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>Intake Manifolds

>Changes to Motor Oils

>After the Engine Build


Utilizing a Dynamometer to ‘Boost’ Engine Builds



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Contents 11.13

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Time in a Bottle The reasons behind the changes in motor oils over the years have been many, and our contributing editor John Martin was in the thick of it for many of his years as an oil chemist at Shell Oil and later, Lubrizol. Martin explains the how’s and why’s of the tricky relationship between the EPA and automobile manufacturers over the years, and where they are heading ......18

18 Manifold Matching Whether you are the one who is choosing the intake manifold or your customer, the choice of what kind of intake manifold to use will depend on a number of variables, according to Technical Editor Larry Carley.................................................42


A dynamometer is not just a tool for measuring horsepower and torque (though some people think that’s all a dyno is used for). It’s a quality control tool that allows you to make sure everything is right before an engine goes out the door. Technical Editor Larry Carley explains the business case for using a dyno, whether its a chassis or engine dyno, in your shop ....................30

30 Columns

Editor’s Page ................................12 By Ed Sunkin, Editor Computer Tools

Tech Talk ......................................26 By Lake Speed, Jr., Contributing Editor Hydrocarbon Heartburn?

Final Wrap....................................80

Roush Yates Celebrates In December, Roush Yates Engines will celebrate its 10-year Anniversary. Senior Executive Editor Brendan Baker talks to the man who heads it all up. RYE CEO Doug Yates tells us about his proudest moments and what they have planned next ......................................................60

After the Build Far too many good engine builders have had the quality of their work questioned when an engine they built does not perform like the customer expects. Contributing Editor Henry Olsen shows way to alleviate tuning issues after the engine build ........................................................................62


By Doug Kaufman, Publisher

DEPARTMENTS Industry News......................................................4 Events ..................................................................4 Shop Solutions ....................................................16 2013 Supplier Spotlight ........................................73 Cores/Classifieds/Ad Index ..................................78

ENGINE BUILDER founded Oct. 1964 Copyright 2013 Babcox Media Inc.

ENGINE BUILDER (ISSN 1535-041X) (November 2013, Volume 49, Number 11): Published monthly by Babcox Media Inc., 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333 U.S.A. Phone (330) 670-1234, FAX (330) 670-0874. Periodical postage paid at Akron, OH 44333 and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to ENGINE BUILDER, 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333. A limited number of complimentary subscriptions are available to individuals who meet the qualification requirements. Call (330) 670-1234, Ext. 275, to speak to a subscription services representative or FAX us at (330) 670-5335. Paid Subscriptions are available for non-qualified subscribers at the following rates: U.S.: $69 for one year. Canada: $89 for one year. Canadian rates include GST. Ohio residents add current county sales tax. Other foreign rates/via air mail: $129 for one year. Payable in advance in U.S. funds. Mail payment to ENGINE BUILDER, P.O. Box 75692, Cleveland, OH 44101-4755. VISA, MasterCard or American Express accepted. Publisher reserves the right to reject any subscription that does not conform to his standards or buying power coverage. Advertising which is below standard is refused. Opinions in signed articles and advertisements are not necessarily those of this magazine or its publisher. Diligent effort is made to ensure the integrity of every statement. Unsolicited manuscripts must be accompanied by return postage.

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Industry News

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MAHLE Clevite Introduces New 'Smart PART(ner)' Campaign MAHLE Clevite Inc. has introduced its new “SMART PART(ner)” campaign, directed at all aftermarket partners and engine builders. According to MAHLE, the new campaign highlights the added benefits engine builders and performance specialists receive when selecting a MAHLE part, and the enhanced partnership established with distributors when they choose MAHLE Clevite. Added benefits include technical expertise, superior customer service and product training support. The SMART PART(ner) campaign supports the complete MAHLE Clevite product offering – from gaskets, engine bearings and engine parts, to filters, turbochargers and the company's new thermostat offering. Additionally, it places an emphasis on the MAHLE Clevite customer service programs, including product training, online catalog and technical bulletins. “Engine builders and specialists around the world already are confi-

dent when choosing MAHLE Clevite branded products, but they are looking more to us for product information, technical expertise and overall support,” said Ted Hughes, manager – marketing for MAHLE Clevite. “The SMART PART(ner) campaign creates a channel for us to focus more on what distributors need to do business and what technicians need to maximize time in the shop. This campaign is just another way MAHLE Clevite shows support for aftermarket partners in maintaining a profitable repair business.” The SMART PART(ner) campaign officially launched at the 2013 AAPEX show and can be seen in print industry trade publications and e-newsletters. Additionally, MAHLE Clevite sales literature reflects the new campaign, placing more of a focus on the product and technical support received when purchasing a MAHLE Clevite product. For more information about MAHLE Clevite Inc. and its North American Aftermarket activities, visit Circle 4 for more information

Industry Events December 5-7 The Carolina Auto Racing Show (CARS) Charlotte, NC or 980-429-0398

December 9-11 24th Annual Advanced Engineering Technology Conference (AETC) Indianapolis, IN or 866-893-2382

February 22-23, 2014 Race & Performance Expo St.Charles, IL or 815-727-1208

March 6, 2014 HRIA Education Day and Training Detroit, MI or 909-978-6690

December 12-14 PRI Trade Show Indianapolis, IN or 949-499-5413

For more industry events, visit our website at

January 27, 2014

APRA Heavy Duty Remanufacturing Group Summit Las Vegas, NV

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or subscribe to

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Industry News

Some Motor Oil Gets Failing 'Grade' The American Petroleum Institute (API) recently has evaluated results from its annual motor oil testing program and determined that almost 1 in 5 samples of bulk motor oil purchased from the marketplace in each of the last five years have failed to meet API motor oil performance standards. “API has launched a new phase in its Motor Oil Matters program that will provide the information necessary to consumers to ensure they receive the high quality motor oils that they expect for their vehicles,” said Kevin Ferrick, API’s Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System manager. API purchased and tested more than 1,800 motor oils dispensed from

bulk tanks over the last five years and nearly 20 percent of the bulk oil samples tested failed to meet API standards. API compared the test results against thousands of licensed oil for-

mulations to determine the identity of the oils and to verify that the oils met the performance level claimed. “The Motor Oil Matters program

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reminds consumers about the importance of using quality motor oils in their cars and trucks,” added Ferrick. “The Motor Oil Matters program also calls on certified oil change locations to go the extra step to verify the quality of the oil on invoices and receipts.” API recommends that consumers visit to find a Motor Oil Matters (MOM) certified oil change location, look for the MOM symbol at approved locations, read important information on oil quality, and download the MOM oil change checklist to take to their next oil change. Source: American Petroleum Institute Note for more on motor oil issues, see the articles “Time in a Bottle – Reasons Behind Changing Engine Motor Oils” and “Hydrocarbon Heartburn?” beginning on pages 18 and 28 respectively.

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Industry News

Roush Yates To Release Championship Technology to Engine Builders Roush Yates capped off their winning season in dirt racing with two National Series Championships in 2013. Josh Richards brought home the World of Outlaws (WoO) Late Model Series Championship for the third time in his career, while Jason Johnson captured his fourth overall Championship in the Lucas Oil American Sprint Car Series. Roush Yates is transitioning its strategy for next season, making it their mission to supply quality engine components to all dirt series engine builders. The same technology used to build winning engines for Richards and Johnson this season will now be available to customers around the world. “It’s great to see how competitive our technology is in these markets,” said Doug Yates, CEO for Roush Yates. “We have invested heavily in dirt racers over the past four years, learning the market and fine tuning

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our engines and the components we use. We look forward to working with engine builders as we transition to sharing this desirable technology.” In addition to winning the World of Outlaw Late Model Series Championship, Roush Yates was awarded the Engine Builder of the Year award for the series. Richards was one of four drivers who helped Roush Yates win 14 races in 2013. A sneak peek of Roush Yates’ commitment to developing components for dirt racing was revealed at the WoO World Finals earlier this month to select engine builders. The revolutionary new RY45 Series was introduced for the first time and well received by key people in the industry. The new RY45 Series will officially be available at the Performance Racing Industry show in December. To learn more about Roush Yates’ newest technology to be released at the Performance Racing Industry show (Booth #1835) in December, or visit or call 1-877-798-RYPP.

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‘America’s Car Show’ Coming to Pomona Fairplex The Inaugural O’Reilly Auto Parts Street Machine & Muscle Car Nationals will rev into Fairplex in Pomona, CA March 22 & 23, 2014. Billed as “America’s Car Show”, the event will feature the nation’s top Muscle Cars, Restomods, mild-towild Street Machines, Pro Touring, Pro Street, wild Street Trucks and today’s top builders and parts

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Industry News manufacturers. For the first time in Fairplex history, show cars registered for outdoor space will have access to a cool cruising circuit, the Mickey Thompson Tires Burnout Contests and a challenging autocross course sure to provide some crowd-pleasing action and tight competition. The manufacturers midway will display the latest and hottest products in the industry, with representa-

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tives to answer your questions about your personal project vehicle. In addition to exciting features that all outdoor show cars can participate in, the event will feature some of the most rare and valuable Muscle Cars in existence, many from private collections that never see the light of day. The show will also pay tribute to the top car builders past and present with a Pro-Builders Pavilion dedicated to the top builds only seen in

the magazines. The O'Reilly Auto Parts Street Machine & Muscle Car Nationals will take place Saturday, March 22, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. and Sunday, March 23, from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. at Fairplex, located at 1101 W. McKinley Avenue in Pomona, CA. Tickets are available at participating O'Reilly Auto Parts and online at, where interested participants can register their rides. Follow the event on Facebook at FB/StreetMachineAndMuscleCarNationals.

Most Americans Have Not Yet Driven A Diesel Vehicle Honeywell Turbo Technologies, a global developer of automotive turbochargers, announced a recently conducted survey revealing 70 percent of Americans have never driven a diesel-powered vehicle, and 73 percent of Millennials (those under the age of 35) have never ventured on American roadways in a diesel car or truck, yet 56 percent recognize that running diesel fuel is more fuel efficient than using gasoline. Despite this lack of diesel driving experience, consumers were familiar of the benefits of diesel, most notably that diesel engines can produce more power than traditional gasoline engines (65 percent). Nearly three in five adults (59 percent), and more than half of Millennials (56 percent), said they believe running diesel fuel is more fuel efficient than gasoline. Modern diesel passenger-car engines in the U.S. are all turbocharged. Honeywell turbodiesels boost a wide range of light vehicles — from bi-cylinder 0.8L engines to 7.0L pick-up trucks. The survey also indicated that while not often considered a factor in the driving experience, fuel economy (23 percent) was ranked the second most important factor for Americans when determining whether a car is fun to drive – behind only good handling (47 percent). For more information, visit

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Editor’s Page

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Computer ‘Tools’

EDITOR Ed Sunkin

Infusing Software Technology into a Performance Build


or years, computer-aided specific uses. design (CAD) has been used One of the more popular uses of in the automotive industry to CAD in engine building today is for develop prototypes of body styles, improving airflow through ports. as well as to design auto compoFor example, a common hands-on nents including engine parts, method for an engine builder lookelectronics and even tires. ing to increase performance through In fact, Dr. Patrick J. Hanratty, an the visualization of a port configuraAmerican computer scientist who is tion is to make a 3D cast of a port. known as the “Father of After pouring rubber compound CAD/CAM,” helped pioneer the into the port and letting it cure, the technology in the automotive indus- builder prys out the mold casting to try by developing a software system better see what the port actually in the mid-1960s for General Motors looks like, or to test it. to automate repetitive drafting Obviously, this can be a time-condesigns. suming process that utilizes raw In recent years, the use of commaterials. However, virtual CAD puter systems to assist in the develprogramming provides the builder a opment, modification and more high-tech approach by digioptimization of a performance entally mapping the port with a 3D gine has made its way into engine pinpoint plotting devise and then shops. One reason is that CAD softimports the data into a software proware provides builders detailed gram for further testing analysis and analysis and archived referenced visualization. data of the engine’s components CAD programs are often used in that can utilized quickly and efficonjunction with CAM programs ciently for various racCAD software programs, such ing conditions and as this example called Port Exenvironments, as well pert from Mastercam, provides as performance performance engine builders an changes/limitations accurate, efficient engine cylinfrom the sanctioning der head porting “tool” on bodies your customers their computer’s desktop, in compete in. place of the workbench. Most CAD software for engine modifications use either vector-based graphics to depict the objects or raster graphics to display the designed components. But its more than just viewing part designs on your computer screen. CAD programs allow the user to incorporate drafting of technical images, as well as creating dimensions and tolerances of the components for application-

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integrated with the shop’s tooling equipment, in this case, a CNC machine. Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is defined as the use of computer software to control machine-operated tools in the development and modification of manufactured components. And it’s a growing trend in our industry for a couple of reasons. For one, CAM is beneficial to the performance industry due to its ability to develop a faster production process and enables components and tooling more precise dimensions and material consistency. It also gives a shop the opportunity to be a niche supplier of custom performance automotive parts, and even non-automotive parts for other industries. And, it’s helpful to users by reducing waste of components, thereby also reducing energy consumption. Where as hand porting a set of

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Editor’s Page cylinder heads takes skill and expertise to achieve consistency, the CAD program enables the builder to make changes and review the data without having to risk damaging an expensive cylinder head. And once a performance engine builder has developed a port configuration they are satisfied with on the computer, CAD programming allows the user to digitally map the port and replicate it again and again with near perfect consistency in the remaining ports of the cylinder head using the CNC machinery, providing continuous, accurate results. Best of all, that port configuration data now saved on the CAD software is often used in computer can also be conjunction with CAM-equipped modified quickly with the CAD software for different machinery, such as a 5-Axis CNC builders take a cylinder head porting machine, engine designs and applilot of pride in offering a shop the precision cations, allowing the user their “handsand speed needed to reproduce nearly unlimited configucylinder heads with exceptional on” approach ration tweaks. accuracy – with no handwork to hand-portPerformance manifolds needed. Photo courtesy Rottler ing services, are another component Manufacturing. they may not that, to save costs and be interested in optimize airflow, are re-learning the work via computer. designed using CAD programming. But, as the industry looks to inFor more on matching the best manicrease a younger generation of enfold to your engine build, check out gine builders, the utilization of more Larry Carley’s article beginning on computers in an engine shop could page 42 of this issue. be an attractive draw. One drawback to the CAD techYounger job-seekers familiar with nology is taking the time to learn the computer-aided component developsoftware programming. According to ment and design programs that they those knowledgeable in this field, the learned in a technical school could be learning curve for CAD/CAM is an asset to your performance shop rather steep and typically takes six and help bring in new business and months to a year before a self-taught increase profits. user is really competent with the Let’s face it, it’s probably less design software. stressful on a shop owner if an And since some performance employee makes a design mistake on

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a computer program that can be redone with little harm, than to fritter away a lot of shop time, equipment time and the cost of ruining or damaging expensive engine components and materials. Plus, it’s less stressful on the employee, who doesn’t want the stigma of being the one who ruined a potential performance build for a customer. (Keep in mind, too, that CAD/CAM is not fool proof when it comes to CNC machining. Glitches can still happen that end up incorrectly machining a part or damaging the CNC tooling.) Another roadblock for this technology in is deciding which CAD software program to purchase that best fits your shop’s needs. Since ours is a vocal industry and many performance builders are helpful in sharing knowledge and their experience, were looking for your input. If you have used CAD and CAM programs successfully in your engine builds, please let us know which software you prefer. Or, if you work for a company that provides computer aided design or computer aided manufacturing programs for performance engine builders, email us your contact information to that we may use in our Engine Builders Performance Buyers Guide, which will be available in the March issue, as well as online at ■

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Jeep 3.8L Oil Pressure Problem Many late model 3.8L Jeep engines are losing oil pressure at the oil pump due to failure of the bypass valve. This results in destruction of not only the crankshaft, but the connecting rods. To fix the problem, you need to find the bypass valve inside the plastic timing cover. To get to the valve, you need to disassemble the cover and remove the oil pump. Chrysler sells an upgraded bypass valve made of metal instead of plastic, which solves the problem, helping your engine build go farther in the long run. My machine shop customers also tell me that replacing the late-model rods with the earlier forged rods will help make the engine more durable. There may be modifications required to make the early rods fit in the late engine. Roy Maloney Engine & Performance Warehouse Houston, TX

Avoiding The Skinned Knuckle Syndrome Header bolts and other bolts in tight locations can be troublesome to remove and install, especially in custom fabrications where there is limited accessibility. A solution is to use internal wrenching bolts (Allen bolts). To use allen bolts, taper the head as illustrated, and purchase or fabricate a long ball end wrench for installation and torquing. This method 16 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

may alleviate the “skinned knuckle” syndrome that so many of us know so well. Archie Frangoudis Archie’s Racing Service Nashua and Merrimack, NH

RV Engine Opportunities Machine shops are not building as many “daily driver” complete engines these days; a lot of that business has gone to the PER and the junkyard. There are still a ton of engine builds, but they are mostly generated from two broad categories; work vehicles and play vehicles. These vehicles retain their value for a long time and are ripe for custom building to improve performance. An often overlooked opportunity from the “play” category could be found at your local RV dealer. It turns out there are more than 9 million Americans who own RVs and that number is on the rise because of the versatility and affordability of today’s RVs. Shipments of new RVs in 2013 are expected to reach 310,000, up 8.4% from last year. Because of the cost of these “play” vehicles and the extra stress on their engines, there is a lot of opportunity for cylinder head and engine rebuilding. Here is a tip: Connect with dealers and rental companies in your area. A simple phone call can be a start. Let the RV specialist know that you rebuild cylinder heads which often require crack repair and new parts, resulting in a high-profit job. And don’t forget to out-service the competition by selling the RV dealer a “package” includes the parts required to install that cylinder head or engine. Steve Rich Sterling Bearing, Inc. Kansas City, MO

Why Torque Plates Should Be Used On FE Ford Blocks Some claim it is not necessary to torque hone FE Ford blocks. In fact, I am the only one of many shops in my area that even has an FE honing plate in my collection. Don’t believe

that an FE block needs to be honed with a torque plate? Torque honing, especially on an old 428 or any FE Ford block is essential. On a particular 428, as I do with all blocks, I checked each bore size in four directions, 90 degrees, 180 degrees and 45 degrees both ways before torquing the CCA two inch torque plate on top of an appropriate used head gasket to the block. After torquing, the number one cylinder changed over .003˝, and also changed the widest location from 12 and 6 o’clock to the 10 and 4 o’clock degree direction. The measurements on all seven other cylinders changed as much as .002˝ plus. There were changes in new directions as well. This proves that to hone an FE block right, always use a torque plate. Animal Jim Feurer Animal Jim Racing Lacon, IL

Extracting Broken Bolts From Aluminum Broken bolts that are seized in aluminum with corrosion often do not break loose with penetrating oil or freeze spray because they are too tight. And we often shy away from using our torches for fear of melting aluminum since it does not glow before melting, unlike cast iron. Here is my method: Use your propane torch at normal temperature. At this temperature it will not melt aluminum. We prop the torch up to the head for five minutes of heat. So far, 100% of seized bolts have come out of the aluminum. Whether they are sticking out or sunken in and needing to be predrilled and extracted, we’ve found this method to be a lifesaver. Jeffrey Myers MAR Automotive, Inc. Philadelphia, PA

How Do You Slice It If I had a nickel for every time I’ve been asked “What is the best way to cut braided steel hose?” I’d have more money than Bill Gates. While there are about as many an-

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swers to this question as there are skilled automotive techs, there are two frequently utilized techniques. Let’s have a look at both. A lot of technicians use a simple cut-off approach using a hack saw, tin snips, die grinder, a Dremel tool fitted with a cut-off wheel, or even a chisel. In this instance, the hose is usually wrapped tightly with electrical tape to hold things together and the selected tool used to make a cut at the designated area. While this approach can be reasonably successful, care must be taken to insure a clean cut, and the hose should be cleaned/blown out to remove any rubber fragments and/or stainless steel wire bits. While the above method is probably the most common, my preferred method is to use a braided steel hose cutter. This job specific tool is reasonably inexpensive and available at a variety of sources. It is much better suited to the job, safer to use and the result is a nice clean edge ready for assembly. Another advantage is that this method always delivers a nice smooth clean cut and rarely, if ever, leaves any debris. Whichever method you choose, it is always a good idea to wear a good pair of heavy leather gloves and eye protection when cutting and assembling steel braided hose. Lamar Whitman Engine Pro Tech Committee â–

Shop Solutions – The Power of Knowledge Engine Builder and Engine Pro present Shop Solutions in each issue of Engine Builder Magazine and at The feature is intended to provide machine shop owners and engine technicians the opportunity to share their knowledge to benefit the entire industry and their own shops. Those who submit Shop Solutions that are published are awarded a prepaid $100 Visa gift card.

Engine Pro is a nationwide network of distributors that warehouse a full line of internal engine components for domestic and import passenger car, light truck, heavy duty, industrial, marine, agricultural and performance applications. They also produce engine parts under the Engine Pro name that offer premium features at an affordable price.

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Time In a Bottle Reasons Behind Changing Engine Oils



ize that the EPA and most environhen I was just a young mentalists couldn’t care less about pup in the 1960s working our internal combustion engines. on lubes for Shell ReThese ultra left-wingers are only search and Development, passenconcerned with clean air, even if it ger car motor oils (PCMO) were causes all commerce to stop dead in much simpler and easier to underits tracks. They are not your stand. friends! (Editor’s note: Engine Builder There were only three performdoes not endorse any political party. ance levels: motor light (ML), We do, however, support industry motor moderate (MM), and motor associations and comittees such as the severe (MS). Auto manufacturers and lube oil SEMA Action Network and lobbying efforts by AAIA. We love everyone as marketers worked closely with the long as they support the industry!). American Petroleum Institute The EPA first flexed its muscles (API), the American Society for when North American passenger Testing and Materials (ASTM), and cars began utilizing catalytic conthe Society of Automotive Engiverters in 1975 to reduce CO and neers (SAE) to specify PCMOs as HC emissions. Some laboratory well as they knew how. engine tests using oils highly overOil marketers didn’t worry so dosed with zinc dithiophosphate, much about profitability since oils were only a small part of their overall When it comes to engine oil, the business. Auto manmore recent the specification, ufacturers weren’t the better the oil performance concerned about sellin all aspects except valve train ing oils; they just wear and EP protection. wanted adequate protection for their new engine designs in the field. Oils were developed by analyzing actual field failures and developing laboratory engine tests that would replicate the field failures. It seemed everyone worked closely together without much dissention in the ranks.

Enter the EPA Then the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) got involved in chemical regulations, and the game became more adversarial and political. You must first real18 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

(ZDP or ZDDP) extreme pressure (EP) additives showed that the phosphorous tended to “glaze” over the face of the catalyst substrate slowly rendering it ineffective. No field tests that I’m aware of ever corroborated these lab test findings, but the EPA flexed its muscles anyway and pushed for new lube oil chemical restrictions to minimize phosphorous (therefore ZDP) content. They’ve been on this bandwagon ever since, and no one in our Federal government has ever successfully moderated their powers. When the oil embargo hit in the mid-’70s, both the EPA and the public also began clamoring for better fuel economy (FE).

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Oil in the ‘80s By the 1980s auto manufacturers began pushing for the specification of new oil performance categories in which they could guarantee improved fuel economy. This brought about the development of friction-modified passenger car oils. Oil marketers and auto manufacturers now had two new performance issues to deal with. The API, the ASTM, and the SAE began developing new oil performance categories as quickly as they could. But the process of defining oil performance deficiencies, developing laboratory engine tests, and achieving consensus among all involved is slow and methodical. Besides, it costs millions of dollars to develop a useful new specification. By the late ’80s American auto manufacturers (AAMA) decided the

oil industry either wasn’t moving rapidly enough or weren’t addressing some of their specific needs, so they formed their own trade association. They formed the new group called the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) to make sure their needs were being addressed. The auto manufacturers later changed the name of their trade association to the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (AAM). The traditional API approach defined general PCMO performance level categories labeled as API SG, SH, etc., up to the current API SN. ILSAC members from the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (AAM), which included European auto manufacturers, and the Japanese Auto Manufacturers Association (JAMA) specified new performance categories labeled as GF-1, GF-2, etc., up to the current GF-5. Usually the GF

categories can be satisfied by performing one or two additional tests over the API specified tests.

Oil and OEs Do Mix After much flapping of wings and debate, the auto manufacturers and the oil industry learned to coexist, and the paired specification system SL/GF-3) SM/GF-4, etc.) continued forward through five oil performance upgrades and considerable expense through 2011. It seems these upgrades occur every four years, and there is no end in sight. Table 1 later in this article outlines that history briefly. I’m not sure I, or anyone else for that matter, understands why General Motors decided to get into the lube oil licensing business around 2010. But they developed their own set of PCMO performance specifications (Dexos 1, etc.) and required oil marketers who met these specifications

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to pay them a A big change in motor oils is the introduction of more “green” licensing fee if they products that contain up to 50 percent ore more “re-refined” wished to use the motor oil. The used motor oil in these products has been recovDexos name on their products. ered and fully reprocessed using a multi-step refining procedure I know of at least that is similar to that which is used to refine crude oil. The resultone lube oil marketer who told GM to go ing base stock is as good or better than a comparable traditional pound salt. base stock, and meets the same API and OEM performance Many European requirements when it is reformulated with the proper additives. auto marketers also sell their own branded oils Re-refined motor oil is being used successfully by numerous (actually supplied by fleets, the U.S. military and ordinary motorists. – Larry Carley oil marketers). This has virtually no effect on North American oil markets, and nance. This also holds true for the country; no one can force you to use here’s why: In North America, most majority of truck owners, because them. oil changes are do-it-for-me (DIFM) Europe’s fleets are smaller, and they The only exception I can think of or do-it-yourself (DIY). need good warranty protection. is Volkswagen. If your customer has Very few American motorists take In this culture it makes sense for a turbocharged diesel in their VW, their cars to the dealer for an oil each OEM to have an oil marketer they need to use an oil that meets the change, because we have such a formulate a branded product to VW505 specification, whether or not strong aftermarket. guarantee warranty protection. it is a VW branded product. The VW In Europe the aftermarket isn’t Japan also does some of this, and turbocharged diesel has rather nearly as extensive, and most Eurotheir oils are often called “genuine” severe high temperature oxidative pean motorists rely on their OEM oils. Don’t worry about OEM or stability requirements. dealers for all their vehicle maintegenuine oils for your vehicle in this In spite of all this “to-ing and

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fro-ing,” here are the facts you need to know to intelligently purchase PCMOs. First, pay no attention to the marketing hype. Look for the API “donut” on the back and the ILSAC “starburst” symbols on the front of the oil container. It will show the highest performance specification that container of oil meets. The only currently active API specifications are API SJ, SL, SM, and SN. Only ILSAC GF-5 is currently active. ILSAC GF-4 was obsoleted one year after GF-5 was introduced. If a Dexos label also appears, that’s good news for GM warranty protection, but I wouldn’t lose any sleep if it weren’t there. Dexos oils are not gaining much traction in the marketplace. The thing to remember is that the more recent the specification, the better the oil performance in all aspects except valve train wear and EP protection. Currently look for API SN/GF-5, because that will provide the best fuel economy for your vehicle. These are currently the best oils for your late model passenger cars without valve train modifications. However, if you have an older engine design or you have altered the valve train (high lift cam, etc.), all bets are off! You should take one of two possible approaches to select oils for these engines. You can choose one of the myriad of Hot Rod or Racing oils which are out there, because they all have higher ZDP levels to protect pushrod

tips and flat tappet cams and lifters. Although these oils are expensive, they are not nearly as expensive as a replacement cam and lifters. If you want to be terrified, talk to the folks at Comp Cams about how many cams they see returned because the modern API/ILSAC specification lube oil used offered inadequate protection. That’s one of the reasons why they offer their own proprietary lube oils – to reduce the number of failed cams. If your flat tappet camshaft isn’t very radical, or if you are utilizing rollers, you might take a second approach. Break the engine in on one of the many break-in oils out there. They really do work! This will coat the cam and lifter surfaces with the sacrificial ZDP film the valve train needs for proper component protection. Then you can switch to a lower ZDP oil (APISN/GF-5) to maximize vehicular fuel economy. However, this is not as safe an approach as is the use of specialty oils, because no one is certain how much ZDP your valve train actually needs. You might need to use a Hot Rod or Break In oil periodically to replenish the depleted ZDP. Personally, I use the APISN/GF-5 oils in only my 2007 Hemi and my 2009 Pontiac G8; because they are stock, and I know their power plants were designed to utilize these oils. In my street rods and motorcycles, I utilize a name

Circle 22 for more information 22 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

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brand hot rod oil; since I was one of the inventors of the product, and I know exactly what is in it and what it can do. Look for hot rod oils with added rust protection since collector vehicles can sit idle for months at a time. You don’t need rusty valve springs or pushrod tips if you have much camshaft lift. Carefully consider viscosity grades for late-model engine designs (e.g., LS engines, modular Fords, etc.). Since most of them were deigned for very low viscosity oils, they don’t like the thick oils us old school old racers are fond of. I know of several examples where both LS and modular engines have failed because of their inability to pump thicker oils through all the engine oil passages. Play safe and buy an oil specifically designed for these new engine families. Stay away from ZDP containing additives to add to your oil. Oils are carefully blended by adding each ingredient at a specified temperature so it will mix properly. When one merely dumps a can of ZDP into the crankcase, there is no guarantee it will mix properly. Don’t take chances with your valve train!

Historical Gasoline Lube Oil Specifications Year Initiated Obsolete Specs.

Current Specs. (only for Diesels) Current Gasoline Specs.

Under Development

Specification API ILSAC

1972 1980 1989




1997 2001 2005 2011 2016


GF-2 GF-3 GF-4 GF-5 GF-6

Table 1

New Standards Mandate Disclosure of Motor Oil Info on Repair Invoices

Circle 24 for more information

Recently, the U.S. Commerce Department’s National Institute of Standards and Technology has made uniform recommendations for motor oil information on invoices. These uniform standards mandate that the SAE oil ratings, brand and weight are to be placed on a customer’s invoice. Twenty states automatically adopted the standards. Others will do so by administrative regulation. The standards became effective July 1 for states that approve, and are outlined in a section known as the Uniform Regulation for the Method of Sale of Commodities, as shown here: 2.33.1. Labeling of Vehicle Engine (Motor) Oil. – Vehicle engine (motor) oil shall be labeled. Viscosity. – The label on any vehicle engine (motor) oil container, receptacle, dispenser or storage tank, and any invoice or receipt from service on an engine that includes the installation of vehicle engine (motor) oil dispensed from a receptacle, dispenser or storage tank, shall contain the viscosity grade classification preceded by the letters “SAE” in accordance with SAE International’s latest version of SAE J300, “Engine Oil Viscosity Classification.”■

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Tech Talk

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Hydrocarbon Heartburn? Effects of sulfur reduction in motor oils and fuels



et’s face it, things change. Not only have the prices of gasoline, diesel and motor oils changed in the last decade or so, the chemical makeup of these products have all changed, too. The reduction of sulfur in diesel fuel, gasoline and motor oil has had measurable effects on fuel injectors and other vital engine parts. Add to that restrictions on additives like ZincDialkylDithioPhosphate (ZDDP), and it seems like the whole world of fuels and lubricants has turned upside down at times. Before you let all this change give you a case of heartburn, remember that knowledge is power, so here is a summary of the changes in gasoline, diesel and motor oils. You can use this knowledge to steer clear of potential pitfalls as we navigate the new chemical landscape. We’ll start with sulfur reduction. All crude oils contain sulfur. You may have heard of the term “Sweet or Sour” crude. This is in reference to the amount of sulfur in the crude oil. As a result, products of refined crude oil like diesel fuel, gasoline and conventional motor oils contain sulfur. Today’s emissions regulations limit the amount of sulfur in all of these products. While this is a benefit for emissions, it does have some consequences. Primarily, sulfur is a natural lubricant, so reductions in sulfur reduce the natural lubricity of refined products. This has been evidenced in diesel engines since the advent of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. Problems with injector wear have been attributed to the lack of lubricity in this fuel type. The sulfur reduction has also impacted both gasoline and motor oil. The lower level of sulfur in modern motor oils does reduce the natural lubricity of the oil. Starting in the mid-1990s, more and more motor oils are being blended from lower sulfur Group II and Group III base oils as opposed to the traditional, higher sulfur Group I base oils. Couple that with the

26 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

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Column reduction in ZDDP, and it is easy to see why premature camshaft and lifter wear has skyrocketed since the mid’90s. The effect of reducing sulfur in gasoline is not related to lubricity, but it is related to corrosive wear. You see, sulfur is not just a lubricant, it has an affinity for metal surfaces, which can prevent other chemicals from reacting with those metal surfaces. Couple the reduction in sulfur along with the advent of Ethanol in gasoline, and carburetors suddenly were at risk. Again, the timing is similar. In the mid-1990s Ethanol began to be added to gasoIine just as the sulfur levels were reduced. By the mid-2000s, the critical point had been reached – there was too much Ethanol in the fuel compared to the level of sulfur and gasoline detergent additives. The result was widespread corrosion in carburetors, which continues to this day. Ethanol is corrosive towards the aluminum, steel and Zinc alloys used in carbs, fuel pumps and fuel tanks, and now the fuel has less sulfur to protect those components from the Ethanol. Couple that with lower levels of gasoIine detergents in pump fuel, and it is easy to see why carbureted engines from Big Block Chevys to two-stroke leaf blowers have been struggling in the past decade.

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Ethanol Addition The reduction in sulfur is not the only issue affecting fuel and lubricants. The drive to reduce emissions resulted in other chemical changes besides reducing sulfur. One change we already mentioned is the addition of Ethanol to gasoline. This is directly related to emissions, and the advent of Ethanol-blended gasoline has been effective in regards to emissions reduction. However, the addition to Ethanol in gasoline has had other side effects – primarily corrosion. Ethanol is hygroscopic, which is a fancy way of saying that Ethanol absorbs water. The chemical cocktail of Ethanol and water is very corrosive to aluminum, steel and Zinc. The presence of water in the fuel also speeds up the oxidation of the fuel – again, a fancy way of saying the breakdown of the fuel. When the fuel oxidizes, it can lead gummy deposits that affect the performance of both fuel injection systems and carburetors. Because moisture contamination is related to storage time and conditions, daily drivers rarely see any of these issues. However, vehicles that see long term storage and infrequent use tend to fall victim. Marine applications are the worst case scenario because they feature both highmoisture environments and long periods of storage. Another area of chemical change is in motor oil. In order to provide better catalytic converter efficiency, the amount and type of additives used in motor oils have changed. The most recent API SN and ILSAC GF-5 oil standards call for the use of a new type of ZDDP that provides better catalytic converter protection. At this you may be asking,“aren’t all the Zinc additives the same?” The simple answer is – no. Several different compounds within the ZDDP family exist, and some are better at protecting catalytic converter performance than others. These new additives are called Phosphorus Retention ZDDPs, and they have replaced the older-style ZDDP in API SN and ILSAC GF-5 motor oil formulas. While this is good news for modern engines and stock valve trains, engine testing has shown these new ZDDPs are not as good for the older style flat tappet valve trains. Again, knowledge is power. Now that you are aware of these issues, you can easily take steps to avoid these problems. Diesel engine owners have a variety of fuel additives to choose from that restore lost lubricity to ultra-low sulfur diesel. Owners of street rods and lawnmowers alike can seek out non-Ethanol gasoline, or choose to treat Ethanolblended gasoline with a corrosion and deposit-inhibitor additive. These fuel additive products impart lubricity, corrosion protection and deposit control to readily available fuels and motor oils with boosted levels of ZincDialkylDithioPhosphate to provide the increased anti-wear protection older and high performance engines need. ■

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Utilizing a Dynamometer to ‘Boost’ Engine Builds


ome would say that one of the criteria for being a “real” performance engine builder is having your own engine dyno. A dynamometer is not just a tool for measuring horsepower and torque (though some people think that’s all a dyno is used for). It’s a quality control tool that allows you to make sure everything is right before an engine goes out the door. An engine dyno provides a means of breaking-in, testing and tuning an engine before it is installed in a customer’s vehicle or race car. The dyno gives you control over the all-important initial break-in process. You can make sure the engine is prelubed before it is cranked over for the first time, and that the engine is developing good oil pressure once it fires up and is running. One of the most common causes of engine warranty claims is not breaking in a new engine properly. If you are using break-in oil (highly recommended), that oil is good for the break-in only and needs to be drained once the break-in process has been completed. Keeping the engine’s RPMs up during those first critical 20 to 30 minutes of break-in time is ab-

30 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

solutely essential for the piston rings to seat and the lifters to mate with the camshaft. Mess up here and the engine may burn oil or experience a premature cam failure. The dyno also allows you to monitor the engine’s oil pressure, coolant temperature and air/fuel mixture (via O2 sensors or exhaust temperature sensors) while the engine is running to make sure the fuel mixture isn’t going too rich or too lean. You can also monitor spark timing and tweak the spark curve as needed to make sure the timing isn’t over-advanced or retarded. And if anything goes wrong, you can shut the engine down before any major damage can occur. Everybody makes mistakes, so it’s better to catch a problem while the engine is still on your dyno than to send it out and have it blow in the middle of a race. The bottom line is that a dyno is much more than a tool for measuring an engine’s power output. It’s a tool that can give you control, confidence and credibility on every engine you build.

Dyno Designs An engine dyno measures engine torque and horsepower by creating

An engine dyno is a great tool that can provide the user with a vast amount of very valuable data but since no race is won on a dyno the best engine builder also tune their engines in the vehicle during real world operating conditions. (Photo courtesy Henry P. Olsen)

a calibrated amount of resistance while the engine is running. This can be done by a variety of means, including a water brake, electromagnetic resistance (eddy current brake) or an AC or DC electric motor, or by a hydraulic brake (oil pump). Most engine dynos that are used in shops for performance work use a water brake or an eddy current brake. A water brake engine dyno can usually handle a wide range of engines, from under 100 horsepower up to over 1,500 horsepower or more depending on the model. The water brake is connected to the engine’s flywheel or flexplate with a short driveshaft. Inside is a stainless steel or aluminum/bronze stator that churns the water to create resistance. This also creates a lot of heat, so the water has to be cooled during the dyno run. An eddy current brake uses a different approach to creating resistance. Resistance is created by spinning a steel disc in a strong

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Feature magnetic field. also spin an engine that isn’t running back into the engine’s intake system. An eddy current dyno provides a The room should also provide adeto measure things like frictional little more control than a water quate sound insulation (especially if losses, compression and intake brake, and it has a faster response you have neighbors who might obvacuum. time. It may be air-cooled or waterject to the noise), good lighting, elecThe only drawback with AC cooled depending on the model and trical and plumbing hookups for engine dynos is their cost, typically power rating. power supply (usually 220v) and en$250,000 or more just for the basic A typical water brake or eddy cur- dyno and absorber. gine cooling, and some type of aprent engine dyno will cost you proved fire suppression system in Cell Block around $30,000 to $40,000 for the case of fire. One feature you’ll want in addition dyno itself, and as much as $50,000 You can save money by building a to the engine dyno and data acquisito $100,000 or more for the complete test cell yourself, or you can hire a tion equipment is a test cell or chamdyno setup with data acquisition, inlocal contractor to do the work. ber to house the engine when it is strumentation and test cell. Modular test cells are also available running on the dyno. Obviously, the more bells and that you can install yourself or have A test cell isn’t absolutely necessary, whistles you buy, the higher the installed. Any test cell you build or but anything can happen when an price. More data acquisition chaninstall obviously has to meet local engine is making a hard pull on a nels can provide more information, fire, environmental and building dyno. Because of this, it’s a good but also add to the cost of the equipcodes. idea to have the engine safely ment. If you’re buying a new dyno from enclosed inside a sealed room or For high end dyno work, some an equipment supplier, the setup chamber. shops use an AC dyno. This type of time will vary depending on how The test cell should provide good dyno uses a powerful alternating long it takes to build or prepare the ventilation, including exhaust ventcurrent (AC) electric motor to create test cell. ing so exhaust fumes are not sucked resistance. If the test cell is essentially ready The AC motor can also function as a generator and route power gen- A dynamometer is not just a tool for measuring horsepower and torque (though erated by the engine back into the some people think that’s all a dyno is used for). It’s a quality control tool that power grid. The electric motor can allows you to make sure everything is right before an engine goes out the door. 31

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when the equipment arrives, you can usually be up and running in a day or two. Most dyno suppliers also provide the initial training on how to use their equipment. The biggest challenge in many instances is not the dyno equipment itself but how to use the computer software that controls the dyno. This can be difficult for someone who has little or no computer experience. But if you are somewhat familiar with computers and can do basic things like open and move files, you should have no trouble mastering the data acquisition and recording software that gives you the dyno results.

Measuring ROI Output Calculating the payback of an engine dyno isn’t easy because it’s not the same as other shop equipment like a valve-and-seat machine, cylinder hone or even cleaning equipment. With other types of shop equipment, you can figure your return on investment (ROI) by estimating how many jobs per day/week/month the equipment can do and then multiply that number by how much you charge per job. You can then compare the revenue the equipment will generate against its lease or purchase price to estimate how quickly it will pay for itself. With an engine dyno, the calculations are not quite the

Like other shop equipment, you can estimate how many dyno runs per day/week/month you might do, and how much you can charge per dyno run or for billable dyno time to estimate how much money a dyno might generate in your shop. But you also have to factor in what the dyno can do to reduce engine warranty claims, and how you can use it to promote your services and generate new business.

same. Like other shop equipment, you can estimate how many dyno runs per day/week/month you might do, and how much you can charge per dyno run or for billable dyno time to estimate how much money a dyno might generate in your shop. But you also have to factor in what the dyno can do to reduce engine warranty claims, and how you can use it to promote your services and generate new business. These last two benefits may generate more payback than the equipment itself generates in billable dyno time. It’s hard to figure an exact dollar amount that quality control is worth. But for every engine problem or failure that your dyno prevents, that’s one less warranty expense you have to eat and one less angry customer you have to deal with. Having the ability to dyno test and tune engines also means you can optimize engine performance and solve problems that might be difficult to solve on a race track or street vehicle. If an engine has a flat spot or runs short on power above or below a certain RPM range, it will show up on a dyno graph. You can then focus on fuel mixture, spark timing or valvetrain issues that might be causing the problem. It’s a lot faster and easier to make a few adjustments while the engine is on a dyno to see if the changes makes things better or worse than it is to make tuning adjustments on the track or street. A dyno can provide many years of service. The basic Circle 32 for more information 32 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

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Feature Engine builders or shops that have a chassis dynamometer as well as an engine dyno, may find there are advantages to using one or the other, or both, depending on the job. If you are working on a customer’s car and remapping just the ECU, for instance, a chassis dyno can be the best choice for make changes quickly and then verifying those changes. EFI University offers classes for those who wish to learn how to calibrate and tune ECUs.

equipment should last 30 to 40 years or more. Even so, the typical dyno will undergo three or four software and data acquisition upgrades during its lifetime. As computer technology and operating systems continue to evolve, upgrades become inevitable with PCbased controls. Software improvements may include better displays and controls, more features and so on, so you’ll probably want the latest upgrades as they become available.

Dyno Upkeep There’s not much maintenance that’s required to keep a dyno running. Depending on the type of brake and throttle controls that are used, you may have to lubricate some bearings, cables or other parts periodically. It’s also a good idea to inspect the driveshaft coupling and U-joints regularly for cracks or other problems. Data acquisition sensors such as O2 sensors have a certain lifespan which will vary depending on hours of usage. So figure on replacing some of these sensors as needed at some point down the road.

Wiring harnesses that connect to engine sensors, ignition and fuel system components can be damaged by careless or rough handling, so repairs or replacement of some connec-

tors or wires may become necessary depending on usage. Engines also produce a lot of vibrations while they are running hard on a dyno, so check the engine

Dyno Formulas There are two basic formulas for correcting dyno results. Both were developed by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). The older formula that most shops still use today is J607. This older formula lives on because it gives results that are about four percent higher than the new J1349 formula – which is handy for promoting big dyno numbers to a customer or potential customer. By comparison, the newer J-1349 formula more accurately corrects an engine’s true power output and is used by the auto makers to rate the power output of their engines. Most dyno equipment allows you to use either formula to correct the results, or to use no correction factor at all. Circle 34 for more information 34 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

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Having flexibility is key for some dyno users. For example, engineers at Go Power Systems have designed their GPR557 as a Dual Drive dynamometer system. Typically, engine builders and tuners have had to choose between drive shaft coupled and direct (bell housing) coupled set ups when it came to transferring power between engine and dyno. This unit offers both as part of the Dual Drive system so that the choice can be based on the test requirements and customer preferences all within one dyno test system. Source:

mounts and all the nuts and bolts on the support stand to make sure nothing is loose or broken. Something else to keep is mind is that four cylinder engines are typically rougher running engines that produce more harmonics than a V8, so you are more likely to have something come loose or break while testing a four cylinder engine than a big powerful V8.

One dyno supplier said you should treat your dyno like it’s your race car. Set up a regular maintenance schedule to keep it running smoothly and trouble-free.

Circle 36 for more information 36 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

Final Results There are lots of tips and tricks that are important with dyno tuning engines. One is to always be consistent.

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The idea here is to minimize variables that can affect dyno results. Use the same setup procedures every time. Make sure the engine’s oil temperature is the same each time so you can compare results accurately. Dyno results also need to be “corrected” for air density (air temperature, humidity and barometric pressure) is you want to be truly accurate and have the ability to compare apples to apples. Air density changes with temperature, altitude and humidity. Consequently, the results of a dyno run done in Miami Florida at sea level on a hot humid day are not going to be the same as the dyno results on the same engine tested in Denver Colorado on a cold dry winter day. If all you want is raw uncorrected horsepower and torque numbers for a given dyno run, you don’t need to use any correction factors to massage the numbers. But if you want to compare dyno runs from different days when weather conditions are not exactly the same, you have to use a correction factor to equalize the results. Remember, you want to be Test run stands provide an opportunity to generate additional revconsistent.

enue, as many customer can’t afford the dyno time, but would consider a lesser cost/charge to be sure their engine runs correctly before installing into their special vehicle or marine applications.

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Engine builders have found that today’s reputable test stands provide a simple yet effective means to test and/or break-in camshafts, adjust valves and check for oil and water leaks, as well as a number of other engine tests.

Fudging Numbers/Result Errors So can dyno results be fudged? You bet they can by entering incorrect air density data at the start of a test. Unscrupulous shops have been known to fudge dyno results to impress customers or to convince a customer

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Feature that their dyno tuning skills produced a bigger improvement than it actually did. A more common problem, however, can be inaccurate or misleading dyno results because the equipment is out of calibration. A dyno is only as accurate as its torque calibration. A torque calibration procedure needs to be performed periodically to maintain the

accuracy of the equipment, otherwise the test results may drift over time and give you misleading information. It’s also important to understand the difference between an engine dyno and a chassis dyno. These are usually two different types of dynos, although one dyno manufacturer does make a combination unit that can be used as both a

chassis and engine dyno. An engine dyno measures power at the engine’s flywheel or flexplate while a chassis dyno measures power at the drive wheels. The engine dyno requires mounting the engine on a stand and hooking up fuel, ignition and throttle controls along with any data acquisition that’s required. A chassis dyno requires no hookups other than driving a car onto the rollers, lashing it down and putting the pedal to the metal to see what it will do. Rear wheel horsepower is always less than engine horsepower (typically 40 to 50 hp less) because of frictional losses that occur in the transmission and differential. A chassis dyno is handy for power tuning engines that are already installed in a vehicle or race car, but would not be of much use for engine breakin or maintaining quality control in the shop. ■

TIPS ON USING RUN STANDS Engine test stands have evolved through development and engineering to help support engine shops, dyno testing facilities and technical trade schools, as well as manufactures. When the topic of dyno testing is tossed around, many think of exhausting every ounce of horsepower and torque. Others focus on profits and cost per hour. This is where a well-engineered engine run stand can help aid as a cost-effective option. Considerations for selecting a reputable run stand: 1. Engine run stands are portable for ease of engine installation and test run locations and can alleviate tying up the dyno cell. 2. Provide a simple yet effective means to test and/or breakin camshafts, adjust valves, check for oil and water leaks, preform leak down test, test fit Circle 40 for more information 40 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

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components, break in new headers with coatings and heat cycle the engine many times to be sure all gaskets and seals are sealing well. 3. Allows for accessibility to re-tighten fasteners, change oil and filters, verify engine timing or verify a basic tune with an air-fuel meter. 4. Enables the user to determine problems and offers ease to address most repairs and recheck for problems while on the run stand. 5. Customers can see their engines run prior to taking it home without tying up valuable dyno time, providing additional customer satisfaction. Removing the engine from a well-engineered run stand should only take a few minutes and be easy to perform. 6. Should there be an engine returned for a problem, run stands provide flexibility for quick engine mounting, test run and problem-solving, while keeping labor costs down. 7. Test run stands provide an opportunity to generate additional revenue, as many customer can’t afford the dyno time, but would consider a lesser cost/charge to be sure their engine runs correctly before installing into their special vehicle or marine applications. Source: Easy-Run Engine Test Stands (

Editor’s Note: Thanks to Christopher Wright of Pro Car Associates, Inc., Akron, OH, for providing cover art for this feature. Another shot of it can be found on page 31. For more on that custom-built Ford race engine, check out their dyno video at: 4YMJE

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Manifold Matchmaker Tips for Selecting the Right Manifold for Your Engine Build BY LARRY CARLEY, TECHNICAL EDITOR


very engine needs some type of Whether you are the one who is intake manifold to route air choosing the intake manifold or your into the engine’s cylinders. customer, the choice of what kind of With carbureted engines, the inintake manifold to use will depend take manifold has a wet plenum and on a number of things. runners because the manifold has to Is the manifold going on a stock flow air and atomized fuel at the engine, a street performance engine, same time. an engine that will be used for Consequently, the manifold runpulling or towing, a circle track enners can’t turn or twist too sharply gine, a drag engine, marine engine or otherwise the heavier fuel droplets what? may separate from the air, causing a If it’s a street engine, does it have loss of power. to be emissions legal with EGR, PCV An intake manifold with a carbuand vacuum hookups? If so, the latretor on a street engine also has to ter will require a CARB-EO number. provide a certain amount of heat to If it’s a pre-emissions street performhelp vaporize the fuel when the enance application such as a classic gine is cold, otherwise cold drivabilmuscle car or street rod, or a racing ity will suffer. application, you have a lot more freeWith multiport fuel injected endom in what you can use. gines, gasoline direct injection engines and diesel engines, the manifold only has to flow air. One of the advantages of having The “Tunnel Ram” manifold is a dry plenum and runthe ultimate setup for flowing ners is that they can twist lots of air at higher RPM. and turn more sharply to equalize airflow between cylinders without disrupting the air/fuel mixture. Also, the manifold doesn’t need any heat to keep the fuel vaporized, so a cooler manifold means a denser air charge and more power. Choosing the “right” intake manifold for an engine is just as important as choosing the right camshaft, cylinder heads and compression ratio. All of these components have to complement one another and work in harmony together otherwise the engine will never realize its true power potential. 42 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

Power Up So where do you want the engine to make the most power? That will also affect the type of intake manifold you choose. Street engines spend 99 percent of their running time between idle and 3,000 rpm. Except for the occasional burst of speed, low end torque and throttle response are much more important than peak horsepower for a street engine. This type of application usually calls for some type of “Dual Plane” (180 degree) intake manifold with a divided plenum. A “High Rise” manifold that has slightly longer runners and a taller location for the carburetor(s) will usually increase torque and power compared to a “Low Rise” mani-

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Feature fold. But you may have to settle for shorter manifold if hood clearance is a problem and your customer doesn’t want to chop a hole in his hood or install a hood scoop to provide extra clearance for the carbu-

retor. A drag engine, on the other hand, spends most of its time revving hard from 3,500 to 9,500 rpm or higher as it blasts down the quarter mile. Off idle torque and low end throt-

tle response don’t matter as much as lots of airflow at high rpm – especially if its a large displacement stroker motor that flows a lot of cubic feet per minute (CFM) of air. This type of application usually calls for a On a V8 engine with a two-barrel or four-barrel carburetor, most stock manifolds have a split-plenum, dual-plane or “180 degree” configuration. Four of the cylinders (two on each side) draw from one of the primary barrels in the carburetor, and the remaining four cylinders draw from the other primary barrel. The intake manifold essentially splits the V8 engine into two V4s. The reason for doing this is to keep intake runner velocity high so the cylinders will fill quickly and produce maximum power and torque at low- to mid-range rpm. This design, though wearing the “stock” label, isn’t necessarily bad. A performance manifold that is designed for a street application will often retain the split-plenum or dual-plane design for this same reason.

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If an engine has a longer duration camshaft, stiffer valve springs, bigger cylinder heads and gearing for revving to 7,500 to 8,500 rpm or higher, an intake manifold with an open plenum, single-plane or “360 degree” configuration is usually a good choice.

Single Plane (360 degree) style intake manifold with a large open plenum and large volume runners. Single Plane manifolds are typically more for racing than street applications because the usually make the most power in a higher rpm range, say from 2,500 to 7,500 rpm or higher. The typical Dual Plane high rise manifold, by comparison, usually performs best from idle up to about 6,500 rpm. Some Single Plane manifolds also use an X-configuration for their runners rather than the curved upper/lower style runner layout on a Dual Plane manifold. The X-config-

uration provides a straighter shot at each port and flows best at higher rpms, say from 3,000 to 8,500 rpm or higher.

Circle 46 for more information 46 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

Ram Effect If hood clearance is not an issue, or your customer wants a really aggressive look, the classic “Tunnel Ram” manifold is the ultimate setup for

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Circle 47 on Reader Service Card for more information

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Feature flowing lots of air at higher rpm. Used mostly for drag racing, a Tunnel Ram style manifold with dual four barrel carburetors has long straight runners that curve slightly as they mate with the cylinder heads. The long runners give the air a lot of momentum and velocity as it flows towards the intake valves. Ditto for the older “Cross Ram” style manifolds that were used on many Chrysler, Dodge and Plymouth drag engines. Regardless of its shape or configuration, a well-designed intake manifold should take advantage of something called the “Helmholtz” effect to ram more air into the cylinders with each intake cycle. Intake manifolds, like exhaust manifolds, experience a lot of internal resonance as pressure waves move back and forth inside the runners. When air rushed toward an open intake valve, it builds up a lot of speed. High air velocity is good because it helps fill the cylinder effi-

ciently for good throttle response, torque and power. But when the intake valve closes, the air bangs up against the valve and builds up pressure. This sends a reverse pulse wave back through the air column in the

Circle 48 for more information 48 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

Opening up the plenum allows all of the cylinders to pull from all the barrels in the carburetor or throttle body for more airflow at higher engine speeds. This makes a significant improvement in mid-range and high rpm power, but may sacrifice some low end throttle response and torque.

intake runner and plenum, all the way back to the carburetor. It travels at the speed of sound, so the pressure pulses can reverberate multiple times before the intake valve opens for the next intake stroke. Multiply this times 8 cylinders and you get a lot of pressure waves bouncing around inside the intake manifold. These pressure pulses can either work for you or against you depending on their magnitude and frequency. If the length or volume of the intake runners is optimized for a certain rpm range, the Helmholtz effect can actually create a bit of boost pressure just as the intake valve opens, pushing more air into the cylinder for a slight gain in power. Remember – The longer the intake runners, the greater the effect. That’s why a lot of intake manifolds on late model engines have long, curving runners and/or a variable intake system with flapper valves that effectively change runner length and/or plenum volume. This allows the manifold to be “tuned” to produce peak airflow (torque/power) within a certain rpm range.

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Circle 49 on Reader Service Card for more information

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Feature The variable intake manifolds have the advantage of changing runner length and plenum volume for a broader power curve. They typically use a longer runner length and smaller plenum volume at low rpm for good throttle response and low end torque, then open up the plenum and/or shorten the runner length, or add more runner volume at higher engine speeds to aid top end power. If you’re building a boosted engine with a turbocharger or centrifugal supercharger, you’ll want a manifold that can handle the A well-designed single-plane extra airflow at manifold will almost always outperform a split-plenum dualhigher rpms. plane manifold from 2,500 rpm If the engine and up. will be boosted with a roots style supercharger, you’ll need a manifold designed for that type of blower. cylinder heads on the engine. Stock manifolds and stock-replacement Choosing Wisely manifolds are for stock configuration Another very important factor that cylinder heads. has to be considered when choosing If you are using aftermarket heads an intake manifold is the type of that have a different port configura-

Circle 50 for more information 50 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

tion (different port height, size, location or shape), you’ll need a special manifold that matches the heads and ports. Many aftermarket cylinder head manufacturers make their own custom intake manifolds that are designed to mate with specific heads they make. Most of these are racing style manifolds (Single Plane) rather than street manifolds (Dual Plane), and they are often pricier than what you might pay for a “generic” aftermarket performance intake manifold designed for standard heads on a SB/BB Chevy, Ford or Chrysler engine. For some applications, you might need a custom handmade intake manifold. Nobody may have a manifold that will fit the engine/head combination you are building, or maybe your customer wants something different than what’s available from any supplier. Custom manifolds are made to order based on your specs. You tell the manifold maker exactly what you want (engine/head application, port location, intake runner length/volume, plenum size/volume and carburetor setup, and they’ll fabricate it. It’s not cheap, but it’s often the only option for oneof-a-kind engines or monster motors that need a lot of air.

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Feature Something else to keep in mind when choosing a manifold is that a manifold that is designed for a 283327-350 SB Chevy may not be the best choice for a stroked 400 to 427 or larger SB Chevy. The larger the displacement of the engine, the more air it needs and the larger the plenum and runners in the intake manifold have to be. Many

aftermarket intake manifold suppliers have higher volume manifolds for the larger stroker motors. The manifold you choose also has to fit the carburetor(s) or throttle body(s) you want to use on the engine. Most street performance manifolds are machined to accept a standard square base Holley, Carter or Edelbrock carburetor, while many

race manifolds are designed for a larger spread bore or Dominatorstyle carburetor. Special street manifolds are also available for General Motors Quadrajet carburetors. If a customer is building an open hood vintage style street rod and wants a “Three Duce” (three 2bbl carburetors) setup, there are manifolds to fit three-bolt and four-bolt 2bbl carburetors.

Is Bigger Better? The plenum in a stock manifold is typically smaller to keep air velocity high. Likewise, the cross-section of the runners is also small to keep the air moving at maximum speed into the cylinder ports. This provides good idle quality and throttle response, but also limits how much air the manifold can flow at higher engine speeds. Eventually the speed is reached at which the engine will try to pull in more air than the stock intake manifold can flow. That’s when the stock intake manifold needs to be upgraded to a performance manifold with a larger plenum and larger runners. Appearance may also be a consideration. Cast aluminum is porous and will often stain and discolor over time. An aluminum intake manifold can be painted (clear or silver or any other color), anodized, polished or plated to give it almost any kind of appearance your customer wants. Polishing and plating adds to the cost (up to $200 or more!) but if looks are important it’s worth every penny.

Circle 52 for more information 52 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

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Special Features Some intake manifolds have special features that help keep the runners cooler, such as an air gap or space under the plenum on a SB Chevy to separate the plenum and runners from the lifter valley cover. Keeping the heat of the oil splashing off the cam and lifters away from the intake manifold provides a cooler, denser air charge. A couple of aftermarket intake manifold suppliers have also developed plastic intake manifolds for older Performance manifold setups can engines such as the utilize spacers when needed. SB Chevy. Plastic conducts heat much more slowly than aluminum, so engine heat can’t build up in the manifold and thin out the matches the application. incoming air. If you are building an engine that Plastic is also lightweight, and is going to use a power added such some of these manifolds feature inas nitrous oxide, you’ll want an interchangeable runners that allow you take manifold that has bosses that to choose a length/volume that best

Circle 54 for more information 54 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

can be drilled and threaded to accept nitrous oxide spray nozzles. The manifold should also have bosses or threaded fittings for mounting all applicable engine ac-

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Feature Plastic intake manifolds are common on many late model engines, and one of the advantages of using plastic (besides saving weight) is that it can be cast to optimize airflow. One of the disadvantages of a plastic manifold, however, is the risk of breakage if the engine backfires – which can be a danger when an engine is fitted with a nitrous oxide system. Here is a single plane plastic manifold (Left) and a single plane manifold with a nitrous set-up (Right).

cessories (support brackets for the alternator, AC compressor, PS pump, etc.). Again, what you need will depend on the application and what kind of belt drive and accessories will be used on the engine.

EFI Issues If you’re building a late model Ford modular V8 or a Chevy LS and want to convert it to a carburetor for use in an older vehicle or street rod, there are manifolds for that

56 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

— just as there are EFI manifolds for converting older SB/BB Chevy and Ford engines from a carburetor to fuel injection. An EFI manifold will be a dry manifold unless it uses a throttle body injection setup. EFI conversion manifolds usually come as part of a complete EFI system that includes fuel injectors, throttle body and a control computer. It’s a slick setup that eliminates troublesome automatic chokes and constant fiddling with carburetor jets. The EFI systems are self-tuning as far as air/fuel mixture adjustments are concerned and use an oxygen sensor in the exhaust to provide a feedback signal to the control module. EFI usually delivers faster starting, better cold drivability and even better fuel economy, which is something to consider for a street performance application.

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Manifold Mounting Installing an intake manifold may be as simple as bolting it in place, or it may require port matching or machining to optimize alignment and fit.

If a manifold is being installed on an engine with stock configuration heads, and the heads have not been ported to change the port size or position in any way, chances are the manifold should line up fairly well. Even

Circle 57 for more information

so, it’s always a good idea to use the intake manifold gaskets to check alignment between the heads and manifold. You don’t want and sharp edges or misalignment creating turbulence in 57

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Feature the airflow. A die grinder and a little elbow grease may be needed to match the ports for optimum alignment. Some manifold suppliers recommend leaving a .080Ë? gap between the manifold port and the opening in the intake manifold gasket when port matching a manifold to a head. If you try to grind everything flush so there is no edge between the port and gasket opening, you might remove too much metal from the manifold and ruin it! With CNC machined heads, the intake manifold may have to be CNC machined or reworked by hand to match the ports. Also, if the heads have been resurfaced (milled), the edges of the manifold where it mates with the block and heads will also have to be machined to compensate for the change in cylinder head height. If this is not done, it will likely crush the end gaskets under the intake manifold and create misalignment between the intake runners and ports.

Some engine builders like to hand massage as-cast aluminum manifolds to optimize airflow. Removing rough edges and casting seams, and rounding and blending all the cor-

Circle 58 for more information 58 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

Most aftermarket intake manifolds manufacturers make their products out of cast aluminum, since the material provides strength, can be polished, plated or coated, and can be easily ported ( Right) and modified.

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Feature ners can usually improve airflow, but like head porting you have to know what you’re doing otherwise you might make things worse. The basic idea is to eliminate any sharp edges or corners and to avoid creating any sudden changes in runner diameter that might create turbulence. Airflow improvements can be base lined and measured on a flow bench just like a cylinder head to see if the changes you are making are really making any difference. According to some experts, a slightly rough surface (like medium sandpaper) will actually flow better than a highly polished surface. A slightly rough surface will form a boundary layer that promotes laminar (parallel) airflow inside the runners. If the surface is too smooth, the air won’t stick to it and small eddy currents will form that create drag and turbulence that reduce airflow. Another trick some racers use is to treat the underside of an open valley intake manifold with a heat reflective

and/or oil shedding coating. A heat reflective coating will keep the manifold cooler for a denser air charge, and an oil shedding coating will keep hot oil off the underside of the manifold and speed oil return to the crankcase. When the manifold is mounted on the engine, use sealer around the coolant passage openings in the intake manifold gasket unless it is a composite style gasket with rubber sealing rings or O-rings. Make sure the mounting surfaces are clean, dry and flat. Tighten the intake manifold bolts to specifications using the correct sequence, which usually means starting with the center bolts and alternating the tightening sequence side to side from the center towards the end. Over tightening the intake manifold bolts may crush the intake manifold gasket or crack the manifold. Most intake manifold bolts only need 25 ft.-lbs. or less of torque. After the engine has been started

and broken-in, recheck the torque on all of the intake manifold bolts. If you hear any whistling noises or the engine won’t idle down, you may have an intake vacuum leak. You can use propane or carburetor cleaner to check the seal along the intake manifold gaskets. If there’s a leak, the propane or carb cleaner will be drawn in through the leak and smooth out the idle. If it’s a late model engine with EFI, computer controls and an OBD II connector, you can use a scan tool to look at fuel trims. A vacuum leak that’s upsetting the air/fuel mixture will show a lean fuel condition (positive fuel trim correction value) at idle that decreases as engine speed goes up. An intake vacuum leak will have less of an effect on the air/fuel mixture at higher speeds because there’s more air flowing into the engine through the throttle or carburetor. ■

Circle 59 for more information 59


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Roush Yates Engines Celebrates 10 years



n December, Roush Yates Engines ments was not exactly the easiest thing celebrates its 10th Anniversary and to accomplish. The two organizations will reset the compass into a new had spent many years trying to beat area of the business, but it’s all accordeach other to be the top Ford team ing to plan. Engine builders who used every week, but with Doug Yates, a to see RYE at local races as well respected “engine man” at the competitors, will now be able to work helm, the company set its course for directly with them and their vast Daytona. resources when building their own Dodge was already in it at that engines. We talked to Doug Yates point and they had raised the bar with about what’s ahead as well as what their new engine. And seeing Toyota they’ve accomplished in just 10 years. “It's a really neat story how we put the company together,” says RYE’s CEO Yates. “We found ourselves at a point where it made sense to come together. My dad and I had our teams, and Jack Roush had his teams, and we were really the last Ford guys – in fact, the only Ford guys – racing in Sprint Cup at the time. We had just built this beautiful facility here in Morrisville, NC, which was 75,000 square-feet, and we were looking down the road and saw Toyota coming and had some insight, or concerns, about how they were going to do their business. So we said to Doug Yates was one of the top Jack that it makes a lot engine builders in the NASCAR sense to do this garage before making the move together now.” to start Roush Yates Engines Merging two fierce and later become its CEO. rivals’ engine depart60 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

coming Yates says that he, his dad Robert and Jack all knew it was better to fight the opposition as one rather than separately. “We were at Atlanta back when it was in the fall and we asked Jack for a meeting. We went to one of the motorhomes there and talked about it, and the very next week, we had a deal. We let everybody else in our organizations put the details together, but we were on our way.

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PG 62 >> After the Build

That was fall of 2003, and one of the proudest moment I have.” Yates says that after the deal was put together the tough work began immediately. “A lot of ‘seven-days-aweek’ and ‘sleeping-at-the-shop’ type of days were ahead, but we sat on the front row for the Daytona 500 with Greg Biffle and Elliot Sadler with Jack's car and my dad's car,” he explains. “And one of the pictures in our lobby here, is that day and that moment. For two guys that really competed hard against each other, and some might even say didn't like each other that much, to come together was pretty amazing.” Yates says that one of the proudest moments of his company’s 10-year span has been the development and introduction of a totally new NASCAR engine, the Ford FR9, which stands for Ford Racing 2009. “We didn't introduce the FR9 until the fall of 2009, and didn’t start racing it until 2010,” says Yates, who used his NASCAR engine building expertise to design and build the new engine out of using plastic first before machining any metal until they had every part fit to the block. “We have an SLA machine (3D printer) here in-house where we can make prototypes parts. And we printed the entire engine out of plastic to start with, and built it completely. And then as we started getting in castings, or machining parts, we'd bolt them on and replace the plastic with the actual parts. What made that

PG 73 >> Product Spotlights

PG 80 >> Final Wrap


so nice was when we went to assemble the engine for the first time, it went together just like any other engine that we built. The special part about that whole project was that we had never – and Ford had never – designed a clean sheet engine. So together we collaborated and made an engine that was purpose-built for NASCAR, and purpose-built for how we at Roush Yates like to build our engines.” Yates says that he’s proud of all of the accomplishments his company has achieved, but the Daytona 500 races are always a really big deal for them. “To be able to win Daytona with Matt Kenseth in 2009 and Trevor Bayne in 2011 and Matt again in 2012 – to win three out of four Daytona 500s and to help the Wood Brothers get back to Victory Lane, which their history in the sport and with the Ford in particular, those are really proud moments.” According to Yates, they have a tradition at the shop after a race win. “The team that wins gives us their flag and we hang it up on the wall here. That's what we do to celebrate our wins.” Today, RYE is transitioning at its strategy for the grassroots market. They have successfully built a lot of the grassroots level race engines for the last few years but the plan has always been to learn it and move into manufacturing parts for the market. “What we wanted to do when we entered the grassroots market – the Dirt Late Models, Off-Road Trucks and Sprint Cars – was several things,”

Yates explains. “One, we had inventory that we needed to put to work and find homes for. And a lot of the take-offs and the platforms that we had developed with our NASCAR engines were a perfect fit for Dirt Late Model and Sprint Car in particular. We wanted to get into these markets and understand them better. And I'll tell you what, it's not like building a NASCAR engine, it's totally different. We've gained a lot of knowledge and a lot of respect for the people in those series and it's very specific to each one of the disciplines, and we've learned a lot. So what we're doing now is instead of building engines for everybody across the country, we are transitioning into bringing our own products to market, and supporting the engine builders in those series. It was strategic in the fact that we had to learn the market, so we had to learn the products and the needs. “We wanted to take our NASCAR engine technology to grassroots racers and engine builders across the country (and world), and we're really excited about the next phase of our program.” The latest creation from RYE will be unveiled at the PRI Show in December. “I think its going to be something that is going to take the whole industry up a notch and take it to a whole new level while at the same time being considerate of pricing and the markets as they are in. And we're excited about bringing out our first major product.” Yates says the plan is to eventually bring out more products to bolt onto the new engine block and also new platforms in the years to come. “We are not going to try to control everything,” says Yates. “We want different suppliers to build components for it and we want the block to be well received from all the other vendors in the industry. We want them to make parts for this engine as well. I think this collaboration with manufacturers and the other people in the industry that are out there making parts for grassroots racers is what we are excited about most. We want to be a good player and a good One of RYE and Yates biggest partner in the accomplishments to date has industry, and been the success of their clean we feel like sheet design of the Ford FR9 this is the right NASCAR Sprint Cup engine. approach.” ■ 61


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Fine Tuning Your Work Ensuring Customer Satisfaction After the Build


ustomer satisfaction is every bit as important as the quality of your work if you expect to be a successful engine builder because even when you build your customer the perfect engine your customer must be happy with how their engine performs or your business and reputation will suffer. Far too many good engine builders have had the quality of their work questioned when an engine they built does not perform like the customer expected, but more often than not, these performance issues are the result of tuning issues that should have been addressed by the person that installed the engine in the vehicle. Many engine builders offer engine dynamometer testing, tuning and engine break-in services so they can supply their customers with an engine that has been performance tested. However, just be-

62 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

cause the engine runs well on a dyno does not mean it will perform as it should once it is installed in the vehicle without additional tuning to accommodate the specific application. The flow of the exhaust system, the air density, the inlet air temperature and how the air flows into the carburetor in the dyno room is often quite different from the conditions that the engine will see once it is installed in the engine bay of the vehicle for which it was built. These changes in the engine’s incoming air charge and the flow of the exhaust system can mean the tuning package that worked on the dyno will not always be correct for the needs of the engine once it is installed in the vehicle. If your company offers dynamometer testing services it would be a good idea to supply your customer with a dyno data sheet that

includes the engine’s horsepower and torque output readings along with the air/fuel mixture readings and ignition spark advance curves that were used during testing. Even if you are not dyno testing the engine you built for your customer, it would be advisable to supply the guideline that helps them determine where the base timing and total spark advance curves should be set at plus what the air/fuel mixtures should be at idle, part throttle/cruise conditions and high load/power so they can perform a final tune to the engine so it will perform its best. (Note — for more on dynamometer use and needs, check out the article beginning on page 30.) Another strategy for success, and as part of the conditions of the engine warranty, you may want to consider supplying the customer a

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Feature Even the best built and dyno-tested engine will not perform as good as possible unless it is properly tuned for the vehicle it is in. This owner of this kit car (LEFT) had fuel supply problems caused by fuel tank venting problems and lean off-idle driveability problems that were cured by tuning the carburetors air/fuel mixture curve.

checklist that they would fill out and return to you with what the ignition spark timing settings are and what the air/fuel mixture curve readings are once the engine is installed. If the air/fuel mixtures and the ignition spark advance are not correct for the needs of the engine, the engine’s power, driveability, fuel efficiency and reliability will suffer. If the engine is not properly tuned for the blend of gasoline the customer will be using, the engine you built for them could be damaged by problems such as bearing failure, piston/ring problems or cylinder wash down


problems if the ignition spark advance or air/fuel mixtures are not correct for the needs of the engine. This both allows you to prevent damage and poor performance plus it protects you from falsely taking the blame.

Timing is Everything The first step to take when you are performance tuning an engine or diagnosing any performance related issue is to check the base ignition timing and the amount of advance from the mechanical and vacuum advance curves. The reason you should always check the ignition timing first is because any


Cam Duration at .050

Initial timing

Less than 220°

10 to 12 BTDC

Less than 240°

16 to 20 BTDC

Less than 260°

18 to 20 BTDC

Over 260° or

20 plus BTDC

CAM PROFILE COLOR KEY: MILD: Stock,Mild Performance,Smooth Idle

PERFORMANCE: Noticeable Idle

RADICAL: Radical Idle

This initial timing guide from Demon carburetion uses the camshafts duration at 0.050” as a starting point on where to set the initial timing of a performance engine.

Circle 63 for more information 63

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Feature The air cleaner of this modern fuel injected engine that is in a vintage car supplies the engine with hot air that has passed thru the radiator. This hot air will cause a loss of potential engine performance and it will also cause the engine control computer to retard the ignition timing as it senses the high inlet air temperatures.

air/fuel mixture readings you get will not be accurate if the ignition advance is not correct for the application. The accuracy of any air/fuel mixture readings will be hurt anytime the engine is misfiring, even a slight misfire can cause a wide-band oxygen sensor based A/F meter to supply you with false readings. The total mechanical timing a typical vintage engine needs for maximum efficiency has not changed by very much, even with the newest blends of reformulated unleaded gasoline, but the initial timing and the amount of additional timing from the vacuum advance

Circle 64 for more information 64 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

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Feature has changed due to the removal of lead from the gasoline and the changes in gasoline formulation that have been occurring since the 1970s. One of the best guidelines for determining what initial timing works best for a vintage or high performance carburetor equipped engine we have seen is in the Barry Grant/ Demon carburetor selection guide. (See page 63.) It recommends 10 to 12 degrees of initial timing when the camshaft duration is less than 220° @ 0.050˝, 14 to 16° of initial timing with less than 240°. @ 0.050˝ and 18 to 20° of initial timing with a cam with less than 260° @ 0.050˝. The amount of total ignition spark advance should always be checked and the amount of mechanical advance from the distributor should be reset whenever the initial timing is changed because too much spark The air inlet package of this vintage carbureted vehicle supplies the engine with the cool outside air that it needs to make maximum power.

Circle 65 for more information 65

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to compare the air/fuel mixture readings that were recorded when the engine was on the dyno with the air/fuel mixture readcourtesy of Joe Gibbs Racing. ings now that the engine is in the vehicle. It is not uncommon to see air/fuel mixture readings quite different from what was recorded when the engine was on the dyno. The real world operating conditions that are seen after the engine is installed in the engine bay are often quite different from the ideal conditions the engine was tested at while it was in the dyno room. Additionally, most dyno testing only determine maxiThis is an air cleaner from a NASCAR race car. The cool inlet air comes from the cowl just in front of the windshield; this air cleaner package is quite different from the air inlet system that is used in the dyno room. Photo

advance can cause the engine to run too hot or lead to engine failure from detonation related problems. The additional timing from any This shot shows the cowl induction vacuum advance area where the air cleaner gets its system in most fresh air. Photo courtesy of Joe Gibbs Racing. cases should be limited to a maximum of 10 to 12 degrees of advance since todays gasoline burns somewhat faster since it no longer contains lead. Your customer should be made aware the ‘original’ timing settings may not be correct and indeed may cause damage. Once the ignition timing curves are properly tuned the next step is to check the air/fuel mixture curves the fuel system is supplying the engine with. If the customer happens to have a dyno sheet with the air/fuel mixture readings, it is always nice

Circle 66 for more information 66 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

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The most important tools of a tuner include a timing light, a weather station and the equipment needed to read the air/fuel mixture of an engine.

mum full throttle output which is only a part of a typical engine’s operation once it is the vehicle. The air density that really matters to an engine is the air that it is getting thru its air cleaner package during the dynamic real world operating conditions it will see in the engine compartment of the vehicle the engine was built for. The air density and the flow patterns of the A wide-band sensor based digital air/fuel meter seen below is a very affordable tool that every engine tuner should have in their tool box.

air as it enters a carburetor is often quite different from the static temperature controlled conditions that were seen in the dyno room which will often cause the air/fuel mixture to change once it is installed in the vehicle the engine was built for.

Tools for Reading the Air/Fuel Mixture The two most common tools used to check the air/fuel mixture are a 5gas exhaust gas analyzer and a wide-band sensor based digital air/fuel meter. The readings from a 5-gas exhaust gas analyzer method are more comprehensive and accurate,

Circle 67 for more information 67

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A programmable fuel injection system tunes the engine with key strokes on a laptop but any tuner is only as good as the data they/ it uses to make the correct tuning changes.

plus the readings can help determine what air/fuel mixture the engine needs for maximum efficiency, but the reaction time is slow (6 to 10 seconds). The readings from a wide-band sensor based digital air/fuel meter are basically in real time plus the tool is very affordable - but the user needs to know what air/fuel mixture readings they are tuning for. Many of the digital air/fuel meters have recording capabilities allowing the air/fuel mixture data to be combined with inputs such as throttle position, engine vacuum, engine rpm and vehicle speed. This data can be played back so you can what areas of the air/fuel mixture curve need tuning attention. The wide-band “oxygen� sensor would be better named as a Lambda sensor because it does not really read the oxygen content in the engines exhaust - it actually creates an output voltage that the digital air/fuel meter converts into an air/fuel mixture reading when it exposed to the Circle 68 for more information 68 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

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unburned combustibles in the exhaust. The downside of the digital air/fuel meter method is that the output data from its “oxygen” sensor will supply the user with false readings if the air/fuel mixture is not properly burned in the engines cylinders. Anytime the air/fuel mixture readings indicate you need to make a major tuning change it would be wise to confirm the readings with an exhaust gas analyzer before you make any major changes because the “oxygen” sensor can easily misread the exhaust and supply the digital air/fuel meter with false lean or rich readings. The readings that are available from a 5-gas exhaust gas analyzer provide the user with the information needed to determine the engines air/fuel ratio, misfire rate, combustion efficiency plus the readings can be used to see if the engine has any detonation issues. These readings can allow an experienced tuner to determine what air/fuel mixture an engine needs for maximum engine efficiency and the

Proper tuning decisions will help you avoid problems like the damage that was done to this piston that was caused too much ignition spark advance.

Circle 69 for more information 69

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Feature readings can help in the tuning of the ignition spark advance systems. The gases the exhaust gas analyzer looks at are:

1. CO (carbon monoxide): The reading that is used to determine the air/fuel ratio, a low reading indicates a lean a/f mixture and a high reading

indicates a rich a/f mixture. 2. HC (hydrocarbons): The amount of unburned fuel or an indicator of an engine misfire, the best air/fuel mixture and the best spark advance setting will give you the lowest HC reading. 3. CO2 (carbon dioxide): The product of complete combustion, the best air/fuel mixture and the best spark advance setting will give you the highest CO2 reading. 4. O2 (oxygen): A high O2 reading indicates a lean mixture, an exhaust leak, an engine misfire problem or an engine with a high overlap camshaft at lower engine speeds 5. NOx (oxides of nitrogen): This gas created by excessive combustion chamber heat, in many cases a high

This carburetor shows evidence of a backfire problem, but the real question is was the problem caused by ignition or air/fuel mixture tuning problems. Whenever you are trying to solve a lean air/fuel mixture problem during high engine load conditions, don’t forget to check the fuel pressure while the engine is under load and experiencing the lean mixture problem.

reading may be related to excessive ignition timing creating detonation that can result in engine damage or an engine that runs too hot.

Reading the Air/Fuel Mixture The best way to read and tune the air/fuel mixture of an engine may be to use the tools together so you can use the advantages each method offers. There is nothing as accurate or comprehensive as a gas analyzer for reading the air/fuel mixture of an engine, so use it for steady-state tuning and establishing an operational baseline tuning targets. Then, because there is nothing as fast as a digital air/fuel meter, use it when you are tuning for real world driving conditions. Starting points when you are setting the air/fuel mixtures of a generic engine are: Idle: 1% to 3 % CO or a 14.1-13.4 to 1 air/fuel mixture, Cruise RPM: 1% to 3 % CO or a 14.2 –14.0 to 1 air/fuel mixture, Power Mixture and Acceleration: 6.6% CO or a 12.0-1 air/fuel mixture. Some high performance engines with fast burn cylinder heads may use a slightly leaner power mixture of 4% Circle 70 for more information 70 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

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Feature CO or a 13.0 to 1 air/fuel ratio. The thing you need to know is that both methods are used to read the average air/fuel mixture of all the cylinders that the units are looking at, more than likely the air/fuel mixture will actually vary from cylinder to cylinder.

Advanced Tuning The next level in performance tuning is to use multiple air/fuel sensors to read the air/fuel mixture of each cylinder and how the g-forces effect each cylinders a/f mixture during actual race conditions. One of the reasons that the NASCAR and NHRA Pro Stock engines are making so much power is because they used the air/fuel mixture data they get while using one a/f sensor per cylinder to design the fuel system so each cylinder gets the ideal air/fuel mixture as they are tuning the engine on a dynamometer. Then they take the car to the track so they can see how the air/fuel mixture readings change and make final tuning changes to attain peak perform-

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ance under real operating conditions. One very good example of the competitive advantage available thru advanced tuning is how Wilson Manifolds was able to provide drag race and oval track customers with induction systems offering more power at the track because their manifolds are designed to provide every cylinder with the ideal air/fuel mixture. Note: NHRA allows the use of A/F sensors in all events, but NASCAR does not allow their use during sanctioned events.

The Results These “little” fine tuning details can make the difference between a satisfied customer who tells everyone they see what a great engine they got from their engine builder and an unsatisfied customer that tells everyone they talk to how disappointed they are with how their engine performs. These tuning services can be done by the customer, by your shop or from a list of shops in your area that are experienced in tuning.

The best way to insure the engine you built is performing as well as you built it and insure customer satisfaction is to inform the customer how important it is that they pay as close attention to these fine tuning procedures as you did when you built the engine. If you supply your customer with the information they need to know, they can give their engine the ideal ignition spark timing and air/fuel mixture curves, the engine will be more reliable and it will produce all the power and driveability that you built into the engine. Make it clear that while you have done the job correct in your shop, they have the obligation to follow up with equally good installation and tuning to get the best reliability and performance from their investment. ■

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Advanced Tips for EFI Tuning with Fuel Pressure Changing the fuel pressure on an EFI System is an effective method of affecting engine performance and making more power. However, there are many do’s and don’ts, and rules of thumb that can be frustrating to learn the hard way. Below are many small, but key points, tips and insights all engine tuners should to know and understand before cranking on that adjustable regulator. 1.) Install a fuel pressure gauge before removing the stock fuel pressure regulator and leave it installed until final adjustments are made to the new one. 2.) Do NOT use liquid-filled fuel pressure gauges on any automotive tuning application. By design, they cannot provide consistent readings as the gauge temperature changes. 3.) Begin by setting your adjustable regulator to the same fuel pressure as the stock regulator. Remember, always remove the vacuum/boost line from any regulator when checking or adjusting “base” fuel pressure, then, remember to reconnect it before driving! 4.) Initial changes in fuel pressure for performance tuning should always begin with adjustments towards a higher pressure than stock. This helps to find where the engine wants to be for fuel, while avoiding an engine damaging lean condition in the beginning stages of tuning. 5.) Make small, incremental changes and measure the results after each change. Tuning on the wheel dyno or

at the track makes any affect on performance easy and safe to observe and evaluate. 6.) Once noticeable improvements in performance STOP occurring, STOP ADJUSTING PRESSURE, especially if you’re gaining HP by going to lower pressure (leaner) settings. For engine durability, it is strongly recommended that the final fuel pressure setting be 12 psi above the pressure that produced lean best power. 7.) The objective of changing fuel pressure is to optimize air/fuel ratio (AFR) for best wide-open-throttle (WOT) power. Tuning with the aid of a wide-band O-2 A/F meter is strongly advised. 8.) Adjusting the base fuel pressure of most modern, EFI engines will initially affect both the WOT and idle/cruise AFR. However, the permanent affects are mainly to WOT AFR only. Make fuel pressure changes based on WOT AFR and ignore drivability/ cruise AFR until WOT is correct and safe! 9.) During low load cruise, most engine management computers run in “closed loop”, using the stock O2 feedback to constantly trim injector pulse width (fuel delivery) towards the lean best AFR of 14.7:1. This target A/F is commonly referred to as “stoich” or “stoichiometric” and is the chemically correct balance of air and fuel for a complete burn. The computer “learns” what is necessary to maintain “stoich” and stores this information until the learned memory is cleared by disconnecting the computer

from the battery for 5 minutes or more. 10.) AFR numbers can be confusing. The ratio is represented to be the number of parts air per one part gasoline. Thus the bigger the first number, the more air is in the engine per part of fuel (lean). The smaller the first number then, the less air per part of fuel (rich). 11.) With gasoline; A 10:1 AFR is VERY RICH. A 20:1 AFR is VERY LEAN. Best WOT AFR varies with the engine combination and the fuel used. Natural aspirated (NAS) engines burning gasoline will make best power between 12.0:1 richest and 13.2:1 leanest. Forced induction combinations like to be richer than a similar NAS engine. They should never be leaner than 12.5:1 and may go as rich as 11.0:1 for high-boost on pump gas. Always start with the richer AFR,then, gradually work leaner while closely monitoring power and looking carefully for signs of detonation. 12.) Changing fuel pressure to solve drivability problems, with a stock computer, may yield only temporary results. Adjust fuel pressure to achieve a desirable WOT A/F, then, leave it alone. 13.) For best drivability with a stock computer, once fuel pressure is set to produce the correct WOT A/F, unplug it to clear all learned memory, then plug it back in after 5 minutes and drive the car for several days, allowing the computer enough time to learn a new strategy for best drivability and performance in closed loop. If drivability problems still exist after several days, consider a custom chip or “flash” to the stock ECU to help regain good “closed loop” performance. 14.) If the best fuel pressure for drivability is different than for WOT performance, set the pressure for best WOT performance and note the best pressure for drivability so you can give this information to a chip burner or programmer. IF THE BEST PRESSURE FOR DRIVABILITY IS LOWER THAN THAT FOR WOT, DO NOT RUN WOT WHEN THE REGULATOR IS ADJUSTED FOR THE LOWER PRESSURE OR MAJOR DETONATION AND ENGINE DAMAGE CAN OCCUR! 15.) Remember, as fuel pressure is raised higher and higher, the flow available from the fuel pump gets smaller and smaller. This is particularly applicable to forced induction combinations with an FMU. If fuel pressure must be raised excessively, be certain you have more fuel system than you think you need in order to assure there is enough flow when the pressure is at it’s peak. Source: Aeromotive

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Product Spotlights

High Volume Oil Pumps Orbit performance oil pumps are designed with high output and volume capabilities required for high RPM engines. The gerotors are precision machined from steelcopper alloy (FCO205), an exceptionally durable metal that assures dependability and durability. Tight housing and gerotor tolerances provide optimum pressure and flow requirements. Housings are die cast DC-12 aluminum and are anodized to prevent corrosion. All pumps are individually inspected and tested. Passenger car pumps are equivalent to OEM design, engineering and metallurgy to meet or exceed original equipment specifications. Present applications include nine applications (three performance and six passenger car); new applications will be added.

ACL Distribution Phone: 800-847-5521 Circle 110 Circle 111

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“No particle left behind” with ARMEX® baking soda-based, water-soluble media from the makers of Arm & Hammer® Products. Clean, degrease and depaint core engine components in one step. Water-rinse residues away.

ArmaKleen Phone: 800-332-5424 Email: Circle 113

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Product Spotlights

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Ergonomic Blast Cabinets ZERO blast cabinets are now available in an ergonomic body style, which allows the operator to sit while working. The cabinet configuration provides comfortable knee-room for the operator without interfering with the free flow of media for reclamation and re-use. Standard cabinet features include: large, quick-change window, reverse-pulse cartridge-style dust collector, suction-blast or pressure-blast models. HEPA filtration as an option. Cabinets can work with glass bead, aluminum oxide and other recyclable media. Applications: cleaning, de-burring, peening, and finishing.

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Clemco Industries Corp. Phone: 800-788-0599 Circle 117

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Have You Been To The Engine Builder website - - provides weekly updated news, products and technical information along with the same in-depth editorial content as the magazine. Technical, product and equipment, market research, business management and financial information is all searchable by keywords making it easy for engine builders to find the information they need from current and past issues. Currently the site receives more than 120,000+ page views/impressions per month and growing!

Engine Builder Phone:330-670-1234 Circle 119 74 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

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Goodson Tools & Supplies for Engine Builders has introduced a new Analog Valve Spring Tester. According to Erik Shepard, Goodson tech services manager, “This spring tester has been in development for a while but we didn’t want to introduce it until it was exactly what our customers have been requesting. We are very proud to be manufacturing this spring tester locally as well.”

Ford 5.4L 3V Camshafts Elgin Industries offers the aftermarket’s most complete line of precisionengineered stock and performance camshafts for today’s leading engines. Now engine builders can restore OE performance and reliability to Ford 5.4L 3-valve (VIN 5) engines with the following premium-quality Elgin cams: E-1830-S (Left) 2005-2008 E-1831-S (Right) 2005-2008

Goodson Tools & Supplies for Engine Builders

Elgin Industries

Phone: 800-533-8010

Phone: 800-323-6764 Circle 121

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Product Spotlights

Goodson Analog Valve Spring Tester

Product Spotlights

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Engine Pro High Performance Connecting Rods Engine Pro H-Beam Connecting Rods are forged from 4340 steel and produced on CNC machinery. They are finished in the U.S. to ensure precise big-end and pin-end bore sizes. Rods are magnafluxed, heat treated, stress relieved, shot peened and sonic tested to ensure they provide the strength required for high horsepower applications. Engine Pro connecting rods equipped with standard 8740 bolts are rated for up to 700 horsepower in small blocks, and 850 horsepower in big block applications. Visit,

Engine Pro Circle 128

Phone: 800-ENGINE-1 Circle 127

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Web-Based Valvetrain Parts Catalog SBI has released a Web-based version of its acclaimed catalog in order to provide users with real-time updates on additions to the company’s line of replacement valvetrain parts for close to 3,000 applications divided among late-model domestic and import passenger car, light truck, performance, marine, agricultural, heavyduty and forklift/industrial. The catalog also features listings of K-Line Bronze Bullet-brand valve guide liners and miscellaneous K-Line tooling stocked by SBI, Exclusive Master Distributor for K-Line. Based on SBI’s CD-ROM catalog, the SBI Web-based catalog allows the user to search the database by part type/part number, vehicle type, engine manufacturer, or specific engine and make codes.

S.B. International Phone:1-800-THE-SEAT Circle 131 Circle 130 76 November 2013 | EngineBuilder Circle 132

73-77 Spotlights 11/20/13 8:46 AM Page 77 is the new address for performance. Whether you’re into drag racing, circle track, road racing or street performance, has you covered! Speedville features all of the quality technical content that Babcox Media can provide and that readers have come to expect from its top-notch trade publications. Be sure to stop by and sign up for the Pit Crew to earn miles towards gear in the Speedville Mall and a chance to win prizes!

•True linear stroking system for consistent diameter from top to bottom of the bore, cylinder after cylinder •Powerful 5.5 Hp spindle motor drives Sunnen’s two-stage diamond hone heads for shorter cycle times and super accuracy •Rotary servo tool feed system allows automatic 2-stage honing with both rough and finish stones •Advance PLC control with color touch screen for easy operation and optimum control of honing parameters •Full bore profile display to quickly see and correct tight spots

Product Spotlights

SV-20 Cylinder Hone The Sunnen SV-20 cylinder hone incorporates the high-end features that satisfy both production engine builders and performance shops, but at a cost that won’t break the bank. SV-20 features include:

Sunnen Products Company Phone 1-800-325-3670


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To Advertise in

Simply the Best Lists:


Automotive Aftermarket Truck Fleet & Powersports Markets

Roberto Almenar

at 330-670-1234, ext. 233

Statement of Ownership, Management and Circulation (Act of August 12, 1970; Section 3685. Title 39. United States Code.) Publication Title: Engine Builder Publication Number: 1535-041X Filing Date: September 23, 2013 Issue Frequency: Monthly Number of Issues Published Annually: 12 Annual Subscription Price: $69 Complete Mailing Address of Known Office of Publication: 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333-8318, Summit County. Contact Person: Pat Robinson Phone: 330-670-1234. Complete Mailing Address of Headquarters of Publisher: Same as above. Publisher: Doug Kaufman (address same as above). Editor: Ed Sunkin (address same as above). Owner: Babcox Media, Inc., 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333-8318; William E. Babcox (owner), 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333. Known Bondholders, Mortgagees and Other Security Holders Owning or Holding 1 Percent or More of Total Amount of Bonds, Mortgages or Other Securities: None. Issue Date for Circulation Data Below: August 2013.

Extent and Nature of Circulation:

Average no. copies each issue Actual no. copies of single during preceding 12 months issue nearest to filing date

A. Total Number of Copies (Net Press Run) B. Legitimate Paid and/or Requested Circulation — Individual Paid/Requested Mail Subscriptions Stated on PS Form 3541 C. Total Paid and/or Requested Circulation D. Non-Requested Distribution — Non-Requested Copies Stated on PS Form 3541 — Non-Requested Copies Distributed Outside the Mail E. Total Non-Requested Distribution F. Total Distribution G. Copies not Distributed H. Total I. Percent Paid and/or Requested Circulation







1,016 363 1,379 16,310 255 16,565

858 90 948 15,956 255 16,211



Publication of Statement of Ownership will be printed in the November 2013 issue of this publication. I certify that the statements made by me above are correct and complete. Pat Robinson, Circulation Manager September 23, 2013

What Type of Direct Marketing Initiatives Do You Have in Store for 2013? Direct Mail E-Mail Marketing Telemarketing New Business • Prospecting Drive Web Site

Traffic Database Enhancement Catalog Mailing Promote Upcoming Tradeshows

Don Hemming, List Sales Manager Babcox Media, Inc. Phone: 330-670-1234 x286  Fax: 330-670-0874 

Need Reprints? Call Tina Purnell at 330-670-1234, ext. 243 78 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

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$30,000 CALL FOR LIST 973-823-8887



JAMISON EQUIPMENT 1908 11th St., Emmetsburg IA 50536 800-841-5405 Check out our used equip. list at

Call now to order or to receive a free 2013 catalog 1-800-434-5141

Advertiser Index COMPANY NAME Access Industries ACL Distribution American Cylinder Head, Inc. Apex Automobile Parts ArmaKleen Company ARP/Automotive Racing Products Inc Atech Motorsports Avon Automotive Products Brad Penn Lubricants Brock Supply Canton Racing Products Centroid Corp. Chrysler Group LLC Clemco Industries Comp Performance Group Comp Performance Group Dakota Parts Warehouse Dart Machinery Ltd Darton International Diamond Racing Products/Trend Performance

PAGE # Cover 3 47 Cover 2 3 51 70 48 36 28 22 4 15 6 58 65 41 14 45 40 72

Dipaco Inc. DNJ Engine Components Driven Racing Oil, LLC Dura-Bond Bearing Co Easy Run Test Standards Edelbrock Corp Egge Machine Company Elgin Industries Elgin Industries Engine & Performance Warehouse Engine Parts Group Engine Parts Warehouse EngineQuest ESCO Industries Federal Mogul/Fel Pro Federal Mogul/Fel Pro Goodson Mfg Co GRP Connecting Rods Harbor Freight Tools Injector Experts King Electronics

54 1 29 49 39 38 46 7 37 53 17 44 43 71 24 25 59 63 55 73 34

Liberty Engine Parts Mahle Motorsports Manton Pushrods & Rockers Maxima Racing Oils Melling Engine Parts Motor State Distributing Motovicity Distribution NPR of America, Inc. Packard Industries Permatex Inc PRI Show PRW Industries Inc Quality Cutter Grinding Rottler Manufacturing Roush Yates Performance Products SB International Scat Enterprises Sunnen Products Co T & D Machine Products Trac-Pro United Engine & Machine

5 57 32 19 20 13 23 35 8 21 10 66 64 Cover 4 52 27 11 9 50 68 69 79

80 Final Wrap 11/20/13 8:48 AM Page 80

Final Wrap

Big Winners In Las Vegas Cab lines aside, smiles were evident


eople were everywhere. Lines for restaurants, cabs and elevators seemed interminable. Traffic jams in aisles and on the street meant no matter where you were going, it was going to take you a while to get there. And by nearly every measure imaginable, people couldn’t have been happier. “Industry Week,” as it’s known around these offices (or SEMA Week or AAPEX Week depending on your particular leanings) has come and gone and has left some people scratching their heads. “Where,” they ask, “was the pessimism? Where,” they wonder, “were the frowns?” Somewhat unexpectedly, say some pundits, 2013 has turned into a great year in the automotive aftermarket and the attendance and enthusiasm in Las Vegas seemed to echo that. At more than one visit with a reader, customer or prospect, I was asked, “Can you believe the number of people here today? This is crazy!” There unconfirmed reports that at least one engine parts manufacturer was seen dancing a jig when asked how the week had been for him. Sev- 3550 Embassy Parkway Akron, OH 44333-8318 FAX 330-670-0874


eral others at each show said they were overwhelmed with requests for information and could barely keep up with the flow of traffic. I guess you could say they didn’t plan well enough – after all, both AAIA and SEMA offered bold predictions for the success of each show in early October. Pre- SEMA Show expectations were for 130,000 professionals from more than 130 countries to visit more than 2,500 exhibitors in more than 1 million square-feet of floor space. “We expect to fill every nook and cranny at the Las Vegas Convention Center this year,” said Peter MacGillivray, SEMA’s VP of events and communications before the show opened. “We’ve even contracted for exhibitor space at the LVH (Hotel) next door.” Those measures were, in fact, necessary and somewhat inadequate, because exhibit booths were still located in parts of the Convention Center that I’ve never seen in 25 years of attending Las Vegas tradeshows. Just across the Wynn Golf Course, a short half-hour walk (or 45 minute cab

Publisher Doug Kaufman, ext. 262

Tech Editor Larry Carley

Editor Ed Sunkin, ext. 258

Advertising Services Tina Purnell, ext. 243

Senior Executive Editor Brendan Baker, ext. 228 Graphic Designer Nichole Anderson, ext. 232

80 November 2013 | EngineBuilder

Director of Distribution Rich Zisk, ext. 287 Circulation Manager Pat Robinson, ext. 276 Sr. Circulation Specialist Ellen Mays, ext. 275

Sales Representatives Bobbie Adams 330-670-1234, ext. 238 Roberto Almenar 330-670-1234, ext. 233 David Benson 330-670-1234 ext. 210 Don Hemming 330-670-1234, ext. 286 Jamie Lewis 330-670-1234, ext. 266


ride) away, the AAPEX Show celebrated similar numbers at the Sands Expo Center. Following the show and after she had a chance to catch her breath, AAIA President and CEO Kathleen Schmatz confirmed preshow hype: this was the biggest AAPEX ever. “Biggest number of booths and biggest number of exhibitors,” she told me. “Buyer counts in our categories were also up. There were more than 120,000 people attending AAIW and the folks in Las Vegas tell me that we brought $176.1 million in non-gambling dollars to the city last week.” Good times to be sure, and the feelgood is expected to continue when the PRI Trade Show hits Indianapolis in mid-December. Excitement now from our advertisers indicate that your customers are likely to be ready to spend in 2014. Our commitment is to making sure that the professional engine builder has the best chance for success. We’ll continue to help you maximize your profit and professionalism. ■

Dean Martin 330-670-1234, ext. 225 Jim Merle 330-670-1234, ext. 280 Tom Staab 330-670-1234, ext 224 Glenn Warner 330-670-1234, ext. 212 John Zick 949-756-8835

Babcox Media Inc. Bill Babcox, President Greg Cira, Vice President, CFO Jeff Stankard, Vice President Beth Scheetz, Controller In Memorium: Edward S. Babcox (1885-1970) Founder of Babcox Publications Inc. Tom B. Babcox (1919-1995) Chairman

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1 Contents 11/20/13 10:09 AM Page 1


2 Pontiac engines are among the top American V8 engines according to a recent automotive enthusiast magazine article. They judged these engines on performance potential, historic significance, cool looks, affordability to build today and the easy-to-work-on factor. When Pontiac introduced the GTO in 1964, they started what became the muscle car wars. Contributor Steve Schaeffer takes a look at the many combinations of this iconic brand.

8 Contributing Editor Doug Anderson gives an overview of all the changes Chrysler has made since 2007, and there are many, along with some detailed information on a couple of them that we haven’t discussed before including the 4.0L SOHC V6 and the dual plug 4.7L. You'll want to file this one for reference as some of the engines have been completely redesigned. Follow along as he takes you on a journey of the World Engines.

17 In 1989, Dodge made a bold move to the automotive market by offering the Cummins diesel for its mid-size truck line. Now, almost 25 years later, the Dodge mid-size truck with a Cummins diesel still holds an awesome reputation for efficiency, reliability and dependability. Contributing Editor Bob McDonald uncovers the differences and similarities between the old workhorse 5.9L and its 6.7L replacement.





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hen General Motors sat on top of the world with 50 percent of the domestic market’s sales, each division was run like a separate company. Each division had its own engineering staffs and even its own assembly plants. There was very little parts interchange between the different divisions. Each unit had its own engines. Each division had its own personality. When Bunkie Knudsen became general manager of Pontiac in June of 1956 he set the world on fire. His motto was, “You can sell a young man’s car to an old man, but you will never sell an old man’s car to a young man.” This led to the founding of the Super Duty Engineering Group at Pontiac. In 1961 Pontiac Super Duty 389 engines had won 30 of the 52 NASCAR races that year. For a number of years in that period Pontiac was third in sales, behind only

Chevrolet and Ford. In 1964 Pontiac introduced the GTO and started the muscle car wars. The GTO Tiger, or Goat captured the imagination of an entire generation. With visionaries like Jim Wangers, an advertising genus, and

John DeLorean an engineer and later general manager of the division, Pontiac became GM’s Performance Division. With great cars such as the GTO, Trans-Am, Grand Prix and Bonneville, Pontiac created a

The red 1964 GTO has a stock-appearing 389 engine bored .060˝ over to 401 cubes. It’s balanced, has a Crane Fireball II cam, Edelbrock 750 carb and a recurved distributor. Heads have been converted to screw-in rocker studs, with push rod guide plates and adjustable valve train. The silver ’66 GTO just above has a 406 Pontiac engine built from a 400 block bored .030˝ over. It uses .090˝ over 389 pistons to use all the original ’66 engine parts with all the correct castings numbers. It has a mild Erson cam, reworked heads with screw-in studs and push rod guide plates and an Edelbrock 750 carb on the original intake with the original air cleaner. 2 November 2013 | Rebuilding Tech Guide

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This is a ’65 Pontiac 421 4-bolt main engine. Bored .060˝ over, the 434 cid engine uses the new Edelbrock “D” port aluminum heads, a Comp Thumper cam, Hooker headers, Crosswind intake, Edelbrock 750 carb and an HEI distributor.

The 4-bolt main ’65 Pontiac 421 block. This engine has casting number 96, uses ’71 GTO heads and .030˝ over 428 pistons.

performance mystique that carries on, despite the death of the division in GM’s bankruptcy. The official reason for Pontiac’s demise was that four divisions had to be eliminated in GM’s bankruptcy. GM now sells more cars in China than in the United States, and Buick has a major market presence in China. That is the real reason that Buick survived and Pontiac became an orphan. However, GM has continued to copyright and trademark the Pontiac name and images so who knows what the future may hold. 4 November 2013 | Rebuilding Tech Guide

engines are the same. All Pontiac V8 engines were built on the same 4.620˝ bore spacing, with the exception of the 265 and 301 manufactured between 1977 and 1981. These are very light duty, low deck height blocks. Unless you are dealing with a numbers matching Trans Am, you would do well to avoid the 301 and 265. The different displacements are the result of different bores and strokes. The deck height on all the standard engines is the same. The 326 through 400 engines have a 3-inch main bearing diameter. The 421, 428, and 455 engines use a 3.25˝ diameter main bearing. The rod bearing diameter is the same for 326s through 455s. Beware of pre-1964 blocks. They are not drilled for a block-mounted starter and you cannot use them in a ’65 or newer full size or a ’64 or newer A body or Firebird. Also, ’66 and earlier blocks have two freeze plugs on each side. The ’67 and newer blocks use three freeze plugs on each side.

That “Pontiac Excitement” still lives today. During its heyday in NHRA drag racing, Pontiac introduced the 421 Super Duty Drag Package. The cars with these engines are still popular at Nostalgic drag races today. With modern technology and tires, they defy the laws of physics. When you go to a national meet such as The Ames Tri-Power Nationals at Norwalk, OH and see more than 1,000 Pontiac race cars and show cars at one time, you know this is still a big market. The traditional Pontiac V8 engine was manufactured from 1955 through 1981. The engines that are currently most popular were manufactured from 1964 through 1978. These engines were available in the following cubic inch displacements: 326, 350, 389, 400, 421, 428, and 455. Unlike Chevrolet The ’65 Pontiac 421 at the top is shown with a there is no Pontiac big block ’66 Tri-Power, and the ’73 Pontiac 455 engine at or small block. The exterior the bottom is bored .030˝ over for 462 cubic inches. dimensions of all these

2-7 Pontiac 11/20/13 10:03 AM Page 5

The author says aftermarket pistons (like these Speed Pro cast pistons with 8 notches in the top) work with all the Pontiac high compression heads. It lowers the compression ratio from 10.75:1 to 9.5:1.

It’s critical that you pay attention to motor mount bolt holes. The ’69 and older engines only have two motor mount bosses on each side, while ’70 through ’76 blocks have five motor mount bosses. These blocks will fit all Pontiac chassis. The ’77 and newer blocks only have three bosses on the side of the block and will not fit a GTO. Blocks built in 1970 and since have the cubic inch displacement cast on the block. The last two digits of the displacement are cast in the valley area of the block. Engine identification is stamped on the right front of the block just below the head gasket surface; the date code is on the block by the distributor hole. As stated, the Pontiac remains very popular. Today it is possible to build a traditional Pontiac V8 without using one piece manufactured by GM. Using an aftermarket block, the most common displacement is 505! Stroker crankshafts are available to 4.500 inches. Aluminum cylinder heads are

available with the standard “D” port exhaust or the round port like the Ram Air engines. In addition, there are now vendors offering canted valve heads and modern versions of the Ram Air V tunnel port heads. Just name how much CFM you need your heads to flow. When building your engine always use the oil pump with the 3/4˝ diameter pickup tube. The standard pump only uses a 5/8˝ tube, but the performance engine requires the additional volume. The Melling part number for the good 60 pound pump is M54F. If you are using a ’72 or later block only use the ’76 or newer design oil pan with a five-pronged rear seal. The first design pan for these engines uses a three-prong seal that blows out, creating a major oil leak. There are some limitations you must remember regarding intake manifolds. The ’64 and earlier engines

On a ’71 or newer block, use the rear oil pan and seal with all 5 tabs (bottom). The 3 tab seal tends to blow out, creating a real leaker.

These factory oil pan reinforcements are designed to prevent leaks. They’re available new from several Pontiac aftermarket parts suppliers.

use an intake manifold with 6 bolt holes on each side. ’65 and newer engines use an intake with 5 bolt holes on each side. This means you cannot put a ’64 Tri-power on a later engine, and a ’65 or ’66 will not fit a ’64. In 1967, Pontiac relocated the valve centerline in the cylinder heads to allow bigger valves and better breathing. You must use pistons with the valve clearance notches in the correct place for the heads you are using. New pistons are now available for your vintage Pontiac V8 engine. The major manufacturers had discontinued pistons for 389 and 421 engines some years ago but, suddenly, the engines from the golden muscle car era 5

2-7 Pontiac 11/20/13 10:03 AM Page 6

PONTIAC are popular again. Nostalgic performance parts are becoming a big business. At least one supplier of vintage and obsolete engine parts has a full line of coated pistons for vintage cars. These are state of the art. The coating extends the life of the engine and eliminates piston scuffing problems. Benefits include improved piston life, better cylinder sealing, and elimination of cold start scuffing. Coated pistons can be installed without modifying piston to wall clearance. Pistons are readily available for: • 1959-’66 Pontiac 389 V8 (flathead piston) • 1959-’66 Pontiac 389 V8 (low compression with .200˝ dished head) • 1963-’66 Pontiac 421 V8 • 1967-’69 Pontiac 428 V8 If you are using an aftermarket cam you must convert the heads to an adjustable valve train. Using ’67-up heads with factory screw-in rocker arm studs is easy. Just replace the factory stud that is 7/16˝ on the bottom and 3/8˝ on top with aftermarket straight 7/16˝ studs for a big block Chevy. If you are using ’66 or earlier heads the safest thing to do is to convert the heads to screw-in rocker studs and pushrod guide plates. In the old days we just

These ’66 GTO heads have been converted to screw in studs and push rod guide plates.

pinned the studs – but if one broke you had to replace the head. You cannot just run the nut down to the shoulder on the stud and torque it like you would do with a stock cam. Here are some little (but very important) things that will help you complete a premium Pontiac project. • Use the correct pushrod cover for the intake you are using. Early engines have the PCV valve in the rear; late engines moved it to the

The ’66 Pontiac cylinder heads had an A.I.R. injection passage cast in them. The author suspects it was only used on CA-emissions cars. On these heads it was cast too close to the center bolt hole, and the only way a normal head bolt with a hex head would clear the casting was to use a special bolt. The overall length is 5 inches. It has a raised shank under the hex head, 3/4˝ in dia. and 1/2˝ long. An Allen bolt would work but it wouldn't be correct on a restoration. Pontiac had to use a hex head bolt to fit their engine assembly machinery. They also used this special head bolt on the small valve heads in 1967. 6 November 2013 | Rebuilding Tech Guide

front. Also some covers have scalloped edges to clear big runners on the intake. • ’64 to ’68 engines use an eightbolt water pump and corresponding timing cover. ’69 and up engines use an eleven-bolt pump and cover. Be certain to use the correct baffles behind the water pump. If your engine is running hot I have had very good luck with certain aftermarket water pumps. Use the factory clutch fan and shroud.

Casting number 96 cylinder heads for a ‘71 GTO. Watch out for ’72 Pontiac heads they do not have the end exhaust bolt holes and can not be used with headers.

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The April 2012 issue of Hot Rod Magazine ranks the Pontiac eighth on the list of the 20 best American V8 engines. They judged these engines on performance potential, historic significance, cool looks, affordability to build today and the easy-to-work-on factor. The Pontiac engine is a torque monster. Built right it will run strong. Built strong, it may be the right profit center you’re looking for. ■

Pontiac never made a big block and a small block like Chevy. All engines are on the same 4.620˝ bore spacing. This ’67 326 with the black valve covers has the same external appearance as the 455 with the chrome valve covers in the photo below.

As the author stated, it is possible to build a Pontiac engine today using no OE parts. Though this is by no means an exclusive or exhaustive list of parts suppliers, special thanks go out to the following companies for their parts and/or inspiration: The Brassworks, Butler Performance, Eagle Specialty, Edelbrock Corp., EngineQuest, FederalMogul/Speed Pro, Kauffman Racing Equipment, Melling Engine Parts, Packard Industries and Rock & Roll Engineering. Additional suppliers of Pontiac engine parts can be sourced by referring to the exclusive Online Engine Builders Buyers Guide, at Steve Schaeffer is an A.S.E. certified tech. He recently retired as president of Lancaster Auto Recycling Inc., Lancaster, OH.

• One thing to check is that all the oil galley plugs have been installed. There is one visible through the distributor hole in the block. The access is through a small hole in the back of the block covered with a small freeze plug. If this plug is left out, goodbye oil pressure. With the big three now all producing 400 plus horsepower pony cars and a resurgence of interest in muscle cars by Detroit, a new golden age of muscle is returning. Pontiac engines may be more popular to build now than when they were new. 7

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CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Doug Anderson Photography by Nancy Swafford


hrysler made some major changes in their engine line-up starting in ’07. They replaced their four cylinder engines in everything but the PT Cruiser in ’07, updated the 4.7L V8 in ’08, added variable valve timing to the Hemi in ’09 and replaced their V6 motors with a new 3.6L DOHC beginning in ’10, so all of their engines were either new or improved by 2013. With that in mind, here’s an overview of all the changes they made along with some detailed information on a couple of them that we haven’t discussed before including the 4.0L SOHC V6 and the dual plug 4.7L. Let’s start with their four cylinder engines. Chrysler teamed up with Mitsubishi and Hyundai to design a whole new family of four cylinder engines that were used by all three companies, although each one modified the basic engine design to fit their needs. They created the Global Engine Manufacturing Alliance with five factories in the US, Japan and Korea that built about 2,000,000 engines a year. These were usually called the “GEMA” motors by people in the industry, but Chrysler named theirs the “World Engines” and installed them in most of their front wheel drive vehicles beginning in ’07. There were three different engines in this family including a 1.8L, a 2.0L and a 2.4L with an aluminum block along with an aluminum DOHC head that had “dual electro-hydraulic VVT” on both the intake and exhaust cams. They all had a crank driven module inside the pan that incorporated the oil pump and two counter-rotating balance shafts, too. There weren’t very many of the 1.8L 8 November 2013 | Rebuilding Tech Guide

motors built because they were only available in the base model of the ’07’09 Caliber that usually came with the optional 2.0L that was standard in the small 2WD Jeeps. The most popular “World Engine”

was the 2.4L that was installed in all of their mid-sized cars along with the 4x4 Jeep Compass and Patriot. There were a few of the turbo 2.4L motors installed in the Caliber SRT-4 in ’08-’09, but they were pretty rare. These “World Engines” were often criticized because they were a bit rough and noisy and they didn’t make much power at the low end, but they were cheaper to build than the original 2.0L/2.4L motors and they got better fuel economy, so Chrysler was happy with them for awhile. The chart on page 9 includes the applications, dates and VIN codes we found for each engine. This is our best take on these engines based on the information we

found in a variety of sources that didn’t always agree, so consider it an overview and proceed with caution. We have included it to make sure you know about the “World Engines” that replaced the Chrysler-built 2.0L and 2.4L motors in everything but the PT Cruiser beginning in ’07 (Chrysler continued to use their old 2.4L motor in the PT through ’10). Rebuilding the GEMA motors at a reasonable cost may be a challenge because the parts, including the balance shaft/oil pump module that has to be replaced because it can’t be rebuilt (you can’t even take it apart), are pretty expensive. Chrysler and Hyundai have better access to parts and cores than we do and they’re both selling their rebuilt GEMA engines for around $3,000, so that’s probably a pretty good benchmark to keep in mind. I personally know of one rental car company that spent nearly $5,000 apiece to install five of the remanufactured 2.4L engines in some 2011 Hyundai Sonatas that ended up with the wrong oil filters. That makes me wonder how many customers will be in the market for one of these engines when the time comes. But that’s not the end of the story for the four-cylinder motors. Chrysler bought out their partners in the Global Alliance in September of ’09 and announced that they were going to replace their GEMA engines with a new family of four cylinders that would be better than the existing engines and incorporate the latest technology from Fiat. They’re replacing the 1.8L with either a 1.4L or a 1.8L from Fiat, but they’ve updated their 2.0L and 2.4L with a die-cast aluminum block that has a cast iron bedplate along with a new head that has roller cam followers

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Chrysler ‘World Engines’ 1.8L Caliber



2.0L Caliber Compass (4x2)

’07-’12 ’07-’12

’07-’08/B ’09-’12/A ’07-’08/O ’09-’12/A


’07-’08/O ’09-’12/A

’07-’10 ’11-’12 ’07-’12 ’07-’12 ’07-’12 ’07-’12 ’08-’12 ’08-’09

’07-’08/K ’09-’10/B ’11-’12/B ’07-’08/K ’09-’12/B ’07-’08/W ’09-’12/B ’07-’08/W ’09-’12/B ’07-’08/K ’09-’12/B ’08/K ’09-’12/B ’08-’09/F

Patriot (4x2) 2.4L Sebring Chrysler 200 Caliber R/T Compass Patriot Journey Avenger Caliber SRT-4

Chrysler teamed up with Mitsubishi and Hyundai to design a whole new family of four cylinder engines that were used by all three companies. These were usually called the “GEMA” motors by people in the industry, but Chrysler named theirs the “World Engines” and installed them in most of their front wheel drive vehicles beginning in ’07.

and comes with a sophisticated intake manifold. Both of these Chrysler engines will have four valves per cylinder, but the 2.4L will be a SOHC motor that incorporates the Fiat “MultiAir variable-valve timing technology” for the first time in a Chrysler-built engine. This next generation of their World Gas Engines – called the “Tigershark” family – will be installed in the new Dodge Dart in 2013, but the 2.4L engine is scheduled for “late introduction” so we haven’t seen any of them yet. All the rest of their front wheel drive cars and the mini-sport utilities will continue to use the existing 2.0L and 2.4L “World Engines” through 2013.

so we spent a lot of time in the Hollander manual, Mitchell Online and the Chrysler parts book to come up with some answers. With that in mind, let’s take a look at them, one at a time, starting with the 2.7L V6: •The 2.7L/167 CID DOHC engine was used up through 2010. The VIN was changed from ‘R’ or ‘T’ to ‘D’ in ’09 and ’10, but the engine was pretty much the same. •The block that was modified for starter clearance in ’01 was used up through ’10 along with the new “lightweight” head castings that came out in ’06. You can identify the lightweight heads visually or by the 4892064AA/4892068AA casting numbers. There’s only one difference in the engine after ’07: Chrysler changed the width of the primary chain and used two link chains instead of the roller chains to drive the intake cams beginning in ’09 or ’10, but we don’t know exactly

Chrysler used a link chain (front) instead of a roller chain to drive the intake cams beginning in '09 or '10.

V6 Engine Modifications Chrysler made another major change in their engine program with the introduction of the new 3.6L aluminum DOHC “Pentastar” motor in 2010. It replaced all six of their existing V6 engines including the 2.7L, 3.3L, 3.5L, 3.7L, 3.8L and the 4.0L in all of their cars and trucks by the end of 2012. We knew that all of these existing engines were “lame ducks,” but we didn’t know exactly when they were replaced or what might have been changed since our last update in ’07, The crank for the 4.0L has '4 0' forged on the counterweight that's right behind the third rod journal. 9

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CHRYSLER •The 3.5L/215 CID SOHC engine was used in both the front and rear wheel drive cars up through ’10. The VIN codes can be a little confusing in ’09-’10 because the FWD cars were a VIN ‘V’, just like the RWD cars, even though the engines weren’t interchangeable. The long block remained the same as an assembly, but the short block had new, heavy duty, forged steel rods that had a cracked cap and a tapered small end that used a unique pin bushing. The piston was changed to a lightweight design that helped offset the additional weight of the new rod, so the combined weight of the early and late piston/rod assemblies is nearly the

The cams for the 4.0L can be identified by the raised cast ring that's located behind the fifth lobe.

The 4.0L has a forged steel rod with a cracked cap. The small end is tapered and has a bushing.

when they made the change because they’ve superseded all of the original timing sets to the later design that requires new gears and chains along with all four cams and a different water pump. The bad news is that none of these late model timing components are available in the aftermarket, so you better make friends The piston for the 4.0L (right) looks like the one for the late 3.5L (left), but the compression height is 5.0mm lower to compensate for the longer stroke.

10 November 2013 | Rebuilding Tech Guide

with your Chrysler dealer if you decide to rebuild one of these engines with all the latest parts. •The 3.3L/201 CID OHV engine was used in the minivans up through ’10 before it was discontinued. The VIN code was changed to an ‘E’ in ’09 and ’10. This engine got new heads in ’01 and a new block casting (4666031AB) in ’07, but nothing was changed after that so the engine stayed the same up through ’10.

same. Knowing that allowed us to use the early rods and pistons in the later engines until DNJ began supplying the late, lightweight piston. The bad news is that there aren’t any pin bushings available for either rod, so we’re having them made for both applications. •The 3.7L/226 CID SOHC motor was used up through ’11 in the Dodge Dakota and the Nitro and up through ’12 in the Jeep Liberty and the Dodge pickups. It was always identified as a VIN ‘K’ from ’02 thru ’12. The 3.7L used the same short block from ‘02 through ’12 except for the change to the NGC tone ring in ’04. The heads got new kidney–shaped chambers in ’05 and EGR was added to the left head in ’07, so there’s a 53020984AC head casting on the right side and a 530200983AD casting WITH EGR on the left side. Nothing was changed after that, so the ’07 version of this engine that came with the NGC short block and the lightweight heads that had EGR on the driver’s

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The front cover for the FWD 4.0L engines has a flat pad in the middle with three bolt holes for the torque axis motor mount.

side was used for everything up through ’12. •The 3.8L/231 CID OHV pushrod engine was used in the minivans through ’10 and installed in the Ram Cargo Vans (minivans without windows) along with the Jeep Wrangler up through 2011 before it was replaced by the new 3.6L Pentastar engine. Watch out for the VIN codes when selling one of these engines, because they vary from year to year and both the front and rear wheel drive applications share the same VIN code in ’10. The Wrangler was always a VIN ‘1’, but the minivan was an ‘L’ in ’07, a ‘P’ in ’08-’09 and a ‘1’ in 2010. •The 3.8L was usually updated when the 3.3L was revised because they’re both part of the same family, so the 3.8L got the new heads in ’01 and the 4666031AB block casting with the extra bolt holes for the RWD Wrangler in ’07. Nothing was changed after that, so the same long block was used for everything up through ’11, although the complete engine assemblies came with different pans and front covers, depending on the application. •The 4.0L/241 CID SOHC is the last V6 motor on our list. It’s a stroked version of the 3.5L so they share a lot of common parts, but there are some important differences, too. The 4.0L showed up in the Pacifica Limited and Touring editions along with the Dodge Nitro R/T in ’07 and it was used in the Chrysler Limited minivans from ’08 through ’10. The new 3.6L Pentastar engine replaced the 4.0L in everything except a few of the The 4.0L block looks identical to Dodge Nitros in the one for the late 3.5L except for 2011. Be careful the bigger mains, but it's easy to tell them apart because there's a '4.0L' cast right on the block under the casting number.

The front cover for the RWD Nitro is unique to this application. The 'loop' in the middle of the 'AA casting was missing on the 'AB and 'AC castings, so we don't think it was needed, especially since Chrysler superseded them all to the 'AC casting that doesn't have it.

when cataloging these engines, because the VIN codes overlap again. The FWD applications were always a VIN ‘X’, but the RWD Nitro that was a VIN ‘6’ in ’07 and ’08 became a VIN ‘X’ from ’09 through ’11. That can create a problem if you sell an engine based on the VIN code without knowing the application, because they have different front covers so they’re not interchangeable. •It took us a while to figure out how to catalog the 4.0L engines because Chrysler says there are four different short blocks including early and late versions of both the front and rear wheel drive motors, but there’s actually only one short block along with two long blocks. Chrysler changed the oil coolers and the pans on all the 4.0L motors in ’09, so they have to list the early and late part numbers for both applications because they include the oil pan with all of their short blocks. With that in mind, here’s what you need to know about these engines in order to rebuild them.

Rebuilding The 4.0L: Blocks There are two block castings, a 4593586AA and a 4593586AB, but they’re both the same and they’re identical to the late 3.5L - except for the big mains. They’re easy to tell apart because there’s a small ‘3.5L’ or ‘4.0L’ on the block right below the casting number.

Crankshaft The 4.0L motor has a forged steel crank that looks just like the one that’s used for the 3.5L, but the mains are bigger they’re 2.717” instead of 2.5202” - and the stroke is 10mm longer so it measures 3.58” instead of 3.189”. This crank is easy to identify because it has “4 0” forged on the counterweight right behind the third rod journal. The big main bearings for the 4.0L are available in the aftermarket now.

Connecting Rods The 4.0L uses the exact same rod that showed up in the 3.5L beginning in ’07, even though it has a longer stroke. It’s easy to identify because it’s a forged steel rod with a cracked cap that has “4AA” on it along with a tapered, small end that has a special bushing in it. Oversize OD rod bearings are available, but no one offers the special pin 11

8-16 Chrysler 11/20/13 9:52 AM Page 12

CHRYSLER the customer doesn’t forget to plug the one that isn’t needed for his application. Everything else that’s up topside, including the cam followers and rocker assemblies, is the same except for the cams.


The chamber for the '09 Hemi with VVT is no longer shaped like a hemi, but at least it has the bigger intake seats that won't fall out.

bushings so we’re having them custom made for this application.

Pistons The piston for the 4.0L looks a lot like the one that was used with the new rod in the 3.5L beginning in ’07, but the compression height is 5.0mm shorter because the stroke is 10.0mm longer. Modifying the compression height of the piston allowed Chrysler to use the late rod from the 3.5L along with a common deck height so they could install the same heads and timing components on both engines. This piston is available from DNJ, too.

Rings The 4.0L uses the same 1.2mm/1.5mm/2.50mm rings that were used for the late 3.5L beginning in ’07. Good luck assembling the short block with the narrow oil rings.

The cams for the 4.0L are unique to this application. Chrysler says “they have a higher lift/profile for increased performance” and that the “intake lobes are splayed for reduced NVH.” Both cams can be identified by the raised cast ring around the barrel behind the fifth lobe. The right hand cam is a PN4593616AA and the left hand one is a PN4593618AA. Chrysler recommends replacing the bolts for the cam sprockets any time they’re removed.

Timing Components All of the timing components used on the 4.0L are the same as the ones found on the late 3.5L including the sprockets, tensioners, pivots and timing belt.

Front Covers The only difference between the front and rear wheel drive long blocks is the inner front cover. The one for the FWD cars is a 4892137AA/AB/AC that has a flat pad on the top with three bolt holes that are used for the torque axis motor mount. There are three different castings with AA/AB/AC suffixes and

Heads The 4792728AA or 4663894AC head castings that came on the 4.0L are the same ones that were used on the 3.5L beginning in ’04. Both of these heads have provisions for EGR so we always plug the holes to make sure that The counterweights on the late 4.7L crank are bigger because the rods and pistons are heavier. You can see the difference in the size and shape of some of them on the new crank on the right compared to the early one on the left. 12 November 2013 | Rebuilding Tech Guide

Chrysler still lists two different part numbers, but we’ve seen all three of them and couldn’t find any difference, no matter what Chrysler says. There are three different castings for the front cover that’s used for the RWD motors, too, with a 4892266 casting number that has AA/AB or AC suffixes. There are some subtle differences between them, but Chrysler has superseded all of them to the latest version with the AC suffix, so they can all be interchanged.

Final Thoughts On The 4.0L The 4.0L is easy to catalog because there’s only one short block along with two long blocks that have different front covers, depending on the application. It’s easy to build now The crank for the 4.7L dual plug motor has '288AA' on the front counterweight.

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The heavy duty rod for the dual plug motor (right) is forged steel with a cracked cap and a tapered small end that has a press fit pin. It weighs 50 grams more than the earlier ones and it has a balance pad because it's not forged 'net to shape' like the powdered metal rods.

The piston for the dual plug motor (right) is unique because it has two valve reliefs and a trough in the middle.

that all the parts are available, because it’s just an overgrown 3.5L with a different block, crank, pistons and cams. There are plenty of the 4.0L motors out there in cars that are worth fixing, so you should get some calls.

cars. So what makes the 3.6L so special? Here’s what we know about this new motor: The block is a lightweight, aluminum die-casting that weighs 20

pounds less than the aluminum 3.6L GM block. It has forged rods and cast pistons that are cooled by the oil nozzles that are located in the crankcase. The variable displacement oil pump that reduces oil pressure below 3000 rpm under the right conditions is in the front cover. The DOHC aluminum heads have 24 valves and dual independent cam phasers. There’s just one pair of heads and there’s only one pair of cams used for all of these engines. The single exhaust outlet that’s integrated into the head has “flow paths” cast inside the head to create the same flow as a traditional exhaust manifold without having to bolt an external manifold on the head, so it’s just as efficient and it’s easier to package the engine in a variety of applications, according to Chrysler. The original engine has 3.6L/220 cubic inches, but the architecture was designed to allow Chrysler to build bigger or smaller versions ranging from 3.0L to 4.0L and everything in between, so you can expect to see some different combinations including a 3.2L that is due out next year. This engine family was designed to support MDS, direct injection, ‘MultiAir’ and twin turbos, so there’s definitely more to come. The word on the street is that there will be a twin turbo motor making 420 horsepower in 2015!

The 3.6L Pentastar Meanwhile, the new 3.6L Pentastar motor that replaced all six of the “old” Chrysler V6 engines is very impressive. It’s available in almost everything Chrysler builds including their RWD cars, all of their minivans, the Jeep Grand Cherokee, the Dodge Durango and the Ram pickup and it performs well in all of them. In fact, it’s so versatile that the engine that’s in the pickup trucks is the same one that’s used in the cars except for the intake manifold. These engines make 90% of their peak torque from 1600 rpm all the way to 6400 rpm while making over 300 horsepower and getting 25 miles per gallon in the pickups and full-sized

The cams for the dual plug 4.7L (in back) have powdered metal lobes pressed onto a solid bar that's been machined for this application. Notice the difference in the diameter of the bar compared to the size of the hollow tube that was used before. 13

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CHRYSLER Chrysler has installed the 3.6L in nearly a third of the vehicles that they have produced since 2011 and it’s been nearly trouble free since day

The beehive spring (above) for the dual plug motor has a one piece, unitized, plastic base that incorporates a damper and includes the stem seal. The plastic base is starting to melt under the exhaust springs on our original cores, so you may have to buy some new springs for about $5 a piece.

one. There were a handful that had phaser problems and a very small percentage that had a slight machining error that affected the heads according to my sources, but the engine has performed well with a minimum of problems in a wide variety of cars and trucks since the beginning. They’re all VIN ‘G’ motors and they all share the same short block, heads and cams, so they’re virtually identical as far as the rebuilders are concerned, but they have different intakes, sheet metal and accessories, depending on the application, so the complete engine assemblies aren’t always interchangeable, in spite of their similarities. Hollander lists five different engines for ’11 –’12 and we know that there’s at least one more in ’13 because the engine in the Ram pickup has a unique intake manifold, so getting the right take-out engine could be a bit of a challenge. Now that we have updated all the Chrysler V6 motors, let’s take a look at a couple of the V8s, starting with the 4.7L engine that came with dual spark plugs in ’08. All of these engines are still either a VIN ‘N’ or ‘P’, depending on the year and the application.

THE DUAL PLUG 4.7L V8 Chrysler updated the 4.7L with a new pair of heads that have slightly different intake ports and noticeably bigger exhaust ports that are squared

The lifter for the dual plug motor (right) is slightly different on the outside, but the real difference is the addition of a check ball inside the lifter to meter oil to the cam follower. Don't mix them up with the early ones.

off on the top along with a revised combustion chamber that has dual spark plugs, just like the Hemi. The dual plug 4.7L makes a very respectable 300 horsepower, so it’s become the standard engine for the Ram pickup. It appears that one long block fits everything from ’08 through ’12 according to the information we found on the Hollander interchange site and in the Chrysler parts book. There may be different oil pans, intake manifolds, front covers and accessories used, depending on the vehicle, but the block, heads and all the internal parts stayed the same year after year in every application, so we’re going to catalog one long block for everything.

Blocks Chrysler continued to use the same block that’s been around since ’04 for the dual plug motor. It’s the 53022033AA casting that has the three The dual plug heads (right) are all new. The exhaust ports are squared off and there are four additional holes for the second set of spark plugs. 14 November 2013 | Rebuilding Tech Guide

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unique and they weigh about 25 grams more than the original flat tops. They have a small dome with two valve reliefs and a single trough across the top so there’s not much room left in the chamber at top dead center with the 9.8:1 compression ratio. It looks like Chrysler is using the piston to help manage the combustion process along with the shape of the chamber and the location of the dual spark plugs.


The chamber for the dual plug head is similar to the early one because the valves are still in the same location, but the addition of the second spark plug makes it considerably different overall.

extra bolt holes on the driver’s side that were originally used to mount the front differential on the 4x4 Durango way back then.

Crankshaft Chrysler used an all-new crankshaft (look for “288AA” forged on the front counterweight) for the dual plug motor. The pistons and the rods are considerably heavier, so some of the counterweights are longer and they have square ends instead of the bullnosed ones found on the original cranks. The early and late crankshafts can’t be interchanged without some serious modifications, so don’t mix them up. The dual plug engine uses the NGC computer so it still has the tone wheel with 32 notches.

Con Rods The connecting rods are real, old time forgings instead of the powdered metal ones that are used in most engines today, but they have a cracked cap and there’s no notch for a tang! The small end is tapered like the one on the 3.5L/4.0L rod, but it has a press fit pin. These rods look a lot different than the original powdered metal rods so they’re easy to tell apart, but they can be identified by the number ‘213AB’ that’s forged on the big end of the rod, too. Our samples all weighed 508+/- grams which is about 50 grams more that the old powdered metal rods, so they’re definitely not interchangeable with the early ones, even in sets.

Pistons The EGR valve is on the driver's side on the new heads. The crack is optional.

The pistons for this motor are

Both of the dual plug heads are all new. The one on the right is a 53022128AA casting and the one on the left that has a pad for the EGR valve is the 53022129AA casting. All the intake and exhaust ports have been modified and the chambers are unique to this application. Most of the parts used for the heads including the valves, springs, retainers, stem seals and lifters were revised to fit these new heads, too. In fact, the cam followers appear to be the only parts that are carried over from the earlier heads

Camshafts The cams were updated, too. Chrysler machined the journals on a solid, steel bar along with some splines that were used to locate the powdered metal lobes that were pressed onto the bar. These cams are physically interchangeable with the old ones because the bore spacing is the same and the valves are all still in the same place, but we expected to see some differences in the new cams – until we ran them through the ‘Cam Doctor’ and discovered that they’re absolutely identical to the hollow ones in every spec and dimension. Chrysler hasn’t superseded part numbers for the original cams to the new ones, but they have shipped us the new, solid cams packaged under the old part numbers, so apparently they’re the same in spite of the new heads and the slightly higher compression ratio that’s used for the dual plug engine. The right hand cam is a PN 53021984AA that has 53021980AA etched on the barrel and the left cam is a PN53021983AA that has 53021979AA etched on the barrel. By the way, the new cams cost less if you order them under the old part number.

Other Parts 15

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CHRYSLER because there’s an ID ring in front of the fifth journal that has a varying number of grooves that are machined in different locations so you can identify each cam by type and application, according to Chrysler. Be sure to use the right cam when you build one of these engines or you will have a comeback. The bad news is that they’re all VIN ‘T’ motors, so you will have to know the exact application and find out whether or not the vehicle has MDS or/and an “active intake” in order to supply the right engine.

Chrysler is still using the shallow intake seats in the new heads for the 4.7L and they're still falling out.

Conclusion There are only a few other parts that are common to both engines. The cam sprockets, tensioners, oil pump and lower gasket set are all the same, but that’s about all that appears to be interchangeable between the ’07 and ’08 engines.

5.7L HEMI And then there’s the ’09 Hemi with VVT. It’s really an all new engine with a different block, crank, rods, pistons, cams, heads and timing set. The block is a 53021319DK casting and the crank is a 53021300BB. The heads appear to be identical, but one of them is a 53021616DD and the

The 4.7L used three different cam followers that came with and without the oil hole in the socket. The late cams don't have oil holes in the lobes, so be sure to install the latest follower that has the oil hole to lubricate the cam. 16 November 2013 | Rebuilding Tech Guide

other one is a 53021616DE casting and Chrysler lists them separately, so there must be a difference of some kind. We don’t know much more about these engines except that there are five different cams including the one for the hybrid motor that was supposedly built in ’09. Here’s the list of all the different cams along with their applications: 1. VVT only with a high performance profile for the Challenger with a manual transmission. 2. VVT only for the 2500/3500 pickups with a profile that’s designed for the heavy-duty trucks. 3. VVT plus MDS for the RWD cars with automatic transmissions, all the Jeeps and the ’11-’13 Dodge Durangos. 4. VVT plus MDS along with the “short runner valve” (SRV) for the “active intake” that’s installed on all of the Ram 1500 pickups and the ’09’10 Dodge Durangos. 5. VVT plus MDS for the ’09 hybrid Durango. They didn’t build many of them so there isn’t even a part number for the cam in the parts book, but it’s probably a special cam that came with a unique phaser that was designed for “late intake closing,” just like the one that was used for the hybrid LS motors in the GM pickups. None of the cams are interchangeable, but they’re easy to tell apart

So that’s the story. Chrysler has simplified their vehicles by eliminating three engine families since ’07 while adding the four cylinder “World Engines” along with the all new DOHC 3.6L V6 and updating both the 4.7L and 5.7L V8s with new technology that improved fuel economy, performance and emissions. And, there’s more to come, because they will have to continue to improve their engines with more new technology in order to meet the higher CAFE standards that are yet to come, so you can expect smaller engines with lightweight blocks, sophisticated heads, new rods and pistons, narrow rings, direct injection and a high tech valve train like MultiAir along with superchargers and turbochargers. With all that in mind, it will be interesting watch the evolution of the Chrysler DOHC family and their new four cylinder “Tigershark” engines along with the Hemi.` It’s time for everyone to “buckle up in lane two” as they say at the racetrack. ■ Doug Anderson is Manager of Technical Services for Grooms Engines, located in Nashville, TN. He has authored numerous technical articles on engine rebuilding for Engine Builder magazine for more than 20 years. Anderson has also made many technical presentations on engine building at AERA and PERA conventions and seminars. To find Doug’s other articles for Engine Builder magazine, visit

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hen you think about a Dodge truck, what is the first thing that comes to mind? I will give you a hint: Cummins. Dodge introduced the B-series Cummins engine in the Dodge truck in 1989. It’s not like they had to convince consumers that the Cummins engine was good. The Bseries had already proven itself in farm and marine applications. The only thing that was left to insure consumers was the fact that their truck was diesel and that time would tell how the farm engine would stand up to life as a daily driver. After nearly 25 years of operation, the Cummins reputation is rock solid and a great selling point for the Dodge family.

diesel engines emit higher levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM). The EPA has set regulations into place to lower these emissions by 90 percent. This reduction is known as Clean Diesel Com-

Evolution Issues Starting out as a 5.9L, the engine underwent several changes as the years progressed for efficiency and power. Also, as higher emissions standards were enforced, a cleaner burning diesel had to be an influence in design changes. To meet the emissions reductions for 2007, Cummins introduced a new B-series engine the 6.7L. The Bseries 6.7L engine is largest straightsix design for a light-duty truck. This engine was also introduced to set the stage to meet the 2010 emissions standards as well. We all know that diesels are used for hauling rather than gasoline because of their power and better fuel economy. The only drawback is that

The B-series 6.7L engine is largest straight-six ever designed for a lightduty truck and was introduced to meet the 2010 emissions standards.

bustion Technology (CDC). So, when you see a 6.7L engine enter your shop, you will notice right away that this engine is equipped with many more emissions controls than the 5.9L.

Keeping it Clean When you hear the term Clean Diesel Combustion, one thing to

keep in mind is that the engine will be outfitted with emission control devices. There are mainly five methods that the manufacturer will employ in order to meet the EPA’s Clean Diesel emissions. 1. High Pressure Fuel – Also known as Common Rail, this is where fuel is injected into the cylinders at extreme pressures. This incorporates better combustion and fuel efficiency 2. Boost – By utilizing boost throughout the engines rpm range, the engine can create more power down low without having to rely on engine speed to increase the performance of the turbo. The way boost is controlled is by a Variable Geometric Turbo (VGT). The VGT design is where the turbo can change the ratio of air that the engine is feed by moving veins inside the exhaust gas housing of the turbo, which will increase or decrease the speed of the turbine wheel. 3. EGR – Exhaust Gas Recirculation, this is where exhaust gas is directed into the intake manifold to be sent back into the combustion chamber to be re-burned. This method does reduce NOx emissions but does have a drawback, which is the formation of soot. 4. DPF-Diesel Particulate Filter – This device is placed into the exhaust system used to capture soot from the engine. After soot is accumulated in the DPF, it will be burned off through a “regeneration” process, which will clean the DPF. This method reduces smoke, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide. 17

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DODGE Cubic Inch Firing Order Compression Ratio Bore Stroke Liters

359 1-5-3-6-2-4 17.0:1 4.02 4.72 5.9

When Cummins introduced the 5.9L it was already a proven commodity on farms and in other applications so it didn’t take much to persuade customers to try it.

Rating/Year Horsepower Torque







The 5.9L Cummins engine underwent serveral changes as the years progressed for efficiency, power and to deal with tougher emissions standards.

5. SCR-Selective Catalytic Reduction – This process injects urea into the exhaust stream, which is a catalyst for NOx emissions. So far this is the most effective emissions device and has only been used for late 2012 and 2013 Dodge trucks.

Controlling Emissions Most of the major changes between the 5.9L and 6.7L engines can be found in the exhaust system. One glance underneath the truck and you will see some sort of an exhaust apparatus that appears to be adapted from a space station. If you are wondering why, there are several things taking place in order to have clean exhaust. The exhaust system will look as though it has two torpedoes stuck in the exhaust pipe before getting to the muffler. At the rear of the exhaust system right before the muffler is known as a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). This is basically like a catalytic converter on a gasoline engine. The DOC will treat the engine exhaust gas by converting harmful compounds such as carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide, water, and heat. Just before the DOC is what is called a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). This serves basically as a trap. The DPF is a catalyst filter that collects soot or particulate matter from the engine. The DPF is controlled by the ECM. There are two pressure sensors that are mounted before and after the DPF. The pressure sensors provide input to the ECM to determine when the DPF is full. When the ECM has determined that the DPF is full, it will perform what is called a regeneration, which is a process that will burn off the soot trapped inside the DPF. The DPF will capture up to 90 percent of harmful diesel emissions. 18 November 2013 | Rebuilding Tech Guide

1998 horsepower torque ft.lbs

ISB Engine 235@2500rpm 420@ 1600rpm

1 Comp Ratio 16.3:1

1999-2000 horsepower torque

235@2500 rpm 460@1600 rpm

2001-2002 horsepower torque

standard 235@2500rpm 460@1600rpm

Comp Ratio 17.1:1 high output 245@2500rpm 505@1600rpm

The 5.9L continued to evolve throughout its run as the King of light-duty to medium-duty trucks. With big torque numbers, it was always a hit with the towing crowd.

2003 horsepower torque 2004-2006 horsepower torque

Engine-ISB-CR 305@2900rpm 555@1600rpm 325@2900rpm 600@1600rpm

After nearly 25 years, the 5.9L proved to be a worthy workhorse through its reign, producing upwards of 600 lb-ft of torque in its final iteration.

The following is a basic overview of what takes place in order to clean or “regenerate” the DPF. Once the ECM has determined that the DPF is full and filled up with particulate past the acceptable limit, the ECM will open the EGR valve. The purpose of opening the EGR valve is to introduce hot exhaust gas into the intake manifold. This will help increase exhaust gas temperature. The ECM will then command the injector to inject a small amount of fuel into the cylinders on the exhaust stroke (when the exhaust valves for each cylinder is open). The raised exhaust temperature along with the small amount of fuel, burn of the PM (particulate matter) inside the DPF. After the burn off or “regeneration”, the ECM will take readings from the pressure sensors again to see if the DPF is operating at an acceptable level.

DPF Drawbacks Even though the DPF is very effective in reducing emissions, the following are some drawbacks and problems associated with running them: • Poor fuel economy – This is the #1 complaint. A diesel that is not equipped with a DPF gets somewhere in the range of 18-22 mpg. On DPF equipped trucks, the fuel mileage will decrease to 12-14 mpg. • Excessive regens – Most mid-size trucks are used for work. Most work trucks will travel short distances and may be left to idle for periods of time. Excessive idle time can lead to excessive regens. While idling, the exhaust gas temperature is cool which causes the DPF to clog with soot really fast.

17-c3 Dodge 11/20/13 9:50 AM Page 19

The EGR cooler bypass actuator silver in color sits above the engine over the exhaust manifold. To the left of the actuator on top of the exhaust manifold is the EGR cooler.

So if the truck is idling for long periods of time, several regens would have taken place. The constant regen is hard on the DPF and may cause premature failure which will lead to replacement. Good Rule to Follow: “Don’t let new trucks idle.” • Replacement cost – A replacement DPF can cost anywhere from $2,000 to $2,600 for the DPF unit alone and this doesn’t include labor. If you choose to replace the DPF yourself, there is a core On the drivers side of the engine at the intake manifold is where the EGR throttle control valve is located and on top of the EGR throttle control valve is the EGR valve

charge for your old unit and you will not find any from a salvage yard. Note: A salvage yard is not allowed to sell a used DPF.

Life Support There are some steps to take which will extend the life of the DPF. First of all, make sure to use ULSD (Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel). As of 2007, ULSD will only contain 15 ppm sulfur content compared to 500 ppm in previous years. By running the recommended ULSD, PM will be reduced. The next thing is to use the proper engine oil. By running the recommended engine oil, soot will be reduced in the exhaust. Last, don’t be afraid to get your

truck out on the open road and run it hard ever once in a while. Get the engine and exhaust system hot and cleaned out and keep idling to a minimum. To keep things even cleaner in the exhaust system, there are two oxygen sensors mounted before and after the DPF. The ECM uses these oxygen sensors much like the ones found in a gasoline engine. The ECM will control pulse width modulations of the injectors based on oxygen content in the exhaust. This way proper air/fuel ratio can be obtained for cleaner combustion. Another thing you may notice when inspecting the exhaust system is a small box with some hoses that is mounted on the side of the transmission housing. This is called the DPS (Differential Pressure Sensor). This is used by the ECM to determine the exhaust gas pressures from the DPF. The two pressure sensors that are mounted before and after the DPF are linked to the DPS. The DPS receives inputs from the pressure sensors to be Oxygen sensors are placed in the exhaust system for fuel optimization by the engine management system. 19

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DODGE The differential pressure sensor used for determining soot load in the DPF is mounted on the side of the transmission on the drivers side.

used by the ECM to help determine the load condition of the DPF to know when to regenerate. Also, be advised that the exhaust downpipe from the turbo to the DPF has changed. The new downpipe is double-wall insulated that is used to retain as much heat as possible in the exhaust system. The heat retention is used to aid in getting the DOC up to operating temperature. Heat loss has to be kept to a minimum in the exhaust system for the after treatment processes to work correctly.

understand their function for the EGR system. The EGR system in a diesel can be quite complex. It’s not just a matter of opening a valve and letting the exhaust gas in and hope

order to cool incoming exhaust gas. Exhaust gas is only introduced into the engine at certain times when a certain criteria has been meet such as engine speed, mph, coolant temperature, etc. So, the engine is not going to be opening the EGR valve all the time, just when it is needed. There is a time where the EGR is going to be needed and that is when the DPF is going to regenerate itself. Remember as mentioned before, when the DPF regenerates, the EGR is opened to increase exhaust gas temperature. When this process takes place,

EGR Improvements When you open the hood, you will find that a lot of things have changed under there as well. The 6.7L looks a little similar, but has changed quite a bit due to the fact of the EGR system. (Note: I addressed the addition of EGR for the 6.7L earlier in this article.) Now let’s focus on the components that are in place for the EGR to function properly. The EGR system is what introduces exhaust gas back into the intake manifold to enter the combustion chamber to be burned again. By introducing exhaust gas back into the intake manifold, NOx emissions are reduced. At the mouth of the intake you will find several components that need to be explained so you will 20 November 2012 | Rebuilding Tech Guide

In order to control harmful emissions, elaborate exhaust systems are mandated for diesel engines to help remove harmful contaminates.

for the best. On top of the exhaust manifold is mounted an EGR cooler. In order for the exhaust gas to be introduced into the engine, it must be cooled. Exhaust temperature in a diesel engine while towing can become pretty intense. Temperatures in the range of 1,000°F are not uncommon. The cooler is very similar to the function of an engines radiator. Coolant from the engine circulates through the cooler, which has flues for the coolant to pass in

we really don’t want to cool the exhaust gas with the EGR cooler. So, Cummins came up with the EGR cooler bypass valve. The cooler bypass valve is located in front of the EGR cooler. The valve is cable actuated by a servo motor that will move the cables which will open and close the valve. During the regeneration process, the cooler is bypassed so hot exhaust gas can be introduced into the combustion chamber to heat the exhaust system to aid in regeneration. When looking at the front of the engine, you will notice right

17-c3 Dodge 11/20/13 9:50 AM Page c3

design. The major change is with the bore and the stroke, but most of these parts will interchange as some owners are integrating the crankshaft out of a 6.7 into their 5.9L for a stroker project. There is one important Cast thing to mention about the Chilled injectors used in the 6.7L. If Crossfor some reason the situation From the 5.9L to the 6.7, there are major changes which are mostly related to the arises where one or all of the addition of emissions components. However, the 6.7L contains over 60% of the injectors need to be replaced components used in the 5.9L. in the engine, exercise caution. The process of changing off the mall exhaust pipe that mist. The oil and gasses are filthe injector is the same as the runs in front of the engine tered where the oil is collected 5.9L, but the problem is the injecaround the front of the valve and sent back to the crankcase tors have changed. cover. and the gasses then travel At the base of the injector The pipe routes from the EGR through a tube connected to the where the electrical coil meets the cooler bypass valve to the EGR fresh air side of the turbo. body of the injector is stamped a valve at the intake manifold. This six digit alphanumeric code. This Hard Parts pipe carries the exhaust gas to is the correction code that identiFrom the 5.9L to the 6.7L, there the EGR valve. fies the injectors calibration also Remember, the EGR valve will are major changes which are known as an IQA code. mostly related to the addition of open only when commanded by This code has to be entered emissions components. However, into the engine’s ECM in order for the ECM after a certain criteria the 6.7L contains over 60 percent has been met. Once the EGR the engine to run properly. Withof the components used in the valve opens, the exhaust gas enout the proper code in the ECM, 5.9L. ters the intake manifold through the engine will operate poorly The engine still utilizes the an EGR throttle control valve. from the wrong fuel calibration. The throttle valve is basically a same 24-valve design cylinder This will have to be performed by butterfly in a housing that is con- head with high combustion the dealer that has Cummins chambers in the pistons. trolled by a DC motor. The throtlicensed software. ■ In 2009, the connecting rods tle valve will move to help draw became what is known as the exhaust gas into the intake cracked-cap design. This is a manifold. process where the When the intake system is connecting rod is under boost from the turbo, the made using powder valve will partially close in order metallurgy. Forged to slow down the intake of fresh steel rods were air from the turbo and “siphon” used from 1987 to in the exhaust gas. One more system that needs to 2009. The connecting be mentioned is the Closed Crankcase Ventilation (CCV) sys- rod bearings and the main bearings tem. On the 5.9L engine, are the same sizes crankcase vapors passed through for both engines. a filter on top of the valve cover and then through a tube to the at- The only difference in connecting rod mosphere. For the 6.7L, the bearings will be if crankcase vapors are re-introthe connecting rod duced into the engine to be is cracked-cap deburned in the combustion sign. process. The journal size The CCV system is located on top of the valve cover, which cap- is the same but the bearings change in tures blow-by gasses and oil Displacement Compression ratio Bore Stroke Firing Order Cylinder Block Crankshaft Cylinder Head Pistons Camshaft Connecting Rods


5.9 liter, 359 cubic inches 17.2:1(High Output) 4.02˝ 4.72˝ 1-5-3-6-2-4 Cast Iron Induction Hardened Forged Cast Iron Aluminum Ductile Iron Rolled Alloy

6.7 liter, 408 cubic inches 17.3:1 4.21˝ 4.88˝ 1-5-3-6-2-4 Cast Iron Induction Hardened Forged Cast Iron Cast Aluminum Chilled Ductile Iron Cross-Rolled Alloy 21

C4 EPWI_Layout 1 11/20/13 9:48 AM Page c4

Circle 104 on Reader Service Card for more information

Engine Builder, November 2013  
Engine Builder, November 2013  

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