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Diagnostic Dilemmas: No-Code Diagnostics





Voltage Drop Diagnostics Scott “Gonzo” Weaver looks at what system voltage drops can do to an electrical system, from starters to sensors.

No-Code Diagnostics Gary Goms looks at a curious nocode driveability problem masked by a PCM trying to compensate for a faulty component. Gary outlines his complete diagnostic strategy.

Diagnostic Dilemmas

Voltage Drop


Hyundai Top Tips Top Tips Here are the top tips from one of the fastest-growing import nameplates.

AUGMENTED REALITY CONTENT IN THIS ISSUE: SmartChoice™ Mobile App, powered by Federal-Mogul….page 29 (Open AVI Play and hold your smart device over the SmartChoice™ logo) ASE Test Prep 17 Circuits and Oxygen Sensors 34 AVI Test Prep 63 Publisher Jim Merle email: jmerle@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 280

Graphic Designer Dan Brennan email: dbrennan@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 283

Editor Andrew Markel email: amarkel@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 296

Contributing Writers Gary Goms, Scott “Gonzo” Weaver, Bob Dowie and Randy Rundle

Managing Editor Jennifer Clements email: jclements@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 265

Ad Services (Materials) Cindy Ott email: cott@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 209

Technical Editor Larry Carley Circulation Manager Pat Robinson email: probinson@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 276 Subscription Services Maryellen Smith email: msmith@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 288

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HOME OFFICE 3550 Embassy Parkway Akron, Ohio 44333-8318 330-670-1234 FAX 330-670-0874 www.babcox.com

8 Quick Tip 10 Directions


12 Gonzo’s Toolbox 17 ASE L1 Test Prep

PRESIDENT Bill Babcox bbabcox@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 217 VICE PRESIDENT Jeff Stankard jstankard@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 282

18 Aftermarket Update 48 Emissions: PCV Valves


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Sales Representatives: Bobbie Adams badams@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 238 Doug Basford dbasford@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 255

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Sean Donohue sdonohue@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 206 Jamie Lewis jlewis@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 266 Dean Martin dmartin@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 225

68 Classifieds


72 Customer States... Editorial advisory Board Brent Crago, owner Top Tech Automotive Cleveland, Tennessee

Marvin Greenlee, owner Meade & Greenlee Inc. Salem, Oregon

Rick O’Brien, technician Coachworks Portland, Maine

Paul Stock, owner Stock’s Underhood Specialists Belleville, Illinois

Marc Duebber, owner Duebber’s Auto Service Cincinnati, Ohio

Anthony Hurst, owner Auto Diagnostics Ephrata, Pennsylvania

Tom Palermo, general manager Preferred Automotive Specialists Jenkintown, Pennsylvania

Michael Warner, owner Suburban Wrench Pennington, New Jersey

Audra Fordin, owner Great Bear Auto Repair Flushing, NY www.womenautoknow.com

Roger Kwapich, owner Smitty’s Automotive Toledo, Ohio

Van Pedigo, owner Richfield Automotive Center Richfield, Ohio

Glenn Warner gwarner@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 212 John Zick jzick@babcox.com 949-756-8835 List Sales Manager Don Hemming dhemming@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 286 Classified Sales Tom Staab tstaab@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 224

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UNDERHOOD SERVICE (ISSN 1079-6177) (November 2013, Volume XVIII, Number 11): Published monthly by Babcox, 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333 U.S.A. Phone (330) 670-1234, FAX (330) 670-0874. Periodical postage paid at Akron, OH 44333 and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Please send address changes to UNDERHOOD SERVICE, 3550 Embassy Parkway Akron, OH 44333. UNDERHOOD SERVICE is a trademark of Babcox Media, Inc. registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. All rights reserved. A limited number of complimentary subscriptions are available to individuals who meet the qualification requirements. Call (330) 670-1234, Ext. 288, to speak to a subscription services representative or FAX us at (330) 670-5335. Paid Subscriptions are available for non-qualified subscribers at the following rates: U.S.: $69 for one year. Canada: $89 for one year. Canadian rates include GST. Ohio residents add current county sales tax. Other foreign rates/via air mail: $129 for one year. Payable in advance in U.S. funds. Mail payment to UNDERHOOD SERVICE, P.O. Box 75692, Cleveland, OH 44101-4755. VISA, MasterCard or American Express accepted.

6 November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

» QuickTip




he American Petroleum Institute (API) has evaluated results from its annual motor oil testing program and determined that almost one in five samples of bulk motor oil purchased from the marketplace in each of the past five years have failed to meet API motor oil performance standards. “API has launched a new phase in its Motor Oil Matters program that will provide the information necessary to consumers to ensure they receive the high-quality motor oils that they expect for their vehicles,” said Kevin Ferrick, API’s Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System manager. API purchased and tested more than 1,800 motor oils dispensed from bulk tanks over the past five years and reports that nearly 20% of the bulk oil samples tested failed to meet API standards. API compared the test results against thousands of licensed oil formulations to determine the identity of the oils and to verify that the oils met the performance level claimed.


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“The Motor Oil Matters program reminds consumers about the importance of using quality motor oils in their cars and trucks,” added Ferrick. “The Motor Oil Matters program also calls on certified oil change locations to go the extra step to verify the quality of the oil on invoices and receipts.” API recommends that consumers and shops visit www.MotorOilMatters.org to find a Motor Oil Matters (MOM) certified oil change location, look for the MOM symbol at approved locations, read important information on oil quality, and download the MOM oil change checklist to take to their next oil change. Oilchange locations and motor oil distributors that share MOM’s commitment to provide high-quality motor oils — and submit to independent, third-party auditing — have the opportunity to be recognized by MOM through the Motor Oil Matters distributor and installer licensing programs. ■

» Directions

By Andrew Markel | EDITOR

INSTALLER OR TECHNICIAN WHAT ARE YOU? “He thinks I’m working on parts. I’m working on concepts.”


recently came across this sentence in the book Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. The author, Robert Pirsig, is traveling cross-country on a motorcycle with another motorcyclist.

At this point in the book, he has pulled off to the side of the road to make an adjustment and fix his motorcycle with a shim. His fellow rider does not understand why he needs to take time to figure out why a problem is occurring and thinks he should just mindlessly install a new part and move on.


ly to the installation stage, they are doomed to repeat a repair several times. This is because either the part that was replaced was not the culprit or something is out-of-whack somewhere else in the vehicle that hastened the failure of the affected part. But, the “installer” stereotype is starting to sink into the consumer’s conscience. How many times this week will a consumer call or come in and ask how much it will be to replace an EGR valve or fuel injector without first describing the symptoms or problems

Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance


It really got me thinking about an incident that happened to me earlier in the week. I was talking to a person involved in the aftermarket and he kept using the word “installer” to describe shops and technicians. Personally, I find the word “installer” to be very offensive. It does not describe the full role of the professional automotive technician in the aftermarket. It reduces technicians to merely “parts swappers” and not diagnosticians. If technicians skip immediate-

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they are having? When you ask them why it needs to be replaced, are you told that a radio show host told them, or that their nextdoor neighbor who was once a technician diagnosed the problem? While their argument is valid in their own mind, it does not take into account the complexity of their vehicle. They think that since an advertisement, a person of authority or a tool has told them what is wrong, it must be true.

If you think we are alone, look at the relationship between doctors and prescription drugs. Look at all the commercials on TV where the message is, “If you have this problem, take our pill.” Sure, the commercial ends with “ask your doctor,” but it basically turns the doctor into an “installer,” sorry, I mean “prescriber.” Many doctors feel that the emphasis should not be on the pill, but the total treatment the doctor has chosen to follow. I feel that certain elements in the automotive aftermarket undermine the credibility of the technician in hopes of creating a need in the consumers’ minds for their products or increasing their own credibility. What can you do about it? The answer is simple, take the time to explain the repairs that are needed. On an invoice, write out what the technician did to the vehicle. After all, we work on concepts, not parts. Also, we make more money selling diagnostic work than parts. One more thing, if anyone calls you an installer, please correct them and have them call you a technician or mechanic. ■

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» Gonzo’s Toolbox By Scott “Gonzo” Weaver

Driving, Drinking and Grandpa


n one of many slow days at the shop, I had a small job come in from one of the local tire shops. This rather young girl brought the car to me from the tire shop just a few blocks away. She told me she was the owner and that the tire shop was rude and wouldn’t help her, so I called the tire shop to find out what the deal was. Her problem was an occasional no start. The tire shop didn’t want to get involved with this because it had a breath analyzer attached to the starting system. My opinion, if you get behind the wheel in a condition that would require having to blow into a plastic tube to start your car, you really should take stock of your life. I needed to find out why this car won’t start. First thing I did was disconnect the breath machine to verify if the problem was the car or the analyzer. Once the unit is disconnected from the car I have to call the 800 phone number on the device to let them know that it is an authorized disconnect and not the driver trying to bypass the system. It’s quite an ordeal. Not the physical disconnecting of the unit but, the information you have to know to prove that you are actually a repair shop when


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it comes to properly disconnecting the unit. With that over with, I got back to diagnosing the problem at hand. It turned out to be a bad starter motor. I called the parts warehouse and got prices on a replacement starter for the owner. Later that day the owner called back and said they had just put a starter on so I must be mistaken. It was a newer starter, but was not really a quality rebuilt unit, but it had a life-time warranty. Against my better judgment, I removed the starter so they could handle the core and warranty. She came for the old starter and sometime later showed up with the replacement starter. I informed her that the quality of my diagnostics or the charges had not changed, however, if

the car fails to start for any reason beyond the bolts falling out of the starter, it is coming out of her wallet. It went in one ear and out the other. A while later, Grandpa showed up with one hell of a chip on his shoulder to pick up the car. (I think old Grandpa threw back a few before he showed up, too.) “This is higher than the tire shop,” he said angrily, “I don’t think I should have to pay that much for it if the other shop could have done it for less.” I reminded him the tire shop may have a lower labor cost, but they also said they didn’t have the necessary skills to actually make the proper diagnosis and/or the repair. He rambled on about how he had fixed cars when he was younger and knew a lot about cars and if I could cut him some slack. Sorry Grandpa, maybe I’m doing you a big favor, you spend a few bucks with me, that way you’ll be a few bucks shy of that next six pack. That might keep you or your alcoholic granddaughter from getting behind the wheel drunk and I might actually be preventing a future fatal accident. So do me a favor, save some of that hot air for the breath machine, you’ll need it to start the car. ■

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Variable Valve Timing By Gary Goms, contributing writer


n section A for task seven it states: Differentiate between powertrain mechanical and electrical/electronic problems, including variable valve timing (VVT) systems. As you might have already guessed, VVT diagnostics is very application-specific because it not only depends upon whether the engine is an in-line or V-type block, or a SOHC or DOHC configuration, but also upon the configuration of the phaser and system electronics. In addition, there are literally dozens of “global” P0010- and P0340-series trouble codes, not to mention manufacturer-specific P1000-series codes that can be stored due to a valve-timing problem. But, by applying basic operating principles, it’s possible to diagnose most VVT failures, regardless of configuration. Precise camshaft timing can be achieved by using the powertrain control module (PCM) to apply oil pressure to the piston by pulsing an oil control valve.

Since the piston incorporates an orifice to bleed away oil pressure, cam timing can be changed by increasing the pulse width applied to the oil control valve. If the electronics fail, a phaser return spring will push the piston to its default timing position. The PCM will also monitor camshaft position by comparing the relative positions of the camshaft position sensor (CMP) and the crankshaft position sensor (CKP). If those positions don’t correspond with the programmed data, the PCM should set a P0010-series or P0340-series trouble code. Some VVT designs also incorporate a separate valve timing sensor (VTS) to provide a more precise valve timing feedback to the PCM. While most modern VVT designs use the more compact vane-type phasers to adjust valve timing, they continue to use the same basic arrangement of sensors and oil pressure control mechanisms to allow computer control. ■



» Aftermarket Update

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Entry Period Opens Nov. 1 For 2014 ‘Search For A Champion’ Racing Sponsorship Contest Grassroots racers, get out your video cameras and get ready to compete for a piece of the $125,000 in sponsorship money that will be awarded through the Champion spark plug, wipers and chemical additives brand’s 2014 “Search for a Champion” contest. Now in its third year, the popular web-based contest has already awarded $225,000 in sponsorships to 20 upand-coming competitors representing virtually every form of enginedriven racing. To enter the contest, racers simply need to submit two-minute

videos that describe their commitment to winning a racing title with the help of Champion spark plugs. At stake are 15 $5,000 sponsorships as well as one $50,000 Search for a Champion grand-prize sponsorship for the 2014 racing season. “Throughout its history, the

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November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

Champion brand has been a catalyst for thousands of talented racers in virtually every form of competition,” said Jessica Wynn, digital marketing manager for FederalMogul. “Search for a Champion is an investment in the next generation of racing superstars and an opportunity for any racer or team to compete for a chance to display the iconic Champion bow tie logo next year.” The contest is open to grassroots racers in three broad categories of competition — asphalt, dirt and water/snow — covering everything from junior dragster, go-kart and motorcycle racing to snocross and personal watercraft competition. Video entries must be submitted to the www.AlwaysaChampion.com website between Nov. 1, 2013, and Jan. 3, 2014. The Champion community will vote for 15 finalists between Jan. 6 and Feb. 2, 2014. Voting for the $50,000 Search for a Champion grand prize will take place Feb. 21 through March 23, 2014. The first 250 racers to enter the contest will receive a free Champion “swag” bag featuring a contest decal and Champion hat and t-shirt. For more information about the Search for a Champion contest and “Performance Driven” Champion products, visit www.Alwaysa Champion.com Like Champion on Facebook at facebook.com/ ChampionSparkPlugs, and follow the brand on Twitter at: twitter.com/ChampionPlugs.

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» Aftermarket Update MAHLE Clevite Introduces ‘Smart PART(ner)’ Campaign MAHLE Clevite Inc. has introduced its new “SMART PART(ner)” campaign, directed at all aftermarket partners. According to MAHLE, the new campaign highlights the added benefits technicians receive when selecting a MAHLE part, and the enhanced partnership established with distributors when they choose MAHLE Clevite. Added benefits include technical expertise, superior customer service and product training support. The SMART PART(ner) campaign supports the complete MAHLE Clevite product offering, from gaskets, engine bearings and engine parts, to filters, turbochargers and the company’s new thermostat offering. Additionally, it places an emphasis on the MAHLE Clevite customer service programs, including product training, online catalog and technical bulletins.

“Technicians around the world already are confident when choosing MAHLE Clevite-branded products, but they are looking more to us for product information, technical expertise and overall support,” said Ted Hughes, manager – marketing for MAHLE Clevite. The SMART PART(ner) campaign officially launched at the 2013 AAPEX show and can be seen in print industry trade publications and enewsletters. Additionally, MAHLE Clevite sales literature reflects the new campaign, placing more of a focus on the product and technical support received when purchasing a MAHLE Clevite product. For more information about MAHLE Clevite Inc. and its North American Aftermarket activities, visit www.mahle-aftermarket.com.

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20 November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

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» Aftermarket Update AutoProJobs Announces Tool Giveaway AutoProJobs is giving away tools! Entrants to the AutoProJobs Tool Giveaway have the chance to win one of five Chicago Pneumatic CP7748 1/2” impact wrenches, and one grand-prize winner will receive a 26-gallon compressor. Prizes are sponsored by Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company. To enter, simply fill out the entry form at www.Facebook.com/AutoProJobs. The Tool Giveaway runs through Nov. 24, 2013. More information about the grand-prize drawing will be announced soon. Winning email notifications will be sent to all winners. Visit AutoProJobs’ Facebook page for updates and announcement of winners.!

Aftermarket Auto Parts Alliance

Releases Free MyPlaceForParts VIN Scan App Auto Value and Bumper to Bumper parts stores have added a vehicle identification number (VIN) barcode scanning app for mobile devices to help professional technicians find and acquire repair parts faster and more efficiently. The new MyPlaceForParts VIN Scan App is free to download for both Android and Apple devices. According to Alliance, the app’s simple design is easy to use, and acts as the interface to a powerful scan engine that provides access to all VIN details. VIN data uploads to MyPlaceForParts.com with just one push of a button, enabling quick, accurate parts lookup. MyPlaceForParts mobile products also include features that make it easy to find and purchase supplies, accessories and tools as well as application-specific hard parts.

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UnderhoodService.com 21

» Aftermarket Update ‘Make A Deal With ACDelco’ Promotion This fall, ACDelco has a deal for independent service centers. Going on now, the “Make a Deal with ACDelco” promotion provides service centers with virtual “play and win” games when they purchase eligible ACDelco products. Lucky winners can receive up to 150 earnPOWER points per game that can be used toward the purchase of more than 3,000 goods and services on ACDelco360.com. ACDelco Professional Service Center program participants and independent service centers are eligible to participate. The promotion runs through Nov. 30. Local participation and rules may vary. For more information on the “Make A Deal With ACDelco” promotion, see your participating distributor or visit acdelcotechconnect.com or call 1-800-ACDelco. Find and “like” ACDelco on Facebook at facebook.com/acdelco. Statement of Ownership, Management and Circulation (Act of August 12, 1970; Section 3685. Title 39. United States Code.) Publication Title: Underhood Service Publication Number: 1079-6177 Filing Date: September 23, 2013 Issue Frequency: Monthly Number of Issues Published Annually: 12 Annual Subscription Price: $69 Complete Mailing Address of Known Office of Publication: 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333-8318, Summit County. Contact Person: Pat Robinson Phone: 330-670-1234. Complete Mailing Address of Headquarters of Publisher: Same as above. Publisher: Jim Merle (address same as above). Editor: Andrew Markel (address same as above). Managing Editor: Jennifer Clements (address same as above). Owner: William E. Babcox, Babcox Media, Inc., 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333-8318; Known Bondholders, Mortgagees and Other Security Holders Owning or Holding 1 Percent or More of Total Amount of Bonds, Mortgages or Other Securities: None. Issue Date for Circulation Data Below: August 2013. Extent and Nature of Circulation:

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A. Total Number of Copies B. Paid and/or Requested Circulation — Paid/Requested Outside-County Mail Subscriptions Stated on Form 3541 — Paid In-County Subscriptions Stated on Form 0 — Sales through Dealers and Carriers, Street Vendors, Counter Sales, and Other Non-USPS Paid Distribution — Other Classes Mailed Through the USPS C. Total Paid and/or Requested Circulation D. Nonrequested Distribution —Nonrequested Copies OutsideCountry Mail — Nonrequested Copies Distributed Outside the Mail E. Total Nonrequested Distribution F. Total Distribution G. Copies not Distributed H. Total I. Percent Paid and/or Requested Circulation Publication of Statement of Ownership will be printed in the November 2013 issue of this publication. I certify that the statements made by me above are correct and complete. Pat Robinson, Circulation Manager September 23, 2013

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Actual no. copies of single issue nearest to filing date




37,718 0

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792 814 38,583 265 38,848

805 805 38,523 268 38,791



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» Aftermarket Update Advance Rebrands eServices Unit As MOTOSHOP Technology Tools Advance Auto Parts has rebranded the company’s eServices product portfolio. Effective immediately, Advance eServices will be known as MOTOSHOP Technology Tools. According to Advance, the brand change was made to highlight the company’s commitment to providing an innovative and shop-friendly customer experience through continued investment in product development, new technologies and customer service. MOTOSHOP Technology Tools includes MotoLOGIC Repair & Diagnostics, MotoREV Shop Marketing, MotoSKILL Shop Tech Training and the soon-tolaunch MotoSHOP Shop Management System. With flexible product offerings, automotive shops can choose from all of the above services, or just those that meet their unique needs. According to Advance, MotoLOGIC helps technicians complete jobs correctly the first time and turn bays faster by providing fast access to the highest quality repair and diagnostics information. MotoLOGIC is Web-based and uses OE content for all major manufacturers, with coverage for 93% of the vehicles on the road today, providing color wiring diagrams when available. Also being re-branded is the company’s DriverSide program, now called MotoREV. MotoREV aims to improve a shop’s brand awareness and help shops Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

attract, retain and connect with more customers. MotoREV develops professional websites for shops and offers customer retention and reputation management services. The program automates personalized, shopbranded communications to customers based on vehicle information and drives positive online reviews for the shop. “The 5x Guarantee” promises a $5 return for every $1 spent on the shop marketing program, or a shop’s next month with MotoREV is free. MotoSKILL gives shop owners and employees access to the latest training they need to stay current with automotive industry developments. The platform is Web-based, allowing customers on-demand access to training videos at any time. All content is provided through an industry-exclusive partnership with AVI OnDemand, a market leader for automotive repair training. Coming soon will be MotoSHOP Shop Management System, designed to simplify the full shop experience by saving time with everyday shop operations such as invoicing and quoting. Benefits of MotoSHOP include an easy-touse interface, touchscreen capabilities and the only truly integrated, real-time parts buying experience, according to the company. For more information on the tools available from MOTOSHOP Technology Tools, visit www.motoshop.com. ■

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» TechTalk




hen an engine is running the alternator will have a regulated output controlled by the voltage regulator. If the regulator is not working properly or the alternator itself is not functioning properly, it can also affect the entire electrical system. But, if the full voltage can’t make it to the components on the other side of the wiring harness, you could be looking at a lengthy diagnosis. Determining where the problem is can be a challenge, but, with a little research and some testing, the job of finding a voltage drop in a charging system can be narrowed down.

Symptoms of a Voltage Drop from the Alternator Voltage drop symptoms vary depending on the severity or cause of the actual voltage drop. Some of the signs are: • inoperative systems; • sluggish, lazy or sporadic operation of certain systems; • devices that work sluggishly or erratically during periods of high electrical loads; • no starts or hard starts; • faulty sensor or computer voltages; • erratic engine or transmission performance; and • false trouble codes in the memory of any onboard computer.


November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

Defining a Voltage Drop Every circuit has some degree of internal resistance. This resistance absorbs some of the energy in the circuit. If the resistance is in the circuit of a power source and an electrical component, the voltage will drop. This is an oversimplified explanation, but the basic concept is energy is lost (in the form of heat) and not transferred to an electrical component due to resistance somewhere in the circuit. It’s like putting a kink in a hose. Unlike a hose, a DC circuit on a vehicle is a loop. This requires an inspection and test of the positive and negative sides of the charging system or any circuit. Connections can be the primary cause of voltage drops. Weak, corroded or overheated termi-

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Âť TechTalk


nals are going to be the prime places to look. Some manufacturers use an inline main fuse to the alternator output lead, while others use a fuseable link. On most latemodel cars, the voltage regulator control is part of the PCM. This is done to reduce load on the engine under certain conditions so that vehicle mileage can be increased.

negative battery post. Every electrical component in the car relies on this very post to actually complete the electrical path to every type of circuit in the car. The normal voltage drop on a wired circuit should not exceed 0.1V or 100mV. (Connectors for sensors and more delicate circuits should have a voltage drop that is nonexistent or considerably less than 0.01V range across the male and female connectors.)

Common Connections to Check

Most vehicles have a power distribution module under the hood. The complexity of this “junction box� can vary from a serial data bus connected module to a simple fuse and relay block. Diagnostics will vary depending on the vehicle. Make sure you look at the service information before coming to a conclusion. On some vehicles the 12 volts for battery and 14 volts for charging may not apply all the time.

Checking for Voltage Drop The key to any voltage drop test is to first find a good known ground, which would be the

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Start to look for the source of the voltage drop at the source of the voltage, namely the battery connections. I prefer to work from that direction most of the time while following the wiring schematic for the vehicle. (It never fails, the problem will be on the other end if I start at the battery.) Carefully examine the connections, especially with the screwed-down fuseable links that are popular these days. Some of these are covered with little plastic windows on the sides of the fuse box areas. Take the time to actually look at these or, using your multimeter, read the voltage drop on either side of the connections. (Keep in mind that connections should have almost no voltage drop.) Do the same with the negative side as well as the positive side. Both are equally important. Another thing to keep in mind is that no matter how complicated or intricate a circuit can be, they all have the same thing in common when it comes to voltage and grounds: They all have to return to the battery at some point, and the rule for voltage drops still applies.

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» TechTalk


Voltage drops or fluctuations can cause sensors to give false readings. Weak connections, low supply voltage or damaged wire can cause multiple DTCs.

Lower Voltages, Bigger Problems With most computer circuitry, voltage drops are even more critical than on other circuits. Their starting voltage is already reduced to 5 volts or less and, if there is a weak connection or a broken ground lead, the voltage drop may seem small, it’s a big deal to a sensor that measures changes in tenths of a volt or a serial data bus has to read binary data within a narrow voltage range.

Other Connections to Think About I’ve mentioned connections, but did I mention switches? A switch is nothing more than a moveable connection. Ignition switches, toggle switches, headlamp switches and the like are all nothing more than a connection. So, switches are another common place to look for a voltage drop when all the other connections check out fine. Check the switches in both positions and record the differences. Any differences between the two values would indicate a fault in the switch.

Power Voltage Drops Voltage drops don’t always have to be stationary or constant. A lot of times you’ll run across a voltGo to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

age drop that seems to be there only when a load is present on the circuit. A good example is a charging system at rest (engine not running) that shows a perfect signal from load to source and back, however, when it’s started, the voltage drop is present. Sometimes very severe, sometimes no charge output at all can be read at the battery, while at the back of the alternator everything seems perfect. This type of power voltage drop can be the hardest to locate. Primary reasons can range from poor connections as with any other type of voltage drop, to internal problems with the battery (plates gone bad), to the wire itself not allowing the current to flow. The last thing that would be a suspect in this problem would be the alternator, but don’t rule it out until you’ve checked the current flow as well as the voltage output. Voltage drops are common and one of the biggest culprits in false diagnostics or changing of parts that weren’t bad in the first place. It’s always a good practice to check for any voltage drop when testing an alternator circuit before needlessly changing parts. Make voltage drop testing a part of your normal procedure for alternator output diagnostics. ■

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» DiagnosticDilemmas

TOYOTA CASE STUDY By Gary Goms, Import Specialist Contributor

PCM Diagnostics Case Study No-Code Misfire Diagnosis On A 1998 Toyota 4Runner


hen doing mobile diagnostic work for other shops, I usually see more than my share of random no-code engine performance complaints. In the following case study, the customer of a client shop complained about an intermittent rough idle on his wellmaintained 1998 Toyota 4Runner, but only when it was driven in hot weather. During each routine service visit, my client shop couldn’t duplicate the complaint, no matter how long the engine ran. Of course, the Photo 1: As with many modern engines, component accessibility determines the diagnostic strategy. Since cylinder six is located under the intake manifold at the upper right, I had to rely on my scan tool to tell the story.


November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

lack of DTCs didn’t help the diagnostic process. Fortunately, I was forewarned months in advance that this problem might appear on my schedule when the weather turned warm. As expected, the shop finally duplicated the rough-idle complaint during the hot month of June. See Photo 1. My starting point in this case was to research

» DiagnosticDilemmas There are various causes of misfires, the most common of which are ignition system misfires caused by bad ignition coils, spark plug wires, spark plug insulator flashover, eroded spark plug gaps or fouled spark plugs. several databases for rough-idle complaints on 3.4L Toyota engines. One of the most common causes appeared to be insufficient valve clearance on one or more cylinders. The remaining causes consisted of the usual ignition, fuel and vacuum leak misfires. Since this rough-idle condition was so difficult to duplicate, I would classify it as a random failure, with the only predictable factor being high ambient operating temperatures.

MISFIRES AND THEIR CAUSES Let’s review the various causes of misfires, the most common of which are ignition system misfires caused by bad ignition coils, spark plug wires, spark plug insulator flashover, eroded spark plug gaps or fouled spark plugs. In most cases, bad coils and spark plug wires with high resistance and carbon-tracked spark plugs usually worsen because heat increases the part’s electrical resistance. But these failures usually don’t require extremes in ambient temperatures, as did our Toyota’s rough-idle complaint. Fuel distribution failures can also cause a cylinder misfire by not mixing the correct ratio of air and fuel needed for good combustion. Of course, vacuum leaks are a primary cause of rough-idle complaints on port-injected engines. Characteristically, a vacuum leak will lean out one or more cylinders at idle, but generally

disappear as the engine’s throttle opens and intake manifold vacuum decreases. Next in line for causing a rough idle might be clogged fuel injectors. Because clogging or electrical malfunctions are usually limited to one or two fuel injectors, the scan tool will often reveal bank-to-bank differences in fuel trims between cylinder banks and perhaps a marked increase in positive fuel trims at higher engine speeds. Compression misfires might also cause a rough idle and are tricky to diagnose because they can include valve timing errors created by insufficient valve lash or worn camshaft lobes. Insufficient or “tight” valve clearance will, for example, cause a valve to open too early and close too late. Tight valve clearances will also increase valve timing overlap on the exhaust-to-intake strokes and, thus, will lose enough cranking or running compression to cause a cylinder misfire.

A RUNNING COMPRESSION TEST After arriving to diagnose the rough-idle problem, I immediately retrieved a DTC P0306, indicating that cylinder six was misfiring. A routine ignition scope analysis indicated that the spark plug wires were ready for replacement. The owner had left a new set UnderhoodService.com 33

» DiagnosticDilemmas


mind that, at my 8,000ft. altitude, those readings are about 20% low. Because the snap-throttle readings were identical, I dismissed insufficient valve lash as a cause of the rough-idle complaint. As a sidelight, I also should have remembered that aluminum Photo 2: The spark line in this cylinder heads tend to scope waveform slopes downincrease valve lash as ward, indicating high resistthey warm up, whereas ance in the wire or spark plug. cast-iron cylinder heads tend to decrease valve lash during warmup. The reason for this phenomenon is because the aluminum cylinder head expands of wires on the front seat, which we quickly inroughly 1.5 times more than the steel valves and stalled. After the wires were replaced, the upward valvetrain at any given temperature change. slope on cylinder six’s spark line indicated a potenSCAN TOOL TESTING tial fuel-related problem. More about that later. See I recently bought a new scan tool, so I had to familPhoto 2 above and Photo 3 on page 36. iarize myself with all of Looking at the its features and menus. photo of the 3.4L At this point, I noticed a engine, it’s obvious 13.5% positive short-term that access to the fuel trim. I hadn’t noticed cylinder-six fuel injecthat condition before, but tor and spark plug is the engine warming up very limited. At this for at least 30 minutes point, I’m thinking not only verified the custhat we might have a tomer’s complaint of a worn valve seat causrough idle when hot, but ing insufficient valve now also gave me a lash, so I experimentnumber to work with. ed with recording Going with the misfire some vacuum wavehistory, I also noticed forms with no result. that cylinder six was A running compresmisfiring 38 times, comsion test comparing pared to four times for cylinders five and six cylinder one and eight times for cylinder five. Keep proved my theory to be wrong. in mind that, because cylinder five fires On each cylinder, the engine idled at 80 psi and achieved 160 psi during a snap throttle test. Keep in immediately before cylinder six, and cylinder one 34 November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

» DiagnosticDilemmas

fires immediately after cylinder six, the cylinder one and five misfires were likely “sympathetic” misfires that were actually caused by fuel distribution problems created by the cylinder six fuel injector not firing. As I mentioned above, the spark line on the ignition waveform on cylinder six indicated a possible lack of fuel. Just to ensure that we weren’t having a spark plug problem, we had switched cylinder five and six spark plugs during the running compression test, only


Photo 3: The upward slope on the spark line of this ignition waveform indicates that the air/fuel mixture on cylinder 6 is lean.

to observe identical results. While I don’t want to get into the aftermarket/OEM scan tool debate, aftermarket scan tools obviously don’t include the range of features provided by OEM tools. But, because of advances in their platform technologies, more aftermarket tools are including more OEM functions than ever before. Consequently, I began thumbing through my new scan tool’s various menus until I reached a menu for bi-directional tests. Fortunately, I found a bi-directional test that actually increased the short-term fuel trim by 25%. After activating the fuel trim test, the rough-idle condition Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

36 November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

» DiagnosticDilemma


Photo 4: I mounted the defective fuel injector in a vise for testing. Minimum resistance was 165 ohms at room temperature, which is nearly 12 times the listed maximum value.

nearly disappeared. Given that my initial labscope test had indicated an upward slope on the ignition waveform spark line and that the bank one fuel trim was hovering around plus 13.5%, I decided that the cylinder six fuel injector was either clogged or had developed an electrical problem that prevented it from opening on command. Since the complaint occurred only at higher ambient temperatures, it likely was an electrical failure causing the injector to misfire. At this point, I would have loved to access the PCM and check the injector waveform on the cylinder six fuel injector. But given the time limitations of working on another shop’s schedule, I closed by recommending the replacement of the cylindersix fuel injector. See Photo 4. 38 November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

After I took the defective injector home for more testing, I found that, while the resistance specifications are 13.4 ohms minimum and 14.2 ohms maximum, this injector bounced from 165 to 400 ohms at room temperature, and to as much as 1,200 ohms at 200° F. On a colder day, the injector would probably carry enough amperage to partially open the injector pintle valve. Once the injector’s core temperature reached 200° F, it would no longer fully open the injector’s pintle valve, thus causing the no-code, roughidle complaint. ■

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» Import


Top Hyundai Tech Tips


or the past three years, Hyundai has managed to sell more than half a million vehicles each year. Being able to service them is critical to your shop. Here are some top tech tips to aid your diagnostic efforts.

NO SPARK, NO INJECTOR PULSE ON 2002 SONATA 2.4L MODELS You may get a customer complaint that the vehicle died while in Drive, then wouldn’t start. There is no spark and no injector pulse, and no engine rpm on the scanner while cranking, and it’s setting a crankshaft position (CKP) sensor code P0335. CKP sensor failure is common.

Tests/Procedures: 1. Verify the battery voltage to the CKP sensor on the pink wire. 2. Verify that the ground for the CKP sensor is good on the black wire — look for 0.05 volts or less. 3. Scope the CKP sensor on the yellow wire for a consistent 0-5 volt square wave signal. 4. Check for possible timing belt shredding, affecting the CKP sensor. Courtesy of Identifix.

OIL LEAK FROM BELL HOUSING/TORQUE CONVERTER AREA Some transaxles may experience an oil leak in the bellhousing behind the torque converter. If this occurs, the oil leak will be observed at the drain hole on the lower surface of the transaxle. If you’re servicing a vehicle with this condition, refer to the points below to determine the proper repair procedure: – if the vehicle has more than 5,000 miles since the installation of the transaxle, replace the oil pump seal. – if the vehicle has less than 5,000 miles since the installation of the transaxle, remove the transaxle and install a remanufactured unit.

Repair Procedure: 1. Remove the transaxle. 2. Remove the torque converter. 3. Use a suitable tool to remove the oil seal. 4. Apply a thin coat of ATF to the lip of the oil


November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

seal before installation. Use the special tool (0945221200) to install the oil seal (P/N 46131-36002) to the oil pump housing. Courtesy of Mitchell 1.

TECH TIP: HYUNDAI FAILSAFE MODE/ERRATIC, HARD SHIFTING/DTCS SET An improperly functioning pulse generator on a 1996-2000 Elantra, 1997-2001 Tiburon or 1996-2004 Accent may result in the following conditions (Note: These conditions may be intermittent and difficult to duplicate.) • Diagnostic Trouble Codes: - P0717 - No pulse generator-A signal; - P0722 - No pulse generator-B signal; - P1624 - MIL-on request from TCM; • Third-gear “Fail-Safe” condition and/or Check Engine Light on; • Harsh, delayed or erratic 1-2 upshift; • Harsh or erratic 2-1 downshift during light acceleration; or • Vehicle “bucking” and/or hesitation.

Repair Procedure: 1. Follow the procedure below according to the vehicle and production dates shown in the chart below. Vehicle Produced Prior To 2000-’02 Accent 3-door through Oct. 11, 2002 4-door through Sept. 3, 2002 All other vehicles

Go To TSB 03-40-016 Step 2

2. Check for DTC in both the “Engine” and “Automatic Transaxle” menus. If you have the DTC in the chart below, perform the repair procedure. DTC P0717 P0722 P01624 P01529 P0732 and P0734 P0734

Repair Procedure Replace pulse generators Erase code Erase codes (P0732, P0733 may be induced by an improperly functioning PG-B)


» Import


3. Clean both ends of the pulse generator connectors and the connectors to the TCM with aerosol electrical contact cleaner. See Figure 1. 4. Reconnect the pulse generator connector. For 1996-2000 Elantra vehicles only, remove the connector from the transaxle bracket. Leave the connector loose on the transaxle Figure 1 case to prevent any tension on the Figure 2 harness. See Figure 2. 5. Test-drive the vehicle for at least two key-on, key-off driving cycles (including 1-2-3-4 upshifts and 4-3-2-1 downshifts): - If P0722 recurs, go to Step 6. - If P0717 recurs, go to Step 7. 6. For 1996-2000 Elantras or 1996-2000 Accents, replace the reed switch on the speedometer. For 1997-2001 Tiburons, replace the vehicle speed sensor on the transaxle. Testdrive the vehicle for at least two key-on, key-off driving cycles (including 1-2-3-4 upshifts and 4-3-2-1 downshifts): - If P0717 or P0722 recur, go to Step 7. 7. Replace the TCM. Test-drive the vehicle for at least two key-on, key-off driving cycles (including 1-2-3-4 upshifts and 4-3-2-1 downshifts): - If P0717 or P0722 recur, go to Step 8. 8. Replace the wiring harness between the TCM and pulse generators. Courtesy of Identifix.

HYUNDAI ENGINE OVERHEATING CONCERNS Some 2004-’06 Santa Fe (SM) vehicles may exhibit an overheating engine and inoperative A/C. Inspection of the radiator fan connection finds it is abnormal. A replacement connector is available (E25). This bulletin provides the procedure to replace the radiator fan motor connector with the replacement connector.

Service Procedure: 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery post. 2. Disconnect the radiator fan connector. 3. Pull away the wiring fixed to the radiator fan shroud. 4. Open the fan motor side connector cover by releasing the four cover locks. See Figure 1, C. 5. Remove the connector cover. 6. Using a cutter, vertically cut the corrugated tube 4.7” from the end Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

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» Import


of the connector. 7. Partially remove the cut corrugated tube (Figure 2, E1) from the wire (E). 8. Cut off the black wire 1.2” and the green wire 2.0” from the end of the connec- Figure 1 tor. Discard the connector. 9. Strip the wire coverings 0.3” from the cut ends. Caution: Be careful not to damage the wires. 10. Insert the stripped wires into the solder-sleeve tubes. Figure 2 11. Overlap the green wires by squeezing them into each other; do not twist them. Place the solder-sleeve tube (Figure 3, G) over the overlapped wires. 12. Align the solder part (Figure 4, H) of the solder-sleeve tube with the center of the Figure 3 overlapped wires. Caution: Make sure to keep the stripped wires overlapped by holding them with both hands. 13. Subject the solder part to heat. Once the solder is melted, evenly heat the entire solder. Figure 4 14. After the solder part is melted completely, wait approximately 10 seconds until the solder-sleeve tube becomes cool. Pull both ends of the solder-sleeve tube outside slightly, then subject both ends of the solder-sleeve tube to heat. 15. Apply the above procedures (steps 11 to 14) to the black wire. Courtesy of ALLDATA. Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

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» Tech


Hyundai 2.4L: Belt Debris Damages Trigger Wheel

Hyundai 1.6-2.4 Four: Check the Weights on the Shafts Before Installing Belts

In the case of “no start” problems, it pays to know the service history. If the car has suffered a broken timing belt, it’s a good possibility that some debris from the broken belt has found its way to the crank sensor, causing damage to both the sensor and trigger wheel. On 2.4L engines, the balance shaft belts have been known to fail and go unnoticed until the pieces finally take out the crank sensor, resulting in a “poor run” or “no start.”

Hyundai also uses balance and oil pump shafts driven by the timing belt. In the early 1990s, balance shafts were used on the small displacement 1.6L and 1.8L DOHC engines found in the popular Elantra and the sporty Tiburon, as well as the larger displacement 2.0L and 2.4L engines used in the Sonata. The addition of the balance belt won’t cause any problems as long it’s timed correctly and the counterweights are in the proper position when the belts are installed. There are access holes in the block that allow you to insert a punch or screwdriver to ensure the weights are at the bottom of the shaft, but they are not always necessary. It isn’t difficult to "feel" that the weights are at the bottom of the shaft. Later 1.8L and 2.0L engines went with a timing chain tying the cams together, while a belt was used on the opposite end of the exhaust cam to drive both. No balance shafts are used on these engines but remain necessary on the larger discplacement fourcylinder engines.

Hyundai Engine Stumble: Check Coolant and Air Temps Another common driveability problem that may or may not have an associated code is a stumble or cutting out on throttle tip in. If the check engine light is lit, hook up your scanner and retrieve the code; the most common will be a system lean code. While you have the scanner installed, take a couple of minutes to look at the other available parameters. Are the temp sensors reading correctly with a cold engine? The coolant and air temps should be close.

2004-’06 Elantra: Check Engine Light On with Fuel System Lean Code Vehicle Application: 2004-’06 Hyundai Elantra GLS 2.0L and 2004 Hyundai Elantra GT 2.0L The check engine light is on with a post catalyst fuel system lean code P2096, an oxygen (O2) sensor stuck lean B1/S2 code P2270, and an O2 sensor no activity B1/S2 code P0140.

Potential Causes: Air/fuel ratio sensor, exhaust flex pipe, fuel pump, heated oxygen sensor, mass air flow sensor

Tests/Procedures: 1. Monitor the front air/fuel ratio sensor for about 2 volts at idle. Voltage should go down a little 46 November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

(rich) under heavy acceleration and up a little (lean) on deceleration. Voltage should increase to about 3.2 volts in fuel cut. (Hard deceleration from 4,000 rpm). 2. Monitor the rear oxygen sensor to be about 0.4 to 0.6 volts and steady. Voltage should go up (rich) under heavy acceleration and down (lean) on deceleration. 3. Check the fuel trims to be close to 0%, add fuel and create a vacuum leak to see if the air/fuel ratio sensor reacts and the fuel trim changes. 4. Check the mass air flow sensor voltage at the pink wire to be about 1.4 volts at idle and about 2.5 volts at 3,000 rpm. 5. Have a helper partially plug the tailpipe while you check for exhaust leaks. 6. Check fuel pressure to be about 49.8 psi. Courtesy of Identifix. ■

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» Emissions


PCV Service: HELPING AN ENGINE CATCH ITS BREATH By Roy Berndt, Contributing Writer


’m certain that each and every one of you have, at some time in your life, experienced the horrific event of having the wind knocked out of you. If you can remember back to the first time it ever happened, before you knew that you would, in fact, breathe again, it was like you were facing death right in the eye. Well, imagine if you can, that same thing happening to an engine. Okay, it may be a stretch, but I had to come up with something that would get everyone’s attention. And, in fact, when you have a PCV system that isn’t working properly, you have an engine that can no longer breathe properly. (Not the cylinders, but the internal crankcase.) Why would I spend time with what should be “basic” information? Because it may actually be the single-most common factor contributing to issues of premature failure or customer dissatisfaction with a remanufactured engine. Do you recognize any of these symptoms of a potentially ineffective or inoperative positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system: oil consumption (without smoking), fouled plugs,

Figure 2


November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

Figure 1

rough idle, plugged and sticking oil rings, rapid/premature engine wear, ruptured gaskets and seals, oil in the air cleaner, and potential detonation? Each can be explained, and none of them is a characteristic that any customer would consider acceptable for a freshly remanufactured engine. Let’s go through a few of the basics of how the system works (if you know all there is to know, then just skip this paragraph). The PCV system was developed to remove harmful vapors from engines and prevent those vapors from being expelled in the atmosphere (see Figure 1). It does this by using manifold vacuum to draw vapors from the crankcase into the intake manifold to be burned with the normal air/fuel mixture. The flow is controlled by the PCV valve in order to meter the amount of vapor introduced into the combustion process. Blowby gases optimally should be removed at the same rate they enter the crankcase (see Figure 2). At low rpm (idle) there is minimal blowby, but that increases during higher rpm/load

» Emissions


operation. The PCV valve must control the vapor ing temperature and allowing it to stabilize at idle, evacuation accordingly. The PCV valve flow charpinch or block off the hose between the vacuum acteristics are directly proportional to manifold source and the PCV valve. The engine should typivacuum that also increases and decreases in relacally drop 50-80 rpm. If the engine does not change, tion to load and rpm. check the PCV valve and system hoses for blockA neglected or poorly operating PCV system will age. Replace components as necessary and retest. quickly contaminate the engine oil, and heavy Vacuum: Run the engine up to operating tempersludge accumulations will begin to form. Imagine ature. Shut off the engine and block off the fresh dumping water and acid into your engine oil on a air source to the engine. Remove the dipstick tube daily basis. How do you think that would impact and connect a vacuum-pressure gauge to the dipthe bearings, pistons and oil characteristics? For stick tube. Restart the engine and allow it to stabithat matter, how long do you think the engine lize at idle. Then take a reading of your vacuumwould last by doing that? That’s exactly what an pressure gauge. You should read 1-3” of vacuum improperly functioning PCV system will do with a normally operating PCV. If you have 0” of because that’s what the combustion process vacuum or even pressure, you have probblowby contains. lems. A smoke machine is a very effecThe other side of the coin is to have a tive way of testing the PCV. system dumping huge amounts of You won’t have an effective PCV PCV vapors into the intake manifold system if the engine has an external and contaminating the air/fuel mixair leak. ture, creating a recipe for rough idle And if the PCV system has been and even stalling of the engine. building pressure, you will burn up Carbon is one of the best protections crank seals in the engine. When against elevated combustion temperawithin a pressurized system, the PCV tures and pressures, not too unlike a ceramic does not allow oil to flow properly to Figure 3 coating. Those elevated pressures and temlubricate the lips, and they can run dry peratures are more commonly referred to as detoand burn up. Intake manifold runners that are wet nation, which can result in as much as 300 times are going to be PCV-related issues as well, but normal combustion pressures — not a good sceintake runners of the cylinder head that are satunario for head gaskets, pistons, rings or bearings. rated on “V” engines (with a dry intake manifold) A fresh engine installation is like a newborn are the result of leaks of the intake manifold gasbaby: it is completely defenseless against external ket on the bottom side, drawing PCV vapors into forces. Fresh components in the combustion the cylinder head runners, not the PCV system. chamber such as pistons, rings, intake and This will also appear as excessive vacuum on a exhaust valves have no carbon coating on them, PCV test. as of yet. There’s another vacuum test that uses a gauge Of course, just replacing a PCV valve does not placed in the filler cap position (see Figure 3). It’s effectively account for a proper functioning sysreliable, but it may or may not fit your applicatem. Hoses deteriorate and clog over time and, if tion filler cap. not replaced along with the PCV valve at the time A final comment: All PCV valves are not created of a new/remanufactured engine install, could equal. They have different flow characteristics render the PCV system relatively ineffective and that are specific to each engine application and be catastrophic for the engine’s effective lifecycle. may even be specific to particular platforms using the same engine. You may run into instances of Testing The System excessive PCV flow and oil consumption with a It’s PET (Practical Engine Tip) time: Testing the new PCV valve. If that situation occurs, be certain PCV system is relatively easy and can be done in to go back to an OE PCV valve. It may solve your a number of different ways: problem. Perform the PCV vacuum test between Pinching: After running the engine up to operatthem and see if there is a difference. ■ 50 November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

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» ScanTech


MODE $06 MIDS, TIDS AND DTCS By Glen Beanard, contributing writer


n mode $06, you’ll see test results from the PCM’s monitors. A “monitor” in the PCM is simply a piece of the PCM’s software that is designed to test certain components. These components may be tested at all times during a drive cycle (continuous), or they may be tested only once per drive cycle after certain criteria are met (non-continuous).

Non-continuous monitors include, but are not limited to: • Oxygen Amplitude/Reaction Time • Oxygen Heater Circuit • EGR Flow • EVAP Leak Detection • Cat Efficiency • Secondary Air Monitor • Thermostat Monitor

Continuous monitors include, but are not limited to: • Misfire Monitor (some makes display as PID in mode $01, Ford displays as TID in mode $06) • Fuel System Monitor (continuous oxygen monitoring of air/fuel ratio) • Comprehensive Component Monitoring (circuit integrity) All of the exampled tests here will be from Ford vehicles. The basic ideas and principles can be applied to other makes, but the specific technical data will differ when compared to other makes. Some makes completely separate these test results, and some may toss them all together in one section, like Ford. Some vehicles, like in the Ford screen shots on the following pages, provide an abundance of information. However, mode $06 on some other makes may provide next to nothing.

TID, CID and MID TID, CID and MID are related to each other. These terms are how the different data is labeled and


November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

identified in mode $06. TID stands for Test ID, CID stands for Component ID and MID stands for Monitor ID. TID is the type of test that is being performed by a monitor. For example, under the monitor you will see several TIDs with ID numbers like 1, 2 and 3 (or $01, $02 and $03). Although these tests are performed by the oxygen sensor monitor and are testing the oxygen sensors, these are each different tests for the oxygen sensors. One TID may be for the sensor’s reaction time (displayed as amplitude after a given time frame), where as another may be for the oxygen sensor’s switch point. Sometimes the TID is not really a test at all. Sometimes it is simply to show a fixed reference value that the EPA requires the manufacturer to display, such is the case with the oxygen sensor switch point voltage. CID is identification for the part that is being tested. For example, the oxygen sensor monitor is running multiple tests on multiple oxygen sensors. So, the test results are broken down to display each oxygen sensor (or component) and labeled with its own component ID number. MID takes over the duty of CID on CAN vehicles.

Layered Faults, Misleading Faults and Codeless Faults As touched on earlier, continuous monitors run all of the time and non-continuous monitors only run once per drive cycle after certain conditions are Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

» ScanTech met. Monitors (especially non-continuous monitors) often require passing results from another monitor before they can run. It is important for a technician to understand this because certain fault codes can block certain monitors from running, which in turn can mean that a problem in one system can actually “hide” under a fault code from another system. The catalyst monitor, for example, requires a passing status from the misfire monitor and the oxygen sensor monitor. That’s because the catalyst monitor uses the oxygen sensor to measure the catalyst’s performance, and also a misfire will produce excessive hydrocarbons and oxygen in the exhaust. You can’t expect a catalyst to perform within limits if it’s not being “fed” its proper “diet” of oxygen and unspent fuel, and you can’t expect an accurate measurement of its performance if the parts that you’re using to measure it with (the oxygen sensors) are proven faulty. So, when a misfire or oxygen sensor code is set, the PCM stops running the cat monitor. Let’s say a vehicle comes into your shop with a customer complaint of a check engine light and running rough. The technician finds one or more cylinders misfiring and fixes the problem. As we all know, misfires can damage a cat, especially one that has been in service for some time already. Add that to the fact that the PCM stopped testing the cat(s), and it’s very possible the vehicle will darken your door step with a check engine light on once again for cat efficiency. If the original fault is an oxygen sensor, then you might not even have a physical symptom to point to (like the misfire) to help explain to the customer that this is a new problem the second time. At the very least, it’s important to know this can happen for proper documentation and customer communications on the first visit. It’s much easier to explain something like this upfront than apologize for it later. It’s also important to understand how these monitors arrive at a “pass” or “fail” status. Every monitor has margins of acceptance. In the PCM’s eyes, for the purpose of when to set a fault code, it’s OK for an engine to misfire a little bit, or an oxygen sensor to be a “little bit bad” or an EGR system to be a little bit restricted or an EVAP system to leak just a little bit. That’s because for every test that a monitor runs, there is a line drawn in the sand (so to speak) that the test results are not allowed to cross. It’s not until that line is crossed that a fault code is set. That line is called the “threshold limit.” The PCM compares the

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test result, referred to as the “value” against the threshold. The value displayed is the result of the last time the monitor ran/updated. After repairs are made, a technician should drive the vehicle through at least enough drive cycles to complete enough of the monitors to verify the fix. When it comes to setting monitors, there are two types of drive cycles. A “drive cycle” is when enough of the needed conditions are met so that one or some of the monitors are given a chance to run. An OBD II drive cycle is where all of the needed conditions are met so that all of the monitors can run. A P1000 (OBD II readiness checks not complete) will remain in the PCM’s memory until an OBD II drive cycle is completed. The manufacturer of the vehicle doesn’t require that the technician do this, but your local emissions laws might. On CAN systems, the term MID is now used. The MID number not only indicates what monitor is referenced, but also what component is referenced and, therefore, also replaced the need for CID. As you also can see, much more in-depth information is available on the CAN systems. Notice how MIDs A1 through A9 have much more misfire information added, including the number of misfire events that occurred over the last 10 drive cycles.

As you can see, being able to access the monitor test results in mode $06 can be very useful for: • Diagnosing some driveability issues without fault codes • Determining the validity some fault codes; • Helping to determine the root cause of some fault codes; and • Predicting future fault codes.

A technician may use these modes to predict and validate: • Oxygen sensor slow response codes, • Oxygen sensor heater circuit codes, • EGR low flow codes, • EGR excessive flow codes, • EVAP leak codes and • Misfire codes. The test data in mode $06 is probably the closest we have to a crystal ball. It can benefit any technician who performs driveability work to become proficient in reviewing these test results to apply to them something that the PCM can’t — “reason.” ■ UnderhoodService.com 53



NHTSA Clarifies ‘Make Inoperative’ Provisions of TPMS Regulations By Rudy Consolacion


ike airbags and emission devices, TPMS systems require a little knowledge of the law before you can service or modify the system. You might think you’re doing the customer a favor by turning off the TPMS light for good, but you could be getting into a lot of trouble. Title 49, U.S. Code 30122(b) of the Motor Vehicle Safety Act (MVSA):

“Prohibits a manufacturer, distributor, dealer or motor vehicle repair business from knowingly making inoperative any part of a device or element of design installed on or in a motor vehicle in compliance with an applicable motor vehicle safety standard.” TPMS is such a safety system, and, therefore, falls under these guidelines, so you need to be aware of the recent clarification announced by NHTSA.

Scenario 1 If a consumer is made aware of an inoperative TPMS sensor and declines to purchase a new one, does the retailer violate the MVSA by removing the dead sensor and replacing it with a snap-in valve stem? NHTSA: “If the pressure sensor Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

was inoperative before the customer presented the vehicle to the retailer, “a motor vehicle repair business would not be violating 49 USC 30122(b) by removing an inoperative or damaged TPMS sensor and replacing it with a standard snap-in rubber valve stem. However, a motor vehicle repair business that goes on to make any other element of the TPMS system inoperative, for example, by disabling the malfunction indicator lamp, would violate the ‘make inoperative’ provision.”

Scenario 2 What if the customer purchases aftermarket wheels and refuses to purchase new sensors or pay for the old sensors to be transfered to the new wheels?

WIX® Filters, a member of the Affinia Group family of brands, in conjunction with Brake & Front End, ImportCar and Underhood Service magazines, named Bogi Lateiner of 180 Degrees Automotive in Phoenix the third-annual Best Tech at the AWDA conference on Nov. 4 in Las Vegas. “Bogi’s vision for the automotive service industry seeks to empower consumers through knowledge of automotive basics,” said Mike Harvey, brand manager for WIX Filters. “Her approach to consumer education also includes outreach to women on how they can pursue careers as auto mechanics. She represents the future of automotive technicians and is an exceptional choice for this year’s ‘Best Tech’ award.” Lateiner, a 13-year veteran in the automotive service industry, is an ASE-certified technician. She teaches basic car care classes for women and appears on a national TV show called “All Girls Garage,” targeting female viewers. “I started a repair shop in my driveway with little more than a strong passion for educating my customers and a commitment to the highest quality of service and repair,” Lateiner said. “I wanted to create a shop where everyone could feel comfortable and where I could be a part of elevating the reputation of the automotive industry.” Today, 180 Degrees Automotive is an 8,000-square-foot, state-of-theart facility with the look and feel of a coffee shop and designed with the customer in mind. Amenities include a children’s play area, art gallery, comfortable couches and free Wi-Fi. WIX Filters and Babcox Media also named two finalists for the Best Tech award – Jeff Florey of The Auto Shop in Santa Cruz, CA, and Audra Fordin of Great Bear Auto Repair in Flushing, NY.



NHTSA: “We assume that the vehicle has a functioning TPMS system at the time he or she purchases aftermarket tires and wheels. In that case, a service provider would violate the ‘make inoperative’ prohibition of 49 USC 30122(b) by installing new tires and wheels that do not have a functioning TPMS system. To avoid a ‘make inoperative’ violation, the service provider would need to decline to install the new tires and rims, use the TPMS sensors from the original wheels (if they are compatible), or convince the motorist to purchase new TPMS sensors and ensure that the sensors are properly integrated with the vehicle’s TPMS system.”

Scenario 3 What if a working sensor is broken during normal service and a suitable replacement can’t be found at that time? Can a normal valve stem be installed while a replacement sensor is found? NHTSA: “As a general matter, a violation of the ‘make inoperative’ prohibition does not occur until a

repair business allows or intends a vehicle to be returned to use…this would be true regardless of whether arrangements have been made for future repair, as there are no other exceptions to the ‘make inoperative’ prohibition in the statute.”

Scenario 4 What is the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) illuminates after the vehicle is released to the customer? NHTSA: “The mere illumination of the MIL after the vehicle has been released by a motor vehicle repair business to the driver would not itself be a violation of the ‘make inoperative’ provision. FMVSS 138 requires that the malfunction telltale illuminate not more than 20 minutes after the occurrence of a malfunction, meaning that the system may not detect a malfunction that occurred while the car was at the motor vehicle repair business until the car has been released to the owner and driven for some time. Whether or not a ‘make inoperative’ violation has occurred would depend only upon whether the motor vehicle repair business knowingly made inoperative an element of the TPMS system that caused the malfunction indicator lamp to illuminate.” “If the electronic TPMS relearn or diagnostic tool includes the functionality to produce a print-out on the status of the system, we recommend that retailers give a copy to the consumer and retain a copy for their own records following service.” ■ Reader Service: Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

56 November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

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Âť TechTips This month is sponsored by:

New Cleaning Method for Volvo Cooling System Contamination If engine oil or automatic transmission fluid is found in the cooling system, there is a new cleaning method using a flush gun.

Service: The root cause of the oil contamination must be remedied prior to performing this cleaning procedure. Some examples of where to start looking are: - Defective engine oil cooler; - Defective radiator; or - Defective cylinder head gasket. Once the root cause of the oil contamination is remedied, use the following instructions in order to clean the cooling system. Note: Some variation in the illustrations may occur, but the essential information is always correct. 1. Special tool P/N 9814122 has been introduced for flushing the cooling system. The tool uses water and compressed air. After flushing, the thermostat, all rubber radiator hoses and the expansion tank with cover must be replaced. Note: The thermostat must be removed from the thermostat housing and the thermostat housing reinstalled for flushing to be


Figure 1

Figure 2

November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

effective. 2. The hose that is connected to the thermostat housing during flushing must reach outside of the engine compartment. Tip: Use radiator hoses P/N 30776224 and P/N 30761633 as tools. These are suitable for the different diameters on the outgoing connector on the thermostat housings. These can be reused for multiple jobs. 3. Drain the cooling system, and remove the thermostat. 4. On most engines the thermostat housing with thermostat is only available as a spare part. In these cases, the thermostat must be removed from the thermostat housing The following steps show how to do this. 5. Figure 1 applies to vehicles with B6324S or B630412 engines. 6. Figure 2 applies to C301S40N50 vehicles with B5254Sx/Tx engines. Remove the thermostat, and the rubber gasket from the thermostat. Install the rubber gasket in the thermostat housing, assemble the thermostat housing and reinstall the thermostat housing on the engine. For other engines not shown in steps 5 or 6, see relevant model and engine in VIDA.

Reader Service: Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

» TechTips Flushing the Cooling System Figure 3

1. Connect the cleaning gun to the hose (Figure 3, 1). Connect the water hose and compressed air to the cleaning gun. Connect a long hose (Figure 3, 2) to the thermostat housing, which extends outside the engine compartment. Note: Hot water is recommended. Use skin protection to prevent burns. Note: When flushing, the first 5.25 gallons (20 liters) must be flushed out into a container because the fluid contains coolant that must not be flushed out into the drainage network. Flushing can then occur over a flush plate with oil separation. 2. Flush the cooling system for at least 10 minutes if hot water is used. If hot water is not available, extend the time to 20 minutes. 3. After flushing, the thermostat, all rubber radiator hoses and the expansion tank with cover must be replaced. Courtesy of Mitchell 1.

GM Hybrids Experiencing Intermittent Clicking Noise on Acceleration or Braking Models: 2008-’10 Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid and GMC Yukon Hybrid 2009-’10 Cadillac Escalade Hybrid with Two-Mode Hybrid System (RPO HP2) Condition/Concern: Some customers may complain of a click or rattle-type noise from the right front of the ve- Figure 4 hicle. The concern will be most noticeable under acceleration or when braking. The concern may be perceived as an internal concern with the Hybrid Control Module or Accessory DC Power Control Module (APM). Recommendation/Instructions: Do not replace the Hybrid Control Module or APM to resolve this concern. The concern may be caused by one of the two following issues: Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

60 November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

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» TechTips #1: The rear heater lines rubbing together at the AC accumulator and creating a click or rattle type noise. See Figure 4 on page 60. Correction for #1: To properly inspect the heater lines, you will need to remove the right-side inner wheel well. To isolate the lines, use a piece of heater hose and a plastic tie strap. Use the tie strap to secure the heater hose between the lines in both areas in Figure 4. #2: The transmission dipstick tube is contacting the AC lines, rear aux heater lines or the high-voltage cables. Correction for #2: Reposition the transmission dipstick tube for proper clearance. Follow this diagnostic or repair process thoroughly and complete each step. If the condition exhibited is resolved without completing every step, the remaining steps do not need to be performed. Courtesy of MotoLOGIC® Repair & Diagnostics: www.motoshop.com/motologic.

Chrysler Town & Country Intermittently Runs Poorly Affected Vehicles: 2011 Chrysler Town & Country (Van) Touring L 3.6L, V6

Customer Concern: The engine is intermittently running poorly and is setting a pending trouble code of P0152.

Potential Causes: Oxygen Sensor Oxygen Sensor Wiring Powertrain Control Module (PCM) Tests: Verify that the wiring to the oxygen sensors is normal. These sensors will normally switch between 2.5 volts and 3.5 volts when they are working correctly. The sensor ground will have 2.5 volts on it and this is normal for this vehicle. Verify the replacement oxygen sensor is within the specifications before installing it on the vehicle. Confirmed Fix: Replaced Oxygen Sensor. ■ Courtesy of Identifix’s “Five Fast Fixes”

62 November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

» Shop Ranger Products, a division of BendPak, recently unveiled its new QuickJack portable jack system that makes vehicle maintenance — on the track and off — convenient and lightning fast. The 3,500-lb. capacity lightweight QuickJack can go anywhere and can be easily stowed in the trunk or back seat of most cars when not in use. Bring it to the track or drop it on your garage floor to perform routine maintenance in the comfort of your home, all in seconds. The QuickJack collapses to a low 3” profile so it fits where other jacks don’t. Contact Ranger Products at 805-933-9970 or visit www.quickjack.com. Reader Service: Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

This holiday season get the DIYer in your life a gift you know they will love. Head on down to NAPA and get your choice of three tool sets for only $19.99 each: GearWrench fivepiece ratcheting wrench set, Carlyle 19-inone ratcheting driver bit set or EVERCRAFT nine-piece Screwdriver Set. At participating NAPA AUTO PARTS stores, while supplies last. Offer valid Nov. 17 through Dec. 31, 2013. Reader Service: Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

Jasper Engines & Transmissions offers the Ford 6R60/6R75 rearwheel-drive and four-wheel-drive transmission on exchange. This sixspeed CAN (Controller Area Network) electronically controlled automatic transmission is available for 2006-’08 Ford Explorer and Expedition application. The units have the transmission control module (TCM) mounted inside the transmission on the valve body. JASPER installs a thermal conductive layer between the TCM and the valve body, and updates all early shallow pans to the latest deep pan design. Reader Service: Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

ACDelco Enhances PowerSteering Product Lineup — ACDelco has significantly enhanced its portfolio of power-steering products with an all-new line of Professional Remanufactured steering components designed to provide consumers with quality and affordable solutions while exceeding your high standards. The line includes power-steering pumps, rack-and-pinion gears and steering gears. Learn more at ACDelco.com or your ACDelco distributor.

ToughOne Absorbent Glass Mat (AGM) batteries are uniquely designed to meet the demands of today’s vehicles, providing superior performance in vehicles with multiple electronic devices and dependable power and longer life in all climates. Providing twice the battery life of a standard battery, ToughOne Platinum AGM batteries utilize PowerFrame Grid Technology to deliver up to 70% better electrical flow. ToughOne, available exclusively from Advance Auto Parts Professional, offers industry-leading coverage for foreign and domestic applications. For the latest promotions on ToughOne Advance delivery store. Reader Service: Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

64 November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

» Spotlight


ACDelco Shifts GM Six-Speed Auto Transmission Repairs, Reflashes Into High Gear ACDelco has introduced GM Original Equipment Transmission Hydraulic Control Modules (TEHCMs) for GM six-speed automatic transmissions, and it is also making it easier for independent service centers to reprogram customers’ GM transmissions in their stores. The new ACDelco GM OE TECHMs cover these families of GM six-speed transmissions in 2006-current model year GM cars, trucks and crossovers: 6T30/40/45/50 and 6L45/50 and 80 90 applications. They integrate electronic and hydraulic components into a single module for optimal driveability and durability. ACDelco TECHMs also includes the latest hardware, including a filter plate, solenoids and an upgraded frame. ACDelco TECHMs feature these advantages over used and/or competitive products: • All-new GM OE module for optimized fuel economy • Ability to download the latest calibration software for smoother shifts and better customer satisfaction • Limited parts warranty of 12 months/12,000 miles TECHM replacements in GM six-speed transmissions require Dexron VI transmission oil and additional parts depending on the application, such as seal kits and valve body cover gaskets. For customers whose GM six-speed automatic TECHM simply needs reprogramming, ACDelco is making it easier for independent service centers to provide this service and earn their customers’ trust: Technicians can now use the ACDelco TIS2Web program and an interface tool to flash the TECHM at their own facility. Distributors, PSC shops and Key Fleets can purchase the MDI (Multi Diagnostic Interface) by calling 1-800-GMTOOLS or visiting gmdesolutions.com. MDI part number #7001055G. Eligible members of the ACDelco Professional Service Center program who install ACDelco TECHM products may offer additional consumer assurance such as labor and roadside assistance. ACDelco 1-800-825-5886 Learn more at ACDelco.com. acdelcotechconnect.com




» Spotlight



The importance of replacing torque-to-yield (TTY) head bolts whenever they are removed during engine service is not big news for experienced technicians. But knowing that AJUSA gives you the best TTY head bolt coverage for European and Asian vehicles in the market, is definitely worth getting excited about. The program features an OE-quality line of cylinder head bolts that are manufactured and factory approved to ISO9001 and TS16949 standards. The head bolts come packaged as sets for vehicle specific applications, and are provided in a shrink-wrapped cardboard box with assembly lube included. An AJUSA Head Bolt Set has everything you need. The right parts, for the right car. First time. Every time. That means no more hunting for extra bolts when the inventory comes up short or dealing with fit issues when the part isn’t right. CRP offers twice as many AJUSA Head Bolt Sets for European and Asian vehicles than any other parts supplier. With over 100 Head Bolt Set part numbers, no other head bolt manufacturer can cover the imports you service like AJUSA. Vehicle applications include popular Acura, Audi, BMW, Honda, Land Rover,

Mazda, Mercedes Benz, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Toyota, Volvo, and VW models. Not quite sure which parts are right for your customer’s vehicle? CRP’s got you covered here too. In addition to complete technical and customer support, our AJUSA Cylinder Head Bolt program features easy look up on CRP’s online application catalog, which can be accessed at: www.crpautomotive.com.

www.crpautomotive.com Reader Service: Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com


November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com


It’s Fast, Easy and Accurate! Get FREE PRODUCT AND SERVICE INFO from the companies featured in this issue of Underhood Service. >> VISIT www.uhsRapidResponse.com and click on the company from which you want information. >> OR, go to www.UnderhoodService.com and click on the Underhood Service Rapid Response Logo.

Advertiser Company Name ACDelco

Page Advertiser 16, 17, 65

Advertiser Motorcraft,Ford Motor Company NAPA

30, 31

O'Reilly Auto Parts

Airtex Corporation

54, 43

Parts Plus


Cover 2, 1 Cover Call Out, 19

Advance Auto Parts Professional APA Management Group


41 3

Permatex Inc

Auto Value/Bumper to Bumper

Cover 4

Schaeffler Group USA


Cover 3

27 8, 9

SmartChoice by Federal-Mogul


Bar's Leaks


Spectra Premium Industries


Bartec USA, LLC



BendPak Bosch Automotive Service Solutions CARDONE

Insert, 60 22, 23

14, 15

TYC/Genera Corp





WIX Filters

CRP Industries


DENSO Products and Services America, Inc.

7, 35

Dipaco Inc.


Enerpulse Inc


Ford Parts


Harbor Freight Tools




Jasper Engines & Transmissions


King Electronics




Moog Steering & Suspension



Wagner Brakes/Federal-Mogul

4, 5 20 44, 45, 55


Reader Service: Go to www.uhsRapidResponse.com

UnderhoodService.com 67


68 November 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

Why switch to PDQ? PRICES. Low prices. High Quality. Always. 1st time buyer? Order from this ad and receive these special prices.


Call now to order or to receive a free 2012 catalog 1-800-434-5141 www.autobodysupplies.co m

UnderhoodService.com 69

Advertising Representatives The Tech Group Bobbie Adams badams@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 238 Jamie Lewis jlewis@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 266 Dean Martin dmartin@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 225 Sean Donohue sdonohue@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 206


Glenn Warner gwarner@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 212

Filters Mechatronics Kits Oils Hard Parts Manuals Torque Converters Audi • BMW Jaguar • Porsche Range Rover • VW

Authorized Distributor

ERIKSSON INDUSTRIES • 800-388-4418 Old Saybrook, CT • FAX 860-395-0047 • www.zftranspart.com

John Zick jzick@babcox.com 949-756-8835 List Sales Manager Don Hemming dhemming@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 286 Classified Sales Tom Staab tstaab@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 224


UnderhoodService.com 71

» CustomerStates...

This 2006 Ford Taurus was towed in and the customer stated that it would not start. Upon initial inspection, a large snake was found under the hood (look on top of the bell housing). After animal control safely removed it, the vehicle operated properly. ■

Kim Brant Joe’s Service 922 S. 19th St. St. Joseph, MO 64507 816-232-1767


If you have your own “customer states...” story and picture of a problem that was ignored for too long, please send it and you could win $50 if your entry is selected to appear in the magazine. Send your entry to amarkel@babcox.com. Thanks!

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Profile for Babcox Media

Underhood Service, November 2013  

Underhood Service identifies and explains the latest ­developments in under-the-hood systems, along with business-critical technical infor...

Underhood Service, November 2013  

Underhood Service identifies and explains the latest ­developments in under-the-hood systems, along with business-critical technical infor...

Profile for babcox

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