Page 1

C1 Tech BULLETINS 14_Cover Temp_2006 2/18/14 10:02 AM Page c1

2014 FEBRUARY

SUPPLEMENT TO:

MAGAZINE EngineBuilderMag.com


C2 Cloyes_Layout 1 2/18/14 10:10 AM Page c2

Circle 101 on Reader Service Card for more information


1 Index 2/18/14 10:14 AM Page 1

INDEX

Engine/Make

Problem

Page #

DOMESTIC 1987-’93

Jeep 4.0L

Solving Head gasket Leaks

1964-2002

Chrysler V8 LA-Series

Chrysler Notes and Tips

2 2

1963-’97

Ford V8 Big Block

Ford Notes and Tips

4

1986-2006

GM 60° V6

Solving Crankshaft Rear Main Oil Seal Leak

5

All

GM Supercharged

Premature Bearing Failure on Superchargers

6

2005-’07

Ford 3.0L 4V Duratec

Addressing Camshaft Ticking Noise

7

IMPORT All

Audi/VW 1.8L DOHC 20V

Breaking Valve Issues

8

2002

Hyundai 1.6L

Head Gasket Replacement Tips

8

1974-’84

Mazda Rotary

Inspecting Tips for Engine Wear

9

1993

BMW M42

Cylinder Head Oil Leak

10

Vintage

Maserati

Repairing Cracked Blocks

11

PERFORMANCE 2010-’12

GM V8

Camaro Supercharger Project

14

n/a

Fuel Injection

Tips for EFI Systems

16

n/a

Valve Springs

Selecting Performance Rocker Arms

18

n/a

Ignition

Gaining Performance from Ignition Timing

19

DIESEL All

John Deere

Biodiesel Recommendations

20

1982-’89

GM 6.2L

Crankshaft Sprocket Key Shearing

20

All

Cummins

Finding Failed Injectors

22

SHOP TIPS n/a

Installation

Valve Train Adjustment for Cylinder Heads

23

n/a

installation

Handling Piston Gap Issues

23

ADVERTISER APEX AUTOMOBILE PARTS

CIRCLE NUMBERS

PAGES

113

12-13

CLOYES GEAR & PRODUCTS

101

Cover 2

ENGINE & PERFORMANCE WAREHOUSE

105, 111, 118, 128

5, 11, 18, C4

HASTINGS PISTON RINGS

103, 107, 119, 22

3, 7, 19, 22

MOTOR STATE DISTRIBUTING

106, 115, 124 125

C3 6, 15, 24

Note: Tech bulletins have been provided by Automotive Production Remanufacturers Association (APRA). Other sources include MAHLE Clevite, CARDONE, Crane Cams, Identifix, SBI, Mazda, Moore Good Inc., World Products, Motorbooks, COMP Cams, Jensen’s Engine, Aeromotive and John Deere.

EngineBuilderMag.com 1

Tech Solutions Guide 2014

Year


Tech Solutions Guide 2014

DOMESTIC

2-7 Domestic2 2/18/14 10:03 AM Page 2

1987-93 Jeep 4.0L: Head Gasket Leaks/Seepage Found in Engines Some vehicles equipped with a 4.0L engine, may experience engine oil leaks/seepage from the head gasket along the right-hand side (tappet rail) of the engine. Models include 1987-’92 (MJ) Comanche, (XJ) Cherokee, (YJ) Wrangler; and the 1993 (ZJ) Grand Cherokee

A new cylinder head gasket is now available. The new gasket has beaded silicone sealer on both sides to eliminate leakage/seepage. Diagnosis Verify the oil leak/seepage is coming from the cylinder head gasket by visual inspection, or using fluorescent dye or by doing a low pressure leak test.

not allow sealing compound to enter the cylinder bore. The 1991-’98 cylinder head gaskets used on the 4.0L are a composition gasket. This gasket should be installed dry. Do not use sealing compound. Install the cylinder head and bolts. The threads of bolt No. 11 must be coated with Loctite 592 sealant before installation. Tighten the bolts in three steps, using the correct sequence. See Figure 1: 1. Tighten all bolts to 22 ft.-lbs. (30 Nm). 2. Tighten all bolts to 45 ft.-lbs. (61 Nm). 3. Retighten all bolts to 45 ft.-lbs. (61 Nm). 4. Tighten bolts 1 through 10 in sequence to 110 ft.-lbs. (150 Nm). 5. Tighten bolt 11 to 100 ft.-lbs. (136 Nm) 6. Tighten bolts 12 through 14 to 110 ft.-lbs. (150 Nm)

Figure 1

Repair Procedure This repair involves replacement of the cylinder head gasket with a revised gasket using instructions outlined in the appropriate service manual using cylinder head gasket P/N 53020219 or equivalent. Coat a new head gasket with suitable sealing compound and place it on the block. Most replacement gaskets will have the word TOP stamped on them. Note: Apply sealing compound only to the cylinder head gasket. Do

Note: Cylinder head bolts should be reused only once. Replace the head bolts that were previously used or are marked with paint. If head bolts are to be reused, mark each head bolt with paint for future reference. Head bolts should be installed using sealer. Some or all of this information was provided by the Automotive Parts Remanufacturers Association (APRA). For more information on technical bulletins available through APRA, call 703-968-2772 or visit www.AutoBulletins.com.

2 February 2014 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

All in the Family: Chrysler LA Series Notes 1964-1987 273-340-360 (5.9L) & 19671986 318 “LA” V8 This engine family is commonly referred to as the Small-Block Chrysler V8. Properly called the “LA” series, it is an evolution of the 1956-1966 “A” family, which included displacements of 277-301-303-318-326 cu.in. The A was noted for its Polyspherical combustion chamber/staggered valve cylinder heads (one rocker shaft per head, with the intake and exhaust rockers pointing in opposite directions), and mechanical lifters (except the 1959 Chrysler 326). The important part of this heritage is to help explain the unusual 59-degree lifter bore bank angle that carried over into the LA family. This was used in the A to provide the best compromise for lifter to pushrod angles for its inline lifter bore blocks. Also note there were 1964-1966 318 engines that were still the A version, and should not be confused with the 1967-1986 LA 318. When upgrading to the LA (Lightweight A) family, Chrysler maintained the 59-degree lifter bore angle in the blocks, even though the valves were now inline, in a normally configured wedge chambered cylinder head. Shaft mounted 1.5:1 ratio rocker arms were employed, and this resulted in an awkward appearing angle between the lifters and pushrods. With the change in cylinder head configuration, a different valve layout was incorporated into the heads, however the basic camshaft dimensions were maintained. Therefore, while A and LA camshafts will physically interchange, half of the lobes will be in the wrong location, allowing only four cylinders to run properly. The 1964-1967 273 engines were equipped with mechanical lifter camshafts and adjustable rocker arms. Later engines had hydraulic lifters and non-adjustable rocker arms (with a couple of rare exceptions).


3 Hastings_Layout 1 2/18/14 10:11 AM Page 3

Circle 103 on Reader Service Card for more information


Tech Solutions Guide 2014

DOMESTIC

2-7 Domestic2 2/18/14 10:03 AM Page 4

Helping the Legend Live On: Ford Big Block V8 Notes

Note: There were also left-hand rotation marine engines produced that required a unique camshaft. Make certain of the engine’s rotation if you have a marine application. Be aware of both OE production and factory replacement cylinder blocks that may incorporate very large chamfers on the tops of the lifter bores. This is not usually a problem when hydraulic and mechanical flat faced camshafts and lifters are used. In certain cases, if hydraulic and mechanical roller lifters are installed in these blocks, the oiling passages in the lifters may become exposed to the chamfer at full valve lift, causing a loss of oil pressure. Possible solutions would be sleeving the lifter bores, or having a camshaft custom ground having a reduced base circle diameter. 1986-’91 318 (5.2L) and 1987-’91 360 (5.9L) “LA” V8 These engines are a continuation of the LA series, being factory upgraded with hydraulic roller camshafts and lifters. Cylinder head changes were also made, with the valve spring envelope being reduced, making it very difficult to fit performance valve springs. 1992-2002 5.2L & 5.9L Magnum V8 The final upgrade to the LA family, the Magnum engines received non-adjustable pedestal mounted 1.6:1 ratio rocker arms from the factory. The nose of the camshaft was also shortened as a result of vehicle packaging requirements, so there is no camshaft interchangeability with the earlier LA engines. Dodge R5 This is an evolution of the LA engine, designed for rules specific oval track racing. These engines were never installed in any vehicles, or sold as a complete assembly. Normally paired with the P7 cylinder heads, these are built per application for each form of competition. Source: Crane Cams

4 February 2014 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

1963-’76 352-360-390-406-410-427-428 FE V8 Ford’s legendary big block FE engine series provided the foundation for their passenger car, truck and performance applications for nearly two decades. Actually, this series was introduced in 1958, with the early 332-352-390 FE engines having a different camshaft and cam drive configuration than the 1963-1976 engines, preventing their direct interchangeability. The early engines did not have a camshaft thrustplate, but relied on a spring to control cam endplay. These engines can use the later camshafts if the thrustplate is installed by removing the plugs in the front of the block on either side of the cam thrust surface, and tapping the holes for the 5/1618 attaching bolts. A later model timing chain and gear set will also have to be installed. There were also FT engines, used in truck applications. These were basically the same powerplants as the FE, but with four-ring pistons installed. Note: For marine usage, some left-hand rotation engines were produced, requiring a special camshaft and distributor drive gear. Note: Do not confuse the FE with the MEL engine family that Ford offered from 1958 to 1968 (383-410-430-462 cu.in.). Keep in mind that a 410 cu.in. engine was also included in that series. About the only common parts between the two engine families were the lifters and the rocker arms. FE engines were factory equipped with either hydraulic and mechanical lifter camshafts from the factory, depending upon horsepower requirements. The factory adjustable shaft-mounted rocker arms have a 1.76: ratio, while the non-adjustable rockers have a 1.73:1 ratio. Lifter bores are inline, as are the valves in the cylinder heads. Oiling for the top end of the engine is directed up through passages in the block and heads, through the rocker shaft stands and shafts, then out via holes on the rocker arms. Watch for the 1965-1967 side-oiler 427 engines (and some rare 390 versions) specifically designed for mechanical lifter only usage. These blocks do not have oil galleys to supply hydraulic lifters. Therefore, hydraulic and hydraulic roller camshafts and lifters can not be used. The camshafts used in these blocks also require grooves in the second and fourth cam bearing journals (.044” wide and .035” deep, with a .022” radius) for proper oiling. Cylinder head configurations ranged from the basic low-rise, the drag race and oval track oriented high-rise, a medium-rise, and the tunnel port. All employed the same valve layout, so no camshaft changes were required. The rocker arm shaft stands varied per version, although the low-riser and the tunnel port did share the same components. A thriving aftermarket provides sufficient components to build an FE from scratch. We plan on supplying camshaft and valve train components for well into the future for this icon of Ford performance.


2-7 Domestic2 2/18/14 10:04 AM Page 5

for the rocker arm pivots and valve springs. Source: Crane Cams

Crankshaft Rear Main Oil Seal Leaks in Some 60-degree V6 GM Engines

1968-’97 370-429-460 (7.5L) V8 The final Ford Big Block family is the 385 series. Replacing the FE, newer casting techniques were used, along with more efficient cylinder heads, and a lighter valve train. The lifter bores in the block are inline, but the valves are staggered in the cylinder heads for better breathing and combustion. The standard 1.73:1 ratio rocker arms are stamped steel and either stud mounted (19681971) or pedestal mounted (19721997). The rocker arms were primarily non-adjustable, with a few exceptions. The 1970-1971 Cobra Jet 429 engines had adjustable rocker arms and pushrod guideplates, while the 1970-1971 Super Cobra Jet 429’s came equipped with mechanical lifter camshafts and adjustable rocker arms and guideplates. Oiling for the top end of the engine is conducted through the lifters and pushrods, providing lubrication Circle 105 for more information EngineBuilderMag.com 5

Tech Solutions Guide 2014

Problem: Some GM owners may complain about external oil leaks from these engines. Before replacing the new design rear main oil seal, be sure the PCV system is operating correctly. Note: The information only applies to the 60-degree V6 engines. Some of the discontinued 60-degree V6 engine VINs and RPOs may have carried over to other new model year engines and may no longer be a 60-degree V6, so this information may not apply. Models Affected: 1986-2006 GM cars and light-duty trucks (including Saturn) with 2.8L, 3.1L, 3.4L, 3.5L, 3.9L 60 degree V6 engines (VINs D, E, F, J, K, L, M, N, R, S, T, V, W, X, Z, 1, 8, 9 – RPOs LG6, LA1, LNJ, or LN9, LG8, LL1 or LX9, L82, LL2, LB8, LH0, LG5, LB6, LE2 or LQ1, LH7, LC1, LX9, L44, LZ4, LZE, LZ Note: The repair information

only applies to above listed engines. If one or more items do not match the above list, then this information does not apply. Note: This information does not apply to 2004-2005 Saturn VUE models with a 3.5L DOHC V6 engine or 2005-2006 Cadillac CTS with a 2.8L HFV6 engine (VIN T – RPO LP1). The new seal described below comes with a protective nylon sleeve already installed in the seal. This sleeve assures that the seal is installed in the correct direction and also protects the seal from getting damaged during installation. Do not remove the protective sleeve from the seal; if removed, the installation tool (EN-48108) will not work. GM reports that a new design crankshaft rear main oil seal and installation tool (EN-48108) has been released. This seal incorporates features that improve high mileage durability. Replace the crankshaft rear main oil seal with the new design rear main oil seal, p/n 12592195 (Canadian p/n 31022784) using the following procedures. The rear main oil seal installation

DOMESTIC

1963-’65 427 SOHC V8 Developed for oval track and drag racing, the single overhead cam 427 V8 was a real show of engineering force from Ford. Although this engine was banned from use at the big ovals, drag racing certainly benefited from this escalation of factory technology. Based on a variant of the 427 FE side oiler block, the iron cylinder heads incorporate one camshaft per bank, actuating valves in a hemispherical combustion chamber via shaft mounted mechanical roller followers, which have an effective 1.32:1 ratio. Valve lash adjustments are achieved by installing varying thickness lash caps on top of the valves. Single and dual four-barrel carbureted versions were factory produced. There were a limited number of aluminum cylinder heads produced for the factory supported racers, but these did not come installed on any engines. Although never officially “factory” installed in any vehicles, connected outside contractors did obtain complete engines, and put them into Mustangs, Fairlanes and Galaxies for sale to the racing community. This engine is also experiencing a rebirth by the aftermarket, with numerous components being offered. Expect more reproduction parts to be available in the coming years.


Tech Solutions Guide 2014

DOMESTIC

2-7 Domestic2 2/18/14 10:04 AM Page 6

tool (EN-48108) has a unique design to allow the technician to easily install the rear main seal squarely in the correct depth and direction. Removal Procedure: Remove the crankshaft rear main oil seal using one of the following techniques: • Removing new style crankshaft rear main oil seal: Since the seal lip faces outward, insert a flat-bladed screwdriver or similar tool between the sealing lip and outer casting of the seal at an angle. • Pry the seal out by moving tool toward the center of crankshaft. • Removing old style crankshaft rear main oil seal: Here, the seal lip faces inward. Insert a flat-bladed screwdriver or similar tool between the outer seal casing and the engine block casting. Gently pry seal out. Repeat the above steps as necessary, around the crankshaft rear oil seal, until the seal is removed. Installation Procedure: Do not remove the protective nylon sleeve from the new rear main seal prior to installation. The EN-48108 is designed to install the rear main seal with the protective sleeve in place.

Never apply or use any oil, lubricants or sealing compounds on the crankshaft rear main oil seal. Clean the crankshaft sealing surface with a clean, lint-free towel. Inspect the lead-in edge of the crankshaft for burrs or sharp edges with crocus cloth or equivalent before proceeding. Next, align the mandrel dowel pin to the dowel pin hole in the crankshaft. Using a large flat-blade screwdriver, tighten the two mandrel screws to the crankshaft. Ensure the mandrel is snug to the crankshaft hub. Install the rear main seal with the protective nylon sleeve attached onto the mandrel. The seal, if properly installed, will center on a step that protrudes from the center of the mandrel. An error proof seal will fit only one way onto the mandrel. Install the outer drive drum onto the mandrel (EN-48108). Install the bearing, washer and the drive nut onto the threaded shaft. Using a wrench, turn the drive nut on the mandrel, which will push the seal into the engine bore. Turn the

wrench until the drive drum is snug and flush against the engine block. Loosen and remove drive nut, washer, bearing and drive drum. Discard protective nylon sleeve. Verify that the seal has seated properly. Use a flat-blade screwdriver to remove the two attachment screws from the mandrel and remove mandrel from crankshaft hub. Courtesy of Automotive Parts Remanufacturers Association (APRA) www.AutoBulletins.com.

GM Belt Tensioner May Cause Supercharger Failure Problem: Premature failure of supercharger bearings. Cause: When the belt tensioner starts to fail, belt tension increases

Figure 2: Before operating the replacement supercharger, the tensioner must be inspected and replaced if defective.

Circle 106 for more information 6 February 2014 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

dramatically. This tension shows up as side-loading in the supercharger rear bearing. See Figure 2. Solution: Periodic inspection of the belt tensioner should be part of the regular maintenance routine. Before operating the replacement supercharger, the tensioner must be inspected and replaced if defective. Unless the tensioner is checked and replaced as needed, superchargerbearing failure will occur, causing premature catastrophic failure. While this problem is prevalent on GM vehicles, this inspection should be performed on all belt-driven supercharged vehicles. Please check the service manual for the recommended inspection and service.


2-7 Domestic2 2/18/14 10:04 AM Page 7

Tech Tip: Ford Camshaft Tick Noise

Vehicles affected: Ford: 2005-’07 Five-Hundred, Freestyle; 2006 Fusion; 2006-’07 Escape Lincoln: 2006 Zephyr Mercury: 2005-’07 Montego; 2006 Milan; 2006-’07 Mariner

6.

Figure 5

While holding cam cap number 4L in the shifted position, torque the fasteners number 9 (inboard) first, to 72 lb.-in. (8 Nm) then torque fastener number 10 (Figure 3). 7. Install the left-hand camshaft cover. 8. Fully warm the engine to verify the repair. Courtesy of Identifix. ■

Figure 3

the 3.0L 4V Duratec engine with exhaust camshaftdriven water pumps may exhibit a ticking noise from the left bank cylin-

Figure 4 Circle 107 for more information EngineBuilderMag.com 7

Tech Solutions Guide 2014

Some of the affected vehicles built Jan. 17, 2006 and later equipped with

der head with the engine at normal operating temperature. Service Procedure: To diagnose, with the engine running and warm (normal operation temperature), using a mechanic’s stethoscope determine if the ticking noise is coming from the left-hand exhaust camshaft at cylinder number 6, see Figure 3. If the ticking noise can be verified, continue with the Service Procedure. 1. Remove the left-hand camshaft cover. 2. Rotate the engine clockwise until the cylinder number 6 exhaust cam lobes are pointing up and the valves are fully closed. 3. Remove all left-hand exhaust cam caps individually and reinstall them finger-tight. 4. Torque bolts in the sequence shown in Figure 4 to 72 lb.-in. (8 Nm) excluding cam cap number 4L. See Figure 4. 5. Using a screwdriver positioned on each side of the top of cam cap number 4L, apply hand pressure and shift cam cap number 4L toward the exhaust side of the cylinder head. See Figure 5.

DOMESTIC

Note: This bulletin is supplied as technical information only and is not an authorization for repair. Source: CARDONE Industries, Inc.


Tech Solutions Guide 2014

IMPORT

8-11 Import2 2/18/14 10:04 AM Page 8

Audi/Volkswagen 1.8L DOHC Gasoline Engine Valve Failure Caution Market information indicates there are a growing number of valve failures being reported on the Audi/VW 1.8L DOHC 20 Valve gasoline engines after rebuild. Reviews of these problems, which are leading to breakage of the valves, and in some cases catastrophic failures, are related to problems not with the valves themselves but the method of cylinder head overhaul and reclaimed mating components. Many of the breakages examined

are occurring very shortly after a rebuild and appear to mainly be attributed to the non-adjustment of the hydraulic lifters. The best practice, as recommended by the OE, is to replace the lifters at the time of rebuild. All of the components must be very clean and free of debris, especially the hydraulic lifter. Any contamination entering the lifter can cause the metering device to mal-

function leading to a potential catastrophic failure. Each lifter should be coated with an extreme pressure cam lubricant as used on the camshaft lobes. Old engine oil should be drained and replaced with new oil and filter. After installation of the lifters, they should be allowed to settle for a minimum of 30 minutes after the complete installation. This will allow excessive oil in the lifter to drain. If this is not performed, the valves most likely will come into contact with the piston. This will lead to an immediate fracture in the valve keeper groove, typically in the lower of the three radius grooves shortly after startup or on the initial test run. The OEM process for lifter installation specifically recommends allowing the lifters to settle no less than 30 minutes, then hand cranked carefully for two cycles to ensure the valves are not making contact with the pistons. Ideally, it is recommended the engine should be left overnight before restarting for the first time after repair. It is also recommended to replace ALL valve keepers when replacing the valves on this engine as reclaiming keepers on such a small diameter valve can also lead to catastrophic valve failure. Tech Solution courtesy of SBI.

Accent on Hyundai 1.6L Head Gasket Replacement The following are cylinder head gasket installation tips for a 2002 Hyundai Accent VIN “C,� 1.6L engine. Note: Always allow the engine to cool to room temperature before removing the cylinder head. In the

8 February 2014 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

The cylinder head on this 2002 Hyundai was removed to repair bent valves caused by a failed timing belt. The steel shim-style head gasket appears to be sealing well around the cylinders and water ports.

case of this Hyundai example, the head bolts must also be removed in reverse order to the normal torquing sequence to prevent the cylinder head from becoming distorted as it is removed. Head and Block Inspections When the cylinder head is removed, make sure that the camshaft turns freely in the cylinder head. If the cam turns against valve spring tension only when the cam bearing caps are loosened, the cylinder head probably requires straightening or replacement. Next, a straight edge and feeler gauge must be used to test the cylinder head and engine block for If the camshaft bearing journals must be loosened to allow the shaft to rotate against normal valve spring tension, the cylinder head might need straightening or replacement.


8-11 Import2 2/18/14 10:04 AM Page 9

Import straightness. As a rule of thumb, an aluminum cylinder head should show no more than 0.001” warping per cylinder along its length and 0.002” at several points across its width. In addition, the gasket seal may be adversely affected if low spots exceeding 0.0015” to 0.002” and more than 0.750” in length are measured at the cylinder or water jacket sealing rings. The cylinder block gasket surface

cylinder head services also routinely include valve, valve guide, and valve seat service or replacement.

Gasket Installation Before installing a new cylinder head gasket, always read the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Do not use a sealant on head gaskets unless otherwise specified. Similarly, always determine beforehand if the manufacturer recommends replacing the cylinder head bolts. If the bolts are the torque-to-yield type, they are stretched past their limit of elasticity and must be replaced. Unless otherwise specified, lightly lubricate the bolt threads with 30w non-detergent motor oil. Make sure that the head and block surfaces are free of dust, dirt, oil and lint before placing the gasket on the cylinHyundai requires that the cylinder head be der block. checked for warping by placing the straight edge lengthwise and diagonally With the 2002 Hyundai 1.6L along the gasket surface. Hyundai’s tolerengine, the manufacturer recomance is 0.0012” as a standard and 0.008” mends initially torquing the head as a maximum. bolts in sequence to 26 ft.-lbs., then torquing 75 degrees. Hyundai then recommends loosshould meet the same specifications. ening the bolts to relax the gasket, Note: If the head must be cut more and then repeating this sequence for than a few thousandths of an inch, the final torque value. head gasket shims and thicker head Mazda Rotary Rotary gaskets can be used to prevent retarding camshaft timing and increasEngine Wear Tips Modifying Rotor Housings ing compression ratios by changing the center-to-center distance between Stock rotor housings must be modified for use in competition engines. the camshaft and crankshaft. Most On 1974-’75 housings, the air injection passages must be blocked. Simply cut off the top 1/4” of the nozzles that stick up into the exhaust port, then weld them shut. If 1976-on rotor housings are being used, Mazda recommends closing off the exhaust port air passage openings by welding a disc of stainless steel inside the exhaust sleeve.

Hyundai recommends initially torquing the head bolts in sequence to 26 ft.lbs., then torquing 75 degrees before loosening the bolts to relax the gasket, and then repeating this sequence for the final torque value.

Peripheral-Port Housings In road racing, the peripheral-port rotor housings are legal only in

IMSA GTS-2 and SCCA GT-1/GT-2 classes. In a peripheral-port engine, the intake and the exhaust ports are located in the rotor housing. The surface on these housings is chromeplated to increase wear-resistance and the coolant passages are designed for superior flow. Use of peripheral-port housings requires use of side housings with epoxy-filled intake ports. Checking for Wear and Measuring Before cleaning used rotor housings, you should inspect them carefully as described in the following paragraphs. 1. Replace the housing if any of the following are found: a. Cracks around the trailing spark plug hole on the trochoid inner surface that exceed 8 mm in length. b. Any flaking, dents, scratches or deformation of the surface. c. Galling or small scratches on the side of the rotor housing between the inner O-Ring and the inner trochoid surface. 2. On a flat surface, set the rotor housing on its base (standing vertically). Check to see that the bottom surface of the housing is parallel and that there is no warpage. If warpage on one side is greater than 0.04 mm (0.0016”), replace the housing. 3. Measuring rotor housing width or crush: a. Signs of gas leakage or deposits appearing on the side of the rotor housing (on the combustion side) will indicate a variance in the housing’s width or crush. b. Measuring rotor housing width requires a 50-75 mm micrometer for 12A engines or a 75-100 mm micrometer for 13B engines. Measurements should be taken in four (4) places around the housing. See Figure 2 on page 10. Choose one point at the top of the housing and three (3) other points on the spark plug side. Each of the three (3) measurements should be approximately 3/4” from the other. c. Place the micrometer on the inner side of the water O-Ring groove to take the measurement. Compare the measurement taken at the top of the housing with the smallest measurement taken at the EngineBuilderMag.com 9


Tech Solutions Guide 2014

IMPORT

8-11 Import2 2/18/14 10:04 AM Page 10

Allowable Rotor to Rotor Clearance Is: 12A ENGINE = 0.40 - 0.70 mm (0.0157” 0.0276”) 13B ENGINE = 0.45 - 0.75 mm (0.0177” 0.0295”)

Figure 2

three (3) combustion chamber locations. If the width difference is more than 0.06 mm (.0023”), the housing must be replaced. If within tolerance, use these measurements to check clearance between apex seal and side housing. Rotor Housing Width Should Be: 12A ENGINES = 70 mm (2.756”) 13B ENGINES = 80 mm (3.149”) Measuring Clearance Between Rotor and Rotor Housing 1. When bearing clearances have been set, install outer oil seals, O-Ring and springs on one side of the rotor. This will prevent the rotor from scuffing the side housing as it is rotated for measurements. 2. Invert the rotor and insert it in the rotor housing. The O-Ring will hold the oil seal in place. 3. Using a feeler gauge, measure the clearance between the rotor and the rotor housing. There are four (4) measuring points, two on each side of the rotor housing, at approximately 1” below and above the horizontal centerline.

If the measurement taken at any one of the four (4) points is less than the allowable range, the rotor may contact the housing at high rpm. The housing should be replaced or the rotor can be clearanced by grinding the face. Source: Mazda

port bracket. See Figure 3. On M42 engines produced since approximately April of ‘93, the lower mounting bolt for the intake manifold support bracket has been installed with 3 Bond 1209 and is marked with a black paint spot. If oil seepage is evident coming from the lower mounting bolt (1) for the intake manifold support bracket, remove the bolt and decrease the threads (2) along with the bolt hole threads. Apply liquid sealing compound 3 Bond 1209 (BMW P/N 07 58 9 062 376) on the bolt thread and reinstall bolt. Some or all of this information was provided by the Automotive Parts Remanufacturers Association (APRA). For more information on technical bulletins available through APRA call 703-968-2772 or visit www.AutoBulletins.com

Tech Tip: Oil Seepage From Cylinder Head On BMW E36 With M42 Engine

Restoring Vintage Blocks Following Cold Temps

Oil seepage may occur from the left side of the cylinder head at the lower mounting bolt for the intake manifold support bracket due to a casting shrinkage issue. The leak is located around the lower mounting bolt (1) for the intake manifold support bracket is

By Freddie Heaney Each winter, frozen coolant causes severe damage to hundreds of racing engine blocks in the northern hemisphere. Though troubling, its effects are usually even more concerning when frost damage strikes a rare, historic racing block. However conscientious you are the misfor-

Figure 3

between the M6 threaded hole for the timing chain tensioning rail mounting and the M8 threaded hole for the intake manifold sup-

10 February 2014 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

The Maserati block is of open deck construction with cylinder sleeves and head studs cantilevered from the aluminium block.


8-11 Import2 2/18/14 10:04 AM Page 11

IMPORT

work well in some applications, but V&B prefer steel or aluminum pins with special barbed threads that pull cracks together for most castings. Pin repairs have the advantage of not distorting the casting. As a result, ridged fixtures are unnecessary and An illustration of the completed repair showing pins re-machine and threaded inserts. tune can happen, but if it does work is kept to a don’t be too dismayed for the minimum. problem is not insoluble. 3. Install the In Chatham, VA, there is a well-espins with anaerobic sealants to lock tablished motorsports engineering them in place and prevent leaks. firm, Virkler & Bartlett, (V & B EnSometimes it is necessary to machine gines) which possesses a knack for re- away a portion of the damaged metal turning severely damaged engine and replace it with an insert that is blocks, often considered unservicepinned in place. Pins are stronger able, to run-ready condition. than the casting and V&B has successTheir most common candidates are fully pinned cracked main bore housvintage blocks like this Maserati exings on highly stressed race engines. ample damaged by frozen coolant. 4. Re-inspect the repaired casting Here is their repair process: to verify critical dimensions and com1. Inspect to determine mechanical plete necessary machine work. and dimensional condition. This Available in a range of lengths and includes examining deck angles, deck diameters, these pins have a barbed squareness to main bore centerline, thread that creates drawing pressure main bore alignment and other critithat actually pulls the sides of a crack cal dimensions. together. 2. Find crack locations using MagThey come in heat treated steel or naflux or dye penetrants and deter2024 T4 aluminum and are far mine repair strategy. Welding repairs stronger than the casting material. Pins are installed overlapping each other along a crack. If additional strength is required, dog-bone shaped locks can be installed across the crack using a fixturing tool to drill the requisite hole. 5. Stipple repaired areas to apply a cast finish. Repairs are pretty much invisible. ■

Tech Solutions Guide 2014

Source: www.mooregoodink.com, According to V & B Engines, these pins are available in a range of lengths and diameters, and utilize a barbed thread that creates drawing pressure that actually pulls the sides of a crack together.

Circle 111 for more information EngineBuilderMag.com 11


12 Apex_Layout 1 2/18/14 10:11 AM Page 12


12 Apex_Layout 1 2/18/14 10:11 AM Page 13

Circle 113 on Reader Service Card for more information


Tech Solutions Guide 2014 PERFORMANCE

14-19 Performance2 2/18/14 10:06 AM Page 14

Performing a Camaro Supercharger Project Adapted from the book: HOW TO TUNE AND MODIFY AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, by Jeff Hartman

2. Removing the stock Camaro intake manifold.

There are plenty of aftermarket supercharger conversion kits out there. For some common performance vehicles like the 426-horsepower 2010 Chevy Camaro, you’ll find multiple supercharging options, both in terms of competing vendors offering kits for the same vehicle or engine, as well as multiple packages from the same vendor that offer various “stages” of increasing levels of supercharged performance. The following is a case study of the simplest type of supercharger conversion, a low-boost Magnuson TVS supercharger (see above) on a 2010 Camaro, where a recalibrated stock GM ECM provided the required revised engine management during boost.

The “MagnaCharger” kit was designed to deliver power gains of about 120 hp and 120 lb.-ft. of

3. Installing the air-water intercooler heat exchanger in front of the stock radiator.

torque at the rear wheels at 6-psi boost on 2010–12 Camaro V8s, turning the vehicle into a 546-horsepower supercar. Fueling this much horsepower requires upgrading to high-flow electronic fuel injectors.

1. Camaro engine cover before removal.

14 February 2014 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

Critical Considerations There are a number of critical EMS considerations to keep in mind when considering supercharging a late-model vehicle like the 2010 Camaro. • Even on a “low-boost” conversion, you need significant engine management changes to provide


14-19 Performance2 2/18/14 10:06 AM Page 15

• Is the kit emission-legal in all 50 states? Supercharger kits are never legal for street use in the United States unless the vehicle is quite old or the supplier has obtained an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or California Air Resources Board (CARB) exemption order granted to aftermarket specialty equipment that are able to prove to the EPA or CARB in a 5. Lowering the supercharger assembly into place on the Camaro engine. Get assistance, too.

fuel enrichment and spark retard during boosted operations. But how is this accomplished? • Are boost fuel enrichment and spark engine management correct at all breakpoints of engine speed and loading? Some supercharger kits throw a bunch of fuel at the engine under boost conditions that is only really correct under worst-case conditions, like a stopped clock that is right twice a day. The Magnuson kit was designed to get the job done the ideal way, by recalibrating the stock EMS in the boosted portions of the engine-operating envelope. • Will the kit require superpremium fuel to avoid detonation on your vehicle? Is the kit design conservative enough that you will not be fighting endemic detonation problems if you install the kit correctly and operate the vehicle the way people operate vehicles when they install supercharger conversion kits? In the case of the 2010 Camaro kit, the Magnuson calibration required a minimum of 91-octane premium, which is what there was at California gas stations when the kit was designed. Magnuson recommended using the best street premium available in your state. • Are the instructions complete and well written, with good supporting drawings, photography and videos? In the case of the Magnuson kit, all were excellent. • Does the kit vendor offer highquality telephone tech support and hand-holding from people who are polite and articulate and know what they’re doing? In advance of a sale, will the vendor supply references of customers who made use of tech support? In this case, yes. Circle 119 for more information EngineBuilderMag.com 15

PERFORMANCE Tech Solutions Guide 2014

4. Installing gaskets on the blower intake manifold before installation.


Tech Solutions Guide 2014 PERFORMANCE

14-19 Performance2 2/18/14 10:06 AM Page 16

rigorous test procedure that proves installation of the product does not degrade emissions more than 10 percent when operated in a specific driving cycle on a chassis dynamometer. The Magnuson 2010 Camaro kit did indeed have a CARB exemption order, making it legal in all states. • How much power and torque does a supercharger conversion kit really make as installed? In this case, the Magnuson kit dynoed at 492 horsepower.

1.) Install a fuel pressure gauge before removing the stock fuel pressure regulator and leave it installed until final adjustments are made to the new one. 2.) Do NOT use liquidfilled fuel pressure gauges on any automotive tuning application. By design, they cannot provide consistent readings as the gauge temperature changes. 3.) Begin by setting your adjustable regulator to the same fuel pressure as the stock regulator. Remember, always remove the 6. Ribbed supercharger pulley drive vacuum/boost line from (top), idler pulley (left), and tensioner. any regulator when checking or adjusting “base” fuel pressure, then, remember to reconnect it before driving! 4.) Initial changes in fuel pressure for performance tuning should always begin with adjustments towards a higher pressure than stock. This helps to find where the engine wants to be for fuel, while avoiding an engine damaging lean condition in the beginning stages of tuning. 5.) Make small, incremental changes and measure the results after 8. Finish securing all fasteners and each change. Tuning on the Camaro SS with installed Magthe wheel dyno or at the nuson supercharger kit is ready to rock ‘n’ roll.’ track makes any affect on performance easy and safe to observe and evaluate. Tips for Changing Fuel 6.) Once noticeable improvePressure on EFI Systems ments in performance STOP occurring, STOP ADJUSTING Changing the fuel pressure on an PRESSURE, especially if you’re EFI System is an effective method of gaining HP by going to lower presaffecting engine performance and sure (leaner) settings. making more power. For engine durability, it is However, there are many do’s and strongly recommended that the final don’ts, and rules of thumb that can be fuel pressure setting be 1-2 psi frustrating to learn the hard way. above the pressure that produced The following are key points, tips lean best power. and insights all engine tuners 7.) The objective of changing fuel should know and understand before pressure is to optimize air/fuel ratio cranking on that adjustable (AFR) for best wide-open-throttle regulator. (WOT) power. Tuning with the aid

16 February 2014 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide


14-19 Performance2 2/18/14 10:06 AM Page 17

A wide-band sensor based digital air/fuel meter seen here is a very affordable tool that every engine tuner should have in their tool box.

9.) During low load cruise, most engine management computers run in “closed loop,” using the stock O2 feedback to constantly trim injector pulse width (fuel delivery) towards the lean best AFR of 14.7:1. This target A/F is commonly referred to as “stoich” or “stoichiometric” and is the chemically correct balance of air and fuel for a complete burn. The computer “learns” what is necessary to maintain “stoich” and stores this information until the learned memory is cleared by disconnecting the computer from the battery for five minutes or more. 10.) AFR numbers can be confusing. The ratio is represented to be the number of parts air per one part gasoline. Thus the bigger the first number, the more air is in

the engine per part of fuel (lean). The smaller the first number, the less air per part of fuel (rich). 11.) With gasoline; A 10:1 AFR is VERY RICH. A 20:1 AFR is VERY LEAN. Best WOT AFR varies with the engine combination and the fuel used. Natural aspirated (NAS) engines burning gasoline will make best power between 12.0:1 richest and 13.2:1 leanest. Forced induction combinations like to be richer than a similar NAS engine. They should never be leaner than 12.5:1 and may go as rich as 11.0:1 for highboost on pump gas. Always start with the richer AFR, then, gradually work leaner while closely monitoring power and looking carefully for signs of detonation. 12.) Changing fuel pressure to solve drivability problems, with a stock computer, may yield only temporary results. Adjust fuel pressure to achieve a desirable WOT A/F, then, leave it alone. 13.) For best drivability with a stock computer, once fuel pressure is set to produce the correct WOT A/F, unplug it to clear all learned memory, then plug it back in after

five minutes and drive the car for several days, allowing the computer enough time to learn a new strategy for best drivability and performance in closed loop. If drivability problems still exist after several days, consider a custom chip or “flash” to the stock ECU to help regain good “closed loop” performance. 14.) If the best fuel pressure for drivability is different than for WOT performance, set the pressure for best WOT performance and note the best pressure for drivability so you can give this information to a chip burner or programmer. NOTE: If the best pressure for drivability is lower than that for WOT, DO NOT run WOT when the regulator is adjusted for the lower pressure or major detonation and engine damage can occur! 15.) Remember, as fuel pressure is raised higher and higher, the flow available from the fuel pump gets smaller and smaller. This is particularly applicable to forced induction combinations with an FMU. If fuel pressure must be raised excessively, be certain you have more fuel system than you think you need in order to assure there is enough flow when the pressure is at it’s peak. Source: Aeromotive

EngineBuilderMag.com 17

PERFORMANCE Tech Solutions Guide 2014

of a wide-band O-2 A/F meter is strongly advised. 8.) Adjusting the base fuel pressure of most modern, EFI engines will initially affect both the WOT and idle/cruise AFR. However, the permanent affects are mainly to WOT AFR only. Make fuel pressure changes based on WOT AFR and ignore drivability/ cruise AFR until WOT is correct and safe!


Tech Solutions Guide 2014 PERFORMANCE

14-19 Performance2 2/18/14 10:06 AM Page 18

Lifter Bank Angles of a Chrysler ‘A’ Block The latest version of Chrysler’s “A” engine block features a different lifter bore angle. This block is commonly called the “R” block. The angle of the lifter bore is changed to help straighten out the pushrod angle. The standard lifter angle on the “A” engine is 59-degrees from vertical. This points the lifter away from the center of the block and angles the pushrod toward the outside. Most of the blocks and some highly modified versions of the “A” engine have a 48-degree lifter angle. This points the lifter more directly at the rocker arm and helps to eliminate deflection at very high engine speeds. No standard production blocks were made with this modification, so if your block is not a special “race only” part from Chrysler, you probably have the 59-degree lifter angles. These cams are not interchangeable, so it is important to note the lifter bank angle prior to ordering

any racing cam. If no special lifter bank angle is stated, the standard 59-degree cam will be used. The same changes are common on some of the newer aluminum aftermarket Hemi blocks, the difference being much more subtle, from 45 to 48 degrees. It is extremely important to make sure which lifter angle your block is machined for prior to ordering a cam. As with the small block, if no special lifter angle is requested the cam will be ground as with the standard 45-degree lifter angle. Courtesy of COMP Cams.

engines were on their way out. But, GM stuck with the pushrod design for their LS engines as did Chrysler with their 5.7L and 6.2L Hemi engines. When you add in all the older engines and current aftermarket block/head combinations that still use pushrods and rocker arms, it’s easy to understand why rocker arms and pushrods are still a hot topic for performance engine building. The rocker arms redirect the

Rocking Performance Rocker Arms into Your Build By Larry Carley Overhead cams have been used in many European and Asian engines for years, so when Ford opted to go the overhead cam route with their 4.6L V8 engine, some predicted pushrod

Circle 118 for more information 18 February 2014 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

upward motion of the lifters and pushrods into the downward motion required to open the valves. The rocker shaft or ball stud mounting serves as the fulcrum point around which this motion occurs, and the relative length of the rocker arm on each side of the center fulcrum determines the lift ratio of the rocker. Like any lever, leverage is multiplied when the valve side of the rocker arm is longer than the pushrod side. The shorter the pushrod side of the rocker arm and the longer the valve side of the rocker arm, the higher the lift ratio of the rocker. If the length of the valve side of the rocker is 1.5 times that of the pushrod side, the lift ratio will be 1.5:1. If the valve side of the rocker is 2X the length of the pushrod side, the lift ratio will be 2.0:1. If you’re using a typical street performance cam in a small-block Chevy V8 that produces .480˝ of total lift at the valve, the cam itself is only producing about .320˝ of lift at the lobe. The 1.5 ratio rocker arms multiply the lift (.320 x 1.5) to achieve the .480˝ of lift at the valve. The advantage of using higher ratio rocker arms is that the same cam lobe profile can produce more total valve lift for more power.


14-19 Performance2 2/18/14 10:06 AM Page 19

Gaining Performance from Ignition Timing Entry-level racers and performance enthusiasts who are involved in drag, oval or street performance often have difficulty understanding spark advance. The cool thing about ignition timing is you can usually get a considerable performance increase for little or no money. But, some time and effort will be required. The cool thing about ignition timing is you can usually get a considerable performance increase for little or no money. But, some time and effort will be required. Let’s start with a simple explanation of why we need spark advance and how much of it we want. First – When you hook up the timing light to the #1 spark plug wire and it flashes a light beam onto the timing tab, it’s showing you when the spark occurs, NOT when the ignition occurs and the explosion that starts to push the piston down the cylinder. We want this to happen just as the pistons reach the top of the compression stroke, but it takes time for the spark plug to ignite the fuel mixture. This “time” is measured in crankshaft degrees and is the difference between when the plug fires and the explosion occurs to push the piston down the cylinder – producing the power stroke. Next – How much “time” or how many degrees of advance is correct. Well, that changes with each application but in most cases it will be as much spark advance as we can get as soon as we can get it without having detonation or “ping.”

Now that we know why we want spark advance and that we want all we can get without detonation – How do we get it? If the engine is already in the car and running, we will have to hope the timing mark is correct. If you are building an engine or having one built at a shop, make sure the timing mark is correct; use a dial indicator on the #1 piston head to find “top dead center.” Also, if the damper is easy to get to, put a 38° mark on it to use as a reference on the stock timing tab. The formula we use is: Dia.×3.1416 ÷ 360 × 38 (Diameter of the dampener/ balancer × PI ÷ 360°×38°, or with numbers: 8×3.1416(25.1328)÷360(0.0698” per degree)×38°(2.6529” which you mark on your balancer away from your TDC mark), this distance will be 38° on whatever diameter damper you are using. Now we know the timing tab is correct, and we have a 38° mark on the damper, we can now start to work on our timing “curve.” Most racing and street perform-

ance ignitions do not have vacuum advance and the stock type distributors that are sent to a shop to be recurved should have the vacuum advance removed and locked out. For this reason we will deal only with mechanical advance. We usually install a 26° mechanical curve that starts about 100 rpm higher than the engines idle rpm and have all 26° in by 2,800 rpm, this is a good general purpose timing curve when used with 12° initial timing set at engine idle. This, however, is not perfect or optimum for any one combination. A street/strip car that runs on pump gas may “ping” with this much spark advance and will require less initial advance or heavier springs to slow down the “curve.” Where as a low compression, low stall speed converter car may respond better with more initial spark advance or lighter springs for a quicker “curve” – but watch it if you begin your mechanical advance curve at or below the idle rpm, the car will be a real pain in the rear to drive and tune. Courtesy of Jensen’s Engine

Circle 118 for more information EngineBuilderMag.com 19

PERFORMANCE Tech Solutions Guide 2014

A higher ratio rocker arm also requires less lifter and pushrod travel to achieve the same amount of lift as a lower ratio rocker. A higher rocker ratio also reduces the amount of camshaft torque it takes to open the valves for a given amount of lift. What’s more, the longer the valve side of the rocker, the larger the diameter of the arc it follows as it moves up and down. This reduces side loading, friction and wear on the valve stems and guides. This is why many high revving NASCAR engines typically run very high rocker ratios of up to 2:1 or higher.


Tech Solutions Guide 2014

DIESEL

20-22 Diesel2 2/18/14 10:07 AM Page 20

Biodiesel Fuel Issues for John Deer Diesel Engines Biodiesel users in the U.S. are strongly encouraged to purchase biodiesel blends from a BQ-9000 Certified Marketer and sourced from a BQ-9000 Accredited Producer (as certified by the National Biodiesel Board). While 5% blends are preferred

Figure 1: John Deere PowerTech PSS 9.0L Final Tier 4/Stage IV diesel engine.

(B5), biodiesel concentrations up to a 20% blend (B20) in petroleum diesel fuel can be used in all John Deere engines. Biodiesel blends up to B20 can be used ONLY if the biodiesel (100% biodiesel or B100) meets ASTM D6751 (US), EN 14214 (EU), or equivalent specification. Expect a 2% reduction in power and a 3% reduction in fuel economy when using B20. John Deere approved fuel conditioners containing detergent/dispersant additives are recommended when using lower biodiesel blends, but are required when using blends of B20 or greater. John Deere engines can also operate on biodiesel blends above B20 (up to 100% biodiesel) ONLY if the biodiesel meets the EN 14214 specifi-

cation (primarily available in Europe). Engines operating on biodiesel blends above B20 may not fully comply with all applicable emissions regulations. Expect up to a 12% reduction in power and an 18% reduction in fuel economy when using 100% biodiesel. John Deere approved fuel conditioners containing detergent/dispersant additives are required. The following must also be considered when using biodiesel blends above B20. • Possible coking and/or blocked injector nozzles, resulting in power loss and engine misfire if John Deere approved fuel conditioners containing detergent/dispersant additives are not used • Possible crankcase oil dilution, requiring more frequent oil changes • Possible corrosion of fuel injection equipment • Possible lacquering and/or seizure of internal components • Possible formation of sludge and sediments • Possible thermal oxidation of fuel at elevated temperatures • Possible elastomer seal and gasket material degradation (primarily an issue with older engines) • Possible compatibility issues with other materials (including copper, lead, zinc, tin, brass and bronze)

20 February 2014 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

used in fuel systems and fuel handling equipment. • Possible reduction in water separator efficiency • Potential high acid levels within fuel system • Possible damage to paint if exposed to biodiesel Source: John Deere

Sheared Crankshaft Sprocket Keys Found on Some GM 6.2L Diesel Engines A new, hardened washer, p/n 23504011, is available for improved clamp load of the crankshaft sprocket to the crankshaft by the crankshaft bolt. Installation torques for the hardened washer have been increased to 177 to 185 ft.-lbs. (240 Nm /250 Nm). Parts are currently available from GM and other suppliers should damper loosening occur, resulting in the crankshaft sprocket shearing the lead alignment key, repairs should be made using the new washer and torque value. Examine the crankshaft sprocket, and assure before reassembly that there is no damage to the keyway. During the assembly of the crankshaft sprocket to the crankshaft, GM Goodwrench Thread Locker 272, p/n 12345492 or equivalent should be applied to the crankshaft post for 360 degrees at the rear’ crankshaft key area only. Thread Locker 272 material should not be applied to the sprocket inside diameter. See Figure 2. Some or all of the technical information was provided by the Automotive Parts Remanufacturers Association (APRA). For more information on technical bulletins available through APRA call 703-968-2772 or visit www.AutoBulletins.com.

Figure 2


21 Speedville_Layout 1 2/18/14 10:10 AM Page 21


Tech Solutions Guide 2014

DIESEL

20-22 Diesel2 2/18/14 10:07 AM Page 22

Using Crank Time to Find Failed Injectors A normal crank time in a commonrail injection system is usually around three to five seconds. This is how long it will take the common-rail pump to build fuel pressure to the “threshold.” The threshold for cranking is when the fuel rail pressure reaches around 5,000 psi. Normal common-rail systems will operate at 5,000 psi at idle and can reach up to 30,000 psi at wide open throttle (WOT). In a Cummins engine, the injectors are not actuated by the controller until the fuel rail pressure reaches the threshold. So when an injector becomes cracked and the fuel has leaked down in the injection system, crank times will become almost tripled in order for the fuel system to re-prime and the desired threshold reached in order to fire the engine. So how do you determine which injector may have a possible crack? This can be a lengthy process to determine exactly which injector is the problem.

Cummins recommends a simple visual test to start. First remove the valve cover, then crank the engine and let it idle. With a light, study the injector body of each cylinder. Sometimes, if the injector body is cracked externally, you may be able to notice a small wisp of smoke from the injector. The wisp of smoke that can sometimes be seen is actually the atomization of fuel being released from the crack. But this wisp should not be confused with blowby, which will be seen also. If the injector is cracked externally and producing a smoke wisp, you will be able to smell the hint of diesel fuel in the air. This type of diagnosis can be very useful in trying to identify which injector may have an external crack. But what if you still can’t determine which one is the problem child? Then

22 February 2014 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

One method to track down the damaged injector on a commonrail 5.9L Cummins is a simple visual test. With the valve cover off, look for signs of a “wisp” of smoke, being careful not to mistake blowby for smoke. You’ll smell a hint of diesel fuel as well.

you’ll have to dig a little deeper and isolate each cylinder. The only way that you can isolate an individual cylinder is to cut off the supply of fuel — in order to do this in a commonrail system you’ll have to cap it off. For the Cummins engine, start with the first cylinder and remove the hard line between the fuel rail and injector. Next, place the cap on the fuel rail where the fuel line was. (A word of caution here: this “cap” is a special tool made by Cummins specifically for this test. This cap is made to withstand the high pressures associated with a common-rail system. Do not use anything else or you may suffer injury or death from the high-pressure fuel.) Next, crank the engine and see if the crank time is reduced. If not, proceed to the next cylinder until you can determine which one is responsible for the long crank time. I have worked on trucks in which the Cummins engine would not run at all. This usually happens when the injector is cracked so badly that the fuel system can never reach the threshold. The oil will also be heavily diluted with diesel fuel. By installing the cap on each cylinder one at a time, the bad injector can be isolated — you’ll know you’ve found it when the engine fires normal and fast. ■ – “Bullet” Bob McDonald


23-24 Shop Tips2 2/18/14 10:08 AM Page 23

How to Check Pushrod Length: 1. With the cam, crank and timing set installed, bring #1 cylinder to top dead center on the compression stroke. 2. Install the two lifters that will be used for checking on the intake and exhaust lobes of the cam for #1 cylinder. 3. Bolt the cylinder head on the block with no head gasket. (Do not torque the cylinder head, just make it snug). 4. Install the guide plate and rocker arm studs. Again, do not torque the studs, just make them snug. 5. As a starting point, adjust your checking pushrod to the same length recommended by cam manufacturer for the cam and lifter combination you are using. 6. Install the checking pushrods in the engine. 7. Take your black magic marker and color the tips of the intake and

Checking Rocker Tip to Valve Stem Alignment: 1. With the cylinder head still bolted on the engine, loosely install the guide plate and studs for #1 cylinder. 2. Bring #1 cylinder to top dead center on the compression stroke. 3. Install the correct length pushrods for the application. 4. Reinstall the rocker arms and set to zero lash. 5. Now you want to check and make sure the rocker arm tip is centered on the valve tip. If there is any misalignment problems, the guide

plate can be moved side to side or fore and aft to achieve proper alignment. 6. Once proper alignment has been achieved, remove the rocker arms and torque the studs to the proper value. Re-install the rockers and verify that the guide plates did not move during the torquing process. Repeat the procedures for the other cylinders. 7. Due to varying tolerances in lifter bore indexing, adjusting the guide plate as mentioned above may not allow enough shift to achieve proper rocker-tip-to-valve-stem-tip alignment. If this is the case, Isky adjustable guide plates may be used in Small-Block Ford and Chevy applications. Since there are no adjustable guide plates available for the BigBlock Chevy, the only alternative would be to slightly bend the guide plate in the center to achieve proper alignment. The guide plates are made of a hardened material, so CAUTION should be taken when bending the guide plate on Big-Block Chevys as cracking may result. Courtesy of World Products

Handling Piston Ring Gap Issues Guidelines for Ring End-Gap Top compression rings: The minimum end-gap needed to prevent the top ring ends from butting together under the most extreme operating conditions would be considered ideal. Unfortunately, it is much easier to see and know when you have too little end-gap than it is to know exactly what is correct end-gap. Common signs of butting end-gaps are: scuffed ring faces, damaged rings and cylinders, and/or shiny areas on the butt ends of the ring. Using recommendations from ring manufacturers, engine manufacturers and your own personal experience is how most engine builders arrive at the desired endgap. Second rings: Current thinking regarding the end-gap on most perEngineBuilderMag.com 23

Tech Solutions Guide 2014

When installing your new aftermarket cylinder heads, proper valve train geometry is critical to ensure maximum performance. To obtain proper geometry we need to look at pushrod length and rocker-tip-to-valve-stemtip alignment.

exhaust valves. 8. Install the intake and exhaust rockers and adjust the rockers to zero lash. 9. Rotate the engine over by hand several times. 10. Remove the rockers and note the contact pattern the rockers made on the tip of the valve. 11. If the pattern is centered on the valve tip, pushrod length is correct. If the pattern is wide to the exhaust side of the head, yourpushrod length is too long. If the pattern is wide to the intake side of the head, the pushrod is too short. 12. If adjustments need to be made, remove the rockers, recolor the tips of the valves, lengthen or shorten the adjusting pushrods as needed, re-install the rockers and rotate the engine over again by hand. Repeat the process until the desired pattern is achieved. 13. Once the desired pattern is achieved, remove the checking pushrods from the engine and measure them. Take that measurement and add the compressed thickness of the head gasket being used. The sum of this will be the correct pushrod length for your combination.

SHOP SOLUTIONS

Valve Train Adjustment Procedure for Aftermarket Cylinder Heads


Tech Solutions Guide 2014

SHOP TIPS

23-24 Shop Tips2 2/18/14 10:08 AM Page 24

formance engines is to provide a larger Ring nomenclature gap on the second ring for best performance. Testing has shown a larger second ring gap tends to increase top ring stability allowing for a better seal. This larger “escape” path prevents inter-ring pressure from building up and lifting the top ring off the pistons allowing combustion pressure to get by. Since the priMany engine builders have remary function of the second ring is ported lower blow-by readings oil control, you can open the gap and horsepower gains in the with no adverse effect on the comupper RPM ranges with wider secpression sealing of the ring pack. ond ring gaps. (There are some applications that don’t benefit from this theory beTips for Changing cause cylinder pressures are exRing End-Gap tremely high and the second ring Ring end-gap is best measured by is utilized primarily as a compresinserting one compression ring at sion ring and not a device for oil a time into the cylinder. Use a ring control; these would be limited to squaring tool to get the ring sitting supercharged/turbo applications.) squarely about 1” down into the

cylinder bore. Using a feeler gauge, adjust the gauge thickness until you have just slight drag as it is inserted into the gap. If you desire more end-gap, remove the ring and, using a specially designed ring-gapping tool, make a square cut on one end of the ring to increase the gap. Using a fine stone, gently deburr the edges of the cut before installing the ring back into the bore for measuring. Improper gapping techniques and improper deburring have ruined many compression rings, so use caution in this process. Cleaning the Rings and Block The process of filing ring endgaps is a dirty one. Abrasive dust and metal shavings can contaminate your engine. Clean both the rings and the block prior to assembly. Source: MAHLE 

Want more tech tips and engine solutions? Get weekly updates with the Engine Builder e-newsletter.

Log on to: www.EngineBuilderMag.com

to subscribe. Circle 124 for more information 24 February 2014 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide


C3Motor State_Layout 1 2/18/14 10:09 AM Page C3

Circle 125 on Reader Service Card for more information


C4 EPWI_Layout 1 2/18/14 10:09 AM Page C4

Circle 128 on Reader Service Card for more information


Tech Solutions Guide, February 2014  

A supplement to Engine Builder Magazine.

Advertisement
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you