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>Vintage V8: Cadillac Engines

>Oil Specs

>Valvetrain Selection


Weighing In on


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Contents 02.14

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Balancing Work

Choosing The Right Oil Motor oil can make or break an engine. It lubricates the main and rod bearings, cylinders, pistons and rings, the camshaft and valve train. It helps cool the bearings, pistons and valve springs, and helps keep the engine clean. When it comes to choosing a motor oil for a given engine application, you have a lot of options from which to choose. Tech editor Larry Carley advises you on the oils best suited for your engine jobs. ....................................14

In high-revving engines, any imbalance multiplies exponentially as the rpms go up. Whether you're building a stock engine, a high-revving performance engine or a slow-turning diesel engine, you can't overlook the importance of balance. The idea behind balancing is to equalize reciprocating forces as much as possible.........42

Vintage V8s - Cadillac For more than a century, the name Cadillac has been synonymous with performance, style and passion. In September 1914, Cadillac introduced the first V8 engine in a series produced, mass market automobile. Find out what has separated Cadillac all these years...........................24

42 Columns


Editor’s Page ................................10 By Ed Sunkin Historically Speaking

Tales From WD ............................48 By Dave Sutton The Pieces of a Mopar Performance Plan

Tech Talk ......................................51

Valvetrain Components

Rebuilding Liberty

Selecting the right components to make a race-worthy valvetrain is crucial to assembling an engine that will last – and win. Weakness in any part of the valvetrain will equal a performance engine catastrophe. Discover the tips to creating a high-performance valvetrain. ............................36


DEPARTMENTS Events & Industry News........................................4 Shop Solutions ....................................................12 Supplier Spotlight ................................................55 Cores/Classifieds/Ad Index ..................................58 NASCAR Performance ..........................................60 ENGINE BUILDER founded Oct. 1964 Copyright 2014 Babcox Media Inc.

ENGINE BUILDER (ISSN 1535-041X) (February 2014, Volume 50, Number 02): Published monthly by Babcox Media Inc., 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333 U.S.A. Phone (330) 670-1234, FAX (330) 670-0874. Periodical postage paid at Akron, OH 44333 and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to ENGINE BUILDER, 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333. A limited number of complimentary subscriptions are available to individuals who meet the qualification requirements. Call (330) 670-1234, Ext. 275, to speak to a subscription services representative or FAX us at (330) 670-5335. Paid Subscriptions are available for non-qualified subscribers at the following rates: U.S.: $69 for one year. Canada: $89 for one year. Canadian rates include GST. Ohio residents add current county sales tax. Other foreign rates/via air mail: $129 for one year. Payable in advance in U.S. funds. Mail payment to ENGINE BUILDER, P.O. Box 75692, Cleveland, OH 44101-4755. VISA, MasterCard or American Express accepted. Publisher reserves the right to reject any subscription that does not conform to his standards or buying power coverage. Advertising which is below standard is refused. Opinions in signed articles and advertisements are not necessarily those of this magazine or its publisher. Diligent effort is made to ensure the integrity of every statement. Unsolicited manuscripts must be accompanied by return postage.

2 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

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Industry News

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Industry Events March 6, 2014 HRIA Education Day and Training Detroit, MI or 909-978-6690

March 15, 2014 AERA Tech & Skills Conference Hosted by Liberty Engine Parts, Louisville, KY Detroit, MI

March 26-28, 2014 2014 Hotrod & Restoration Trade Show Indiana Convention Center, Indianapolis, IN or 800-560-9941

May 16, 2014 AERA Tech & Skills Conference Hosted by Sunnen, St. Louis, MO

For more industry events, visit our website at or subscribe to

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Meet the Beetles:VW Classic Celebrates 65 Years in U.S. Last month, the Volkswagen Beetle celebrated 65 years since it first arrived in the United States in January 1949. That year, a Volkswagen “Type 1,” or Beetle, was shipped to New York City by Ben Pon, Sr., a Dutch businessman and the world’s first official Volkswagen importer. That car – and another, subsequent Beetle – found buyers the same year, marking the first time that Volkswagen vehicles were sold in the United States. A cultural touchstone for an entire generation and one of the most iconic cars in the world, the Beetle led to the establishment of the first Volkswagen of America headquarters in Englewood Cliffs, NJ, in October 1955. In 65 years, Volkswagen has grown from selling two Beetle models in the U.S. to a brand that offers 11 different models that are sold by 644 dealers. In 2013, Volkswagen sold 407,704 vehicles, its second straight year of selling more than 400,000 vehicles and the first time this feat had been achieved since the 1970s. By the mid-1950s, more than 35,000 Beetle models were on the road, and by 1960, nearly 300,000 had found buyers. Americans were not only drawn to the affordability and practicality of the early Beetle, but were so charmed by its unique design, its size and its

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Industry News fuel economy, that they’d forged an emotional bond with the cars. “Since its arrival in the United States 65 years ago, the Volkswagen Beetle has preserved its reputation of being more than just a car, but a symbol of uniqueness and freedom,” said Michael Horn, president and CEO of Volkswagen Group of America. “The Beetle has become part of the cultural fabric in America and we are proud that its rich heritage continues to live with fans around the States.”

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PERA Sets Dates For Annual Fall Conference The Production Engine Remanufacturers Association (PERA) will hold its 69th annual Fall Conference Sept.17-19 at the Seelbach Hilton Louisville, Louisville, KY. The conference programs are devised to stress the importance of good communication between all levels of the industry, as well as the general public, and continue the association’s mission on the necessity for continual education in order to remain alert to changing conditions in the international business scene. The conference is expected to include a tour of Jasper Engine and Transmission. More information on the PERA conference will be provided on the Engine Builder website and in print as it becomes available. If you’d like to make suggestions on program content, contact Ed Kiebler at or Dave Monyhan at For questions regarding PERA, visit

Ward’s 10 Best Engines of 2014 From custom paint jobs to opentop Dune Buggy bodies, the Beetle fit perfectly into the counter-culture of the 1960s. By 1968, as many as 423,008 Beetle vehicles a year were being sold in the United States. In 1977, the last “Type 1” Beetle rolled off the production line in Wolfsburg, Germany. Volkswagen introduced the New Beetle in 1998, a vehicle that paid styling homage to its predecessor, although its engine was water cooled rather than air cooled, and mounted at the front rather than at the rear. Redesigned for just the second time in history, the third-generation Beetle entered the U.S. market in 2011. While staying true to its roots, today’s Beetle would be unrecognizable to buyers in the 1950s, thanks to its combination of powerful and fuel-efficient engines, sure-footed handling, and myriad technology and safety features. 6 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

Penton’s WardsAuto has named three diesels, a tiny 3-cylinder turbo and a battery-electric vehicle to its annual 2014 Ward’s 10 Best Engines, illustrating the importance of fuel economy as automakers develop and market advanced new powertrains. This is the 20th year for Ward’s 10 Best Engines, a competition created to recognize outstanding powertrain achievement, world-class technologies and those rare engines or electric propulsion systems that are so compelling they help sell the vehicle. The winners, which include eight engines using direct fuel injection and six with forced induction, emerged from a field of 44 powertrains evaluated by WardsAuto editors in October and November. To be eligible, a new or significantly improved engine or propulsion system must be on sale in a production vehicle during the first quarter of 2014. Base price is capped

at $60,000, up from $55,000 last year. The Ward’s 10 Best Engines competition pits the latest engines available in the U.S. market against the returning winners from the previous year. Usually, at least four engines that won the prior year return to the winner’s circle. This year, only two are returning winners: Honda’s 3.5L V6 and Audi’s 3.0L supercharged V6. “We weren’t looking to throw the bums out, as they might say about an election. We were just really impressed with a flood of new powertrains,” says WardsAuto World Editor-in-Chief, Drew Winter. “What was great yesterday might be less impressive tomorrow because engine technology is changing so rapidly.” The 2014 Ward’s 10 Best Engines are: • 3.0L Supercharged DOHC V6 Audi AG (Audi S5) (BELOW) • 3.0L Turbodiesel DOHC I6 BMW AG (BMW 535d) • 6.2L OHV V8 - General Motors Co. (Chevrolet Corvette Stingray) • 2.0L Turbodiesel DOHC I4 General Motors Co. (Chevrolet Cruze Diesel) • 83-kW Electric Motor – Chrysler Group LLC (Fiat 500e EV) • 1.0L EcoBoost DOHC I3 - Ford Motor Co. (Ford Fiesta) • 3.5L SOHC V6 - Honda Motor Co. Ltd. (Honda Accord)

• 2.7L DOHC H6 - Porsche AG (Porsche Cayman) • 3.0L Turbodiesel DOHC V6 Chrysler Group LLC (Ram 1500) • 1.8L Turbocharged DOHC I4 Volkswagen AG (Volkswagen Jetta).

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Industry News

Permatex Introduces New Corporate Logo Permatex, a leading innovator in chemical technology for automotive maintenance and repair, has developed and launched a new logo for its Permatex brand. The new design will be used as both a graphic for its corporate identity and as a logo mark for its product packaging and marketing communications.

The new logo update continues to use the same well-known corporate colors of blue and orange, the ubiquitous Permatex swirl and a font that is somewhat similar, but a refresh to the current typography. In addition to product packaging, the new logo is being incorporated into all marketing materials, including website, social media, cataloging and other forms of communications. Permatex retail partners and media outlets may use the new logo immediately as needed.

IPD Joins BU Drive USA in Turbocharger Venture Industrial Parts Depot (IPD), LLC of Torrance, CA, and BU Drive USA, Inc., a BU Drive group company (BU Drive GmbH is based in Germany), have announced the creation of a joint venture (JV) company named IPD Turbocharging Systems. This new organization will focus on sales and service for the distribution of BorgWarner, Holset, IHI, and Mitsubishi turbochargers, and will provide IPD Remanufactured Turbos. Russell Kneipp, president of IPD, said, “Turbochargers are a core component for the servicing requirements of IPD’s global distribution network, and are an ideal complement to IPD’s growing product portfolio. IPD has been involved for decades in the turbocharging industry, and this new JV with BU Drive USA (a technology

and quality driven company) provides IPD with the opportunity to offer our customers a range of turbochargers with the level of service and quality that they demand.” Jack Lorimer, CEO of BU Drive USA, added, “The combination of BU’s turbocharger and remanufacturing technical expertise worldwide, (see photo to the right), along with IPD’s sales, distribution, manufacturing and quality processes, is a recipe for success in the critical and complicated business of turbocharging.”

Washington Blvd., Whittier, CA 90606. The engineering, assembly and sales departments will also remain at that location while some of the manufacturing will be moved to the BDL plant at 5500 E. La Palma Ave., Anaheim CA 92807. The Belt Drives facilities include their own aluminum foundry, over 50 CNC mills and lathes, gearcutting department and a rubber

Blower Drive Service Sold to Steven Yetzke’s Belt Drives Ltd. Blower Drive Service (BDS), the Southern California manufacturer and distributor of superchargers and supercharger components and historically a leader in supercharger components for street driven vehicles, has been acquired by another Southern California company with ties to the supercharger industry, Belt Drives Limited (BDL). “I’m proud to announce that my company has come to an agreement with the Railsback family, who have owned BDS since its inception, to buy their company,” Belt Drives Ltd. owner, Steven Yetzke said. “BDL has been making supercharger pulleys for many years and we are heavily involved with and support drag racing. We have sponsored several Top Fuel bikes through the years so this acquisition made perfect sense for me, my company and BDS.” The sale won’t interrupt the dayto-day business of BDS. Yetzke said Norma Iskenderian, who has been managing the BDS company for more than two decades, will stay in her present position and Craig Railsback will also stay on and assist with special projects. BDS will continue to do business from its current location at 12140 Circle 7 for more information 7

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Industry News manufacturing facility that includes state of the art CAD design and rapid prototyping.

NADM/DIESEL Motorsports 2014 Schedule Set The National Association of Diesel Motorsports is in its eighth year of providing sanctioned diesel sled pulling and drag racing events across the United States. Diesel Motorsports and NADM has grown quickly with events now all over the country. Many state, regional clubs/associations and diesel promoters are putting diesel

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• July 19: East Coast Diesel Nationals – Drags, Pull, Dyno, ShowNshine – Numidia Dragway, Numidia, PA • August 2: West Coast Shootout – Spokane Raceway/Drag Racing – Spokane, WA • Aug 15/16: Industrial Injection’s Rocky Mountain Diesel Shootout – Drags, Dyno, ShowNShine, Sled Pull – Friday night drags at Rocky Mountain Raceway, Saturday activities at Heber City/Wasatch County Fairgrounds – Salt Lake City/Heber City, UT • September 26, 27: Buckeye Diesel Blast – Drags, pull, dyno, ShowNshine, tractors, trucks, semis – Dragway 42, West Salem, OH For more information: www.DIESELmotorsports.US

Gumout Partners with Top Fuel’s Leah Pritchett and Dote Racing

events in many different rural towns. Many of NADM’s 60-plus events are the affiliate events that local and state clubs host throughout the country. Flowmaster Performance Exhaust returns as the VIP Title sponsor this year among many others that have been with NADM for many years. The following is the schedule and sponsor list for 2014 as of February 3. Diesel Motorsports Schedule • March 7/8: Texas Diesel Spring Break – drags, pull, dyno, ShowNshine, tractors, trucks, semis – Denton, TX • April 26: Outdoor Expo – Sled pull, Dyno, ShowNShine and Outdoor Expo Show – Heber City, UT • June 19: EFILive Powertour – Multiple Locations to Muncie, IN • June 20/21: Haisley Machine Thunder in Muncie – Drags,Pull, Dyno, ShowNshine Friday Night 21: Muncie Dragway Saturday 22: Gaston Lion’s Fairground – Muncie, Indiana • July 17 EFILive Powertour – Multiple Locations to Bloomsburg, PA 8 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

Gumout Performance Additives has announced the sponsorship with young drag racing star, Leah Pritchett and the Dote Racing Top Fuel dragster team, for the 2014 NHRA Mello Yello Drag Racing Series. Gumout, offering automotive performance products for nearly 70 years, returns to the NHRA professional drag racing ranks with the partnership with the Ohio-based Top Fuel squad and the talented

California native, Pritchett behind the wheel of the Gumout/Dote Racing 8,000-horsepower, nitroburning dragster. Gumout became a drag racing staple in the 1970s and 1980s with

the legendary “Grumpy’s Toy” Pro Stock car campaigned by Hall of Famer, Bill “Grumpy” Jenkins. Gumout expanded its motorsports activities following the Jenkins association with a variety of competitions including circle track racing, road racing, boat racing and off-road racing. Pritchett, 25, grew up near the famed Pomona Raceway in Redlands, CA, and competed in her first drag racing event at Pomona at age 8 in the NHRA Junior Dragster program. The Cal State University, San Bernardino communications graduate worked her way through the drag racing ranks including driving in the Pro Mod division and Nostalgia Funny Cars before entering the Top Fuel division in 2013. Pritchett, who recently married Torrence Racing Top Fuel car chief, Gary Pritchett, was an NHRA Division 7 champion at age nine, NHRA Wicked West Coast champion at age 16 and was the first woman driver to break the five-second barrier in a Nostalgia Funny Car. She also won the NHRA Hot Rod Heritage Series championship and scored multiple victories in the Pro Mod class including wins at Charlotte and Las Vegas. The Dote Family, a three generation racing team, began in drag racing in the 1980s and is currently operated by Mike Dote, and his wife, Connie. The Dote Racing team joined the Top Fuel ranks in 2009 and is focused on creating a top caliber effort in 2014 . Dote Racing, led by crew chief Doug Kuch, is based in Monroe, OH, and hired Pritchett for the 2013 NHRA season opener in Pomona. In just her second Top Fuel race, she upset reigning NHRA Mello Yello Top Fuel champ Shawn Langdon in Phoenix, and at Topeka, she advanced to the semi-finals with victories over Top Fuel race winners Anton Brown and Doug Kalitta.

Mopar Supplies GEN3 5.7L HEMIs to King Of Hammers Mopar will be testing its mettle in the southern California desert at the 2014 Griffin King of The Hammers, an event built around what many con-

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Industry News sider the toughest one-day, off-road race in the world that combines desert racing and rock crawling. Organized by the ULTRA4 Racing Series, the week-long event is held every February on public lands in Johnson Valley, CA in an off-highway vehicle area known as “The Hammers.” Competitors, divided into four distinct categories, race on a 100+ mile course that runs over terrain that includes sandy washes dotted with creosote bushes, flat dry lakebeds, sand dunes and, of course, the worldfamous rock canyons and trails from

which it derives its name. Competing in the Every Man Challenge race category, which allows off-road enthusiasts a chance to race their stock and modified stock vehicles, Mopar’s GEN3 5.7L HEMI crate engine will power the six vehicles competing in a newly created spec class in which each entry is outfitted with the same equipment. These unique “4700 Spec Class” 4×4 vehicles have a custom tube frame design based loosely on a Jeep Wrangler. The 5.7 crate engines Mopar provided are the off-road race version of the recently announced Scat Package performance upgrades for the Challenger and Charger. The event serves as a proving ground for the engine, set-up and parts.

picked for their high-performance Cup Series. trucks, from Chevrolet Performance This marks a reunion of sorts, as engines, to American Eagle wheels Valvoline was a team sponsor from and Goodyear tires. 1993-95, supplying lubricant Clues and updates will be released technology that contributed to via Valvoline’s social media channels Hendrick Motorsports’ first Cup – with the hashtags #TeamJimmie or championship with Gordon in 1995. #TeamDaleJr – to help participants Inspired by the brand’s most revisit and fine-tune their online truck recent “Valvoline 140” campaign, the builds along the way. Reinvention Project celebrates the Both drivers said they were excited advancement that has taken place in to participate in the Reinvention the more than 140 years since Project. introducing motor oil in 1866. “Having the flexibility to rebuild For more information, and and reinvent nearly every part of my complete program rules, visit shop truck from the ground up is ■ such a cool experience,”said Johnson, driver of the No. 48 Chevrolet SS. “The finished product is going to be second-toThe Indianapolis Motor Speedway will introduce its none,” added Earnhardt first vintage car race June 6-8 when a large field of Jr., driver of the No. 88 amateur drivers take to the road course and try out Chevrolet SS. the oval for the historic three-day event. Valvoline is the There will be 12 vintage racing classes featured by Official Lubricants the SportsCar Vintage Racing Association (SVRA), and IMS has made provisions for a special marquee Supplier of Hendrick class. Participating in the top category will most Motorsports and will be likely be former Indy 500 drivers, or other pros who featured as a major have competed in the various divisions featured at associate sponsor of the the Brickyard. Reports say that some cars from the team’s Chevrolet SS race Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame Museum cars in 2014. may be taken from their display for the event. In addition to SVRA drivers vary by demographic but are primarily Earnhardt Jr. and owners of high-end collectible race cars who race at Johnson, Sprint Cup such venues as Sebring, Road America and Watkins Series drivers Kasey Glen. This will be their first chance at Indy. Kahne and Jeff Gordon will also use Valvoline oil in their race cars. Hendrick Motorsports uses a specially designed Valvoline racing formulation in its Chevrolet R-07 racing engines in the elite Sprint

Dale Earnhardt Jr. and Jimmie Johnson team up on Reinvention Project In February, car enthusiasts began to put their know-how to the test in an attempt to guess the various features of Earnhardt Jr.’s and Johnson’s creations. A virtual garage hosted at invites engine builders and consumers to select the parts that the drivers handCircle 9 for more information 9

Editor’s Page

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History in the Making The 1964 Shelby Cobra Coupe Becomes First Federally-Registered Historic Vehicle I enjoy history. And I’m guessing that those in the engine performance and rebuilding industry like you have an affinity toward history as well. It could be It was the first of six such cars why many of you are in the built by Shelby American between business of bringing back to life 1964 and ‘65, and the only one built engines that have accumulated by hand at Carroll Shelby’s Venice, miles of roadway travel on family CA, shop. vacations, or set records on banked Peter Brock of Brock Racing tracks, quarter-miles, dry trails of a Enterprises and the designer of the Baja race or across the Salt Flats. car, said having his Shelby Cobra It’s not just a job to you, but a Daytona Coupe design recognized calling, as you are the one whose as the very first car to be included talents of rebuilding powerplants in the permanent archives of the allows the next generation of Library of Congress is a great honor automotive enthusiasts see a and the thrill of a lifetime. vintage Model T chug up next to a “I’m very proud that the Shelby supercharged muscle car at the Cobra Daytona Coupe helped lead Woodward Dream Cruise along the way to American’s first win in metropolitan Detroit, or park sidethe FIA International by-side at a vehicle restoration Manufacturer’s GT Championship show in Indianapolis. in 1965,” said Brock. It seems like each month, “The Coupe’s revolutionary another vehicle or auto design contributed to standards for manufacturer is celebrating some automotive aerodynamic efficiency. sort of historical milestone that According to Mark Gessler, piques our interest. In fact, this president of the Historic Vehicle month, we are running an article Association (HVA), this achievement from John Gunnell on a century of is a proud moment for our industry. the Cadillac V8 engines. “It has been nearly 120 years Recently, another automotive since the first automobiles were historical news item crossed my desk – the 1964 Shelby Cobra Daytona Coupe (serial number CSX2287) has become the first automobile to become a federally registered historic car! The Shelby Cobra, part of the collection at the Simeon Foundation Automotive Museum in Philadelphia, has an extensive race history, competing at The first test drive of the Daytona, Sebring, Reims, Spa- Shelby Cobra Daytona Coupe Francorchamps, Oulton Park CSX2287 at Riverside (Historic TT and Tour de France. Vehicle Association)

10 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

EDITOR Ed Sunkin

produced in the U.S. During that time, we have implemented national programs to recognize our historic buildings, airplanes, spacecraft and vessels but not our historic automobiles. Through our work, we hope to celebrate the contribution of the industry’s pioneers, the vehicles they produced and the preservation efforts necessary to ensure future generations appreciate the unique roll of the automobile in shaping America.” The National Park Service, which administers the Heritage Documentation Programs, worked with Gessler and the HVA to develop criteria for automobiles to meet to be included on the Historic American Engineering Record. Gessler said his organization is working on adding more vehicles to the federally documented history records, such as the 1907 Thomas Flyer, the original Ford Pygmy, a 1918 Cadillac Model 57 and the first Meyers Manx. I don’t know about you, but I’m looking forward to discovering when these vehicles make history – again. ■

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Upgrade Your Engine Stands Most of the engine stands in my shop were manufactured offshore. Though they are pretty good, in just a few minutes you can increase stability and load capacity. I simply MIG weld all the joints where the legs, main body and uprights join. Another quick tip is when mounting in-line six blocks on the stands, especially Cummins 5.9L and 6.7L, I make slight modifications to the mounting head and now I mount to the side of these blocks instead of the bell housing end. Darin Driscoll Automotive Machine & Supply Inc. Fort Collins, CO

Resurfaced Head Deburring Tool I found a great tool for deburring combustion chambers after resurfacing cylinder heads. I took a common chainsaw sharpening file, removed the “rat tail” handle, chamfered and radiused this end for a comfortable fit in my hand. I also radiused the business end so it would not do any damage if it touches the freshly machined valve seats inside the chamber of the head. Now I have a tool that will quickly and easily deburr and detail around the circumference of any combustion chamber after surfacing without running the risk of nicking a seat, or having a cartridge roll scratch the freshly machined surface of the head. Jake Sampson Sampson Racing Engines (SRE) Saint Paul, MN

Torque Plate Honing GM LS-Series Engines We have found that due to the length of the head bolts and the fact that they finish approximately 1-1/2 inches from the mains, considerable bore distortion will occur if torque plates are not used when finish honing the GM LS-series engines. We use two torque plates and all 15 bolts per side fully torqued. We 12 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

routinely find 0.0025” cylinder distortion if we don’t use both plates and all the bolts in a finished form. When you consider that an LS-3 has a piston-to-wall clearance spec of 0.0008” you can see why a straight and accurate bore finish is critical. We also line-hone the blocks with two torque plates and bolts installed since we have measured 0.0005” distortion in the hosing bore. This might be alright for a street car, but in a race motor, it is something to consider. Sylvain Tremblay Les Ateliers de Moteur Competi-tech Inc. Quebec, Canada

Magnetic Catch Mats Small valve locks, especially those for obscure import applications, can be difficult to get into place and inevitably, if you’re not careful, can pop out and easily get lost on or under your work station. Magnetic sheeting is available in one foot increments and can be used to make a counter mats (2’ x 3’) and floor mats (2’ x 4’) that can be put down around your head assembly bench to help catch that lock you might otherwise lose. The material is not expensive and available online. This is a cheap investment considering what you might pay for a lock and the freight to get it to you. Not to mention all the time wasted in searching and the holdup on the job. Terry Kiehnau Terrys Rebuilding LLC Green Bay, WI

Silicon and Glass Beads Don’t Mix Many times you will have an aluminum head with some left over silicon gasket on the surface. Attempting to bead blast the silicon off will only result in a damaged cylinder head. The aluminum will continue to be worn away by the abrasive glass bead while it bounces off the silicon. When you finally remove the

silicon, you will be left with a worn aluminum surface that seems raised where the silicon once was. Clean all silicon off the before attempting to glass bead any aluminum part. Jeffrey Myers MAR Automotive Inc. Philadelphia, PA

Changes in Piston Design Last month in the January issue, we discussed changes in piston ring design. Changes in rings also mean changes in the pistons they ride on. A century ago, you could find cast iron pistons in your motor. Aluminum soon proved to be a lighter weight and more durable material to cast pistons from. Pistons didn’t really change much for the next 60 years. The new lightweight, fuel efficient, electronically controlled engines have brought many changes to piston and ring design that allow some of today’s engines to stay on the road for well over 200,000 trouble-free miles. Lighter Pistons - Reduced weight by reducing compression height, or the distance from the piston pin to the top of the piston. - A reduced section thickness produces a lighter piston. - A smaller or shorter skirt and less contact area also reduces a piston’s weight. Hard Anodized Top Ring

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Grooves - Hardening the ring groove reduces wear. - Eliminates micro-welding between piston and ring. Reduced Ring Groove Back Clearance - Improves ring stability and reduces blow-by. Narrower Ring Grooves - A shorter compression height necessitates narrow rings to fit between the pin and piston crown. - Narrower rings allow for less tension or drag. - A smaller ring pack is a lighter ring pack. Engine Pro Technical Committee with thanks to Hastings Piston Ring Co.

Shop Solutions – The Power of Knowledge Engine Builder and Engine Pro present Shop Solutions in each issue of Engine Builder Magazine and at The feature is intended to provide machine shop owners and engine technicians the opportunity to share their knowledge to benefit the entire industry and their own shops. Those who submit Shop Solutions that are published are awarded a free one year membership to the Engine Rebuilders Council and a prepaid $100 Visa gift card.

Engine Pro is a nationwide network of distributors that warehouse a full line of internal engine components for domestic and import passenger car, light truck, heavy duty, industrial, marine, agricultural and performance applications. They also produce engine parts under the Engine Pro name that offer premium features at an affordable price.

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Choosing the ‘Right’ Oil Motor Oil Can Make or Break an Engine BY LARRY CARLEY, TECHNICAL EDITOR


very engine builder knows the importance of using not only high-quality motor oil in an engine, but also an oil that has the right additive package and viscosity for the application. This is especially important in performance applications where extremes of heat and pressure can push many ordinary motor oils to the brink. Motor oil can make or break an engine. It lubricates the main and rod bearings, cylinders, pistons and rings, the camshaft and valve train. It helps cool the bearings, pistons and valve springs, and in turbochargers it keeps the shaft bearings alive. Oil also helps disperse and neutralize combustion byproducts and moisture that end up in the crankcase, and it helps keep the engine clean. The additives that are used in motor oils can vary quite a bit as can the base stocks that are used to formulate any given motor oil. Additives make up about 20 to 25% of a quart of oil. Additives help boost the performance level of the base stock oil, and include Viscosity Index Improvers that allow multi-viscosity oil to flow more easily at cold temperatures while retaining film strength and viscosity at high temperatures. The blend of base stocks and additives is what distinguishes one motor oil from another. So don’t think all motor oils are more or less the same. Even motor oils that have the same viscosity rating and service ratings may perform quite differently depending on the situation. 14 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

Types of Oil When it comes to choosing a motor oil for a given engine application, you have a lot of options from which to choose. There are conventional motor oils made from refined petroleum, various types of “synthetic” oils, “synthetic-blends” and “semi-synthetics.” Synthetic oils are typically made up of extremely refined or “hydro-isomerized” oils, called Group III oils by the API (American Petroleum Institute). For extremely demanding applications blends of “PAO” (Polyalphaolefin) and “POE” (polyol ester) base oils are used, which are API Groups IV and V, respectively. Synthetics provide the best lubrication at both ends of the temperature spectrum, flowing more easily at cold temperatures while resisting

The additives that are used in motor oils can vary quite a bit as can the base stocks that are used to formulate any given motor oil.

viscosity breakdown, oil consumption, oxidation and sludging at high temperatures. Synthetic-blends and semisynthetics are a more affordable alternative to a full synthetic, and typically contain less than 30% synthetic oil by volume. Blends help bolster the performance properties of conventional oil, and are a step up from an ordinary Group II base oil. In fact, most of today’s “conventional” 5W-20 and 5W-30 multi-viscosity oils are actually blends and contain a certain amount of Group III oil. As for the various additives in oil, many are necessary to achieve the minimum API requirements for multi-viscosity rating, wear resistance, cleanliness and so on. API rates motor oils differently if they are

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API Service Symbol “Donut” for gasoline engines or diesel engines.

Up to Standard There is also a “donut” that shows the service rating, viscosity and fuel saving properties of the oil. The current API standard for gasoline engines since 2011 has been “SN,” which supersedes the previous “SM” rating (2010), “SL” rating (2004) and “SJ” rating (2001). All previous gasoline service ratings are now obsolete. Motor oils meeting the most current gasoline engine specifications will also have a “Starburst” on the front label. Many engine manufacturers print the Starburst in their service manuals to direct customers to the highest performing engine oils available. The current API service rating for diesel engines is “CJ-4” (introduced in 2010) which supersedes the previous “CI-4” rating (2002) and

The API “Donut” identifies oils that meet current API engine oil standards. It includes the SAE viscosity grade, API standards, and other important performance parameters met by the oil. The top of the “Donut” displays the API performance standard. The letter “S” followed by another letter (API SN) refers to oil suitable for gasoline engines, and the letter “C” followed by another letter and number (API CJ-4) refers to oil suitable for diesel engines. The center of the “Donut” shows the SAE viscosity grade. The bottom of the “Donut” tells whether the oil has resource-conserving properties when compared with a reference oil in an engine test and will be labeled as “Resource Conserving.”

“CH-4” (1998) ratings. CJ-4 oils are primarily for modern diesel engines designed to meet EPA 2010 (on-road) and Tier IV (off-road) emissions regulations. These engines burn ultra-low sulfur fuels (less than 15 PPM), have EGR systems, diesel particulate filters and many use DEF and exhaust catalysts – the previous CI-4 oils are for diesels with EGR systems. Some oils are formulated to minimize friction for better fuel economy (“energy conserving” oils). Some are formulated for longer oil drain intervals (“extended life” oils). Some are formulated to meet the special needs of older high mileage engines (“high mileage” oils that contain an extra dose of seal conditioners, dispersants and detergents). Others are formulated to provide the kind of protection demanded by high-performance engines (“street performance” oils with extra anti-wear additives and “racing oils”).

Other Engine Oils There are also specialty oils for marine engines, small aircooled engines, diesel engines, and special fuel applications such as ethanol, propane and natural gas. Don’t forget the all-important break-in oils that are formulated with no detergent to help piston rings seat quickly and with extra ZDDP (zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate) anti-wear additive to prevent the cam and lifters from scuffing. Choosing the “right” motor oil, therefore, is just as important to the longevity of the engines you build as choosing the brand and quality of all the other parts that go into your engines. Circle 16 for more information 16 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

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Which to Choose? If you assemble an engine and do the initial break-in and tuning, your control kind of oil goes in the crankcase both during the break-in and dyno sessions. If you are using a break-in oil (which you should be!), drain it after the initial break-in. Don’t leave it in for the dyno tuning. Break-in oil is for break-in only, not for tuning or driving. If you are just machining parts for a customer or leaving the final engine assembly and break-in to your customer, your customer (or his sponsor) usually decides what brand, viscosity and type of oil to use – and that may lead to problems if they choose the wrong oil. In situations like these, you should recommend a specific type of lubricant both for break-in and another for everyday driving or racing. There’s no guarantee your customer will follow your advice – unless you warranty the engine and require a certain type of oil to keep the warranty in effect. This is essentially what GM has done with their “dexos1” oil specification for 2011 and newer Chevy LS engines. Oils that meet the dexos1 performance specifications are a high-quality full synthetic that

exceeds current API SN requirements. It supersedes earlier GM specifications (such as GM6094M, GM4718M and GM-LL-A-025), and is recommended for 2010 and older GM engines as well as new ones. By requiring dexos1, GM is encouraging customers to use high-quality oil that will provide the best possible protection in their engines. GM is also requiring oil companies to license any product that claims to meet dexos1 requirements. There are some full synthetic oils on the market that do meet the dexos1 requirements, but are not labeled as such. The dexos1 specifications require additional friction modifiers to improve fuel economy, additives to control aeration (which is necessary for variable valve-timing), additives to improve oxidation, varnish, corrosion and deposit control to keep the engine clean (which also helps minimize emissions over the life of the engine), and viscosity improvers and/or base oils that resist viscosity breakdown for extended service intervals. In sort, oils that meet the dexos1 spec far exceed the requirements of most current industry oil standards. Many auto makers use synthetics

Down the Pipeline Anticipated for licensing in 2017, GF-6 will be the new automotive specification for passenger car motor oils (PCMO). The International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) is currently developing this standard. This new specification is intended to increase fuel economy, enhance oil robustness, improve wear protection and reduce engine aeration. OEMs moving towards turbocharged, direct-injection gasoline in order to meet fuel economy standards are also hoping to reduce the wear and occurrence of low-speed pre-ignition. Recent new engine designs and manufacturing technologies advocate the use of lower viscosity grades in passenger car vehicles while maintaining engine longevity. Global regulations for better fuel economy have increased both OEM and end user interest in low viscosity engine lubricants. This is evident today as we see an increase in the use of SAE 5W-20 and even SAE 0W-20 viscosity grades over the thicker SAE 10W-30 and SAE 10W-40 grades. Look for this direction in lower viscosities to continue with the introduction of the new viscosity grade in GF-6.

18 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

as the factory-fill oil in their highperformance models, and for applications where an oil reminder service light tells the vehicle owner when to change the oil. Most of these systems do not actually measure the quality of the oil in the crankcase but use a mathematical algorithm to estimate remaining oil life. The estimation is based on a variety of inputs including hours of engine operation, miles driven, ambient temperatures and so on. Oil life in many instances is also based on using high-quality synthetic oil, not an ordinary conventional oil. Under ideal driving conditions, the service light might not come on for up to 10,000 miles, 12,000 miles or longer! Because of this, it’s important to use oil that’s capable of going that kind of distance – and a high-quality, long life oil filter. Many conventional oils can go up to 7,500 miles between oil changes, though 5,000 miles is a safer interval. Pushing conventional oil beyond 7,500 miles is asking for trouble – especially if the engine has a low flow PCV system that may allow moisture and sludge to build up inside the crankcase. Chrysler 3.5L engines are notorious for sludging up for this very reason. A lot of Toyota engines have experienced similar problems.

Euro Engine Oils Like their domestic counterparts, European auto makers such as Audi, BMW, Mercedes, Porsche and VW all have their own oil requirements. The difference is many of the European requirements are engine specific rather than make or model specific. Consequently, there are a LOT of different specs to take into consideration when choosing a motor oil for a European application. The latest European standards were updated in 2012 and include three basic sets of ratings for gasoline & light-duty diesel engines, lightduty diesel with exhaust after treatment, and heavy-duty diesels. Within each of these sets are subcategories that cover different engine performance requirements:

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Oil Feature • A1/B1, A3/B3, A3/B4 & A5/B5 for various gasoline and light-duty diesel applications. • C1, C2, C3 & C4 for catalystequipped gasoline and diesel engines • E4, E6, E7 & E9 for heavy-duty diesels. Each subcategory has specific requirements for viscosity, shear stability, evaporation rates, sulfur and phosphor content, wear resistance, high and low temperature performance, sludge resistance and oxidation resistance according to the application. Using these basic standards, the European auto makers then come up with their own specs for the various engines they produce. Audi, for example, has a number of oil specifications including 501.01, 502.00, 505.00, 505.01, 504.00 & 507.00. Volkswagen has similar specifications: VW 502.00, 505.00, 505.01. Each number represents a different oil requirement. Finding all of these requirements can be a challenge, as can finding a list of “approved” oils that meet the various Euro requirements. The best place to find this kind of information is on each vehicle manufacturers’ technical service information website.

Asian Model Oil Standards A group called the International Lubricant Specification Advisory Committee (ILSAC) made up of Asian and U.S. automakers is responsible for oil performance standards for Asian nameplates. Though not exactly the same as our own API standards, the current ILSAC “GF-5” rating corresponds closely to the API “SN” rating. Motor oils that meet the Asian GF-5 specification have improved deposit protection for pistons and turbochargers, more stringent sludge control, improved fuel economy, enhanced emission control system compatibility, seal compatibility, and protection for engines using ethanol fuels such as E85. The current GF-5 standard has been in effect since 2010, and is backwards compatible for previous GF-4 and earlier ratings. 20 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

On the Shelf Most branded oil products that are found on auto parts store shelves and other retail outlets carry both the API and ILSAC ratings, plus any other vehicle manufacturer specifications they also meet. Most packaged motor oils are quality products that should perform satisfactorily for most motorists under normal driving conditions and oil change intervals. Most of the synthetic oils are suitable for performance applications, but many are NOT racing oils. Worse yet, most of commonly available brands of oil that meet current API SN and ILSAC G-5 requirements are ill-suited for use in pushrod engines that have flat tappet cams. Consequently, if you want a specialty oil, highperformance oil or racing oil, you may have to buy it direct from an aftermarket oil supplier or their local distributor. Local speed shops often carry these kinds of oils, but you usually won’t find them in your typical discount auto parts retailer.

ZDDP Reductions In recent years, the critical anti-wear additive ZDDP has been gradually reduced to help extend the life of the catalytic converter (phosphorus can contaminate the catalyst if the engine is using oil). Back in the 1980s, motor oils typically contained around 1500 PPM (parts per million) of ZDDP. In the 1990s, that was reduced to 1200 PPM, then down to around 800 PPM in 2005. That level of anti-wear additive is adequate for overhead cam engines and pushrod engines that have roller cams, but it has proved to be inadequate for engines with flat tappet cams, causing accelerated cam lobe and lifter wear – especially if stiffer valve springs are used. The demand for longer drain intervals has also caused the amount of detergent to increase, which interferes with the anti-wear protection provided by ZDDP and compounds the problem. To address this issue, numerous aftermarket suppliers now offer ZDDP crankcase additives that can be mixed with conventional or synthetic oil.

The New Diesel Oils Four years ago the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) reduced the level of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mandate fuel economy improvements for heavy-duty engines and medium-duty vehicles. New regulations would impose different fuel-efficiency targets based on the size and weight of diesel fueled on-road tractors, pickup trucks, buses, vans and service vehicles. The American Petroleum Institute (API) and the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) were tasked to develop a new commercial engine oil performance category called Proposed Category 11 (PC-11 for short). With new diesel engine advancements, new oils will address improved fuel economy, GHG emissions, improvements in oxidation stability, shear stability, resistance to aeration, and work in conjunction with biodiesel fuel. To address the issue of fuel economy and low viscosity, fuel efficient engine oils will be used. Currently, the vast majority of the U.S. market uses SAE 15W-40 oils for diesel engines, but this is likely to change over time. Currently being tested are SAE 5W-30 and SAE 10W-30 diesel motor oils. It is important to note that the regulations designed to reduce GHG emissions and mandate fuel economy improvements to the motor oil only apply at this time to onhighway and not off-highway vehicles.

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Several companies have also introduced “Hot Rod” or “Street Performance Oils” that contain higher levels of ZDDP to protect the cam and lifters (usually around 2000 PPM). Although some suppliers promote the fact that their racing or performance oil contains more ZDDP than competitive products, more isn’t necessarily better. According to some oil experts, once you get beyond 2000 PPM of ZDDP, additional ZDDP doesn’t really provide much additional protection and can accelerate acidification and sludging.

Choosing a Viscosity All multi-viscosity motor oils have a two-digit designation. The first number in a multi-viscosity rating refers to the oil’s cold flow characteristics while the second number refers to its hot flow characteristics. Thus, a 5W-20 oil acts like a straight 5W oil for easier cold weather cranking and lubrication of critical upper valve train components, and maintains its viscosity when hot, like a straight 30W oil for good oil film strength and oil pressure. Most late model engines are factory filled with multi-viscosity 5W-20 or 5W-30 motor oil, and some (mostly imports) require 5W-40, 0W20 or 0W-30. It’s important to follow the viscosity recommendations because many of these engines have tighter bearing clearances that require low-viscosity oil for proper lubrication. Thin oils also work best with Variable Valve Timing (VVT) systems, and flow more quickly to overhead cams following a cold start. Thinner oils improve fuel economy. But if the oil is too thin, it may not provide enough film strength at high temperature to protect the bearings in an engine with increased bearing clearances. On the other hand, thicker oil is good for maintaining good oil pressure in a performance engine. But if the oil is too heavy it may interfere with the normal operation of the variable valve timing system, or be slow to circulate when a cold engine is first started. Churning 22 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

excessively thick oil can also generate heat and rob the engine of power.

Addressing GDI Needs Another factor to consider when choosing motor oil is how it may contribute to intake valve deposits. This has become a major issue on many late model Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines. Deposits can form on the intake valves in these engines because fuel is sprayed directly into the combustion chamber rather than the intake port. There’s no fuel spray to keep the valves clean so the detergents in the fuel do almost nothing in these applications. Oil drawn into the intake manifold through the PCV system combined with any oil that gets past the valve guides can oxidize and form deposits on the valves. Over time, this can interfere with airflow and cause performance problems and even misfires. A motor oil with a low volatility rating (its “NOACK” number, which is based on the ASTM D5800 lab test) is best for GDI engines because it will reduce oil consumption and help keep the PCV system and intake valves clean. Most recent European oil specifications call for a low NOACK rating (less than 15%).

Re-Refined Oils Another change in motor oils is the introduction of more “green” products that contain up to 50% or more “re-refined” motor oil. The U.S. generates about 1.8 billion gallons of waste oil a year. About 60 to 70% of the used oil that is recovered is burned as a heat source for various industrial processes, but nearly 30 percent is recycled and made into usable base stocks for lubricants and other petrochemical products. Used motor oil can be re-refined eight to 10 times, extending the useful life of a valuable waste product. Recycled motor oil is re-refined using a multi-step refining procedure that is very similar to that which is used to refine crude oil. The resulting base stock is as good or

better than comparable virgin oil, and meets the same API and OEM performance requirements when it is reformulated with the proper additives. Re-refined motor oil is being used successfully by numerous fleets, the U.S. military and ordinary motorists.

Oils For the Job The oil you ultimately decide to use (or recommend) for a particular engine will therefore depend on the engine, bearing clearances, the type of fuel it burns and how the engine will be used. For an everyday driver, most offthe-shelf oils (conventional or synthetic) should work just fine. Choose a viscosity that’s appropriate for the bearing clearances and ambient temperature range (5W-20, 5W-30 or 10W-30 for year round driving). Heavier oils (15W-40, 15W-50, 20W-50, etc.) should only be used for warm weather (65°F or higher). If you are building a performance small block or big block with a flat tappet cam, make sure the oil you choose contains extra ZDDP, or use a ZDDP additive. If the application is an all-out racing engine, choose high-quality full synthetic racing oil. Racing oils contain extra ZDDP as well as additional friction modifiers, and can handle temperatures up to 250 to 300°F (or higher). They also contain fewer detergents, which means they are fine for racing but should NOT be used for everyday driving because they get dirty fast. If the engine burns alcohol, make sure the additive package is for alcohol. For nitrous engines, use a 15W-50 with an additive package that can handle the extra fuel dilution. For any kind of endurance application (off-road), choose racing oil that can handle crankcase contaminants as well as elevated temperatures and loads. Popular viscosities include 20W-50 and 15W50. For turbo diesel engines, a high quality 5W-40 with adequate ZDDP is usually the best choice. ■

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Vintage V8s Exploring 100 Years of Eight Cylinder Cadillac Engines BY JOHN GUNNELL, CONTRIBUTING WRITER


or more than a century, the involved in building racing cars. name Cadillac has been Leland showed them the engine that synonymous with Olds had rejected and suggested performance, style and passion. they stay in. And in those early years of the They completed the first Cadillac Cadillac Automobile Company, it on Oct. 17, 1902. was a former loom mechanic – The single-cylinder Cadillac Henry Martyn Leland – who was would be built for half a dozen credited with forging the years. The first four-cylinder technologies that separated Cadillac Cadillac arrived in 1905. The Model from the other automobile 30 of 1909 had a refined four that businesses that were springing up at would advertise “1/1000th of an the turn of the 20th Century. inch is the standard measurement.” Leland was born to Quaker parents in Vermont in 1843, Cadillac 1915 V8 Type 51: and 43 years later in 1890, The 314.5-cid V8 was Leland took his family developed 100 years ago and his talents to Detroit, in 1914 and had three main MI to seek his fortune in bearings. It was first used the growing automotive in a car in the 1915 Cadillac industry. Model 51 In June 1901, Olds Motor Works signed a contract for Leland to make Curved Dash Olds engines. Leland designed one that developed 23% more horsepower than an engine developed at that time by the Dodge Brothers — John and Horace. Unfortunately, Olds rejected the Leland designed engine due to retooling costs. A year later, Henry Ford took his design. In August 1902, two of Ford’s backers called Leland in to appraise the automobile factory so they could sell out. They felt Ford was too 24 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

Mass Production General Motors then bought Cadillac for over $5.5 million. In September 1914, Cadillac introduced the first V8 engine in a series produced, mass-market automobile. The 3-main-bearings 314.5-cid V8 had a 3-1/8 x 5-1/8 in. bore and stroke. It was a 90-degree L-head with non-detachable heads and two cast iron four-cylinder blocks on an aluminum crankcase. With a 4.25:1

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header pipe running inside the crankcase. Leads ran from this header pipe to the main bearings and then through drilled holes in the crankshaft to the connecting rod bearings. The pistons, cylinders and all were lubricated by The 1902 Cadillac singleoil slung up from the lower cylinder engine, designed by ends of the connecting rods. Henry Leland, displaced 98.2 cu. Oil from the rear end of the in. and generated 10 hp. header pipe ran to the pressure relief valve. Then, the overflow from this valve was gravity fed to the camshaft and chains, before draining to the crankcase. In 1916, Cadillac offered only one series, the V8powered Type 53. Erwin G. “Cannonball” Baker and compression ratio, it made 70 hp at 2400 rpm and 180 Wm. F. Sturm drove a V8 roadster from Los Angeles to lbs.-ft. at 1800-2200 rpm. New York in seven days, 11 hours, 52 minutes. They The engine had rockers with roller cam followers, a bettered their previous time in another car by three 1.5 gallon crankcase and a 5.25-gallon cooling system. days, 19 hours, 23 minutes. Its Johnson float feed carburetor had auxiliary air Continuing refinements of the V8 had brought control. The water jackets and combustion chambers detachable cylinder heads for 1918, an inherently were integral with the blocks. balanced crankshaft in the V-63 of 1924 and detail Coolant circulation and temperature control relied on changes in the interim 85.5-hp Series 314 V8 that an impeller pump with a thermostat for each block. endured until 1936. Then, Cadillac came out with a new Three 1-7/8 in. bearings protected a crankshaft with four throws in one plane. The fork-and-blade connecting rods were a Leland trademark. Rod bearings were made available in standard, .005 under and .020 under. Three rings were wrapped around the pistons and came in standard, first and second oversize. A single camshaft with eight cams was used. A silent chain drove the camshaft and generator shaft. The generator and distributor were rear mounted since a two-cylinder power tire pump was up front. The updraft carburetor had a water-heated intake manifold. The dual exhaust system (without balance pipe) had log-type exhaust manifolds. Cadillac used 1-9/16-in. diameter, 5/16-in. lift flat exhaust valves flat and tulip-shaped intake valves actuated by adjustable tappets connected to rocker arms with the roller riding on cams. Cadillac’s firing order was 1L-2R-3L-1R-4L-3R-2L-4R as viewed from the rear and each bank was numbered one through four from the front. The valve chamber caps were stamped H, L, or LL for high or low compression ratios. A three-point suspension kept the engine smooth for the era. The mounts were of ball-and-socket design at the front and solid at the rear.

Lubrication Challenges On early engines, the oil relief valve was cast integral with the starter gear housing. Later, the oil relief valve was a separate unit mounted on the angular face of the crankcase. The lubrication system was recirculating and pressure fed from a gear-type oil pump. The pump drew in oil from the crankcase and forced it through a 26 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

Henry Martyn Leland (February 16, 1843 – March 26, 1932) was a machinist, inventor, engineer and automotive entrepreneur - and was instrumental in the founding of both luxury automakers Cadillac and Lincoln.

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Cadillac 1936 Monobloc V8: In its first year, the Cadillac Monobloc V8 was offered in two displacements, with the larger one being the exclusive Cadillac V8 thru 1949.

Gen III V8 that introduced unitblock construction and downdraft carburetion in a design that would survive until 1949. The 1936 V8 came in two

displacements. Both were L-heads with the cast iron block cast with the crankcase. Series 60 Cadillac buyers got a 322-cid version that had a 3-3/8 x 4-1/2-in. bore and

stroke and a 6.25:1 compression ratio. This produced 125-hp at 3400 rpm and 155 lbs.-ft. at 1000 rpm. The engine had three main bearings, hydraulic valve lifters and a Stromberg EE-25 dual downdraft carburetor. Its crankcase capacity was 7 qts. And the cooling system held 30 qts. of coolant. In this engine the water jacket ran the full length of the cylinder bore and a more rigid crankshaft with six counterweights was used. Cadillac used new connecting rods with the large ends split at an angle. This allowed them to be removed through the top of the engine. Hydraulic valve silencers were used, along with new manifolding and a downdraft carburetor. Suction-type crankcase ventilation was employed to take fumes out of the engine through the exhaust system. The lubrication system was simplified by restricting piping only to the hydraulic lifters. A combination fuel pump and

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NOS Nichings The intertwining of the Internet with the rebuilding industry has had a tremendous impact for shops acquiring the engine parts needed for a build. Whether it’s for a classic restoration or a performance rebuild, the ability of looking up inventory from parts supplier not only simplifies the rebuilder’s job, but also puts their mind at ease knowing a component can be located and delivered in a timely manner. While this can easily understood when searching the numerous suppliers of Ford Mustang and Chevy muscle car engines and components, the Internet is truely a beneficial tool for searching hard-to-find parts from vintage and preWar vehicles, in this case, vintage Cadillac engines. Many rebuilders and their customers have discovered the advantage of new old stock (NOS) parts. These parts, produced by the same provider who manufactured them for sale at the car dealership, allows a vehicle enthusiast to have a vehicle restored to nearly original condition. And NOS parts means they may be nearly as old as the vehicles they were built for, but have never been fitted to a car. While new old stock parts are great to some, they often demand a price premium. This is not only because the quality may be better than modern updated pieces, but they can be added to a period correct vehicle without sacrificing originality. When gathering parts for such a build, first and foremost, use a respected and competent supplier that specializes in vintage parts. These companies can be located using Engine Builder’s annual Buyers Guides. Here are a few additional options for when it comes time find proper vintage pieces: • Ebay is home to a vast number of online vendors specializing in every make, model and age. A quick search will often reveal any number of parts available for bid or immediate purchase. • Craigslist is a free local classifieds site giving buyers and sellers the ability to deal locally. Popular vintage items can move fast, so be prepared to jump on a good deal. • Online forums are a great place to find information on any vintage car. Many larger forums also have a classified section where both cars and parts can be found for great prices. • Local events such as swap meets and classic car shows are another excellent way to find parts with face-to-face interaction. No matter what the country of origin, there is always a source of used parts to keep any vintage vehicle moving down the road. The parts problem can be tough at times, but for those who love this type of restoration work, it is simply another part of the challenging aspects of rebuilding vintage engines.


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V8 Feature vacuum pump was mounted on the front engine cover. The starter was on the right side, in front of the bell housing. The generator could be serviced by removing an access panel under the left front fender. The radiator was pressurized. In its pricier Series 70/75 models Cadillac went to a 346-cid V8 based on the 322-cid version. It had a 31/2 in. bore, 135 hp at 3400 rpm and 170 lbs.-ft. at 1000 rpm. Cadillac kept the 346-cid V8 until 1949, when a compact, but very sturdy, overhead valve V8 with five mainbearings arrived. It would last 30 years without getting stale, but growing more monstrous in size and power as time rolled on. The original had a 313/16 x 3-5/8 in. bore and stroke and displaced 331 cu. in. With a 7.5:1 compression ratio it made 160 hp at 3800 rpm and 312 lbs.-ft. at 1800 rpm. It had hydraulic valve lifters, a 5 qt. (or 6 qt. with filter) sump and an 18-qt. coolant capacity:

Cadillac 1949 High Compression V8: America’s first modern overhead valve V8 was the 331-cid high-compression Cadillac engine introduced in 1949.

A Carter WCD two-barrel carburetor fed it. This “Cad V8” started—and participated in—the postwar horsepower race. By 1952, it had a four-barrel carburetor and cranked

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out 180 hp. Thirty ponies were added in 1953, with 20 more piled on the next season. By 1955, the 331 V8 had a 9.0:1 compression ratio, 250 hp. A dual four-barrel carburetor 270-hp version was 29

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By 1953, Cadillac’s V8 engines were cranking out 210 hp.

standard for Eldorados and optional on other models for $161 extra. A 1956 bore increase to 4.00 in. meant 365 cu. in. With a 9.75:1 compression ratio 285 hp was on

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tap. The dual-carb Eldorado V8 was good for 305 hp. For 1958, the Eldorado came with three twobarrel carburetors and 335 hp. Compression was up to 10.5:1 for

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Cadillac’s 1959-1960 “finmobiles” which had a longer stroke, 390 cu. in., 325 base hp and 345 hp in tricarb Eldorados. During the late ‘50s a recession moved car buyers towards compact imported cars with fuel-efficient four-cylinder engines. With lead times being what they were then, Detroit reacted slowly to this change and, by the time it had, the pendulum swung back again. At Cadillac, the only engine available in 1961-1963 was the 390 with a single four-barrel carburetor and 325 hp at 4800 rpm. In 1964, what was basically the ’49 V8, was bored (4.13 in.) and stroked (4.00 in.) to 429 cu. in. Cadillac advertised 340 hp at 4600 rpm and 480 lbs.-ft. of torque at 3000 rpm. This was a large engine, but had a high power-to-weight ratio. It was used in the front-wheeldrive Eldorado (with dual exhausts). In 1968, the bore and stroke went to 4.30 x 4.06 in. for 472

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V8 Feature standard engine in other models. The 1985 deVille and Fleetwood models were two feet shorter and used transverse mounted V6s or V8s. Even Fleetwood limos were front-drives, but the Brougham soldiered on with rear-wheel drive. Brandnew Eldorados and Sevilles arrived for 1986 and limousines finally dropped the V-8-6-4 engine. Reardrive Fleetwood Broughams kept the 5.0-liter V8. Cadillac's introduction of the Allanté in 1987 highlighted what was called the “New Spirit of

In 1968, the bore and stroke of the Cadillac V-8 went to 4.30 x 4.06 in. which added up to 472 cid. This engine developed 375 hp.

cid and 375 hp To keep a watchdog government happy, in the ‘70s Cadillac adopted a 8.5:1 compression ratio to permit utilization of low-lead or lead-free gasoline. A high-energy electronic ignition system debuted in 1974, Sales plunged due to an Arab nations' oil embargo. In mid-1975, Cadillac launched the international-sized Seville with a 350-cid fuel-injected V8, while full-size models got electronic fuelinjection for a 500-cid engine that was the biggest V8 of modern times. In 1977, the full-size models were downsized. All non-Seville Cadillacs carried a new, smaller, 425-cid V8. In 1978, Sevilles could be ordered an Olds diesel V8. The Eldorado was downsized for 1979 and used a 350-cid V8. Big Cadillacs kept the 425-cid V8 and all models could be optioned with the Olds diesel. A new 1980 Seville had front-wheel drive and a standard diesel engine. Other Cadillacs turned to a 368-cid gas V8. A fuel-injected version was standard on Eldorados and optional for Sevilles. Late in the year came some shocking power plant news—a Buickbuilt V6 for Cadillacs. A different kind of “V8” arriving in 1981 would bring Cadillac nothing but grief. The variable displacement (V-8-64) engine seemed like a good idea at the time, but it was trouble and lasted only one year, except in limos. The Buick V6 remained an alternative. For 1982, Cadillac launched its fourcylinder subcompact the Cimarron. A new aluminum-block 249-cid 4100 V8 replaced the troublesome V-8-6-4 as the Circle 33 for more information 33

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V8 Feature

Allante’s 1986 4.1L (249-cid) V8 had multi-port fuel injection and roller hydraulic lifters to help it make 170 hp at 4300 rpm and 235 lbs.-ft at 3200 rpm.

Cadillac.” The Allanté was based upon the GM-30 platform and utilized a 4.1-liter (249-cid) 170-hp V8. Cadillac's best-selling Sedan deVille model and both deVille models used a 130-hp version of the 4.1. A 5.0-

liter (307-cid) V8 with 140 hp and 346 lbs.-ft. was standard in Broughams and optional in Cadillacs. With the elimination of the Cimarron in 1989, Cadillac returned to its traditional position of offering automobiles powered exclusively by V8 engines. By this time, Cadillac was marking its 75th year of offering V8s. Among the highlights for 1990 was a 4.5L V8 with a 25-hp increase to 180 for Eldorado, Seville, deVille and Fleetwood models, and an optional 5.7L V8 for the Brougham. The Allante’s 4.5 developed 200 hp. Some Cadillacs built for coachbuilders or for towing used a 5.7L (350-cid) Chevrolet-built V8.

Developed in 1988 for the deVille, Fleetwood, Seville and Eldorado, the 4.5L (273-cid) V8 developed 155 hp in base form and 200 hp in the Allante.

Cadillac observed its 90th Anniversary in 1993 in a big way, introducing the pioneering Northstar engine, with limp-home capability. This was a 4.6L (279-cid) aluminum block and heads, overhead valve V8 with dual overhead cams with a 10.3:1 compression ratio, direct acting hydraulic tappets and a tuned port induction system. It was rated 270 hp/300 lbs.-ft in Eldorado Sport Coupes with the Sport Performance package and 295 hp/290 lbs.-ft in the Eldorado Touring Coupe, Seville Touring sedan and Allante. The aluminum block used cast iron liners. The deVille, Sixty Special, Seville and Eldorado came standard with a 4.9L (300-cid) 200-hp Cadillac V8 and the Fleetwood used a 185-hp Chevy 350. Circle 34 for more information 34 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

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V8 Feature Anniversary of the Cadillac V8. The V6 Catera zipped into the linep in 1996 as a 1997 model. It was the first time Cadillac offered a Cadillac-built engine other than a V8 since 1988. All other Cadillacs used Northstar V8s, which came in 275and 300-hp versions. Cadillac’s millennium-ending 2000 lineup featured Beginning in 1996, all Cadillacs but the Fleetwoods used the completely 4.6L (279-cid) Northstar V8 which was rated 275 hp in some models and 300 hp in others. restyled full-size deVille sedans built on a much The Northstar engine of 1995, stiffer platform shared with some powering all Cadillacs except the other GM marques. Eldorado and Sedan deVille and Fleetwood, Seville remained largely unchanged helped to mark the 80th in appearance, but received tweaks

Circle 35 for more information

to their Northstar V8s. The 4.6L 275-hp Northstar was used in the Seville SLS thru 2004, the Eldorado ESC thru 2002 and the deVille and deVille DHS thru 2005. The 300-hp version was used in the Seville STS until 2004, the Eldorado ETC thru 2002 and the Deville DTS until 2005. Its final appearance was in the last 2006-2011 DTS series. The 4.4L Northstar V8 used in Cadillac’s later V-Series were all supercharged. The present STS-V engine produces 469 hp and 439 lbsft. The 2006-2008 XLR-V uses the same supercharged Northstar V8 as the STS-V, but in a 443-hp 414 lbs-ft. version with the supercharger and four intercoolers built into the intake to fit under the lower hood. And lest we forget, Cadillac Escalade SUVs were powered by the Chevy-built Vortec 5700 V8, 6.0L Gen III series V8 or Gen IV 6.2L V8. In addition, the CTS-V sports car offered a variety of Corvette V8s including Z06 and ZR1 performance mills with as much as 638 hp. ■ 35


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Selecting Valvetrain Components for a Performance Build BY LARRY CARLEY, TECHNICAL EDITOR


electing the right components to losing. When these cases come into make a race-worthy valvetrain is your shop, you may have no other crucial to assembling an engine choice but to try different valvetrain that will last – and win. The components to see if there’s any pushrods, rockers and valve springs ground to be gained. must be able to handle all of the Pushrods stresses of the camshaft rotating with Stock pushrods are okay for stock high spring pressures and with huge engines, but are usually not stiff lift. As we all know, weakness in any enough to handle stronger-than-stock part of the valvetrain will equal a valve springs. If you’re building a performance engine catastrophe. performance engine – stiffer is better While the type of parts you choose to get your customer to the finish line. often depends on the application Reducing weight in the valvetrain (street performance, circle track, drag, obviously increases an engine’s rpm marine, etc.), you also must fall potential. But the weight of the within the parameters of your pushrods is something you don’t customer’s budget. Affordability often limits your choices if a customer want to minimize because it will increase flex and the risk of bending just doesn’t have the bucks to build or breakage. an ultimate engine. The pushrods have to be stiff The issue of valvetrain durability enough to handle the valve springs, may need to be voiced by you to a so the stiffer the valve springs, the customer, especially with endurance racing where the engine is A high performance valvetrain expected to last a certain includes many components. In number of laps without any this article, we’ll turn our focus valvetrain failures. to three essential parts: the The thought process that lifters, pushrods and valve you go through when planning springs. the valvetrain components for an engine build is usually based on your past experience. Unless you’re pushing the envelope or experimenting with something new, you tend to stick with the same brands and types of parts you’ve used successfully in previous engines. The safe approach here is – “if it isn’t broken, don’t fix it, right?” But there may come a time that you need to build an engine for an extremely competitive class where a few extra horsepower may make the difference between winning and 36 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

stiffer the pushrods need to be. Weight on the pushrod side of the rocker arms has much less effect than Builder Tip: Pushrods can flex quite a bit at higher engine speeds, like a pole vaulter’s pole. As the lifter rises on the cam lobe and pushes the pushrod up against the rocker, the pushrod can deflect. How much it deflects depends on the load (valve spring pressure) and the stiffness of the pushrod.

weight on the valve side of the rocker arm. The lift ratio of the rocker arms has a leverage effect that multiplies spring pressure when the valves close.

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Valvetrain Feature Chrome-moly pushrods are a step up, and for serious racing the pushrods will also have to be thicker walled (.080˝ minimum), larger diameter and possibly tapered (if they’ll fit and you are not using guide plates). Some aftermarket performance pushrods are available in wall thicknesses up to .125˝, and others use a double wall construction with an aluminum tube inside a steel outer tube. The inner tube adds stiffness and weight. And if you’re worried about weight, don’t be because added mass on the pushrod side of the rockers is much less important than mass on the valve side. If you’re not sure how much pushrod stiffness a motor needs, check with your pushrod supplier. They can advise you on what pushrods to use based on the application, cam and valve springs. As one pushrod supplier put it, “The same cam and valve springs in one kind of racing application may require pushrods that are different from those that would be the best choice for a different type of application. Everything is very specialized today, so you have to consider all the variables, not just the cam grind and valve springs.”

Pushrod Fit Pushrod lengths are often customsized to fit a performance engine. The length of the pushrod will depend on a number of factors, including the installed height of the valves, the centerline and geometry of the rocker

38 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

arms, and the position of the cam base circle relative to the block and heads. Pushrods have to be correctly sized to keep the tips of the rockers centered over the valves as they open and close. Wrong length pushrods can result in side loading on the valves, uneven valve stem and guide wear, and pushrod bending and breakage. The tip of a roller rocker arm should be centered over the valve stem when the cam is at mid-lift. If it is off-center, it will produce side loading on the valve stem. An adjustable-length pushrod or similar pushrod measuring device can be used to determine the correct size. Install the adjustable pushrod, adjust valve lash as it will be set on the engine (zero lash if you are using hydraulic lifters), then measure the length of the pushrod. Round-off the length to the nearest .050˝, since that’s the increment that most custom pushrods are made to size. Check with the pushrod supplier to see if they measure pushrod length end-to-end, or if they add a compensation factor for the oil holes in each end. If an engine has cup-end pushrods rather than rounded-end pushrods, measuring the length can be tricky

With high-revving engines, stiffer is not only better, it’s a must.

because the size and shape of the cup can vary depending on the manufacturer. One trick is to place a 5/16˝(.3125˝) steel ball in the cup-end, measure the overall length of the pushrod with the ball in place, then deduct the diameter of the ball to get the true length of the pushrod.

Valve Springs With high-revving engines, stiffer is not only better, it’s a must. Stock valve springs can keep up with the demands of the valvetrain to about 5,500 to 6,000 rpm, but beyond that the engine will need stiffer springs, double springs or possibly even triple springs depending on the engine’s redline, the lift and duration of the cam, and the weight of the valvetrain components on both sides of the rocker. Increasing the rocker arm lift ratio generally requires increasing the spring rate to maintain the same rpm potential. Going from a 1.5 rocker ratio to a 1.6 ratio may require a valve spring that is about 6.5 to 7% stiffer to maintain the same redline as before. Spring harmonics also play a big role in how many rpms a set of springs can handle before the valves start to float. Beehive springs with their tapered profile tend to be more resistant to harmonics than conventional coil springs. But the shape of a beehive

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Valvetrain Feature spring means you can’t use a double spring – so there’s no backup if you break a spring (as is the case with double springs). How much spring pressure do you actually need? If you are building a mild-performance small block engine with a flat tappet cam and no more than .450˝ lift, single springs with 80 to 90 lbs. of closed seat pressure should work just fine. For a hotter street/strip engine with a flat tappet cam, single springs with 100 to 120 lbs. of closed seat pressure (300 to 330 lbs. open pressure) are usually recommended. If the engine has a roller cam with heavier lifters, you might need springs with 120 to as much as 250 lbs. of closed pressure depending on the cam grind, the weight of the valvetrain components and peak engine rpm. For a high-revving circle track or drag racing engine that is running a flat tappet cam, double springs with closed seat pressures of 130 up to 200plus lbs. may be needed to handle the rpms. Many Pro Stock drag racers are

using triple springs with up to 475 lbs. of closed seat pressure, and over 1,000 lbs. of open valve pressure. In most instances the open spring pressure will be two to three times the closed seat pressure, so the valvetrain must be strong enough to handle it. The main disadvantage with higher spring pressures (besides the load they create on the valvetrain) is that stiffer springs don’t last as long as springs with less spring tension. That might not be a big deal on a drag motor where the springs can be replaced often, but on a street car or endurance engine, short spring life would not be desirable. An important point to remember is that good quality springs are expensive. Watch out for cheap springs that seem like a bargain, but won’t hold up and will lose pressure quickly or break.

Strengthening Springs The quality of spring wire from some suppliers has increased significantly in recent years. The best springs are

made from “super clean wire” that is a high grade alloy with almost no inclusions or imperfections. When the wire is formed, it is rolled in such a way that any inclusions in its microstructure are pushed to the center of the wire. The center experiences the least stress, so the overall strength and durability of the wire is enhanced. The wire is then scanned with an electrical eddy current to reveal any hidden imperfections before it is made into a valve spring. Some spring manufacturers are also using special surface finishing procedures to extend spring life. Shot peening has long been used to create compressive residual stresses in the outer layer of the spring wire. Shot peening leaves a matte finish on the springs, while hardening the surface to help the spring handle higher loads and speeds without failing. Nitriding has a similar effect. By diffusing nitrogen into the surface of the spring, the surface is made harder and stronger. Polishing is another

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technique that can eliminate small surface imperfections and extend spring life. Springs can also be cryogenically treated to improve their metallurgy and longevity. However, if cost is not an issue, titanium springs are the way to go. Titanium is lighter than steel and the springs are typically made with larger diameter wire but fewer coils. This allows a titanium spring to handle more valve lift without coil bind. The reduced mass and inertia of a titanium spring also increase the natural frequency of the spring to lessen harmonics at higher engine speeds. Titanium also has a lower torsional modulus than steel which makes it more springy than steel. Consequently, the springs hold their pressure longer and resist taking a set at elevated temperatures. With conventional steel springs and beehive springs, the quality and purity of the wire are extremely important for spring reliability and longevity. Most valve springs are now made from high silicon wire or chrome vanadium wire. Ovate shaped wire can also provide some longevity advantages over round wire, and a spring made of ovate wire can handle more valve lift without coil bind. Surface treatments that micropeen and/or polish the springs reduce stress that can lead to spring breakage. One supplier of valve springs who uses a special microfinish process on its springs says it improves spring durability at

some racing rules. The advantages of a shaft rocker setup is that the shaft holds the rockers in better alignment, eliminating the need for a separate guide plate for the pushrods. This reduces flex in the valvetrain at higher speeds for better valve control. The shaft can also supply oil pressure directly to the rockers to improve lubrication and reduce friction. The position of the shaft may also lower the pivot point of the rockers slightly with respect to the valves and pushrods. The improved geometry of shaft-mounted rockers reduces friction between the tips of the arms and top of the valves, and is typically good for an extra 15 to 20 horsepower with no other changes. Choosing rockers with a higher lift ratio can add horsepower with little or no loss in low rpm torque, idle quality or vacuum. By opening and closing the valves at a faster rate, the engine flows more air for the same number of degrees of valve duration. High lift rocker arms also reduce the amount of lifter travel needed to open the valves, which reduces friction and the inertia of the lifters and pushrods that must be overcome by the valve springs to close the valves. On the other hand, you also have to make sure the valve springs can handle higher ratio rockers so the coils don’t bind and bottom out. You also need to check clearances between the top of the valve guides and the underside of the spring retainers to make sure there’s enough space to handle the extra Builder Tip: For every gram you reduce the motion. weight of the valves and retainers, you can Roller lifters have much less friction than flat tappet typically add another 35 to 40 rpm to the lifters, and they don’t have engine using the same springs. Reducing the lubrication, cam breakvalve weight also improves valvetrain in and wear issues that flat stability and control. tappet lifters can have with low zinc oils. A roller cam also allows more radical least 10%. Springs can also be nitrited lobe profiles and faster valve opening to improve durability. and closing rates for more “area under the curve” (valve opening) to Rock On make more horsepower and torque. Valvetrain stability also depends on The main advantage of roller lifters the rocker system. Shaft-mounted is that they provide a huge reduction rockers are much more rigid and in friction compared to flat tappet stronger than stud or pedestallifters. This not only reduces parasitic mounted rockers, and don’t require a horsepower loss in the valvetrain, but bulky stud girdle for reinforcement. also wear on the cam lobes. But shaft-mounted rocker systems are Lubrication is less of an issue with expensive and may not be allowed by roller lifters, but is still important in Circle 40 for more information 40 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

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Valvetrain Feature performance engines with high spring pressures. At higher rpms, the rollers on the bottoms of the lifters may skip and slide rather than rotate. So the need for a good anti-wear additive in the oil is still important (though less critical than with flat tappet lifters). Roller lifters also provide another important advantage over flat bottom lifters: they allow more radical lobe profiles and faster valve opening and closing rates. That means more “area under the curve” (valve opening) for more horsepower and torque. The drawbacks with roller lifters are added complexity and cost. Roller lifters can be heavier than flat tappet lifters, and may require a hinged lever between adjacent lifters to keep the lifters in proper alignment (if the lifters don’t have a flat on one side to prevent them from rotating out of position). The most critical area in a roller lifter is the roller bearing. If the needle bearings are not perfectly matched in size, the largest one will bear most of the load and eventually fail. One supplier said they size their needle bearings to the nearest micron and carefully match all the needle bearings to improve the durability of their roller lifters. The advantage of flat tappet lifters is that they are relatively simple and cheap compared to roller lifters. With solid lifters, there’s not much that can go wrong. The lifter is nothing more than a hollow steel bucket with a slightly convex bottom. The lifter rides on the cam lobe and transfers the rotary motion of the lobe into vertical lift. That motion passes up through the pushrods to operate the rocker arms and open the valves. Solid lifters work well in highrevving engines, but do require constant valve lash adjustments. A solid lifter valvetrain is also quite noisy because of the clearances between the rocker arms and valves. That’s not an issue in a race car, but for a street car it may be a consideration. However, solid lifters do provide the ability to change the valve lash by adjusting the rocker arms or pushrods. This allows cam lift and duration to be tuned slightly to adapt to changing track conditions. With hydraulic lifters, there’s an oil-filled bucket inside the lifter. Oil

pressure enters the lifter through a small hole in the side and fills the piston cavity. A check ball and spring in the lifter trap the oil temporarily, allowing the piston to move upward and take up slack in the valvetrain. This eliminates valve lash, noise and the need for frequent adjustments. But the trade off is added complexity, cost and a tendency to “pump up” at higher rpms. Hydraulic lifters are usually the best choice for stock engines, street performance applications and low rpm torque motors that don’t rev much Lubrication is less of an issue with roller beyond 5,500 to lifters, but is still important in performance 6,000 rpm. ■ engines with high spring pressures.

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Weighing In on

Balancing Work

Reducing shaking and stress on an engine’s bottom end



hether you're building a stock engine, a high-revving performance engine or a slow-turning diesel engine, you can't overlook the importance of balance. Every time the pistons in a reciprocating internal combustion engine change direction, they generate a force. That force is created by the reciprocating and rotating mass of the piston and rod assembly. If this force is not balanced by an equal and opposite force, it will create a vibration. In a low revving engine, a little vibration may seem hardly noticeable. But over many miles and millions of cycles, even a small vibration can take a toll on the crankshaft and bearings. In a high-revving engine, any imbalance multiplies exponentially as the RPMs go up. A small imbalance at 1000 RPM becomes a huge imbalance at 8,000 RPM. An imbalance of only a few ounces can generate a force of over 200 lbs. at 8,000 RPM! That's a lot of shaking and stress on the engine's bottom end. Most race car drivers don't care that much about NVH (Noise Vibration Harshness) but they do like to finish races. An engine with a severe imbalance can literally shake itself to death. The forces generated by imbalance can cause fatigue cracks in crankshafts and fretting in bearings. So if something breaks as a result of imbalanced forces inside the engine, the race is over for our unfortunate competitor. Passenger car and light truck owners do care about NVH, and they also want their engine to last as many miles as possible. An engine that isn't properly balanced can produce annoying vibrations and harmonics 42 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

that can be felt throughout the drivetrain and chassis. And even though the engine may never be pushed that hard, the forces generated by imbalance will, over time, shorten the life of the engine and other drivetrain components (including the motor mounts). With slow turning diesel engines, balance may not seem that important. But most diesels are hard working engines, so even a small imbalance over a long period of time can shorten the life of the crankshaft and bearings. Over-the-road truck drivers also appreciate a smooth running diesel engine with minimal NVH. Balance not only reduces NVH for a smoother running engine, it also improves engine reliability and durability by minimizing forces inside the engine that could do it harm. Some well-known engine builders have expressed that proper balancing can add 20 horsepower to an engine.

Minimizing Balance Problems The basic idea behind engine balancing is to equalize reciprocating forces as much as possible, and to make sure all rotating mass (the crankshaft and the lower half of the connecting rods) are in balance so the crank spins smoothly about its center axis. When a rotating object such as a crankshaft, flywheel or tire is out of balance, it wobbles because its center of mass does not align with its axis of rotation. The heavy spot wants to pull the object off-center as it rotates. The centripetal force generated by the imbalance multiplies exponentially with the speed of rotation (doubling the speed quadruples the force), creating a shake or vibration. Balancing a rotating object requires placing it in a spin balancer so the heavy spot can be pinpointed. In the

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Balancing Feature case of a tire balancer, a weight equal to the imbalance is then attached to the wheel rim opposite the heavy spot to equalize the forces. With a crankshaft or flywheel, it's much easier to lighten the heavy spot than it is to add weight, so the balancer pinpoints the heavy spot so a hole or holes can be drilled into the component to reduce the imbalance. It usually takes several spins and corrections before balance is achieved. The really tricky part is balancing the reciprocating forces inside a V6 or V8 engine. Unlike rotating forces that spin around an axis of rotation, reciprocating forces are moving back and forth. In a single-cylinder engine, there is nothing to counter these forces except the counterweight on the crankshaft. If the mass of the counterweight equals the weight of the upper half of the rod, piston, wrist pin and rings, the forces will be balanced and the engine will run smoothly. If not, the engine will shake.

44 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

Balancing Various Engine Types With a horizontally opposed fourcylinder engine, two pistons are always moving in when two pistons are moving out. Consequently, the forces, equal and opposite, are essentially balanced provided the weights of each piston and rod assembly is equal. Balancing these types of engines is fairly simple because all you have to do is equalize the weights of the piston and rod assemblies. With an inline four-cylinder engine, two pistons are moving up while two pistons are moving down. The motions of the pistons offset each other, but because they are not horizontally opposed the crankshaft needs counterweights to offset the reciprocating forces. Things get much more complicated when we start talking about V6 and V8 engines, because one bank of pistons is moving at an angle to the other bank of pistons. This creates force interactions that need to be offset by carefully

Circle 44 for more information

positioned counterweights on the crankshaft. In a 90-degree V6 or V8 engine, the mass of the counterweights should equal 100% of the rotating mass (lower half of the connecting rods and rod bearings), plus 50% of the reciprocating mass (the upper half of the rod, piston, wrist pin and rings) times two (because each rod journal has two connecting rods and pistons). A few extra grams also needs to be added to compensate for oil in the bearings and clinging to the parts. The total mass you end up with is what the counterweights have to equal to balance the engine. For example, if each piston weighs 680 grams, the wrist pins weigh 190 grams, the ring set weighs 60 grams, and the small end of the rod weighs 290 grams, the total reciprocating weight for each piston and upper rod assembly is 1220 grams. Take half of that amount (610 grams), then multiply by two and we end up with 1220 grams of reciprocating weight that needs to be offset by counterweights on the crankshaft. To that, we have to

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Balancing Feature add the rotating weight of the big end of each connecting rod and bearing (650 grams), also times two because there are two rods per journal. What we end up with is a combined weight of 2520 grams that the counterweights have to offset to balance the engine. This is referred to as the "bobweight" to which the crankshaft is balanced using bolt-on weights. When a 90-degree V6 or V8 crankshaft is balanced, bobweights that equal 50% of the reciprocating mass and 100% of the rotating mass are assembled and attached to each rod journal on the crankshaft to simulate the rods and pistons. The crank is then balanced to the bobweights, usually by drilling the counterweights to equalize the forces. Counterweights can also be milled to remove weight for a cleaner, more aerodynamic result, but this requires removing the crank from the balancer and removing the bobweights so the crank can be milled, then carefully reinstalling the bobweights in the exact same position as before and respinning the crank to see if additional

corrections are needed. With 60-degree V6 engines, the angle between the pistons is less so a different value must be used when calculating the reciprocating mass for the bobweights. This will vary depending on the application, and may range from 35% to 40 or 45%. The value may also vary depending on whether or not the engine has balance shafts. The balance shafts have offset weights that help counter both engine dynamic vibrations and vibrations caused by uneven firing orders. Balance shafts must be correctly timed to the crankshaft, otherwise the forces won't cancel each other resulting in unwanted vibrations. In some cases, weight may have to be added to a crankshaft to offset heavier pistons/rods. This can be done by drilling holes in the counterweights and installing heavy metal tungsten (Mallory) plugs. If the counterweights are not heavy enough to completely balance the engine internally, additional weights can be added to the flywheel, flexplate

and/or harmonic balancer to offset any residual imbalance. This is called externally balancing the engine. Externally balancing an engine requires mounting the flywheel, flexplate and/or harmonic balancer on the crankshaft when it is spun in the balancing machine. Engines that are externally balanced from the factory include older small block Fords (302 & 351W) and Chevy 400. Chevy small blocks, most Chevy big blocks, Chevy LS and late model Ford V8s (4.6, 5.0L & 5.4L) are all internally balanced from the factory. Internal balance is always best because it keeps the offsetting weight closer to the reciprocating forces that need to be balanced. Moving the weight out to either end of the crankshaft can sometimes create additional dynamic forces that cause vibrations of their own. Also, changing the index position of the flywheel or harmonic balancer on an externally balanced engine (or replacing either component) will upset the balance. On most V8 cranks, there are only six counterweights to save cost and

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Balancing Feature reduce weight. The counterweights are positioned in such a way that they offset not only the piston and rod assemblies on their own journals but also the adjacent journals. Some racing cranks are available with eight counterweights (two for each pair of pistons), which often helps reduce high RPM vibrations even better, especially on long stroke cranks. Crankshaft counterweights are typically made to a specific target bobweight. In other words, the size, positioning and mass of the counterweights is designed to offset a specific piston and rod weight, (plus or minus a couple percentage points). With stock cranks, the bobweight is more or less equal to the weight of the stock pistons and rods. With performance cranks, various bobweights are available depending on the rod/piston combination you want to use. If the rods and pistons are lighter than the crankshaft target bobweight, the counterweights will have to be drilled or milled to balance the engine. Likewise, if the pistons/rods are heavier than the

target bobweight of the crank, heavy metal and/or external balancing will be required to achieve proper balance. This is important information to keep in mind if you are using parts from different suppliers, or are replacing one set of pistons or rods with a lighter set of pistons or rods. You may end up with a mismatch that requires a lot of drilling or milling to Balance between the crankshaft and its related compoachieve proper nents is critical to providing a smooth, trouble-free powbalance. erplant. Speaking of balance, most 90are offset and equal. But in some highdegree V6 and V8 engines are "neutral" revving performance applications such balanced, meaning they are balanced as NASCAR where an engine may be using 100 percent of the rotating running at 8,000 to 9,500 RPM or weight and 50 percent of the higher for most of a race, this may not reciprocating weight of the pistons and be enough. The side effects of rods. Neutral balance works best in combustion at such speeds can create most applications because all the forces additional forces that may have to be

Circle 46 for more information 46 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

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Balancing Feature offset by "overbalancing" the engine. Some engine builders say they have found additional horsepower and smoothness at high RPM when they slightly overbalance an engine. Instead of using the standard 50% reciprocating weight when calculating their bobweights, they use 51 or 52% or whatever to achieve a certain overbalance. This will obviously upset normal engine balance at lower RPMs, but may provide some performance advantages at high RPMs. The only way to know for sure whether or not overbalancing produces any significant gains is to test the engine on a dyno. How close should an engine be balanced? It depends on the application, but the closer you can get to neutral balance the better -especially for high-revving engines. Several crankshaft manufacturers we interviewed for this article said performance cranks should be balanced to plus or minus 2 grams or less. Many electronic crank balancers are accurate to 0.1 grams (0.004 oz) so it is

possible to shoot for near zero balance. But the closer you get to near zero, the more spins and corrections it takes to achieve such near perfect balance. Realistically, an engine doesn't have to be that close to be good enough. Most stock street engines will run smooth enough if they are balanced to 1 oz. (28 grams), although many late model engines have much tighter factory specifications (as little as 4 to 6 grams). For a high-revving performance application, aim for the recommended 2 grams or less. If you are buying a rotating assembly (crank, rods and pistons) from a supplier, buying a prebalanced assembly will save you time and trouble and assure a smooth running engine. If you are buying a crank from one supplier, and pistons and rods from other suppliers, find out the exact weights of the parts to determine the target bobweight for the crank BEFORE you buy the crank. This will simplify the balancing process and minimize the amount of drilling or milling that needs to be

Circle 47 for more information

done on the crank to balance the engine. Suppliers of performance pistons and rods are doing a much better job these days of accurately matching weights between parts. Even so, you should still weigh all the parts, and equalize to the lightest in the set when calculating a target bobweight for the crankshaft.

Balancing Tips If you are doing your own engine balancing, one of the keys to achieving reliable repeatability is to make sure your equipment is accurately calibrated. This includes not only the balancer, but also the scale you use to weigh individual parts. You should also follow the same procedures consistently. When you're mounting bobweights on the crank, make sure the weights are installed in the exact same position every time. Also, make sure the nuts that hold the bobweights together are tight and don't come loose while the crank is spinning. â– 47

Tales From WD

48-50 TalesWD Mopar 2/18/14 9:13 AM Page 48

Assembling the Pieces of Our 392 Magnum Project


Players, Parts and the Plan We needed a good fully equipped shop, experienced Customer sales reps (CSR) who work for your local performance machinists and a dynamometer to report W.D., or any parts person for that matter, are expected how we’ve done. to not only take orders, but are often times called upon I was lucky enough to get a call from Joe Degraw of to choose the parts a shop will use for a build or repairs. Grawmondbeck’s Competition Engines, Mason City Reps may be asked to help diagnose a problem or IA, who volunteered to help. failure without ever seeing the vehicle, and they may Steve Tosel, also of Grawmondbeck’s, had been have no previous hands-on experience with the kind enough to find and supply us with our 318 application. Chrysler core motor. I guess Joe and his partner Stacy They’ll be the first person you turn to find parts for Redmond had discussed our project and decided they a very new application or a very old obsolete part. wanted in. And we’re excited to have them. They are liaisons to parts manufacturers when you Like many shops today, this one known for their have a problem with a part, and often a pair of ears winning race motors, will also tackle a stock rebuild, a when you just have a personal problem. I know of one restoration motor, AG and industrial motors and all CSR who encouraged a tired and burned out machine sizes of cylinder heads. And much like many of your shop owner into taking a vacation that led him to a new career in a very desirable place to The staff at Grawmondbeck’s live. Competition Engines are no We’re going to put a rep to the test this year. If you saw the December issue stranger to horsepower, making them a perfect candidate for of Engine Builder, I hope you had a our Magnum project. chance to check out the Profitable Performance column titled, “For The Love of A Good Cause.”

The Plan In that column, we introduced our 392 Magnum engine build and our plans to raise money for a worthwhile charity, The Independence Fund. And that rep for the job, well, that would be me. Spawned from a previous article I wrote which ran in 2010, we’re going to take a dare to be different approach, use shelf stock parts that anyone might work with everyday, and apply them to a less than popular performance application. And I’ll be making those choices. Of course the application will dictate what’s available, and I’ll work with various parts manufacturer’s recommendations.

The Players I’m just one of the players, though, and besides finding and choosing the parts, I’ll also be reporting on our progress and relating it to business through these columns. Like any good plan, we do have a team. Engine building is much more than the parts. 48 February 2014 | EngineBuilder


48-50 TalesWD Mopar 2/18/14 9:13 AM Page 49

Tales from the WD shops, you can find any combination of these lined up on engines stands on any given day. And, as an added bonus, I have Steve Tosel, an avid Mopar racer, to turn to for advice and hopefully a few Mopar tricks. Another nice feature is a complete dyno cell on premises and all the hookups we’ll need for our big inch small block Chrysler, thanks again to Steve. I’ve known and worked with these professionals from Iowa for many years. You were probably first introduced back in 2006 when the small block Chevy they built took first place in the first ever AERA E85 Engine Buildoff, which was sponsored by Engine Builder. But the story does not stop there – 2008 brought to the industry a second E85 build competition and the guys from Mason City proved their knowledge of building horsepower with any fuel type by taking first place – again.

The Parts We’ve got the people and a place,

now the fun part. Much like a new job in your own shop, we’ve been developing a parts list specific to our needs. A stroker motor needs a stroker crankshaft. Ours comes to us from Scat Enterprises. We’ll use their 4340 steel, Grawmondbeck’s Competition Engines standard weight is a full service automotive machine 4.00” stroke 340 shop, specializing in custom high permain journal formance and stock rebuilds for all types of vehicles. The shop has been crankshaft. Since serving the North Iowa area since 1993. our 318 shares the same journal sizes components. as the higher To connect demand 340, this our stroker choice was easy. crank to the appropriate In December’s Profitable compression height pistons we’ll be Performance article, I suggested the using a set of Scat Pro Comp series plan for our build was to come up 4340 I-beam connecting rods. For the with a muscle motor the factory had horsepower and torque we are missed. Your late 60s and 70s Mopar shooting for, these will be perfect. performance engines all came with And the truth is, a set of stock rods steel cranks, and that’s what we’ve could be prepped with a good set of chosen. This engine is also designed rod bolts and reconditioning to meet for street driving and durability, so the need of a customer with a we won’t go with lightweight smaller budget, but we are planning

Circle 49 for more information 49

48-50 TalesWD Mopar 3/4/14 1:15 PM Page 50

Tales From the WD to ring this motor out on the dyno and part of the goal was to upgrade for a more durable motor than a stocker. These are also bushed for a full floating wrist pin. Just like the 340 factory muscle motor. MAHLE Clevite will get the nod for the bearings for our crank to spin on. Since we went for a steel crank with large radius fillets, we’ll be using an “H” series performance bearing. Our performance mains feature a grooved upper shell and nongrooved lower. The rod bearings are chamfered and narrowed to fit the rod journals. All journals are standard Chrysler dimension. No small block Chevy rods or journals here — it’s an all Mopar design. At the business end of the connecting rods we’ll hang our shelf stock stroker piston. A set of ICON dished pistons specifically for this application, in a .040” oversize will net us our 392 cubic inches with the 4” stroke crank. Again, our premise is to shop the books for parts you might otherwise overlook to net a

The ASE Master Certified machinists at Grawmondbeck’s are very familiar with various engine building.

performance engine from our original grocery getter. Adding 74 cubic inches to our little V8 should really wake things up. But adding that many inches, 9.25 ci per cylinder, will certainly raise the compression ratio to something beyond pump-gas if we stick with a flat top design. That is why we’ve chosen a more streetable dished head designed for something around 9.5:1 static compression ratio. These beautiful forgings are made from a very durable 2618 alloy, feature a .120” wall pin that is standard .984” Chrysler diameter to work with a stock or aftermarket connecting rod. Our IC847 ICON pistons are machined for a 1/16” x 1/16” x 3/16” ring pack. This might be a little narrower than Chrysler would

Circle 50 for more information 50 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

have used in the day, but with current piston ring technology we should have no problems. Factory motors today may come with a thinner ring pack, and we all know how long today’s engines can last. So for rings we’ve turned to our friends at Engine Pro. I would have liked to have used a set of the new Nitro Black performance rings, but our Dare-To-Be-Different bore size won’t allow that, at least not at this time. But they did come through with a set of nodular iron plasma moly standard tension rings that will have no troubles sealing up out fresh .040” oversize cylinders. To round out our rotating assembly, we’ll use a standard Chrysler style flex plate and a street performance, fully degreed harmonic balancer from Engine Pro. The whole assembly will be balanced by Joe and Stacey at Grawmondbeck’s who will also clean and machine our 318 block to spec. The shortblock build should be pretty straight forward. Durabond cam bearings and a brass plug kit from Melling Tool. We’ll also replace all the block hardware with a Finish Kit, also from Durabond. Again, all typical parts used in your shops everyday. This should net us a strong and dependable shortblock worthy of a Muscle Car installation. Like any good plan, once you see things moving in the right direction, it’s hard to not focus on the completion. And I’d like to remind everyone to check out the Independence Fund ( This plan will not be successful without serious participation by not only our gracious parts suppliers and our talented knowledgeable machinists, but also you. It will be your support and financial participation in our raffle that will bring this plan to a successful ending. ■

51-54 Liberty Rebuild 2/18/14 9:12 AM Page 51


Rebuilding Liberty! Engine Notes on Jeep’s 2.4L I4 Engine BY ENGINE BUILDER STAFF


n 2002, the Jeep Liberty was the first Jeep to use the two new Chrysler-developed Power-Tech engines – the 2.4L straight-4, (which was eliminated in 2006), and the 210 hp 3.7L V6. The 2.4L I4 PowerTech is a Neon engine variant based on the Chrysler engine that was designed originally for the Dodge and Plymouth Neon compact car. The naturally aspirated 2.4L 4-cylinder PowerTech engine provided 150 hp (110 kW) and 165 lb.-ft. (224 Nm). In its short life, the engine was available in the 2002-’06 Jeep Liberty, as well as the 2004-’06 Jeep Wrangler, but was discontinued when Jeep introduced the Compass and Patriot small crossovers. While those two crossovers also received a 2.4L I4 as a base engine, these were of the Global Engine Manufacturing Alliance (GEMA) joint-venture engine architecture and should not be confused with the Neon/PowerTech engine of the same displacement. Although the 2.4L PowerTech engine was only available for a relatively short time, the engine is considered very reliable with no major problems associated with it.

Displacement: 144.0 CID (2,360 cc) Stroke: 3.82” (97 mm) Bore: 3.46” (88 mm) Power: 150 hp (110 kW)

Timing Maintenance Recommended timing belt replacement for the PowerTech 2.4L engine in the Jeep Liberty/Wrangler is 120,000 miles. The following steps provide information on removal and replacement of the 2.4L I4 timing belt.

Timing Belt Replacement 1. Remove the air cleaner upper cover, housing and clean air tube. 2. Raise the vehicle on a hoist. 3. Remove the accessory drive belts. 4. Remove the crankshaft vibration dampener. 5. Remove the air conditioner/generator belt tensioner and pulley assembly. 6. Remove the timing belt lower front cover bolts and the cover.

2.4L PowerTech I4 Specs The 2.4L PowerTech is a double overhead camshaft with hydraulic lifters and four valves per cylinder design. The engine is free-wheeling, meaning it has provisions for piston-to-valve clearance. However, valve-to-valve interference can occur if the camshafts are rotated independently.

2.4 L I4 PowerTech is a Neon engine variant based on the Chrysler engine that was designed originally for the Dodge and Plymouth Neon compact car. 51

51-54 Liberty Rebuild 2/18/14 9:12 AM Page 52

I4 Feature

7. Lower the vehicle. 8. Remove the bolts attaching the timing belt upper front cover and remove that cover. Note: For more on removing components mentioned in steps 4-8, refer to the 2003 Chrysler Service Guide. Caution: When aligning crankshaft and camshaft timing marks, always rotate the engine from the crankshaft. The camshaft should not be rotated after the timing belt is removed because damage to the valve components could occur. And, always align the timing marks before removing the timing belt. 9. Before removal of the timing belt, rotate the crankshaft until the TDC mark on the oil pump housing aligns with the TDC mark on the crankshaft sprocket (trailing edge of sprocket tooth). See Figure 1. Note: The crankshaft sprocket TDC mark is located on the trailing edge of the sprocket tooth. Failure to align the trailing edge of the sprocket tooth to the TDC mark on the oil pump housing will cause the camshaft timing marks to be misaligned. 10. Install a 6 mm Allen wrench into the belt tensioner. Before rotating the tensioner, insert the long end of a 1/8� or 3 mm Allen wrench into the pinhole on the front of the tensioner. See Figure 2. While rotating the tensioner clockwise, push in lightly on the tool until it slides into the locking hole. 11. Remove the timing belt.

Figure 1.

Timing Belt Installation 1. Set the crankshaft sprocket to TDC by aligning the sprocket with the arrow on the oil pump housing. 2. Set the crankshaft timing marks so that the exhaust camshaft sprocket is half of a notch below the intake camshaft sprocket. 3. Install the timing belt. Starting at the crankshaft, go around the water pump sprocket, idler pulley and camshaft sprockets and then around the tensioner. 4. Move the exhaust camshaft

Circle 52 for more information 52 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

sprocket counterclockwise to align the marks and to take up belt slack. 5. Insert a 6 mm Allen wrench into the hexagon opening located on the top plate of the belt tensioner pulley. Rotate the top plate counterclockwise. The tensioner pulley will move against the belt and the tensioner setting notch will eventually start to move clockwise. Watching the movement of the setting notch, continue rotating the top plate counterclockwise until the setting notch is aligned with the spring tang. Using the Allen wrench to prevent the top plate from moving, torque the tensioner lock nut to 22 ft.-lbs. (30 Nm). The setting notch and spring tang should remain aligned after the lock nut is torqued. 6. Remove the Allen wrench and torque wrench. Note: Repositioning the crankshaft to the TDC position must be done only during the clockwise rotation movement. If TDC is missed, rotate a further two revolutions until TDC is achieved. Do not rotate crankshaft counterclockwise as this will make

51-54 Liberty Rebuild 2/18/14 9:12 AM Page 53

I4 Feature

Other Liberty Issues In 2008, Chrysler revised its 2.4L cylinder head bolt retorque procedure. The information supersedes the previous technical bulletin, dated March 25, 2005. The previous bulletin should be removed from your files. The latest bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 2.4L engine built between Feb. 1, 2004 and April 5, 2005. Whenever re-torqueing the cylinder head bolt(s), be sure to follow the torque sequence as outlined below. If there are no external signs of damage to any parts, attempt the procedure below before replacing a cylinder head, cylinder head bolts or cylinder head gasket. 1. Using a 6� wobble plus extension friction ball and shallow socket and following the torque sequence, loosen one bolt at a time to 0 torque and then torque that same head bolt to 60 ft.-lbs. See Figure 3. 2. Repeat step 4 for every head bolt, one bolt at a time in sequence. 3. Verify that each head bolt is at 60 ft.-lbs. before performing the next steps. 4. After all the head bolts have been verified to be torqued to 60 ft.-lbs., follow the torque sequence and turn the head bolts an additional 90° (1/4 turn). 5. Follow the appropriate procedures to install the cylinder head cover. Some or all of the technical information was provided by the Automotive Parts Remanufacturers Association (APRA). More information and technical bulletins on Figure 2.

verification of proper tensioner setting impossible. 7. Once the timing belt has been installed and the tensioner adjusted, rotate the crankshaft clockwise two complete revolutions manually for seating the belt, until the crankshaft is repositioned at the TDC position. Verify that the crankshaft and the crankshaft timing marks are in proper position. 8. Check to see if the spring tang is within the tolerance window. If so, the installation process is complete and nothing further is required. If the spring tang is not within the tolerance window, repeat steps 5 through 7. 9. Install the timing belt front covers and bolts. 10. Install the air conditioning/generator belt tensioner and pulley. 11. Install the crankshaft vibration dampener. 12. Install the accessory drive belts. 13. Install the drive belt splash shield. 14. Install the air cleaner housing, upper cover and clean air tube. Circle 53 for more information 53

51-54 Liberty Rebuild 2/18/14 9:13 AM Page 54

I4 Feature Chrysler engineers also said the hard-finished gears allow for quiet operation, and the two-piece aluminum case with integrated clutch housing assures powertrain stiffness and light weight. The new first-gear ratio, combined with sixspeed step spread, allows optimization of axle ratios for fuel economy and performance. ■ Source: Chrysler Group LLC.

vehicles equipped with a 150-hp 4cylinder engine are available through APRA; call 703-968-2772 or visit

Transmission Upgrade In 2005, the Jeep Liberty and Jeep Wrangler were upgraded with a NSG 370 six-speed manual transmission, replacing two, fivespeed manual transmissions previously used in these applications – the NV1500 and the NV3550 – in an effort to reduce cost and complexity. The new transmission is a member of the six-speed NSG 370 family, similar to the one used in the Chrysler Crossfire – the first sixspeed for the Chrysler brand. The NSG six-speed manual transmission provides a 4.46:1 first-gear ratio, The Liberty was upgraded with the NSG 370 six-speed manual transmission in 2005.

Figure 3.

versus the 3.85:1 and 4.04:1 ratios of the five-speed transmissions it replaces, for improved launch and traction. Jeep said that the NSG 370 sixspeed manual transmission provides optimal shift quality, improved quietness and high quality. A new dual-ratio transmission shift-tower system allows packaging of the sixspeed shift pattern within the existing Jeep vehicles, and it is tuned for optimized shift quality. For smooth operation, the first and second gears have triple-cone synchronization, the third and fourth gears feature double-cone, and the fifth and sixth gears single-cone synchronization.

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55-57 Spotlights 2/18/14 9:11 AM Page 55

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55-57 Spotlights 2/18/14 9:11 AM Page 56

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Circle 137

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S.B. International Phone:1-800-THE-SEAT Circle 139 56 February 2014 | EngineBuilder

Circle 140

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Product Spotlights

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60 NASCAR_Layout 1 2/18/14 9:09 AM Page 60

Track Talk NASCAR Adopts Knockout Qualifying for 2014 Season So long single-car qualifying. In 2014, NASCAR is ramping up the prerace excitement level with a new knockout Coors Light Pole Award qualifying format for its three national series – a move designed to make qualifying more compelling and more closely like actual on-track competition. "We believe the timing is right for a new qualifying format across our three national series," said Robin Pemberton,

v i c e president for competition and racing development. "This style of group qualifying has all the makings of being highly competitive and more engaging to our fans in the stands and those watching on television and online.” The new qualifying format will not apply to the first NASCAR Sprint Cup Series points race of the season – the February 23 Daytona 500 – which features single-car runs and two qualifying races to set

the lineup for The Great American Race. Heat races to determine the lineup for the July 23 NASCAR Camping World Truck Series Midsummer Classic race at E l d o r a Speedway will Overhaulin’ the Coors Light Pole Award still be used as qualifying format, NASCAR says, underlines the sport's on-going commitment to innovation. well. At racetracks less than 1.25 miles, the Coors qualifying, cars or trucks will be Light Pole Award new lined up on pit road based on a qualifying procedure will random draw and may exit pit be as follows: road at any time while the The first qualifying green flag is displayed. Each session will be 30 min- driver may complete as few or utes long and include all as many laps as he or she cars entered in the race. chooses during the allotted The 12 cars that post the time period for each segment. fastest single-lap time in Pit road speeds will be enforced this session will advance during each session. to the second and final Drivers will be allotted just a round. The remaining single set of tires during qualifycars will be sorted based ing, which means fans will see a on their times posted in lot of different strategies. the first round of qualify“For the drivers and teams, ing in descending order. we believe this new qualifying There will be a 10- will fuel even greater competiminute break between tion leading into the events,” the two qualifying said Pemberton. “Additionally, rounds. it provides our tracks, broadThe second and final casters and other key partners qualifying round will last with a greater opportunity to 10 minutes, with the develop more entertaining fastest single lap time content for our race weekends." posted by each car setting NASCAR previewed the the top 12 spots on the concept of group qualifying grid. with its national series teams At racetracks longer late last fall and expects the new than 1.25 miles, there will format will be a well-received be three Coors Light Pole improvement by its fans, comAward qualifying rounds. petitors, tracks, sponsors, and Before the start of media partners.

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Circle 63 on Reader Service Card for more information

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Circle 64 on Reader Service Card for more information

Engine Builder, February 2014