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February 2014



ENGINE SERIES//////////////////16 Cummins Diesel: Coming of Age


In 1989, Dodge made a bold move to the automotive market by offering the Cummins diesel for its mid-size truck line. Now, almost 25 years later, the Dodge mid-size truck with a Cummins diesel still holds an awesome reputation for efficiency, reliability and dependability.

UNDERCOVER///////////////////24 Brake Job Breakdown In this article from Andrew Markel, we’ll highlight performing a complete brake job on a 2002 Hyundai Elantra with almost 200,000 miles on the odometer. The vehicle has also seen some tough winters in the rust belt.

24 SERVICE ADVISOR//////////////32 Maintaining Fluid Levels It’s important for you to understand how to address fluid service with your customers without having them feel uncomfortable about having such services performed to their vehicle — and wrongly thinking you are just ‘over-selling’ maintenance.


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February 2014 |

Career Corner: Accessing Scholarships


Finish Line: Hot Rodder of Tomorrow


Real World: Investing in Scan Tools


TT Crossword


Book Report: Auto Brand


NASCAR Performance


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Tomorrow’s Technician (ISSN 1539-9532) (February 2014, Volume 13, Issue 1): Published eight times a year by Babcox Media, 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333 U.S.A. Complimentary subscriptions are available to qualified students and educators located at NATEF-certified automotive training institutions. Paid subscriptions are available for all others. Contact us at (330) 670-1234 to speak to a subscription services representative or FAX us at (330) 670-5335.

4 February 2014 |

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Career Corner

By Monika Earle, public relations coordinator, Specialty Equipment Market Association (SEMA)




ave you considered applying for a scholarship to help off-set the cost of your college or trade school education? With the costs of secondary education rising, it makes more sense than ever to use scholarship money to help you lower the overall cost of your education. The less student debt you have upon graduation, the better off you will be. There are now a variety of scholarships being offered in many different categories, so chances are your odds are much better than you think. Why apply for a scholarship to help reduce or eliminate the amount financed for your education? By way of background, here are some general statistics according to a 2012 Gallup poll regarding student loans in the United States. (See Chart) “Applying for a scholarship makes great economic sense,” stated Zane Clark, SEMA director of education. “There are many websites available now that will help you apply for multiple scholarships by creating a single account, which helps streamline the process.” The Specialty Equipment Market Association (SEMA) has awarded thousands of dollars in scholarship funds to students since the program began in 1984. Over the years, Clark has seen a number of

• Total US student debt is now $1.1 trillion (approximately one year’s worth of the U.S. budget) • Public university tuition is up 163% since 1985 • Private university tuition is up 100% since 1985 • 30% of college students do not graduate • 53% of college graduates are unemployed • 15% of U.S. college students study engineering or science as compared to 50% of college students in China, 67% in Singapore, and 47% in France • 46% of college graduates are perceived as not ready for work students who never thought they would be able to afford college obtain their dreams. Here are some tips and tricks that SEMA suggests to help you achieve scholarship success: Apply for multiple scholarships at a time. Applying online is usually the best way to go. Not only will you increase your odds of obtaining a scholarship, there are some websites which will assist you in organizing the components you will need to apply for multiple scholarships at once. Frequently, students will obtain more than one

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edited by Tomorrow’s Tech staff Each month, Tomorrow’s Tech takes a look at some of the automotive-related student competitions taking place in this country, as well as the world. Throughout the year in “Finish Line,” we will highlight not only the programs and information on how schools can enter, but we’ll also profile some of the top competitors in those programs. Because there are good students and instructors in these events, we feel it’s time to give these competitors the recognition they deserve.




eam Moroso, from Eastern Oklahoma County Technology Center in Choctaw, OK, defeated 22 other schools from across the nation to win the Hot Rodders of Tomorrow National Championship at the PRI Trade Show in Indianapolis. School instructor Jim LaFevers tutored a six-student group that broke the event’s national record in breaking down and then re-assembling a V8 engine in 18 minutes, 43 seconds. The team was composed of Callie Hunter, Ryan Campbell, Alexander Versteeg, Connor Hixenbaugh, Connor Carrizales and Nicholas Brown. “This is an opportunity of a lifetime for these kids and something they’ll remember for the rest of their lives to become national champions,“ said LaFevers, whose school is made up from students from four local feeder high schools. “This is a jumpstart for their career in the automotive and high-performance trade. The Hot Rodders of Tomorrow have a terrific program.” In total, 23 schools from around the nation qualified for the event at regional competitions. This year’s Hot Rodders of Tomorrow National Championships saw schools qualify


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Team Moroso was composed of Callie Hunter, Ryan Campbell, Alexander Versteeg, Connor Hixenbaugh, Connor Carrizales, Nicholas Brown and instructor Jim LaFevers. (Photo: PRI)

from California to Virginia. “We had a really exciting time – PRI was a perfect host and we absolutely loved being here,” said Rodney Bingham of Hot Rodders of Tomorrow. “The kids did an amazing job and our program offers more than $2 million in scholarships. No student here will get less than $15,000 worth of scholarships and some will receive more than $30,000 per student.” For a video of December’s event, go to: This was the first time that the championship was held during the PRI show, and they were happy to be able to showcase the event during a week-long flurry of activities that was attended by more than 40,000 racing industry professionals. “We were excited to have the Hot Rodders of Tomorrow join us at the PRI Trade Show,” said John Kilroy, producer of the PRI Trade Show. “It’s a very powerful program to give young people entrance to the performance and racing world. They are the future of our sport and I wouldn’t be surprised if some of the companies attending the show had an eye out for their next generation of engine builders.”

Second-Place went to Thomas County Central High School in Georgia. (Team Parts Pro)

East Ridge High School in Tennessee placed third. (Team Comp Cams)

NORTHWOOD STUDENTS ‘TAKE THE WHEEL’ IN PLANNING SHOW NU Sets Date for 51st Annual International Auto Show The student-run outdoor show is North America’s largest new car auto show. It will be held October 10, 11 and 12, 2014, on the Michigan Campus of Northwood University located in Midland, MI. The theme for this year’s show is “Take the Wheel,” focusing on connecting consumers to their vehicles. The Auto Show is free of charge and open to the public, and will offer a variety of displays and exhibits throughout the campus in

addition to food, information and entertainment. The General Chair for this year’s show is junior Kristin Hammond from Alma, Mich. She and the 14-member executive board, in addition to more than 600 other students, will be involved in This year’s show will feature more creating the show, which attracted than 500 new cars, trucks, semis, approximately 60,000 visitors last recreational, specialty and promoyear. tional vehicles, plus an extensive It is held during Northwood aftermarket exhibit. ■ University’s homeDo you have an outstanding student or a coming weekend during the peak of group of students that needs to be recognized the fall color seafor an automotive-related academic achievement? son on the heavily E-mail us at wooded campus.

10 February 2014 |

Real World

Adapted from Larry Carley’s article in



scan tool is absolutely essential for diagnostics on today’s vehicles. You need a scan tool not only for diagnosing engine, emissions and transmission problems, but also for troubleshooting virtually any system that has electronic controls. A scan tool is needed not only for reading trouble codes, sensor PIDs and other system information, but also for accessing pending codes (Mode $06 data), capturing information when a fault occurs, accessing and running various system self-tests on the vehicle, initiating relearn procedures that are often required when certain parts are replaced or electrically disconnected, and module reprogramming. In short, you need a highly capable scan tool that has a lot of built-in utility and versatility. Buying such a tool is obviously a major investment, so you want to get the most bang for your buck. You might acquire one or two factory scan tools for the makes you service most often, but you’ll also need some type of general-purpose aftermarket scan tool that can handle a broad range of vehicle makes. Aftermarket scan tools run the gamut from the relatively inexpensive (under $250) DIY scan tools that are limited to reading codes and common OBD II PIDs, to high-end professional-grade scan tools that have bidirectional capabilities and software functionality similar to a factory scan tool. They can cost as much as $5,000 to $12,000 or more, depending on features, adapters and cables that may be bundled with it. In recent years, there has also been a growing trend toward the “global” all makes/all models scan tool, recognizing the fact that independent repair shops can’t afford to buy and maintain a different scan tool for each and every make of vehicle their customers may drive. Aftermarket scan tool suppliers try to incorporate as many of the factory scan tool capabilities as possible, but


February 2014 |

they seldom achieve a complete duplication of functions. Some PIDS may be missing, some self-tests may not be included, and some systems or modules that the factory scan tool can talk to may not be accessible. These are common shortcomings you’ll still find in many high-end scan tools. Even so, considering the capabilities that are included and the cost savings they offer, a top-quality aftermarket scan tool is still one of the best buys you can make.

COMMON BUYING PITFALLS One of the biggest risks today is getting burned on a factory or aftermarket scan tool that is a knock-off of the real thing. A lot of copycat and counterfeit scan tools are coming out of China that appear to be the genuine product. The problem is they are often unauthorized copies of the brand-name product and they may or may not function as claimed, so when it comes time to upgrade the software, you discover your tool lacks the proper authorization codes for the required upgrade. Many of these tools are being sold online or by fly-by-night distributors who don’t have a permanent address or contact information. A scan tool supplier will usually list all of the vehicle makes they cover, but the more important question is, what is the depth of coverage for each of the makes listed? Is it only generic OBD II codes and PIDs, or does it include in-depth factory codes, PIDs, self-tests and other diagnostic functions? Many aftermarket scan tools provide excellent – indepth coverage on the more popular vehicle makes, but many have only limited diagnostic capabilities for some of the less common makes. The problem is you often don’t know what’s lacking in a scan tool until you’re actually using it on a customer’s vehicle. It’s at that point you discover the tool can’t give

you a definition for a certain code, it can’t access the subsystem you’re trying to work on, it can’t display a full list of PIDs, it can’t run a certain self-test you may need to diagnose a fault, or it can’t initiate a required relearn procedure that may be needed to complete a repair. It may be a great tool for working on some vehicles, but is of little value on others. That’s still one of the greatest pitfalls of buying a scan tool today. The best advice we can offer here is to do as much homework as you can before you buy a particular tool so you know what you are buying. Review the scan tool supplier’s product information, make sure the tool covers the makes you work on, then look for online reviews by others who have had some experience with the tool. If possible, talk to other techs who own a similar tool to find out what their experience has been.

ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS Cost versus value. How much can you afford to spend on a scan tool (and yearly updates) and what capabilities are you willing to forego because you can’t afford them? Wouldn’t it be great if you could buy one scan tool for around $5,000 that would do everything? That day hasn’t arrived yet, so accept the fact that you’ll probably have to buy several different scan tools to get the kind of coverage and capability to handle all of the different makes you may have to work on. Some scan tools command a higher price because of their brand reputation or market dominance. Even so, it’s a highly competitive market and you can often get the same or better coverage and functionality in a scan tool from a lesser-known supplier for significantly less money. Other factors to consider are things like product support (can they fix your scan tool if it breaks?), the cost of annual upgrades (and the quality and completeness of those upgrades), the availability to purchase accessories (such as cables, adapters, etc.), and the tool’s eventual resale value. Many brand-name products still retain a high resale value after years of service, while many no-name products become almost worthless after a few years. A professional-grade aftermarket scan tool must offer factory-equivalent functionality. It must have bi-directional capability for all of the reasons already mentioned. It’s also helpful if the tool is J2534 compliant so it can be used to reprogram the PCM and other on-board modules if a reflash is needed to correct a particular driveability, emissions or performance problem. The ability to record and graph data is also a useful feature to have for diagnostic purposes. The tool should also be able to access systems beyond the powertrain (such as ABS, suspension, steering, climate control, air bags, etc.).

MORE CAPABILITIES Before you make that investment in a scan tool, consider a few other capabilities you may want in a scan tool:

14 February 2014 |

• The ability to work on pre-OBD II vehicles: Though this population of vehicles is shrinking, many import or classic vehicle owners may keep a prized vehicle in the amily for years, passing it along from one generation to the next. • Check Bundling Options: Some suppliers sell their adapters individually so you have to buy only the ones you need, while others bundle their adapters and cables in a kit and force you to buy a lot of stuff you may never use. • Bluetooth capabilities: Wireless eliminates the need for cumbersome cables and allows the scan tool to communicate with other computers, shop equipment or a printer. • Platform needed: Do you want a more traditional hand-held scan tool or would you prefer a tablet device? You can also get software for converting a laptop or notebook computer into a scan tool. This approach eliminates the cost of buying hardware if you already own a laptop or notebook computer. But, a converted laptop or notebook will lack some of the key features that are often built into or added to a dedicated scan tool device, such as the ability to function as a multimeter or a J2534 pass-thru device. • Screen Size: A scan tool with a large color screen is easier to read and can display more information than a tool with a relatively small screen. Most of those who opt for the better display screen never regret their decision. • On-board memory: Tools that use a standard SD memory card can be easily and cheaply upgraded with a higher-capacity SD card if the need arises. Scan tools with fixed built-in memory chips cannot. • Battery life and power source: Is the tool powered through the OBD II connector, or does it have its own internal power supply? What is the working time of the batteries, and is it long enough for a typical work day in your shop? Can the batteries be easily and cheaply replaced, or does the tool have a built-in or proprietary battery that is expensive to replace if it fails? ■

Engine Series

Adapted from Bob McDonald’s article in

Coming of Age: Dodge Cummins Diesel W

hen you hear the name Cummins, what is the first thing that comes to mind? Most of the time, if you have any knowledge of trucks, a Dodge truck is the first thing that comes to mind. The Cummins diesel engine has always had a great reputation for reliable diesel power. Though the Cummins diesel engine can be found in many applications, it seems to obtain most of its credit from drivers of over the road trucks. In 1989, Dodge made a bold move to the automotive market by offering the Cummins diesel for its midsize truck line. Now, almost 25 years later, the


February 2014 |

Dodge mid-size truck with a Cummins diesel still holds an awesome reputation for efficiency, reliability and dependability.

Changing Perceptions Something you have to realize is that when this truck debuted in 1989, the diesel engine was really not sought after by consumers for the use in their mid-size truck. At this time, diesels were considered to be nothing but slow and loud clanking buckets of bolts. But, when Dodge offered a turbocharged Cummins, the public started taking notes. These engines were considerably quieter and offered great pulling power along

with fuel mileage. Since the public already knew about the reputation of the Cummins diesel, it was really a no-brainer that the truck would prove to be a reliable workhorse that would actually sell itself to the masses.

B Series The Cummins engine we are talking about is commonly referred to as the 6BT. The 6BT stands for six cylinders, “B” series engine and it’s Turbocharged. Many enthusiasts always wanted to know what the “B” stood for. The “B” series family was used by Cummins to identify those diesel engines that shared the same bore and stroke. The “B” series engines could be four or six cylinders that both shared a 4.020” bore and a 4.72” stroke. This is very similar to other diesel engines that Cummins has produced such as the N14. This was an “N” series engine, which had a displacement size of 14 liters. There were other displacement sizes of the “N” series, but they all had the same size bore and stroke. They were just designed for different applications. The “B” series engines are commonly referred to as the 4BT and the 6BT. These are four-cylinder and six-cylinder engines that produced 1 liter per cylinder. Both of these engines shared a lot of the same valvetrain components along with the same pistons and connecting rods. Both of these engine designs were used many years in agriculture long before the 6BT engine was intro-

duced in the Dodge truck in 1989. They were primarily used in Case tractors in the early 1980s. They can also be found in other applications such as air compressors, back hoes, boats, generators and buses. So, they were long proven in reliability before seeing production in a Dodge truck. The 6BT, starting in 1989 and continuing through 1998, was commonly referred to as 12 valves. These can be easily identified by six individual valve covers on top of the cylinder head. From 1989 to 1991, the 6BT was introduced without an intercooler and a CAV-style rotary injection pump. In 1991, an intercooler was added along with a Bosch-style rotary injection pump. This style of rotary injection pump was used until 1994, and then the engine was fitted with a Bosch P7100 injection pump. The reason for the injection pump change was to lower emissions. Diesel emissions regulations were first imposed by the government in 1994. The P7100 pump was a piston-style pump that could be used for more precise fuel and timing control, which delivered more efficiency along with more power and produced less smoke. Throughout production from 1989 to 1998, there are only a few problems that have occurred that are worth mentioning. One would be known as the “Killer Dowel Pin.” This is the dowel pin that is used in the front of the engine block to align the aluminum front engine cover. This alu- 17

minum front cover is basically the timing gear cover for the front of the engine. Over a period of time, the pin has been known to back out of the engine block. When this happens, three things can occur. One, the dowel pin falls to the pan and no harm done. Two, the dowel pin will force against the aluminum front cover and cause the front cover to crack. Three, the dowel pin falls into the timing gear of the crankshaft causing major engine damage.

Crackdown A common problem on the 1994-’98 models is cracking of the aluminum front cover. Since the internals of a diesel engine can cause a lot of torsional engine vibrations, sometimes the rest of the engine components cannot endure the stress In 1989, the Cummins Turbocharged diesel engine was introthe vibrations place on them. The aluminum front duced into the Dodge mid-size truck. These engines were nonintercooled, as you will notice the pipe on top of the engine that cover of these models is a two-piece design. comes from the turbo to the intake manifold. There is an inner structure that bolts to the engine block that the outer aluminum cover bolts to. The inner structure of the front cover on the driver’s to be removed along with the cylinder head. The reason side of the engine is used to support the power steering for this is, when removing the outer front cover, you will pump along with the injection pump. Even though these find that the inner structure is completely surrounded by engine components have braces that are bolted to the the engine’s gear train. This means that all the engine block that help support their weight, they often components such as the injection pump, power steering crack the inner structure of the cover due to stress over pump and camshaft have to be removed in order to time. This crack will often cause a severe unwanted oil remove the inner structure. This is the reason that the leak at the front of the engine. cylinder head will have to be removed. When the inner structure of the front cover finally Let me explain in a little more detail. In order to cracks, the repair can be somewhat extensive and someremove the injection pump, you must place the engine what expensive. In order to repair the cracked support for in “time.” The injection pump is timed by Cummins the inner cover, the front of the engine will literally have and there is no woodruff key in the pump shaft to align the gear. In order to remove the pump, you must first remove the valve cover for the #1 cylinder to expose the rocker arms. Below the injection pump, there is a small plastic dowel that has been placed in the front cover by Cummins to assist in timing the engine. You must rotate the engine with a ratchet and socket placed on the damper of the engine while pressing in on the plastic alignment dowel on the front cover. When the engine is at top dead center on the #1 cylinder, the alignment dowel will push in to the gear of the camshaft. To verify that the timing is in the correct position, the rockers will be loose on the #1 cylinder. However, there is another way to check to make sure that the injection pump is timed correctly. Toward the back of the injection pump, on the lower portion of the pump, there is a plug. If you remove the plug (there will be some oil that will come out when the In 1992, the Cummins 12-valve was fitted with an intercooler. plug is removed), you’ll notice that there is also a plastic line-up tool. You have to take the small alignment Notice the pipe that feeds the intake manifold.

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The ISB-CR was introduced in 2003. The 2003 model can be identified by the throttle control linkage located in front of the intake manifold elbow. In 2004 and later, the throttle linkage was eliminated in the engine compartment and concealed to the throttle pedal under the dash. tool out of the plug and turn it around and place the tool back in the plug. This small alignment tool will slide right into a small opening inside the injection pump if the timing is correct. If you cannot slide this tool into the slot, then the slot is not properly exposed and the injection pump must be rotated in order to bring this window into sight. You can however, take a small mirror with a light and see up inside the injection pump to see if the timing window is in sight. The window for proper timing should line up evenly in the small opening in which the plug was removed. If the valves for the #1 cylinder are loose and the plastic alignment dowel will push in on the front cover along with the window in the injection pump being centered in the small opening for the plug, the engine should be in time. Then the gear for the injection pump can be removed. This will have to be done with a gear puller. Once the gear has been removed, the injection pump, along with the high-pressure lines, can be removed. The rest of the valve covers, along with the rocker arms and push rods, can be removed as well.

The reason for the removal of the cylinder head is to make things a little easier to work on. I have seen some prefer not to remove the cylinder head, but at this point, a lot of things are at stake. The problem is the camshaft has to be removed. But you have to remember one thing: the lifters are a mushroom-style, meaning that they are installed from the bottom of the block during assembly with the engine upside down. You will remove the cylinder head, but you’ll need to use some 1/2” wooden dowel rods to support the lifters. Yes, wooden dowel rod. You can purchase 1/2” wooden dowel rod at any hardware store generally in 3’ lengths. You’ll need to purchase enough dowel rod to make 12 10” wooden dowels. The wooden dowel rod will be soft enough to drive into the top of the lifter where the pushrod goes. Once all 12 wooden dowels are driven into the tops of the lifters, each one can be supported to the other with a rubber band. Once installed, you can pull up gently and the lifter should rise. It may sound complicated, this instruction is provided in detail in the Cummins

cable and the engine would shut down. If you wanted to crank the vehicle, just simply push in on the cable and normally start the vehicle with the ignition switch. Now, after some 12 years, there are some aftermarket companies who are manufacturing an electric fuel shutoff solenoid for about half the price. Some owners had become pretty inventive by adapting some similar fuel shut-off solenoids from industrial and agricultural equipment. service manual. Once the radiator and intercooler are removed, the camshaft can be removed from the engine block. There are retaining bolts behind the camshaft gear that hold the camshaft in the block that have to be removed first. Once the camshaft is removed, the inner structure of the front cover can be removed. This is a lot of work, but it’s the only way to replace the inner structure. Like I mentioned earlier, there are some who prefer not to remove the cylinder head, but if the wooden dowel is not properly installed into the lifter in a tight fit situation, the lifter will fall into the oil pan. Then the engine will have to be removed from the vehicle in order to remove the oil pan to extract the lifter from the engine.

Avoid the Noid One other problem on the 1994-’98 models was the fuel shut-off solenoid. When the P7100 injection pump was introduced, the fuel shut-off solenoid was mounted on top of the rear of the injection pump near the throttle control cable. The solenoid basically moved the external fuel shut-off lever. The older-style rotary pumps had a solenoid mounted externally, but internally the solenoid stopped fuel from flowing by releasing a rubber plunger when the solenoid was de-energized. On the P7100 injection pump, the solenoid basically moved an external lever, which would shut off the fuel to the pump. This basic style was great until the solenoid went bad. Owners would crank their vehicle and when reaching their destination, would realize that they could not cut their engine off. They would have to go under the hood into the engine compartment and lower the fuel shut-off lever manually. Really no big deal until you had to purchase the solenoid. This was a terrible marketing design by Cummins because the fuel shut-off solenoid was $350. (For a little electric motor, Cummins wanted $350?) So, when working on this year model of Cummins, it’s not uncommon to find a “choke” cable off of a lawnmower installed with a handle mounted somewhere below the steering wheel at the lower part of the steering column. This $25 apparatus worked well. All you have to do is cycle the ignition switch to the off position and pull the

Improving Emissions In mid 1998, Cummins introduced another version of the 6BT. This would be known as the ISB. This stands for Interact System B. With growing demands from the government to lower emissions, Cummins released a 24-valve design engine with an electronic high-pressure injection pump and electronic injectors. The electronic injection pump is also known as the Bosch VP44. These engines produced a little more power and torque with more fuel efficiency and less smoke. The ISB engine with the VP44 injection pump was only produced until 2002, but gained more power each year. One of the biggest problems these engines suffered from was the injection pump. The VP44 did not like fuel starvation. When first introduced, a small fuel pump was placed on the back of the fuel filter housing. It was discovered that this type of fuel pump would not last and would burn up. The purpose of the fuel pump was to draw fuel from the tank and pressurize it to supply the VP44. Over a period of time, the fuel pump would lock up and not function. But, the crazy thing is, the fuel pump locking up would not cause the engine to immediately shut down. The injection pump itself was able to siphon

Did You Know… For turbocharging, Cummins has always used Holset manufacturing. The Holset turbocharger has always proved reliable with very few failures. Of course, over the years, the demands for reduced emissions and more power became an issue that warranted a design change. For the 6.7L engine, Holset introduced a variable geometric design, which allowed for less spool time at lower rpm and more boost at upper engine speeds creating more efficiency throughout the entire rpm range. 21

fuel from the tank into the chamber of the pump. Drivers would continue to operate the vehicle noticing only a small stumble or cutout sometimes. The whole time the VP44 was siphoning fuel from the tank, the pump itself was actually deteriorating from starvation. When the owner finally realized that there was a problem, it was too late. The injection pump would have to be replaced along with an updated fuel system to remedy the problem. The updated fuel system was an upgrade for the fuel pump. This upgrade consisted of a pump-intank with all the necessary hardware and lines to remove the existing pump on the back of the filter housing and mount an electric relay from the fuse box under the hood to power the fuel pump. Some aftermarket companies offer fuel pump upgrades for the VP44 fuel system. This consists of a frame-mounted high-pressure pump that constantly supplies fuel to the injection pump. Either update has decreased the failures of the VP44. But, keep in mind that this injection pump has an electronic module integrated in it, which is the pump’s “brain.” This electronic module can also fail at any time. There are numerous running conditions that can occur with this style of pump when the module is going bad. This will happen even when there is ample supply of fuel to the pump. These injection pumps are expensive, so make sure to purchase one from a reputable supplier. Often owners may find one at a third of the price, but have not seen any reliability or dependability. Another problem from the ISB was the block casting number 53. The casting number for the engine is on the side of the block. Number 53 was manufactured from 1999 to 2001 from a Brazilian-named company called TUPY. The problem with the 53 block was the thin water jackets that surrounded the cylinder walls. The water jacket would usually crack toward the rear of the block on the driver’s side, causing a small coolant leak. As time went by, the crack would grow by several inches in length, causing major coolant loss and overheating issues. Many attempts have been made to repair the crack, but only some have succeeded. Most of the time, the engine is replaced with a different casting number from a salvaged vehicle. If you’re an owner of this year model and are concerned, look for a casting number. If there is no casting number on the side of the block, then it is

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As fuel is pressurized by the common-rail injection pump, the fuel enters a storage area known as a common-rail. Notice that all the high-pressure lines for each cylinder are attached to the rail. Do not loosen the lines while the engine is running. The high-pressure fuel can pierce the skin and enter the blood stream resulting in death. Fuel pressures can reach as high as 26,000 psi. likely that the block was manufactured in Mexico and there were no issues. Cummins corrected the situation by increasing the thickness of the water jackets and working with the Brazilian manufacturer by developing a stronger block. This block can be identified with a casting number 54. In 2003, Cummins released the ISB-CR. As growing emissions demands were being placed on diesel manufacturers, Cummins came out with a complete electronic common-rail diesel engine. Common rail uses high-pressure diesel injection with electronic injectors to increase fuel atomization for better efficiency. The common rail injection can use multiple injection events per cycle to increase maximum power along with a reduction in emissions. The Cummins common rail engine thus far has not had any major failures or problems. There are some situations where there has been an injector failure or maybe a high-pressure pump or some other electrical sensors, but no major mechanical problems thus far. In 2007, to meet the needs of greater demands of emissions reduction and more power, Cummins released the ISB 6.7. This is a 6.7L engine that yields 408 cubic inches. Why this is considered a “B” series engine is unknown due to the fact that it does not have the same bore and stroke as the existing “B” series family. The bore of the 6.7 is 4.21” and the stroke is 4.88”. There were a few recalls that dealt mostly with the 2007 model year, mainly dealing with some issues of the diesel particulate system and some soot buildup issues. The power of the 6.7 is almost triple of the original 12-valve design. ■


By Andrew Markel, editor, Brake & Front End Magazine


2000-’06 Hyundai Elantra


he third-generation Hyundai Elantra is the vehicle that put the Korean automaker on the map. With a roomy interior and a reliable drivetrain, the Elantra sold well to a wide demographic of import and domestic buyers. The brake system, for the most part, is generic and not difficult to service. In this article, we’ll be performing a complete brake job on a 2002 Hyundai Elantra with almost 200,000 miles on the clock and that has seen some tough winters in the rust belt. The car even had the front subframe replaced two years ago under warranty.


February 2014 |

For all of the shops in non-rust belt states, you are about to be amazed and surprised what a little snow and salt can do to a vehicle.

TSBs AND RECALLS There are no TSBs of relevance for the 2000’06 Elantra. In 2003, Hyundai recalled some 2000-’03 Elantras for corrosion on the rear brake lines that pass behind the front suspension crossmember. The contact causes the outer coating on the brake lines to wear away. Without this coating, the lines will corrode. The fix for dealers was to reposition the rear brake lines so they do not contact the mounting brackets. The repair involves installing brake line clips to control the location of the rear brake tubes, and apply anticorrosion material to the lines.

INSPECTION PROCEDURES The initial inspection revealed the front

rotors were below specifications and had uneven pad wear on the right front inboard pad. The rear drums were also out of specification and a leaking wheel cylinder had contaminated the brake shoes. Hyundai recommends replacement of the wheel cylinders if any brake fluid is found in the dust boots. Runout measurements of the rotors and hubs revealed little or zero runout.

FRONT BRAKES The caliper guide pins have insulator sleeves on the ends. These are designed to prevent vibration from being transferred to the caliper bracket. Over time, the ridges on 25

the guide pin become compressed and it’s then possible to transfer vibration and noise to the vehicle. Some hardware kits include the insulator sleeves. It’s always a good idea to replace these every time the pads are replaced.

The boot for this caliper guide pin had a 4 mm gash. Due to heat expansion and contraction and the movement of the caliper centering over the rotor, the gash pumped in enough water and salt to corrode the pin and bore of the bracket.

A moly-based brake lubricant should be applied to only the fingers of the caliper.

This is an example of a good idea gone bad. The previous technician put a coating of what looks to be anti-seize or brake lubricant on the piston or inboard pad. Over time, the grease has broken down and migrated onto the piston’s boot. This has attracted dust and dirt that has damaged the boot.

Make sure the hub is clean and free of all debris. Even a small piece of rust the thickness of two pieces of paper can cause 0.001� of runout.


Lubricant should be applied to the abutment clip on the caliper bracket. Less is more! For some vehicles, it’s necessary to put a moly-based lubricant only on the ears of the pad that make contact with the abutment clip. Dust and debris stick to lubricants and can cause problems down the road.

Be aware, most rear brake hardware kits might have two different length shoe anchors. If the shoe seems too loose or too tight, check the parts bag for an alternative part.

30 February 2014 |

After the shoes are removed, clean up the lands the shoes ride on. If the lands are grooved from the shoes, replace the backing plate. Place a small amount of moly-lube on the lands, but don’t use too much. Excess lubricant attracts dust and debris that can cause the shoes to stick.

Inspect the teeth on the self-adjusters. Rounded, broken or worn teeth can cause the adjuster to malfunction. Clean and lubricate the adjusters. A little bit of lubricant can go a long way.

When a drum is off the vehicle, assemble the shoes and hardware in the drum. The adjuster can be set so only a small adjustment has to be made on the vehicle. â– 31

Service Advisor

Adapted from Gary Goms’ article in



everal factors are driving modern fluid maintenance services. And these influences will shape the work you perform at a shop or dealership upon graduation. One of the biggest changes over the years is the increase in a vehicle’s service life. Today’s modern vehicle’s service life often extends to well over 200,000 miles and good fluid maintenance practices are, in part, responsible for that remarkable achievement. Second, car counts in many shops are declining because late-model vehicles require less scheduled maintenance and less frequent repairs. Consequently, many shops are looking at add-on services, such as fluid maintenance, to boost shop revenues. It’s important for you to understand how to address fluid service with your customers, without having them feel uncomfortable about having such services performed to their vehicle. Unfortunately, in this industry, many shops have been accused of over-selling fluid maintenance services. For example, I had a customer who, for whatever reason, preferred to have his vehicle serviced at an out-of-town fast lube shop. Although his vehicle recently had the automatic transmission replaced, the fast-lube shop insisted on selling him a transmission fluid flush. Not only did they sell him the first transmission flush, they attempted to sell him a second flush on a later visit. One reason for apparent over-selling is that many shops routinely recommend fluid maintenance services based upon the mileage of the vehicle. In addition, many vehicle owners circulate from shop to shop, so there is no continuous maintenance records kept on the vehicle. The sole exception to this situation might be information jotted into the vehicle’s OE maintenance record manual or on repair and maintenance receipts stashed in the glove box. So, it’s easy for one shop to accuse other shops of overselling fluid maintenance, regardless of what the actual case might be. With these thoughts in mind, let’s explore many other issues regarding fluid maintenance.


February 2014 |

Engine Oil Extended engine oil change intervals are profoundly influencing the way we sell fluid maintenance services. Although it’s difficult for many veteran technicians to comprehend, the engine oil monitors built into the PCM’s software are doing a good job of calculating oil change intervals based upon factors like average ambient temperatures, coolant temperatures, drive times and engine loads. As a result, we’re seeing the traditional 3,000-mile engine oil change interval doubled and perhaps tripled before the vehicle returns for maintenance services. In response to this trend, shops should be eliminating the stand-alone oil change in favor of more comprehensive maintenance and inspection schedules. Inspections would include items like filters, belts, hoses, brake friction and exhaust. Additional touches such as filling the washer fluid reservoir, cleaning the engine compartment, lubricating locks and door hinges, lubing door seals, and cleaning the battery and its cable connections would be welcome in an extended interval maintenance service. See Photo 1. Extended service intervals have brought about four basic changes in the way we maintain vehicles in the service bay. The first change is that the base oil and additive package of any oil must be compatible

with extended service interval requirements. Second, the oil must meet the OEM’s lubrication requirements for highly stressed engine components like camshafts and piston/ring assemblies. Third, the oil filter itself must meet extended interval requirements. Last, and most important, most fluids in a modern vehicle are often applicationspecific and, in many cases, designed for extended interval use.

Automatic Checking

Photo 1: A visual exhaust, brake, powertrain inspection should be part of every extended service interval inspection.

While some manufacturers consider automatic transmission oil as a “lifetime” fluid, other manufacturers believe that it should be changed according to mileage and usage. To illustrate, trucks used for towing heavy loads definitely need more frequent transmission fluid maintenance because the transmission obviously operates at a higher temperature, which tends to oxidize and deplete the fluid’s additive package much more rapidly. All too often, a customer might request a transmission flush in the belief that flushing will cure a shifting or slippage complaint. In reality, if the fluid 33

is badly burned or contaminated, flushing probably won’t compensate for the mechanical wear that has taken place. On the other hand, if the fluid simply appears dirty from normal use, a flush might be recommended. The obvious question is whether the transmission oil pan should always be removed for service. Many auto manufacturers believe, for example, that replacing the oil in the pan at regular intervals maintains the additive package in the oil. My opinion is that the oil pan should be removed so it can be inspected for wear debris, the filter can be replaced, and the valve body screws checked for correct torque. If the transmission experiences severe service, I would recommend removing the oil pan and performing the above services. Last, far be it from me to recommend anything, but use the OEM-specified automatic transmission fluid for a fluid replacement. While the vehicle owner’s manual or a repair database might recommend a generic fluid for topping off the fluid level, it generally will not recommend that same generic fluid for fluid replacement.

require application-specific lubricants. In addition, we also have many automatic transfer cases in 4WD applications that might use friction clutches to engage front drivetrains and equalize input and output shaft speeds. Here again, the oil must be formulated to allow smooth 4WD engagement. So the lesson to be learned here is that it’s always best to use the recommended fluid for any manual transmission or automatic transfer case application.

Driving Axle Inspections

If you work in an area that’s experienced heavy flooding, you know that drive axles tend to absorb water. Similarly, the drive axles in vehicles driven in snowy climates also tend to absorb water, with the milky appearance of water-contaminated oil being the first clue. Since many imports include an oil drain plug in their drive axle housings, those carmakers obviously believe in changing the axle oil at regular intervals or having that option available when the oil becomes contaminated. See Photo 2. Most conventional drive axles incorporate a hypoid gear, which means that the smaller pinion gear meshes below the Photo 2: The cover on this axle must be removed to change centerline of its comManaging the axle oil. Notice that the axle vent (top) can easily be Manual panion ring gear. Transmissions Because a hypoid submerged in water. In years past, the design causes the conventional “90pinion gear teeth to weight” transmission oil was used in all manual transmis- scrub the lubrication away from the ring gear teeth, hypoid gears require high-shear-strength oils to presion applications. Beginning about 25 years ago, transmission manufacturers began changing over to lower-vis- vent metal-to-metal contact. The lubricants must also have enough viscosity to cushion shock loads and cosity oils to reduce rotating friction in their transmisreduce gear noise. sions and to increase fuel economy. In that era, some Many Hotchkiss-style drive axles used in light trucks manufacturers recommended engine oil and even autoalso incorporate limited-slip differentials that include matic transmission fluid for their manual transmissions. a set of preloaded friction plates designed to slip at a Most currently recommend synthetic-based oils to specific torque input. Limited-slip gear oil must thereimprove lubrication and reduce rotating friction. fore be used to keep these plates sliding smoothly Because transmission gear shift synchronizers are over each other. While most GL-5 rated oils can be designed for specific types of lubricants, a vehicle used for top-off, they can’t be used as a replacement owner would likely experience hard shifting on cold lubricant. While limited slip additives are available to mornings if a substitute lubricant is installed. upgrade GL-5 oils, it’s always best to install the OEMToday, we have very sophisticated five and sixapproved lubricants in these applications. speed, high-performance manual transmissions that

34 February 2014 |

Cooling Colors Here again, modern OEM coolant is designed to last 100,000-150,000 miles. While their individual formulations can’t be covered in this space, suffice it to say that most coolants on the market today aren’t chemically compatible with other coolants. Remember, too, that the color of the coolant has nothing to do with its chemical formulation or additive package. See Photo 3. There are many types of “red” or “orange” coolants on the market today, none of which are chemically compatible with other red or orange coolants. If a coolant appears rusty or off-color, or if its freezing point doesn’t test at the maximum rated freezing point of the coolant, it should be replaced. See Photo 4.

Photo 3: A clean reservoir containing clear coolant usually indicates that the cooling system is in good condition.

Photo 4: Refractometers are handy for testing coolant freezing points.

Breaking Point Because DOT 3 and DOT 4 brake fluids are hygroscopic, more manufacturers are recommending scheduled brake fluid flushes. The term “hygroscopic” simply means that DOT 3 and 4 brake fluid has an extremely high affinity for water. From a safety standpoint, the boiling point of the brake fluid is reduced in direct proportion to

36 February 2014 |

its water content. For that reason, non-hygroscopic DOT 5 or silicone-based fluids are often used in vehicles that will be stored for long periods or used in severe driving or high-performance applications. DOT 5 should never be used in an anti-lock braking system (ABS) due to its tendency to foam when the ABS is activated. See Photo 5 on page 38.

Photo 5: Don’t forget to flush the clutch master cylinder along with the brake master cylinder.

Photo 6: Power steering fluid should be changed periodically to help reduce steering gear and pump wear. Brake fluid flushes are recommended to prevent corrosion from forming in the expensive ABS and other moving mechanical parts in the brake hydraulic system. Consequently, flushing is highly recommended every two years and during any brake friction or mechanical hydraulic part replacement.

P.S. – Don’t Forget the Power Steering Although many techs forget

about power steering fluid, it does become contaminated with wear particles and with moisture. Since contaminated fluid can drastically shorten the life of expensive power steering pumps and racks, it’s always best to replace it when it appears dirty or otherwise contaminated (See Photo 6). As with any replacement fluid, always check the owner’s manual or your own service information for the correct replacement fluid specification. ■

Power up with Tomorrow’s Technician delivers to you more technical and scholastic content than ever before. We’ve designed our website to make it easier to search content on more than 300 technical and educational articles and more than 100 studentrelated columns and news briefs to help you stay informed on repairing today’s and tomorrow’s vehicles.

Go to to download valuable content and technical papers, watch instructional videos and view updated industry news, blogs, commentary, scholarship information and promotions. Follow Tomorrow’s Technician magazine at:

Career Corner Continued from page 6 scholarship to help offset the cost of their education. One scholarship may be helpful, but it may not cover all of your costs. Never ever pay money to a fee-based service which promises to get you scholarships. Chances are that if someone asks you for money up front in exchange for a scholarship, they are not legitimate and you should be wary. Remember, if it sounds too good to be true, it probably is. Create a calendar of deadlines for yourself. This may sound elementary, but Clark says that he is surprised at how many students are either unaware or neglectful of the application deadlines. Once a deadline has passed, it may be a whole year before you have the opportunity to apply for a scholarship again. Putting together a calendar of deadlines will ensure that you are organized and able to budget your time wisely to apply for as many scholarships as possible.

Know what kind of scholarship you are applying for. Scholarships can be: • Merit based (determined by your GPA or financial need) • Location specific (determined by where you reside) • Career specific (determined by your course of study) • Need-based (determined by your family income) Scholarships are no longer solely available to lowincome families and those students with 4.0 grade point averages. There are now more scholarships available based on a wider criteria than ever before, making it more advantageous to apply. Build your resume. For students who are just completing high school or about to enter college, the scholarship application process is the perfect opportunity to hone your resume. Use this opportunity to engage in community service or get involved in extra-curricular activities. This will increase your chances of success. Internships are an excellent way to gain work experience in your chosen profession and they help increase your chances of getting hired later on while impressing scholarship committees. Give yourself time. It is never too early to begin the process of organizing the basic elements you will need to apply for a scholarship. Remember that if you are asking your teacher or other adult to write a letter of recommendation for you, it is safe to assume that you will not be the only one. The more lead time you give that individual, the more thoughtful and well-written letter you are likely to receive. Practice writing your essay. Again, the more you practice, the better you will likely become. While there are no guarantees that every application essay question will be the same, practice makes perfect. In many cases, your essay will provide you with a unique chance to cut through the clutter of all the other applicants you will be

40 February 2014 |

competing against. The ability to put your thoughts together in a cogent, effective manner (don’t forget spelling and grammar as well), will help you stand out and make your case to the judges who will be looking at hundreds, if not thousands, of other applicants. Remember, they will most likely not get the chance to speak to you in person, so your written communication is essential in making a good impression. Don’t squander this opportunity.

Some websites to review: e.cfm If you are interested in a career path in the automotive aftermarket industry, the SEMA Memorial Scholarship is an excellent resource. Since 1984, the SEMA Memorial Scholarship has awarded more than $1.5 million in scholarships to more than 600 students. SEMA offers scholarship assistance in such aftermarket industryrelated career paths as:

Engineering Technicians Information Technology Sales/Marketing Design/Graphics

The SEMA Memorial Scholarship provides financial support to help students, such as David Exelbert, pursue careers in the automotive industry.

The SEMA Show Student Program is a great way to build a resume and establish contacts for a successful career in the automotive industry. At one program, students listen to Nate Shelton, SEMA chairman, talk about the performance industry.

Qualified entrants can apply directly online at and simply click on “apply now” to create an account. The deadline to submit your application is March 28, 2014. The current minimum eligibility requirements are as follows; a student must: • Be a U.S. citizen enrolled in a full-time program of study at an accredited university, college or vocational/technical program in the United States, at the time of application: • If currently attending a four-year accredited university or college, you must have completed a minimum of 50 credit hours by the application deadline, OR • If currently attending a two-year accredited community college or vocational/technical program you must have completed a minimum of 25 credit hours, by the application deadline OR • If currently attending an accredited automotive training certification program, the student must have half of total curriculum requirements/classroom hours completed, by the

application deadline, OR If currently attending a Master’s, Postbaccalaureate or Doctorate degree program, the student must have half of total curriculum requirements completed by the application deadline. • Have a minimum 2.5 grade point average. • Be pursuing studies leading to a career in the automotive aftermarket or related field. • Remain enrolled as a full-time student for the first full semester, quarter or term following receipt of the award; Awards are distributed in July-August, to be applied to the fall term. The Global Automotive Aftermarket Scholarship (GAAS) program is also available to those interested in continuing their education in the automotive industry. A list of certified programs can be found at With a little bit of planning and determination it is possible to significantly lower your college tuition costs if not eliminate them entirely. With the cost of a college education significantly rising every year, it is more than worth the effort no matter what your income level. The practice and discipline involved will benefit you throughout your academic career and well beyond. ■ 41

CrossWord PuZZle Tomorrow’s Technician February Crossword

ACROSS 1. Drivetrain components 8. Imported petroleum (4,3) 9. Palindromic brake component 10. Racers' quick-service areas 11. Ominous engine sound 13. Speed ____, tire-sidewall info 15. Oxygen ____, exhaust-manifold item 18. Tire's tread-sidewall junction 19. Engine anti-leak device 22. Unpaid car-plant worker 23. Sidewall height-to-width ratio 24. Radiator diagnostic procedures (8,5)


Solution at

1. Interstate-patrolling officer 2. Car-insurance contact 3. Car-repair facility 4. Running at minimum throttle 5. Timing-chain partner 6. Wins, at car auction 7. Auto. trans. ____ clutch 12. Adds air to tire 14. OBD-scanner output, ____ code 16. Bearing components, sometimes 17. Valve retainer's partner 18. Remove engine's parts 20. Offramps 21. Nut counterpart

BOOK REPORT: Auto Brand: Building Successful Car Brands for the Future With the history of the car industry being largely a history of brands, industry expert Anders Parment discusses car brands and car buying changes in his new book Auto Brand, charting the shift from over 40 leading car makers in 1970 to the current 10. With findings from original research – 4,700 survey answers and 100 interviews with CEOs, marketing managers and car dealers – he explores what car companies have done, and will need to do. The book identifies the challenges facing the industry today: overcapacity and intense competition, a well-informed customer who knows how to shop around and get value; sustainability expectations; the pressure to be efficient, affordable and environmentally friendly; the need to break industry boundaries; a present-day car culture where it is increasingly difficult to forecast purchases based on demographic profiles, and the tension between cost efficiency and brand values. It also delves into where the industry is headed, raising questions such as: will car makers and their marketing channel partners continue to spend 20% of a car's retail price on marketing and advertising, or go for great product performance? Is there still a need for a car salesman? Will cars continue to be sold in single brand dealerships? Covering iconic brands such as Audi, BMW, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, Saab, Ford, Volvo and more, Auto Brand appeals to any reader who has ever wondered how car culture has changed since its inception and how car companies are adapting to ensure the car remains relevant to its consumers.

Book Notes: Auto Brand: Building Successful Car Brands for the Future Author: Anders Parment Published by Kogan Page ISBN: 9780749469290 Paperback: 264 pages Price: $29.95 To Order:


February 2014 |

Ranger Products Introduces Portable Jack Ranger Products, a division of BendPak, recently unveiled their new QuickJack portable jack system that makes vehicle maintenance on the track and off convenient and lightning fast. The 3,500-lb capacity lightweight QuickJack can go anywhere and can be easily stowed in the trunk or back seat of most cars when not in use. Bring it to the track or drop it on your garage floor to perform routine maintenance in the comfort of your home, all in seconds. The QuickJack collapses to a low threeinch profile so it fits where other jacks don’t. Features open-center design, rugged safety lock bars, remote pendant control on a 20-foot cord, quickconnect hoses and a built-in flow divider for precisely equalized lifting. For information, contact Ranger Products at 805-933-9970 or visit the website

Track Talk NASCAR Adopts Knockout Qualifying for 2014 Season So long single-car qualifying. In 2014, NASCAR is ramping up the prerace excitement level with a new knockout Coors Light Pole Award qualifying format for its three national series – a move designed to make qualifying more compelling and more closely like actual on-track competition. "We believe the timing is right for a new qualifying format across our three national series," said Robin Pemberton,

v i c e president for competition and racing development. "This style of group qualifying has all the makings of being highly competitive and more engaging to our fans in the stands and those watching on television and online.” The new qualifying format will not apply to the first NASCAR Sprint Cup Series points race of the season – the February 23 Daytona 500 – which features single-car runs and two qualifying races to set the lineup for The Great

American Race. Heat races to determine the lineup for the July 23 NASCAR Camping World Truck Series Mudsummer Classic race at E l d o r a Speedway will still be used as Overhaulin’ the Coors Light Pole Award well. qualifying format, NASCAR says, underAt racetracks lines the sport's on-going commitment to less than 1.25 innovation. miles, the Coors Light Pole Award new qualify- will be lined up on pit road ing procedure will be as fol- based on a random draw and lows: may exit pit road at any time The first qualifying ses- while the green flag is dission will be 30 minutes played. Each driver may comlong and include all cars plete as few or as many laps as entered in the race. The he or she chooses during the 12 cars that post the allotted time period for each fastest single lap time in segment. Pit road speeds will this session will advance be enforced during each sesto the second and final sion. round. The remaining Drivers will be allotted just a cars will be sorted based single set of tires during qualifyon their times posted in ing, which means fans will see a the first round of qualify- lot of different strategies. ing in descending order. “For the drivers and teams, There will be a 10- we believe this new qualifying minute break between will fuel even greater competithe two qualifying tion leading into the events,” rounds. said Pemberton. “Additionally, The second and final it provides our tracks, broadqualifying round will last casters and other key partners 10 minutes, with the with a greater opportunity to fastest single lap time develop more entertaining conposted by each car setting tent for our race weekends." the top 12 spots on the NASCAR previewed the grid. concept of group qualifying At racetracks longer with its national series teams than 1.25 miles, there will late last fall and expects the new be three Coors Light Pole format will be a well-received Award qualifying rounds. improvement by its fans, comBefore the start of petitors, tracks, sponsors, and qualifying, cars or trucks media partners.

Follow NASCAR Performance on Twitter and Facebook

Report Card

WHEN THE PAST INFLUENCES THE FUTURE Toyota virtually blew the doors off the North American International Auto Show with the reveal of the stunning FT-1 sports car concept. First devised by Calty Design Research in the Sony PlayStation Gran Turismo game environment, FT-1 leapt from the screen to the stage in a race-inspired press conference at the show’s COBO Hall. According to Toyota — the name says it all. FT-1 stands for “Future Toyota,” and the number “1” represents the ultimate. Its designers at Calty Design Research reveled that the FT-1 Concept was the ultimate expression of a Toyota coupe design, building upon Toyota’s rich sports coupe heritage dating back to the 2000GT, Celica, Supra, MR2 and most recently Scion FR-S. In addition, the concept draws inspiration from Calty’s more recent sports car concept work such as FT-HS (2007) and the Lexus LF-LC (2012). “The FT-1 is a dream-project for a designer and car enthusiast like myself,” said Alex Shen, Calty’s Studio Chief Designer. “Our team


was heavily influenced by Toyota’s sports car past, and we sought to capture some of that history. It is an aggressive, trackfocused sports car concept with a presence that has been amplified for shock and awe.” “Function-sculpting” design language yields curved, muscular, expressive body forms seemingly

shaped by the wind. Inlets, ducting and vents are features of the exterior design that help reinforce its track–ready nature with elements of purposeful airflow management. At higher speeds a retractable rear wing deploys and tilts forward to create additional downforce. The body’s athleticism is expressed with taut surfaces and dramatic fender forms that seduce the eyes when covered in an unapologetically red hue. The interior is a focused, highly

February 2014 |

functional “place of business” that locates the driver at the controls behind an F1 inspired steering-wheel. The intimate, low slung cockpit has its A-pillars set far back to help optimize cornering vision and sensation of the cabin’s intimacy. The cockpit’s sense of minimalism adds to the purposefulness of the driverfocused environment with an emphasis on light weight components such as the composite seat covered with just the right amount of padding in only the areas that come into contact with the driver. For Toyota, this concept embodies the possibilities of the new and exciting design mission ahead. “Sports cars represent the ultimate driving expression in its purest form. As car enthusiasts ourselves, this is the kind of project we dream about working on,” said Calty Design Research president Kevin Hunter. “Beyond its obvious five-alarm visual impact, FT-1 is symbolic of a new chapter for Toyota Global Design. This provocative concept truly captures the passion, excitement and energy of the Toyota we are evolving into and embodies elements of the emotion and performance that Toyota will imprint upon future production designs.” — Source: Toyota Motor Co. ■

Tomorrow's Technician, February 2014  

Tomorrow’s Technician delivers technical information about servicing today’s vehicles to a target audience of 17-to-25-year-old automotive...

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