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj. The Tunku however declined the honour, and instead suggested the mosque be named “Masjid Negara” to symbolise the unity and multi-cultural harmony of the coun try. It was also a way of giving thanks to Allah for the country’s peaceful independence which was achieved without a single drop of blood being shed. Construction started in 1963, after approximately 3 years of designing process, and completed two years later in 1965. On the 27th of August 1965, the National Mosque was officially opened by Tuanku Syed Harrun Putra ibni Al-Marhum Syed Hassan Jamalullail, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia at the time. In 1987, the mosque underwent renovation and the once pink concrete roof was clad with the green and blue tiles seen today. A team of three architects from the Public Works Department was assigned with the duties of designing the mosque. The team consisted of British architect Howard Ivor Ashley, and Malaysians Datuk Ikmal Hisham Albakri and Datuk Baharuddin Abu Kassim. It was decided that Baharuddin Abu Kassim would lead the design team, and prior to the planning and designing of the building, he and other committee members had been sent to India, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, UAE and Spain to conduct studies on mosques in those respective countries. Baharuddin was educated at the Malay College Kuala Kangsar before moving to England to study in the University of Manchester. While he was there, he did his final year thesis on designing a mosque. He was able to apply his knowledge of mosque design from his student years in the project and proposed that the function of the mosque was not only a place of worship, but also as a social activities centre for the community. This mosque is chosen as our case study islamic architecture as it is one of the most important icon of Malaysia that acts as a symbol of the official religion of the country. There are many other islamic architecture built near the site, such as Dayabumi Complex, Islamic Museum, and many more. The research topic that was conducted by the members are as follows: Architecture and Sufism by Einas Maizran Spiritual Sense of Place by Aimi Ruzanna Phenomenology of Islamic Architecture by Nur Aiman Mosque and Sacred Architecture by Nur Bahirah Spriritual Islamic Architecture by Farah Farhanah
Q1.How does the mosque show the idea of tasawwuf ? Tasawwuf being an identity of suﬁsm is pure and balance. The mosque symbolizes purrity in that it is an abode where God can be reached. The mosque is taint free and is a place which is clean. In that before entering a msoque , one must make ablution. Th head of the believers should be covered. There are several basic rules that must be followed before en-‐‑ .tering a mosque. Mostly of which no immodest behaviour
Q2.What elements portray Tasawwuf in Masjid Negara ? Tasawwuf can be deﬁned as good character and awareness of God, Ta- sawwuf can be shown in many ways such as tranquility of the heart, which is the root of the religion. Firstly Tranquility is preseved from the use of water features and courtyards around the mosque. Also Depic- tions in Islam are usually abstract or symbolic because iconography is for- bidden. There fore using geometrical patterns in the prayer hall, lights and colors, to depict the notions of the Koran and induce a sense of .divine presence
Q5.Are there any places in the mosque reserved for derwish practices ? if so, where are these and why are they located where they are The mosque doesnt have a set speace for derwish practices, hwoever any perosn who wishes to perform a derwish dance, can make use if the space infront near the fountain. As durin the night the space is clear and directly below the sky. The blessings of Allah may be attained
Q6.Where in the mosque do you feel the most divine presence ? Any place whereprayer or Quraan is performed is considered as a holy space. The angels are said to ascend downwards when a person is reci iing Quraan or praying. The angles are known to be a racted .to the sound of a person reading Quraan They pass their blessing each tome a muslim recites an Ayat (verse) .from the Quraan
Q7.How does the lighting eﬀect you while performing salat (prayer) or reciting Quraan The natural lighting which is dim makes the user feel humble and aware of Allah presence nd more devout while praying or reciting the Quraan
Q8.How can a person perform dhikir in the mosque and where is the ? best place to recite it Q3.Where in the mosque is the most light emi ed and how does this symbolize Suﬁsm The most light is emitted through the corridors. The light that penetrates a sacred place is symbolism of God’s presence. Based on Suﬁ teachings , the light of God should be reﬂected in each Human’s heart for him/her .to be able to ﬁnd the sweetness of faith and God’s blessings
A person may perform dhikr anywhere in the mosque , there isno specif-‐‑ ic space . However, if asked the courtyards and fountains are the most used as they represent the element of Dhikr. They remind muslim sof the heavens above. As well as make muslims realize theta whatever they have, is a blessing fro God.God is Almighty and a Sustainer
Q9.Are there any tombs or shrines in the mosque ? The mosque does host a hearo’s Mausolem (Makam Pahlawan) which is the burial ground of several Malaysian leaders and politicians The cemetery has an interior and an exterior. Part is covered with a concrete dome in the form of a starburst, each side of which almost touches the ground, and separated by a pond from the outside
Q4.Where is the most visited area in the mosque and why is this space visited the most The most visited area is the prayer hall, as this is where the people come to perform their obligatory 5 prayers daily. The hall is also used to deliv-‐‑ er Fridy sermon’s or Khutbahs, as well as announce marriage vows. This space is used the most as it has the most advanced acoustic characteris-‐‑ tics. It has pinball lights a ached to it thus giving oﬀ the impression of a starkit sky. Starlit skies re usally beneﬁcal to Suﬁ’s as they conduct their derwish and devotion during the night time to maximize their gain in blessings
Q10. In, Suﬁ tradition, a point,as that at the end of the minaret symbol-‐‑ izes the beginning and the end of all things, the centre of the universe and the sky, what signiﬁcance does the minarte of Masjid Negara hold The minrate in masjid negara resembles closed umbrella pointing up- wards signifying th e strenght and unity of the people, the people of Malay
After conducting the literture review reseacrh , the study COLOUR has gained a deeper understanding about suﬁsm in mosque The world of colours has been introduced as the manifested architecture. world of multiplicity or the concept of physical life; and just as Masjid negara has always been regarded as an important the being of colour is totally dependent on the being of light, cre-‐‑ example of the Islamic mosque . With its unique approach ation is dependent on the being of the God according to Suﬁ be-‐‑ to how an Islamic place of worship can be constructed, it liefs. (Goodrazi 2014) Choices of ranges of colours brightened-‐‑ has become recognized as a unique prototype of mosques Masjid Negara not only interior but exterior too. Most notably, the cocncrete roof green and blue tiles architecture in malaysia. Its respond to the never-‐‑ending need of spirituality is a unique solution which totally suites the culture of the Su-‐‑ ﬁsm-‐‑Islamic world. The compositionof forms, functions and pa erns has created spaces that when one enters, he un-‐‑ willingly requests for more.
LIGHT The light that projects the shadow represents the divine pres-‐‑ ence or the ultimate being and the shadow itself is the manifest-‐‑ ed object which extends to the external reality, or in other words the manifested
The major elements of Suﬁ Mosques
Masjid Negara’s Architect manipulate the illuminating eﬀects of sun rays and moon light with screening walls and stained glass. This reveals intricacy on wall inscriptions or ornament as THE PORTAL a moving point source of natural sunlight, that stimulates indi-‐‑ To solve the angle diﬀerence between the direction of the vidualism and a sensory experience of the architectural spaces as it is driven of the quality of light and shadow that deter-‐‑ Qibla and the city roads; 2-‐‑ To create a noticeable entrance so that people from dis-‐‑ mines an individual'ʹs perception. tance are able to locate the mosque and access it easier. In fact the portal of Masjid Negara can be accessedthrough 9 glass doors with walls from 3 diﬀerent direction (North, West and South), this entrancing method is unique yet sym-‐‑ bolic as it signiﬁes people uniting into a single space; becom-‐‑ ing a single entity. GEOGRAPHY / PLACE The mosque grew displaying a divine magniﬁcence and splendour. The doors of the mosque were open all and every day; it belonged to all Muslims on an equal basis. Along its main functions, it has a library, “Mausoluem ” “madrasa” or “school,” inﬁrmary .Spirituality was interre-‐‑ lated with people’s lives and therefore the mosque became physically integrated with the city and was placed in the focal point of the urban texture merging with its surround-‐‑ ings. Masjid Negara is a natiional monument to malaysia , there-‐‑ fore it has become a tourist destination to both the muslims nd non muslims. Furthur more the mosque is adjacent to Malaysia railway station, Menara Dayabumi, Pos Malaysia, The islamic Arts Museum, Kuala Lumpur bird park.
THE COURTYARD The ﬁrst and probably most obvious purpose of the physical dimension of the courtyard is an imitative ﬁgure of this pa ern placed by the prophet in the Mosque of Medina. Furthermore, the courtyard is used a lot by the users as a place of rest, meditation and waiting purposes. This is because it is a very cooling and comfortable space with all the fenestrations around courtyard al-‐‑ lowing cool breeze to enter and also the space is shaded and only suﬃcient amount of sunlight is able to pass-‐‑through. Thus, it is a suitable place for resting and calming one’s mind.
Despite its location in the busy city of Kuala Lumpur, Masjid Negara still maintain its own spiritual andsense of place since the opening of the mosque.
The picture shows the heaven-‐‑like features of Masjid Negara; the garden and the water fountain.
The image above shows the pa ern of the mashrabiya at Masjid Negarausing the sacred geometry.
In In the arenas of urban design and architecture, one of the primary goals is the creation of spaces and places that connect in a meaningful way to the user. The practices of the built environment aim to create beautiful places that are easy to understand and, increasingly, minimize environ-‐‑ ment impact and maximize social responsibility. Architects and design-‐‑ ers often talk about meaning, beauty, poetics, connection, atmosphere, and ethereal aspects of places.
Q1. What do you feel when you are in the prayer hall and when you are outside the prayer hall? Do you feel the diﬀerence in terms of spiritual and religious sense?
Spiritual and sense of place are related to each other since both involved the relationship of human and the surrounding environment. The con-‐‑ cept of Sense of place is used to study a relationships between human and place, connection and place meaning. Sense of Place usually is de-‐‑ ﬁned as an overall impression covering the general ways that people feel about places, senses it, and give concepts and values to it. A place is a speciﬁc space which has meanings and values by the users. A place play an important role in human behaviour and the mental health as well as maintaining self and group identity (Najaﬁ. M., 2011). Identity is not an element or object which can be found instead it is a pro-‐‑ cess which can’t be created consciously (Heidari, 2013).Producing the sense of identity in one place in one person or generally giving identity to a place by an individual will eventually result in a detailed sensual linking to the place or seeing the place as the part of self by the individu-‐‑ al (Heidari 2013). Indeed the sense of place can only feel by individual and can’t be seen as an object. As what Tuan said, a sense of place is not just about the aesthetic appreciation meaning that it is not always wel-‐‑ coming and comfortable (Davis, 2010). For Relph, the sense of place is be er described as the ability to understand and appreciate the unique qualities of places (Relph, E.,2007). Place act as an incorporating lived en-‐‑ gagement and a process whereby human beings aﬀord and are aﬀorded by the world of places in which they ﬁnd themselves (Seamon, D., 2012). Each place has its own distinctive value of the spiritual and sense of place which will be diﬀerent from other places. Sense of place also re-‐‑ ferred to the speciﬁc experience of an individual in a speciﬁc se ing. It is a general way of how someone feels about a place. Sense of place is an important factor in maintaining the quality and the value of the environ-‐‑ ment (Najaﬁ, M., 2011). When a place cannot be culturally recognized, they will suﬀer from lacking a sense of place which then resulting in people facing the placelessness. Placelessness can be described as the people physical characteristics of non-‐‑place, which is culturally unidentiﬁable environments that are similar to other places (Najaﬁ, M., 2011).
Yes I do feel a li le bit diﬀerent. When I go inside the prayer hall, I feel more humble and small. Especially when the prayer hall has a wide space and a very beautiful decoration plus the Quranic verse wri en on the wall. It reminds me that whatever I do I’ll be question for it. When I’m outside the prayer hall I can still feel the feeling of humbleness as His slave. There are a lot of tall and thin pillars outside the prayer hall espe-‐‑ cially in front of the entrance and it reminds me of the beauty of Islam itself without giving up the technology and the beauty of the world itself. Q2. How do you feel when you are outside the mosque vs when you are inside mosque? How does it aﬀect your spirituality? Everyone knows that mosques is the place for prayer, for worship to God. So every time I go inside the mosque I know that I have to behave properly and act accordingly. Not that I didn’t behave properly and act accordingly when I’m outside the mosque but when I’m inside the mosque, I feel the need to do it more. Plus, going inside the mosque will remind me about Islam and that the world is not going to last forever. Q3. Do you feel and see the diﬀerence when you are in Masjid Negara Q3. and when you are in other mosque? Although I pray at a lot of mosques including Masjid Negara and it is for Although one reason, to worship God, there will be a small diﬀerence when pray at Masjid Negara and when pray at others mosques. As we all know Masjid Negara is the national mosque of Malaysia thus there are visitors from diﬀerent place, diﬀerent religion and diﬀerent race. Even they are from diﬀerent religion and race, they still respect Masjid Negara as a holy mosque for Muslims by wearing a long dress provided and act ac-‐‑ cordingly. I can feel the tolerance from both side and at the same time me cordingly. as a Muslim myself feel the need to show a good example to them. Also, it reminds me that Islam is for all and is not restricted to only certain race or culture. I can also make friends with the visitors and tell them a li le bit of Islam. I can meet new people from diﬀerent race and culture and have a new and diﬀerent experience when going to Masjid Negara. Some of the mosques that I went to is just a normal mosque where only Mus-‐‑ lims and the locals go which is diﬀerent from when I go to Masjid Negara.
represented by the many monumental state and community mosque that uses the Middle Eastern or Central Asian architectural garb as dutifully exemplified in its lavish splendor as in the Wilayah Mosque in Kuala Lumpur and Putra Mosque in Putrajaya (Rasdi, 2007). Masjid Negara is the national legacy and one of the most well-‐‑known landmark in Malaysia. It was built not too long after the Independence of Malaysia. This mosque is chosen to conduct a survey for this topic as it is one of the most important sacred architecture of Malaysia.
The picture shows the heaven-‐‑like features of Masjid Negara; the garden and the water fountain.
The image above shows the pa ern of the mashrabiya at Masjid Negarausing the sacred geometry.
Mosque and Sacred Architecture by Nur Bahirah binti Adul Rahman surroundings (McGahan, 2004). In this place, the teachings of Islam could flourish in the hearts of the followers. That is why there are such elements in a mosque that are heaven-like, to create an atmosphere in order to give a sense of sacredness of the mosque so that the visitors feel calm and able to reflect in their inner self.
Other than that, a mosque design does not only focus on the exterior, but mostly focused on the interior. Each mosque usually has a mimbar, an important element in a mosque, which is a place where imam will deliver a speech or khutbah. Mimbar ornament in most traditional mosque have full of embellishment with calligraphy and floral pattern gives a meaning of Islamic thought also carried a message through it (Utaberta, 2012). There are also other elements in a mosque that gives out the sense of sacredness such as the design of the lighting, the size of the openings the transcriptions or motifs on the walls, all of them owns a deep meaning that one can surely express when they are in the mosque itself. Islam does not differentiate the values of the spiritual and material, in fact this is a guide that is established in Muslimâ€™s soul. It approves trough the art, where ornament own an identity itself according to the purity and honesty emerged in the patron (Tajuddin, 2012). Based on the interview at Masjid Negara, the interviewee said that the mosque means to him as it was built in 1965 and it is a symbol of our independence after 8 years of the nationâ€™s freedom. He also found that the most intruiging feature of the mosque are its minaret, which somehow looked like a folded umbrella and its its dome which looked like an open umbrella compared to the other mosques in Malaysia which are common semi-spherical dome. Moreover, the engraved Quranic verses on the aluminum in the middle of the room shows that the holy Quran is a very powerful transcript that wont be easily damaged (Nik,2015). This shows that there is always a deep meaning in a feature in sacred architecture. The use of geometrical, motifs and even the materials used in sacred buildings plays an important role to give the essence of sacredness in a building. The location of the mosque is also important. Not only that a mosque must be easily accessible by the public, but the location must also be
Mosque and Sacred Architecture by Nur Bahirah binti Adul Rahman
strategic, especially when the mosque itself is an icon of a place, just like Masjid Negara. Masjid Negara is Malaysiaâ€™s legacy therefore this mosque had become a tourist attraction to the Muslims and non-Muslims from all over the globe. The interviewee also said that he thinks the mosque is adjacent with Malaysia Railway Station, Menara Dayabumi, Pos Malaysia building, the Islamic Arts Museum, Kuala Lumpur Bird Park and near Taman Tasik Perdana, thus makes tourists visit the mosque more mo often. Based on the comparative study from five other research papers, conducting an interview at Masjid Negara, and also based on personal observation, I find that religion and spirituality are important elements of peopleâ€™s lives throughout the world. Although in our country we have a multitude of religions and belief systems, which have their own cultural and regional qualities, spirituality plays a fundamental role in our lives, we still respect each otherâ€™s religious beliefs and find knowledge in each other. This is a worldly connection between the human and the divine, which is among the most powerful communications possible. I find that this connection does not only implies to worshipping God, but it also helps in bonding people together, just like the Tawheed principle in Islamic architecture principle. From this, I find that architecture plays a vital role in the realm of our religious and spiritual worlds in the form of sacred space.
The design of the roof at the verandah area allows natural lighting to enter the space. This area is also used for prayers especially on Fridays.
Image portrays symmetry and balance within the architecture of Masjid Negara
The image above shows the atmosphere on the grounds of masjid negara at night.
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MOSQUES AND ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN KUALA LUMPUR
This publication is a product of Islamic Architecture (ARC 2342) module for two projects, which are Project 1, entitled Research Time-line Analysis and Project 2, entitled Case Study: Islamic Architecture Buildings.
Published on Jul 14, 2015