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Contents 05.14

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Cummins Engines

5.9L Cummins Labor Study Cummins was a big part of starting the trend, but now diesel performance engines are a growing segment. We dive into the details of the market in this special feature.

Diesel Oil

The diesel engine, which was once considered a clanking bucket of bolts, has brought about a new era of drag racing and sled pulling. As diesel engines have become more technologically advanced, efficient and reliable, their love is further shared by members of all generations. Check out our feature from Bob McDonald on what makes these engines so great for building opportunities in your shop.


New clean diesel technology has drastically reduced emissions and brought with it the need for higherquality motor oils. Discover the new trends in diesel oils....................................................................49

Turbocharger Technology Under pressure from the government to boost their Corporate Average Fuel Economy numbers to over 40 mpg by 2021, automakers are bringing back turbochargers in order to downsize engines and still have enough hp and acceleration.

20 Columns

Market Watch ..............................4 By Ron Knoch The world of DIESEL Motorsports

Shop Talk ....................................14 By Bill Holder Tony DePillo - Mopar Muscle is the Name of the Game

Fast Lane......................................68


By Jim ‘Animal’ Feurer A Look Back at the Nitrous Wars

Flathead Focus Part 2


In the 1940s the 239 and 255 flathead engines were being directed toward NASCAR stock cars, sprint and championship open wheel cars, and on the sands of Bonneville. Read what made these engines perfect for racing in the ‘40s, today, and into the future.


Events ..................................................................8 Industry News......................................................9 Shop Solutions ....................................................12 Diesel Products....................................................72 2014 Supplier Spotlight ........................................75 Cores/Classifieds/Ad Index ..................................78 ENGINE BUILDER founded Oct. 1964 Copyright 2014 Babcox Media Inc.

ENGINE BUILDER (ISSN 1535-041X) (May 2014, Volume 50, Number 05): Published monthly by Babcox Media Inc., 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333 U.S.A. Phone (330) 670-1234, FAX (330) 670-0874. Periodical postage paid at Akron, OH 44333 and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to ENGINE BUILDER, 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333. A limited number of complimentary subscriptions are available to individuals who meet the qualification requirements. Call (330) 670-1234, Ext. 275, to speak to a subscription services representative or FAX us at (330) 670-5335. Paid Subscriptions are available for non-qualified subscribers at the following rates: U.S.: $69 for one year. Canada: $89 for one year. Canadian rates include GST. Ohio residents add current county sales tax. Other foreign rates/via air mail: $129 for one year. Payable in advance in U.S. funds. Mail payment to ENGINE BUILDER, P.O. Box 75692, Cleveland, OH 44101-4755. VISA, MasterCard or American Express accepted. Publisher reserves the right to reject any subscription that does not conform to his standards or buying power coverage. Advertising which is below standard is refused. Opinions in signed articles and advertisements are not necessarily those of this magazine or its publisher. Diligent effort is made to ensure the integrity of every statement. Unsolicited manuscripts must be accompanied by return postage.

2 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

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Market Watch

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‘Pulling’ in New Customers

Growing Popularity of Diesel Truck Events Creates Opportunities for Performance Shops



IESEL Motorsports began 13 advancements are now available in years ago in Muncie, IN, the marketplace. Just like the early where the first “diesel only” gas hot rod market, many of the event was put together by a local diesel advancements will find their TDR Club and two promoters. way to the OEM vehicles in the near Organizers held the event because future. the drag strips at that time would not Customer Profile let diesel trucks run on their tracks. A street diesel truck for our diesel In fact, they still do not have diesel enthusiasts is a typical 600-800 hp classes for the trucks. engine, getting 18-21 mpg and The truck enthusiasts also got the snub from tractor clubs. Local tractor pulling a 10,000 lb. trailer for work. pulling clubs back then would not let When it’s time to “play,” the owner can unhitch, go the track on the diesel trucks pull or get paid at local weekends and pull or race down the fairs, pulls and club events. tracks. But, that has changed over the Diesel truck motorsports has past decade, and now you can find become a lifestyle within this diesel truck pulling/drag racing from June 1st to August 30th – pretty industry – hard working, much every night of the week – from family–oriented, rural people who come to the events where they enjoy Missouri all the way over to the far the time with their families in a fairedges of Pennsylvania. type atmosphere. For now, DIESEL Motorsports is Spectators and competitors will predominate in the Midwest states, mostly because diesel trucks are used in Some of the diesel enthusiasts farming, construction, use their truck on the job during hauling and the week, then race it on the automotive. weekends. It started when Photos in this article courtesy of DIESEL Motorsports/Eric diesel enthusiasts took their work trucks Sullivan. and started playing around with the engine components that produce more power. Hotter injectors, turbos, pumps, tuning, air intake and exhaust can produce double and now even triple the horsepower of the OEM diesel engine. Ten years ago, the top diesel trucks competing were 800-900 horsepower. Today, they are 1,5002,100 horsepower. The technology has blossomed within these diesel shops and many of their

4 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

back their truck up to the track, put chairs in the beds, put a pop-up canopy over them and get out the coolers/grills for the event. They can talk with each other and view what other people have done to their trucks. It’s a social event for each area of the country, and these trucks do differ state to state. It’s a split crowd in age, 55% is the 20-30 year-old crowd, and the 35-50 year-old group is about 40% of the marketplace. Sled pulling makes up about 70% of the DIESEL Motorsports competitors with the remaining 30% as diesel drag racing. The competitor’s percentage for the sport change from state to state, but in the Midwest where most diesel performance is predominate, the above percentages apply. One of the reasons pulling is more popular is because pulling has been

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Market Watch

Remaining DIESEL Motorsports Regional Schedule of events: •June 20/21st, Muncie, IN Thunder in Muncie • July 19th, Numidia, PA East Coast Diesel Nationals • August 2nd, Spokane, WA West Coast Diesel Nationals • August 15/16th, Salt Lake City, UT Rocky Mountain Diesel Shootout • September 27th, Marion, OH Buckeye Diesel Blast For more information on DIESEL Motorsports, visit: www.DIESELmotorsports.US around at county fairs for many years starting with horses. Plus all it takes is a dirt track, some tractors to scrape the dirt and you are pulling. Drag racing obviously requires an established track, which is quite expensive to operate and requires classes or events to run the diesel trucks. Most diesel truck owners have pulled a trailer and are familiar with what it takes to pull under load. It does take some training and experience to win at drag racing along with having a powerful diesel truck. It is no surprise that DIESEL Motorsports’ largest events are in Indiana, Ohio and Pennsylvania. The rural communities in the states make it very popular along with having the three diesel OEM engine plants in Indiana and Ohio. Since the EPA has shut down the use of tuners for the newer trucks (2008 and up), most diesel shops have gone back to enhancing the power using engine components instead of the electronics. This should have been done first, but it was pretty cheap to add a tuning box and crank up the power. However, most OEM drivetrain parts could not handle the extra power and blew apart. Before one can add power to a OEM diesel engine, there are certain things an engine builder needs to do to reinforce the powerplant – such as stronger head studs, gaskets, stronger rods, high-performance pistons, and other components because of the 6 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

torque produced by the extra horsepower. Most enthusiasts will quickly addon a larger air intake system, exhaust system, turbo, injectors, injection pump and fuel pump in order to obtain more power. If you are building a performance diesel, don’t forget to address with the customer the truck’s transmission and driveline, which will have a hard time keeping up with higher hp and torque. Some of the pulling trucks quickly went from double clutches to triple clutches in order to hold the power and transfer it to the driveline.

Popularity Contest Hands down, the Dodge/RAM truck is the most popular for competitors with the GM Duramax following behind in 2nd place. The Cummins engine is the most durable for making modifications and staying together be it the 5.9L or the newer 6.7L. Many of the competitors have even gone back to the 12 valve Cummins because of the mechanical tuning as opposed to electronic tuning on the newer engines. Duramax is quickly catching up in pulling and racing with twin turbo kits becoming more and more popular for adding the extra power. There are

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Market Watch

several enhancements being made to the Duramax that makes it a close 2nd contender. You will find many Ford diesels in the crowd and parking lot, but not too many on the tracks. The Ford OEM components for diesels are only rated to handle about a 13% increase in

there is, since most of these enthusiasts are getting these trucks with 150,000-200,000 miles on them. Yes, a diesel will last longer, but with added power they will come apart and they will need to be repaired. The opportunity lies in a performance rebuild instead of an OEM rebuild! There will be more money in it and higher profits with the custom parts. Build as if the engine could easily handle 700-900 hp, then you know it will withstand the added performance components. Our goal eight years ago was to take diesel truck racing and pulling into mainstream sports. We still have a way to go, but it is getting noticed by a lot of auto sports enthusiasts. This sport of diesel pickup pulling and racing is not going to go away anytime soon, by all indications it is going to be alive and kicking in the rural communities. For more information on DIESEL Motorsports go to www.DIESELmotorsports.US â– 

power without modifications, where the Dodge is about 40% and the Duramax at 30%. Quite a difference there with what you start out with for engine durability using increased horsepower components. So, is there money to be had for diesel race engine building? You bet

Industry Events May 17-25

October 28-30

Indianapolis 500 Indianapolis, IN or 317-492-8500

Engine Expo Novi, MI

May 23-24

November 4-7

Lane Automotive Car Show Watervliet, MI or 800-772-5266

SEMA Show Las Vegas, NV

May 23-25

25th Annual AETC Conference Indianapolis, IN

Springfield Swap Meet and Car Show Springfield, OH or 937-376-0111

August 21-23

December 9-10

December 11-13 27th Annual PRI Trade Show Indianapolis, IN

The Great American Trucking Show Dallas, TX or 888-349-4287

August 28-Sept. 2 NHRA Chevy Performance US Nationals Indianapolis, IN or 317-718-8750 Circle 8 for more information 8 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

For more industry events, visit our website at or subscribe to

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Industry News

Diesel Freightliner To Take On Pikes Peak BY GREG JONES

The Pikes Peak International Hill Climb is the second oldest motor sports race in America and a longstanding tradition in Colorado Springs and the Pikes Peak Region. First competed in 1916, this year marks the 91st running of the “Race to the Clouds.”

The race is run on a 12.42-mile course with 156 turns that begins at 9,390 feet and finishes at the 14,115 foot summit of America’s Mountain – Pikes Peak. The current record is 8 minutes 13.878 seconds and was set by Sebastien Loeb in 2013 while driving an 875-horsepower Peugeot 208 T16. But that isn’t deterring Mike Ryan, a professional driver who is no stranger to Pikes Peak himself. In fact, Ryan has won the race in the Big Rig-Semi-Truck division from 19972013 and has set seven Big Rig records on the course. Now he is looking to keep outdoing himself and capture the Open class record during the 2014 Pikes Peak International Hill Climb on June 29. In 2013, Ryan teamed up with industry legend Gale Banks of Gale Banks Engineering/Banks Power to give Ryan’s diesel Freightliner Cascadia even more power. This year is no different, and the team is back at it again looking to give the Freightliner more under the hood. The addition of Banks Racing equipment will ensure that Ryan has a good chance at setting a new world record. In 2013, Banks installed its Banks Racing Ram-Air intake, TechniCooler intercooler and intercooler spray system, StraightShot multistage-

multipoint water injection system, Banks iQ Man-Machine Interface (MMI), Banks SpeedBrake system, and Monster exhaust. The crowning touch, according to Banks, was the addition of its new Banks SuperTurbo, altitude compensating, forced air induction and control system. Mike Ryan's Banks Super-Turbo Pikes Peak Freightliner is unlike any other truck in the universe. The truck is equipped with a 14.0L Detroit Diesel 60 series engine with a compression ratio of 15-1 and a fuel redline of 2700 RPM. The body is constructed entirely of fiberglass and carbon fiber, even still weighing in at just over 5 tons. Like any well balanced race vehicle, it is a mid-engine design. This truck truly tests the merit of each and every one of its systems. Good acceleration requires a responsive engine, high speed requires massive horsepower and cornering and handling requires extreme braking capability. The Freightliner is an ideal platform to validate the Super-Turbo concept as well as to test the varied uses of the Banks Straight-Shot, Double-Shot and Triple Shot WaterMethanol Injection System. The potential benefits include not only increased power, but also improved fuel economy and reduced emissions. For more on Ryan’s vehicle and his attempt to out run his previous record of 12:39.9 set in 2012, visit:

JASPER Expands Manufacturing Operations JASPER Engines & Transmissions CEO Doug Bawel recently joined state and local officials in announcing the company’s plans to expand its footprint to create additional jobs and reinvest in the former Kimball Plastics manufacturing facility located at 1220 Power Drive in Jasper, IN. “JASPER Engines and Transmissions is a great Indiana economic success story. The company that has prospered and provided thousands of jobs for Hoosiers for over 70 years is expanding again,” said Lt. Gov. Ellspermann. “We continue to see how our business-friendly tax and regulatory policies plus our dedicated workforce make Indiana a place where companies want to expand and locate.” The homegrown-Hoosier company, which remanufactures drivetrain components, plans to invest $6.9 million to renovate and equip a 220,000 sq. foot facility presently vacant within ½ mile of its current 367,000 square-foot facility at 815 Wernsing Road in Jasper. The additional facility will become the new home of Jasper's Transmission Division which includes disassembly, machining, assembly, testing and warehousing of automotive drivetrain components. Bawel said they plan to be fully operational this fall. Jasper currently employs more than 2,600 associates throughout the United States, including more than 1,445 in Indiana. The company has

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Industry News already begun advertising for positions in manufacturing, maintenance, information technology, distribution, engineering and quality control positions. For more on Jasper, visit:

Alternative Fuel Group Sets Education Odyssey Date The National Alternative Fuel Vehicle Day Odyssey is an international, biennial celebration created and conducted by the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium (NAFTC) to promote the

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use of, and educate the public on, alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles. Since its beginning in 2002, Odyssey has grown in size and impact. This year, National AFV Day Odyssey will be held on October 17. NAFTC is headquartered at West Virginia University in Morgantown, WV, in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Odyssey is comprised of numerous green transportation related events coordinated and hosted by NAFTC members, Clean Cities Coalitions, and others who believe in cleaner, more energy efficient forms of transportation. These local events take place on a designated date every other year throughout the U.S. and in Canada. For more information on this year’s programs, visit

Edelbrock Fits Like a Glove Promotion The Edelbrock "Fits Like A Glove" consumer promotion is back.

10 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

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The promotion allows participating consumers to receive a free pair of Edelbrock exclusive mechanic gloves and $25 when they purchase any new Edelbrock Air-Gap intake manifold; whether it's sold individually, included in a Power Package top end kit, carburetor & manifold kit or crate engine.

The promotion began May 1 and ends June 30, 2014. For complete promotion details and to download a redemption form, visit

View more news at

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Plastic Fantastic For many years, bolt boots have been the primary way to protect the crankshaft journal from damage during piston installation. Some shop supply companies sell long steel tubes that serve as guides to help align the rod to the journal. These help align the rod, but can also damage the journal surface. For many years we have used a low cost alternative that both protects the journal surface and aligns the rod to the journal. We use hard plastic tubing that is cut in lengths of 6”-12”. Simply slide one end over the bolt and this not only keeps the bolt from contacting the journal, but it also serves as a guide to line up the rod. We use various lengths for different motors depending on deck height. A little experimenting will help you quickly determine which lengths work best for each motor. The tubing is available at most home improvement stores. The cost is minimal and most stores will sell it to you by the foot, so there is no need to buy a complete roll. 3/8” tubing will work on 3/8 bolts. We even have bolts already inserted in tubing for the rods that use cap screws. Give it a try and we think you’ll agree with us that this is a great way to install pistons. Chuck Verde Casey’s Machine West Valley, UT

Use Spare Time Wisely Everyone once in awhile gets a slow day or two. You may notice that your guys want to slow the pace as well and laze around, but you have to keep them moving! Many things can be done on slow days. Clean the shop, organize inventory, build for stock and maintain equipment. If you don’t do it on slow days, you will be forced to do it when you don’t have time, which costs you money. Machines don’t wait for a slow day to need maintenance. Be proactive! Jeffrey Myers MAR Automotive, Inc. Philadelphia, PA. 12 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

Camshaft Bearing Fundamentals Camshaft bearings are more or less taken for granted. We knock out the worn pieces, press in a new set and assume everything will end up the same as it originally was. This is intended to explain why this assumption is not necessarily true and why we should not just take cam bearings for granted. All but a very few cam bearings are bi-metal in construction and nearly all engines originally have their camshaft bearings installed in the unfinished condition and machined to size in the block as part of the block manufacturing process. This practice allows cam bearing ID’s to be closely controlled for size, shape and alignment. In the rebuilding process we remove these “FinishedIn-Place” (FIP) bearings and replace them with parts which have been “precision” machined outside the engine. Replacing FIP with precision cam bearings introduces a number of variables not present in the original engine assembly. Originally, the clearance between the shaft and bearings was a direct result of the difference between the ID size the bearing was machined to and the shaft OD. When a precision part is installed its final ID size is determined by a combination of the manufactured ID size, the bearing’s wall thickness and the diameter and shape of the housing it is installed in to. These variables introduce a set of conditions we have little control over. If metal is shaved off the bearing OD during installation and builds up between the bearing and housing bore, the bearing will distort inward. If the block varies from spec due to distortion from overheating or the installation and removal of heads and manifolds, these variations will be reflected in the new cam bearings ID size and shape and ultimately in the bearing clearance and alignment. The same causes of distortion in main bores are likely to produce similar effects in the cam bearing bores. This explains why, after

installing new cam bearings, we sometimes encounter problems installing the camshaft. Casual engine builders are often confused by the fact that the cam turned freely in the old bearings and refuses to turn in the newly installed bearings. First, remember that block distortion occurs gradually over a period of time, giving the camshaft the opportunity to wear the old bearings to match the distortion. Another factor is the relative skill or lack of skill exhibited by the installer of the replacement bearings. Nicks and dings will prevent the cam from turning. Before undertaking a rebuild, check the cam bearing housing bores for size and shape. Bores that are undersize, oversize, or out-of-round are likely to cause problems. Some engines are built with oversize OD cam bearings as a result of a salvage operation to correct bores originally machined out of spec. Replacement parts for these blocks are frequently difficult, if not impossible, to obtain. Check main bearing housing bore size, shape and alignment. If the main bores are out of alignment or shape, it is likely the cam bearings are also. Nobody wants to scrap a block just because the cam bores are out of alignment, but after having made the above checks you will at least know what to expect and understand that the problem is not the fault of the new cam bearings. A tight fit can be corrected by reaming or hand scraping the bearing surface. Honing is not recommended because grit from the hone stone will become embedded in the bearing surface. A homemade reamer can be made using an old camshaft if the journals are still within spec. Cut a groove diagonally across each journal about 1/8” deep. Then, relieve the journal surface on one side of the groove, leaving the other side sharp. This produces a single flute reamer that can be turned with the aid of an old cam sprocket to remove bearing metal from the high or tight spots.

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This procedure works pretty well with babbitt-lined cam bearings. The stronger (and harder) copper-lead and aluminum-based bearing metals are somewhat harder to cut. These materials are used in late model automotive and most heavy-duty engines for their greater strength and temperature resistance. As cam loads and engine operating temperatures have increased, babbitt has had to be replaced in favor of these stronger materials for better durability. Loose fits are a tougher problem to deal with. Where housing bores are oversized, they can be sleeved or cam bearing OD’s built up with nickel to produce a tighter fit. These practices are generally employed when the block cannot be replaced. Engine Pro Technical Committee with thanks to Mahle Aftermarket Inc.

Shop Solutions – The Power of Knowledge Engine Builder and Engine Pro present Shop Solutions in each issue of Engine Builder Magazine and at The feature is intended to provide machine shop owners and engine technicians the opportunity to share their knowledge to benefit the entire industry and their own shops. Those who submit Shop Solutions that are published are awarded a free one year membership to the Engine Rebuilders Council and a prepaid $100 Visa gift card.

Engine Pro is a nationwide network of distributors that warehouse a full line of internal engine components for domestic and import passenger car, light truck, heavy duty, industrial, marine, agricultural and performance applications. They also produce engine parts under the Engine Pro name that offer premium features at an affordable price.

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Shop Talk

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Mopar Magic For Tony DePillo, Mopar Muscle is the Name of the Game CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Bill Holder Photos by Phil Kunz


sk any Mopar afficionado around the Midwest, “Who is the guy to go to if it has anything to do with a Hemi power plant?” And the answer which will probably be uttered is Tony DePillo and his Specialty Motorwerkes Company located in the Dayton, Ohio area. He does it all, from a speed shop owner, a parts fabricator, an engine tuner, a racer, and for purposes of this article, an engine builder. He covers all applications with the legendary power plant including stock, street and strip. And, unlike many engine builders in motorsports, Tony has been a driver himself wheeling a vintage 1964 Plymouth Savoy Super Stock car which is painted in the motif of the famous “Honkin’ Hemi.” This guy’s veins

This street engine sports a combination of parts gathered by DePillo using a 1970 440 block as the starting point. Included is a steel crank, 12-1 Diamond Pistons, factory Max Wedge Heads, factory Max Wedge Cross-Ram intake with two Holley carbs. It burns 112 octane race fuel and puts out 500 horsepower.

definitely swirl with Mopar Blue. “I’m a longtime Hemi fan which really made Chrysler in the 1950s, 1960s and now with the 5.7L and 6.1L Hemi’s. I grew up in

This DePillo street/strip engine was built off a 340 block and carries an Eagle four-inch crank, Eagle rods, Diamond Pistons, Comp cam, and a single 1050 Holley carb. The 416cid engine burns pump gas and without its nitrous system pounds out about 480 horses. This is one of six DePillo engines purchased by the Ortel family of Tipp City, Ohio.

14 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

northeast Ohio when Mopar national drag racers Arlan Vanke and Carlon Hine were burning up the strips with Hemi power. I was fortunate enough to be able to

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Shop Talk

Carrying that company name on your Hemi powerplant assures that you are getting top performance.

work with Vanke and it had a huge influence on me,” the Ohio State electrical engineering grad explained. Tony laughed when he recalled his first Mopar machine, a ‘66 Satellite. “It was really beat up, but I drove it hard and beat it up even more. At the end, it was burning more oil than gas.” Tony got involved in Super Stock drag racing in the early 1970s with a modified ‘68 Dodge Coronet R/T and a ‘68 Dodge Charger 440 SixPack. Besides driving, Tony was also heavily involved in the tuning activities. However, his involvement there would end after the 1985 NHRA Nationals, when Tony felt that the

Mopar engines were not getting a fair break in the engine rules. In 1998, the National Street Car Association (NSCA) was formed, with Tony being an active member as well as the group’s president during it’s decade-long run. The NSCA, a sanctioning body for heads-up, street legal racing that focused a lot on nostalgia vehicles, ended in 2007. However, even today, Tony can still be found behind the wheel of his nostalgic Honkin’ Hemi.

Setting Up Shop This Nostalgic Super Stock engine was built by DePillo in 2009. The dual-carbed engine was bored and stroked to 478cid and it pumps out 750 horses. 16 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

During the years prior to forming the NSCA, Tony built up his Mopar reputation with the start of his business, Specialty Motorwerkes,

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Shop Talk This Mopar block was bored and in 1986 ( stroked to 528 cubes with a pair of The shop continues to build enfour-barrel Holley carbs. gines today. Besides the American muscle, his company also does work on many high-brow import machines. But these days, you will find the boss in an area at the back of the shop that deals with engines that have spark plugs coming through the valve covers. Tony will tell you that the Hemi building activities are based on the customer’s desires but that he will make suggestions if he feels the build-up is unrealistic. Tony explained, “There are a lot of guys looking for more power under the hood, but with retaining the stock look of the engine. Of course, the vintage Mopar muscle cars are a good recipient of that type of treatment. The type of work we would do there would be improved pistons and rods which help in increasing the compression ratios.

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Tony displays a custom oil pan which “The oiling system is often the is much flatter than stock versions weak link in this build-up and we and allows the front end of a racemight use a higher capacity oil pan car to sit lower to the ground. and a higher volume oil pump. With the Nostalgic Super Stock cars, just about anything goes.” And would you believe that there are sometimes as much as three years between Super Stock engine servicing. Tony added that on occasion, he will build a complete turn-key nostalgic drag car for the customer. Earlier he did such a job, twice, with the building of a pair of clone A990 Mopar drag cars each carrying 478cid Hemis. At the present time, there is a main emphasis on the building of Nostalgic Super Stock engines, but he’s not adverse to working on the upgrade of a pure street legal Mopar, or one that can be adaptable for either street or strip. With those types 17

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With 438 cubic inches, this NHRA-legal big block is capable of about 950 horses.

Shown here are custom Hogan Intakes with inputs from DePillo.

of upgrades, Tony likes to maintain the external factory look of the engine. On occasion, there is also some dabbling with the early generation Hemi’s. “I have done engines with 354 Hemi heads for street rods. And also, there have also been several 392 Hemis that I have modified.” To generate maximum power with his top-gun engines, Tony has collaborated on a number of Many of DePillo’s engines use custom pieces to become a part these custom billet pistons of his performance package. designed CP Pistons with Tony’s “One such piece is my custom involvement. They are very light oil pan which is not nearly as tall, weighing only 570 grams apiece. or volume-wise as large, as the present oil pans. It also enables me to mount the engine lower which drops the center of gravity of the car,” he said. There are also DePillo-designed intake manifolds, which are fabricated by Hogan. In addition, CP Pistons has worked with Tony in creating Hemi-only billet pistons, which are legal for NHRA Super Stock cars. They are very light at only 570 grams each. Finally, he’s also worked with Glenn Stires in the design and development of lifters and cams. In more recent years, Tony has been involved with the new 5.7L and 6.1L Hemi engines. “I think these engines are excellent, actually fixing some of the problems of the original. The engines have stronger pushrods and rocker arms. They are very durable and are Circle 18 for more information

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Shop Talk

An earlier photo of Tony with his ‘Honkin’ Hemi’ Nostalgic Super Stock machine.

‘70 Barracuda Super Stock car was one of Tony’s early drag machines. It had a 440 6-Pack with a 446 block, roller cam and ran in the mid-10s.

easily capable of running 250,000 miles. They still have some of the old-school characteristics. “Upgrading these engines is pretty straight-forward with mostly just add-on pieces. But it is very compatible to the Pro-Charger blower and will kick up the power by 150-175 horses,” he indicated. With such awesome demonstrated capabilities, it seems like a logical question to ask of this big-time Hemi

builder, what is the simplest way to pump up a Hemi. Tony quickly responded, “Hey, that’s an easy question for me. What I do is increase both the compression ratio and the air flow. You know, this engine is nothing more than a big air pump and I want to give it all the air flow it can handle.” ■

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Cummins Feature

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he clouds of black smoke along with the whistling of the turbo bring out a new wave of spectators. It’s all about the rumble and feel from the massive foot pounds of torque, not the horsepower. Who would have ever thought that a diesel engine would gain respect in the world of performance? Now, it’s not uncommon to see a diesel powered dragster travel the quarter-mile in 8 seconds or an everyday work truck enter the Saturday night sled pull. The diesel engine, which was once considered a clanking bucket of bolts, has brought about a new era of drag racing and sled pulling. As diesel engines have become more technologically advanced, efficient and reliable, they are loved by members of all generations. Whether the en-

20 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

joyment is from the ease at which Talking Torque we pull our camper or the fact that Torque is what you feel in the seat of we can take our work truck to the your pants on the take off. Or, the dragstrip on the weekend, diesel low down grunt when pulling loads performance is in full swing. up steep grades at a low RPM. There With the help of the aftermarket, are several factors as to why the more performance can be gained diesel produces that low down RPM from simple add-ons such as torque. There is a combination programmers, cold-air intake between the long stroke, boost and systems, exhaust systems and turbochargers, to all out hardcore engine internals. Here’s a sneak peak under the hood of a mid-sized Cummins powered sled pulling truck that is under construction. With the growing popularity of the midsize diesel, specialized companies are catering to the growing demand for more power.

compression ratio. The 6.7L Cummins has a bore of 4.21”, but has a stroke of 4.88”. Longer stroke means that the pistons and connecting rods create more leverage on the crankshaft. When the intake valve opens, air is pushed into the engine from the turbo directly into

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Circle 21 on Reader Service Card for more information

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Cummins Feature

A mid-size Cummins diesel power display on a Saturday night sled pull, producing more than 1,300 reliable horsepower “at the wheels.�

injected into the cylinder. The atomized droplets of diesel fuel are vaporized and start to burn rapidly which pushes on the piston causing the crankshaft to rotate. The diesel fuel being vaporized by the heat and pressure becomes very efficient since the heat generated was used for ignition. A diesel engine can run on very lean air fuel ratios (referred to as stoiciometry) as high as 50:1 under cruising conditions compared to 14.7:1 of gasoline. The increased compression ratio of the diesel engine along with the longer stroke of the crankshaft calls for a heavy-duty rotating assembly made to withstand extreme cylinder pressures. The heavy internals also limit the amount of engine speed. The engine usually reaches peak torque around 1700 RPM and maximum horsepower at 2800 RPM.

Power Pick The Cummins diesel engine has become extremely popular as the choice for performance. Across much of the Midwest, diesel Even though there are other drag races have become a popular diesel engines such as the event in the rural areas. Duramax and Powerstroke Photo courtesy DIESEL Motorsports/Eric (which can make power also), Sullivan the Cummins has always been

the cylinders. There is no throttle blade as in a gasoline engine. There are no restrictions to cylinder filling other than the intake valve itself. The compression ratio of the 6.7L Cummins is 17.3:1. Compression ratio is the total volume of the combustion chamber when the piston is at Bottom Dead Center to the total volume of the combustion chamber when the piston is at Top Dead Center. When the intake valve closes, the piston starts its travel up the bore compressing the air that filled the cylinder. As the air is compressed it begins to heat up reaching Because the engine will see such harsh temperatures operating conditions, preliminary measures are taken to ensure the integrity of the upwards of 1400 cooling system. The cylinder block is degrees F. modified for screw in-freeze plugs. Then, right before Top Dead Center, fuel is 22 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

23 APJ_Layout 1 5/16/14 3:47 PM Page 23

20-32 Cummins 5/16/14 4:17 PM Page 24

Cummins Feature

The “Gorilla Girdle” is a proprietary machined piece used to prevent main bearing cap walk by linking all of the main bearing caps together and to strengthen the block by being bolted to the oil pan rails.

one of the founding forefathers of diesel power. Cummins gained a lot of notoriety in 1989 with the introduction into the Dodge truck with a 5.9L, inline six cylinder, and turbocharged diesel engine. From there,

the 5.9L and the later 6.7L, have proven reliable and dependable, giving them more favor to consumers. The love of the Cummins engines by consumers has opened up the opportunity for niche markets in the

Circle 24 for more information 24 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

growing demand for more Cummins performance. One common place that Cummins performance can be found would be sled pull competitions. Sled pull competitions are divided into classes that are limited to the turbo inlet size. For instance, if you were pulling in a 3.0 class, then the turbo inlet size of your combination would be limited to 3.00”. It is often wondered as to what modifications are done in order to reach the amount of power output along with engine RPM that is seen at these competitions. A lot of modifications can be seen on the outside, but there are rare opportunities given to see the actual working internals of the power plant. There are several Cummins builds that can be found in the media, but the question is often asked as to what works and what is truly needed. Of course, that depends on the application, but we wanted to see what Cummins build is on the track and what combination seems to be working for them. We were invited in by Industrial Injection, a diesel parts supplier based in Salt lake City, UT, to get a sneak peak at some modifications that are used for their sled pulling applications. The engine build starts with a stock 6.7L block. The factory blocks are very strong and if the combination is right, structural integrity is not the problem. The blocks are usually bored no more than .020” (yielding a 4.230 bore) and then deck plate honed. Deck plate honing is very important to any engine build for proper cylinder surface. Even though the Cummins block is very rigid, the cylinders can distort as much as .003” when the cylinder head is torqued down. If the block is not properly honed, .003” cylinder distortion can lead to serious piston scuffing especially with the amount of cylinder heat along with major blow-by.

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Circle 25 on Reader Service Card for more information

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Cummins Feature

The new intake manifold is being fitted where the old one was milled off. ZZ Fabrications developed this Cummins intake for this particular sled pulling application.

along with its own proprietary compression ratio. The connecting rods are an H-beam design made by Carillo, which are a stock length of 7.559� and fit the 5.9L and 6.7L engines. The rotating assembly is balanced and then fitted with a Fluidampr harmonic damper. Before the rotating assembly is placed into the block, the factory lifters are installed along with a custom ground camshaft. Remember, in a Cummins engine, the lifters go in from the bottom. So the lifters and camshaft are fitted in the The block is then decked and fitted with custom billet freeze plugs. (Check out YouTube video Blueprint Cummins) The surprise for the rotating assembly was the use of the factory 6.7L crankshaft, which yields a stroke of 4.88�. The rotating assembly consists of custom-made pistons

When modifying your Cummins engine, the flexplate is often block before the overlooked. rotating assembly. For mild performance upgrades, the After the Platinum series flexplate from PRW is rotating assembly a cost-effective solution for failures has been placed due to cracking. into the block, a The Platinum series is offered for the 5/8� thick main 5.9L and 6.7L Cummins engines. bearing cap Gorilla Girdle made by Industrial Injection is installed. The purpose of the main bearing girdle is to increase block rigidity and torsional stiffness by tying the main caps and oil pan rails together. The Gorilla Girdle is CNC machined and when installed it stabilizes and strengthens the bottom of the block and evenly distributes crank load across the main caps eliminating main cap walk. The cylinder head used in this sled pulling application is stock, but with a lot of modifications. First of all, the cylinder head is thoroughly sonic checked to insure the Circle 26 for more information 26 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

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Circle 27 on Reader Service Card for more information

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Cummins Feature

For highly-modified Cummins engines, PRW also offers a Signature series flexplate that is CNC machined from 5140 billet steel that has an SFI rating of 29.3 that can handle over 1500 ft. lbs of torque.

integrity of the head before modifications can be performed.

Porting of the cylinder head becomes a problem because the intake

Circle 28 for more information 28 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

manifold of the Cummins is made with the cylinder head. In order to properly port the cylinder head, the intake manifold of the cylinder head must be removed in the mill. After the intake is removed, the intake and exhaust ports are then CNC milled with their proprietary port design for maximum flow and swirl. The CNC modified intake and exhaust ports flow 289 cfm compared to 175 cfm stock. Various valve angles are used on the valve seats and custom valves, but the ports still utilize the stock diameter valve sizes. Custom valve springs are installed but the stock retainers and factory rocker arms are still used. On the deck surface of the cylinder heads, .105� fire rings are milled and

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Circle 29 on Reader Service Card for more information

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Feature special head gaskets are installed for extreme cylinder pressures. The pushrods are a forged one piece design and increased in diameter to 10.90 mm. When the cylinder head modifications were performed, the intake manifold was milled off for access to machine the intake ports. The cylinder head was then machined to accept a ZZ Fabrications intake, which was designed specifically for

this sled pulling application for their engine build and boost application. They also custom build aluminum intake manifolds machined to accept the factory common rail fuel system, sensors and heater grid for the 5.9L and 6.7L applications. To feed the 1300 horsepower 6.7L engine, a rail injection system known as Double Dragons is used. The Double Dragons are twin Bosch CP-3 common rail pumps that have been

Circle 30 for more information 30 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

modified to pump 120% more than stock. This amount of fuel is needed because the injectors are rated at 500cc’s. These injectors are for high horsepower applications also known as Industrial Injection “Cobra” injectors. The induction system consists of a 91mm custom single turbo for the 3.0 sled pull class. The turbo is mounted to a custom fabricated exhaust manifold which is pulse tuned for maximum turbine speed for this RPM application. Compressed air from the turbo is directed through a custom-built water to air intercooler manufactured by a company called Frozen Boost. One thing to absorb when you see the pieces of this Cummins build with the modifications to the cylinder head, block and fuel system, is that you get an idea of what goes on to achieve incredible amounts of torque and power. For a relatively small displacement in-line six cylinder diesel, this engine cranks out more than 1,300 horsepower and will turn 5,200 RPM. This power is seen on the chassis dyno being made at the rear wheels. That places the torque output of the engine in the 2,000 ft. lb. range. If you own a Cummins powered truck with an automatic transmission, there is one thing to think about when doing any modifications. Take for instance the 2013 6.7L engine. The factory horsepower rating is 385 @ 2800 RPM. If you begin upgrading your engine with some performance bolt-ons, that engine can produce well over 500 horsepower. Something to consider would be also upgrading the flexplate. When reaching the 500 hp mark, the factory flexplate tends to crack and come apart. An easy solution is to replace the factory steel flexplate with an upgraded steel or machined billet flexplate. To remedy the on-going problem of a broken factory flexplate occurring to many of these sled pullers and drag racers, as well as everyday work loads, PRW has introduced two versions of flexplates for different performance applications of the 5.9L and 6.7L engines. One version, the Platinum Series, is cost effective and machined from cold rolled steel and

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Circle 31 on Reader Service Card for more information

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Cummins Feature An upcoming Cummins Performance engine project that Industrial Injection ( is working on is labeled the Black Pearl. While the engine is still in the research and development phase, preliminary dyno testing has shown more than 2,500 horsepower. We will keep you posted with more details soon.

Circle 32 for more information 32 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

manufactured for the everyday driver needing some insurance. The Platinum Series is designed for stock replacement where the engines have been fitted with performance add-ons and upgrades that propel the engine to over 500 horsepower. This flexplate has a 4mm thick center plate with double welded starter ring gears and is SFI 29.1 certified. The other version, known as the Signature Series, is a one-piece billet steel forging made to withstand over 1,500 ft. lbs. of torque. This flexplate is CNC-lathe machined from 5140 billet steel that is SFI 29.3 certified and coated with a long lasting black oxide finish for rust prevention. The Signature Series flexplates are precision balanced and offered for 5.9L and 6.7L applications also. PRW and Performance Quotient Brands have been readily available to the industry for nearly 10 years, offering technically advanced engine parts for high performance and race applications. ( So whether you are a sled pulling fan or just getting into this side of the performance market, keep on the lookout for the latest Cumminspowered engine from Industrial Injection known as the “Black Pearl.� This custom Cummins power plant produces insane power levels reaching into the 2500 horsepower range.■

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Circle 34 on Reader Service Card for more information

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he Cummins B-series is a family of four- and six-cylinder inline engines that includes the popular 5.9L six-cylinder engine, built from 1989-2007, primarily for use in Dodge pick-ups. In 2008, we declared in Engine Builder magazine that “The B-series Cummins engine may potentially go down in history as the single most important engine development project, strategic market share gain and opportunity for diversification partnerships in Cummins history,” (“Ram Tough Rebuild” by Roy Berndt, June 2008). A bold statement perhaps, but not without precedent. The B-series was widely used in many segments, including the aforementioned pick-up trucks, buses, military vehicles, marine and construction equipment resulting in millions of engine sales and was named to the Ward’s 10 Best Engines list in 2004. Still, even if you don’t subscribe to the “best” statement (Powerstroke and Duramax fans, I’m speaking to you), there is no denying that this engine was one of the significant forces behind the growth of the performance diesel industry. According to Ron Knoch, president

of the National Association of DIESEL Motorsports, diesel trucks are used on farms, construction sites, hauling and automotive garages during the week by millions throughout the country. And, many are customizing these trucks for weekend fun at what is now DIESEL Motorsports lifestyle shows and events. Diesel truck sled pulling in rural areas make up at least 70% of the diesel performance market. Sled pulls are going quite strong in rural counties where you will find pulls every night of the week from June to September in each state from Missouri over to Pennsylvania. “Performance diesel has changed considerably since this time last year, since performance tuners have all but disappeared from the retail stores for

later model diesel trucks,” says Knoch. Thanks to crackdowns by the EPA, performance chips and tuning software have been virtually eliminated for most newer diesel engines. Tuners from 2007 and older are available (pre-DPF) from many different manufacturers but the newer trucks will have to go back to legal motor upgrades. Tuners for the newer trucks are made to work with existing DPF/EGR systems for the trucks with low hp improvements but better mpg. Which is great news for our industry, as it turns out. “The newer trucks – regardless of the brand – needed motor upgrades anyway when using the high performance tuners,” says Knoch. “Now it is essential. Typical upgrades include the rods, pistons, damper, heads, head studs, intercoolers, water injection, injectors, injection pumps, turbos, air intakes, and exhaust on 2008-current diesel trucks.” Demand and then supply came into play when the diesel performance market blew up during the past five years and many manufacturers now have new lines. Many mainstream engine part manufacturers now have diesel performance parts in their lists of available applications. 35

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National Average, Median and Mode Labor Charges For Rebuilding The Cummins 5.9L Engine Service




95% CI range

$57.50 $80.00 $60.00 $180.00 $275.00 $20.00 $102.00 $192.00 $30.00 $180.00 $288.00 $24.00 $100.00 $77.00 $50.00 $35.00 $25.00 $73.50

$50.00 $75.00 $50.00 $150.00 $250.00 $20.00 $120.00 $240.00 $25.00 $240.00 $240.00 $20.00 $100.00 $75.00 $50.00 $20.00 $25.00 $125.00

$61.00-78.40 $84.54-101.00 $63.90-82.40 $193.16-233.90 $279.67-331.90 $20.14-26.60 $99.85-117.80 $181.75-216.90 $32.75-42.70 $163.57-191.10 $285.48-334.60 $25.25-36.40 $102.77-123.50 $78.61-130.80 $48.60-65.90 $37.13-54.70 $27.29-36.90 $74.03-97.90

$75.00 $150.00 $60.00 $200.00 $125.00 $120.00 $56.00 $30.00 $140.00 $30.00 $25.00 $200.00 $45.00 $140.00

$65.00 $150.00 $50.00 $200.00 $125.00 $150.00 $60.00 $30.00 $150.00 $20.00 $20.00 $200.00 $75.00 $150.00

$79.99-98.80 $168.32-207.50 $60.96-75.90 $202.41-241.60 $121.97-147.10 $110.65-147.60 $52.58-68.60 $29.14-40.10 $134.68-162.90 $34.57-44.80 $23.92-31.00 $200.42-247.50 $44.40-57.10 $131.60-158.40

$55.00 $68.00 $200.00 $62.50 $200.00

$50.00 $75.00 $200.00 $50.00 $200.00

$57.44-72.00 $62.34-87.00 $202.60-243.70 $60.97-76.60 $170.68-212.20

$200.00 $45.00 $400.00 $600.00 $69.00 $60.00 $50.00

$200.00 $75.00 $300.00 $500.00 $100.00 $45.00 $50.00

$174.10-320.60 $45.83-57.00 $367-07-446.90 $600.50-725.50 $64.96-83.80 $58.20-67.70 $50.17-68.80

Head Work Clean/disassemble/estimate valve job Clean & pressure test cylinder head Dye penetrant inspect head Basic valve job 12-valve engine Basic valve job 24-valve engine Install 1 valve guide Install 12 guides Install 24 guides Machine and install 1 valve seat Machine and install 12 valve seats Machine and install 24 valve seats Test valve springs (12) Clean & surface cylinder head Crack repair in combustion cham. (each) Crack repair using pin (ea.) Clean and inspect injector holes Other thread repair (each) Disassemble, clean/assemble rocker assem. (all 6)

$69.70 $92.80 $73.20 $213.60 $305.80 $23.40 $108.80 $199.30 $37.70 $177.30 $310.00 $30.80 $113.10 $104.70 $57.30 $45.90 $32.10 $86.00

Block Work Clean cylinder block Disassemble, clean short block & estimate repairs Magnetic powder inspect iron block Bore cylinders oversize and hone block Install cylinder sleeve & bore (1 sleeve) Resize big end of rods (per 6) Clean and magnetic inspect rods (per 6) Clean piston oilers Resurface block deck Install core plugs (all) Thread repair insert (each) Align hone Install cam bearings in block Deck Block

$89.40 $187.90 $68.40 $222.00 $134.50 $129.10 $60.60 $34.60 $148.80 $39.70 $27.50 $224.00 $50.70 $145.00

Crankshaft Work Clean crank & check for cracks Straighten crankshaft Grind crankshaft Polish crankshaft Balance crankshaft

$64.70 $74.70 $223.10 $68.80 $191.40

Miscellaneous Services Prep for dyno Inspect cam, polish journals as needed Assemble short block (crank, pistons, rods) Assemble long block (above plus tin & timing) Clean all sheet metal/covers Resurface flywheel Rebuild oil pump 36 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

$247.40 $51.40 $407.00 $663.00 $74.40 $63.00 $59.50

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Circle 37 for more information

Circle 37 on Reader Service Card for more information

33-46 LCS 5.9L Cummins 5/16/14 4:13 PM Page 38


Horsepower and torque increased every year through the 5.9L’s replacement by the 6.7L Cummins in 2007. Those older engines are still in great demand and can be impressive profit centers.

Obviously, the growth in the performance diesel products aftermarket indicates that the desire to get more from the engine continues. Plus, the newer trucks require someone who has experience adding the upgrades. In most cases, this is not do-it-yourself work. “The general consensus around the country is the real diesel shops are keeping quite busy because of people keeping their older diesel trucks, which need maintenance,” explains Knoch. “As they are getting the regular maintenance done, the shops are also adding upgrades to the trucks.” Knoch explains that at least half of the diesel performance crowd is 2030 year old enthusiasts, with more women becoming involved every year. Most are rural young people who have access to used diesel trucks and they work hard in order to buy products for their trucks. Even the 12-valve Cummins has now become popular again as a performance engine because it is all mechanical, and there are quite a few older trucks still competing. For engine builders who only do gasoline engines, diesels can seem rather foreign and unattractive. Diesel engines don’t have

carburetors, they don’t have spark plugs or ignition systems, and most of them don’t rev anywhere near as high as a gasoline-powered performance engine. Dan Scheid of Scheid Diesel in Terre Haute, IN, told Engine Builder that his shop has been involved with diesel performance work since the 1970s. He says serious racers are spending a lot of money on their diesel performance engines, up to $60,000 or $70,000 dollars. Who wouldn’t want that kind of work? “Any engine builder who is currently doing gasoline engine performance work could probably do diesel performance work too,” says Scheid. “You do have to learn about diesel fuel systems and how to correctly set up the injection pump, injectors and turbo. But, the machine work you do on the block, heads and

Where are our survey respondents located? Engine builders polled for this report came from these regions: Northeast: 21%; Southeast: 18%; Midwest: 36%; Southwest: 6%; and West: 19%.

38 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

other internal parts are pretty much the same as any other performance engine.” We’ve written numerous articles over the past several years that discuss the opportunities we see in this segment of the industry, and interviews with performance builders bear out that doing the work requires little in the range of training. Performance diesel work continues to be a growing niche in this industry, but it’s still considered something of an exclusive club. According to our “2013 Machine Shop Market Profile,” 15% of our survey respondents say they’re actively involved in diesel performance. When it comes to rebuilding this popular engine, it may be difficult for you to know where you stand on price. While you should never set your pricing directly based on what any of your competition does, it’s always helpful to understand the ballpark in which you’re playing. To help, we present here our current labor costing study on rebuilding the 12 and 24 valve Cummins 5.9L engine. The study presents national averages for various head, block and crankshaft service procedures as well as miscellaneous labor charges. The charts begin on page 42. In addition, the detailed chart on page 36 represents the national average, median and mode labor charges for all of the procedures covered in our survey. The “average” for a specific labor

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Circle 39 on Reader Service Card for more information

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charge is the result of adding all of the charges for that service from all respondents and then dividing that number by the total number of respondents. The “median” is the result of ranking all of the survey responses from highest to lowest and then finding the number that falls exactly in the middle. The “mode” is simply the most-often reported number from all survey respondents. Additionally, our chart provides the “95% Confidence Interval (CI)” range. In real terms, if you were to ask all of the machine shops in the country what their labor rates were for each operation, it is 95% certain that the “true” average labor cost would fall within this range. You may find your prices are either lower or higher than these averages. Don’t worry – as we’ve tried to explain for years, we believe that knowing your costs is the only sure way to set your pricing. You may have updated equipment that allows you to be more productive than these charts indicate. Conversely, you may find your costs are significantly higher than others in your same area. These discrepancies should not be seen as indicating that your costs are either too high or too low. But they will hopefully give you an incentive to look carefully at what you charge for service and why. “Some shops may include certain operations in the process of doing others,” says Bob Roberts, Market Research Manager for Babcox Research. “This may lead to a higher dollar amount charged. Additionally, some shops may have given us an ‘each’ price when we wanted ‘all’ or they may have included an ‘all’

when we asked ‘price each.’” Roberts says while the overall results are statistically reliable, the way some respondents answered the question may have skewed certain numbers slightly. “Some shops reported to us that they perform some repairs on a ‘time’ basis. We did not use a dollar-per-hour value if they provided it. A few shops price all their repairs on a ‘time’ basis. This is most common with welding repairs. Some shops do not perform all the operations listed and this leads to a smaller number of observations and thus a less reliable average,” Roberts says. However, he says, “In all cases, the national average will be the most accurate figure.” As Bob McDonald points out in his accompanying article on Cummins 6.7L engines, the work that can be done to wring massive amounts of hp and torque from these engines is impressive. “The diesel engine, once considered a clanking bucket of bolts, has brought about a new era of drag racing and sled pulling. “As diesel engines have become more technologically advanced, efficient and reliable, their love is further shared by members of all generations,” says McDonald. “With the help of the aftermarket, more performance can be gained from simple add-ons to all out hardcore engine internals.” And, with an increasing interest in the engine, your opportunity to service a segment with relatively little competition and potentially greater profitability has never been better. ■ 41

42 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

$199 $109 $23 $306 $214 $93 $73 $70

Install 24 guides Install 12 guides Install 1 valve guide

Basic valve job 24 valve engine Basic valve job 12 valve engine

Clean & pressure test cylinder head Dye penetrant inspect head Clean/disassemble/estimate valve job


$310 $177 $38

Machine and install 24 valve seats Machine and install 12 valve seats Machine and install 1 valve seat

Clean and surface cylinder head $113 Crack repair in combustion chamber (ea.) $105 Disass., clean & assemble rocker assemblies (all 6) $86 Clean and inspect injector holes $46 Other thread repair (ea.) $32 Test valve springs (per 12) $31
















33-46 LCS 5.9L Cummins 5/16/14 4:14 PM Page 42


Average National Prices Cummins 5.9L Diesel Head Work

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Circle 43 on Reader Service Card for more information

44 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

$40 $35 $27 $224 $149 $145 $51 $188 $89 $68 $222 $135 $129 $61

Install core plugs (all) Clean piston oilers Thread repair insert (ea.)

Align hone Resurface block deck Deck block Install cam bearings in block

Disassemble, clean short block & estimate repairs Clean cylinder block Magnetic powder inspect iron block

Bore cylinders oversize and hone block Install cylinder sleeve & bore (1 sleeve)

Resize big end of rods (per 6) Clean and magnetic inspect rods (all 6)













33-46 LCS 5.9L Cummins 5/16/14 4:14 PM Page 44



National Average Prices Cummins 5.9L Diesel Block Work

$75 $69 $65

Straighten crankshaft

Polish crankshaft

Clean crank & check for cracks

$407 $247 $74 $63 $59 $51

Assemble short block (crank, pistons, rods)

Prep for Dyno

Clean all sheet metal/covers

Resurface flywheel

Rebuild oil pump

Inspect cam, polish journals as needed




Assemble long block (plus tin and timing)

Miscellaneous Services


Balance crankshaft




Grind crankshaft

Crankshaft Work









$100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800

$100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800



33-46 LCS 5.9L Cummins 5/16/14 4:14 PM Page 45

National Average Prices Cummins 5.9L Diesel 45

46 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

$407 $310 $306 $247 $224 $223 $222 $214

Assemble short block (crank, pistons, rods)

Machine and install 24 valve seats

Basic valve job 24 valve engine

Prep for Dyno

Align hone

Grind crankshaft

Bore cylinders oversize and hone block

Basic valve job 12 valve engine



Assemble long block


$100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800

$100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800

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Most Expensive Operations Cummins 5.9L Diesel

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Circle 47 on Reader Service Card for more information

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Circle 48 on Reader Service Card for more information

49-55 Diesel Oil 5/16/14 4:10 PM Page 49

Diesel Oil

Diesel Oil & Filters



iesel engines have been around since the dawn of the automotive era. Over the years, diesels have become the engine of choice for powering heavy-duty trucks, buses, agricultural vehicles, off-road equipment, hard-working pickup trucks and stationary generators. More recently, diesels are competing against hybrid and plugin electric powertrains as an alternative to gasoline engines in passenger cars. The numbers are still relatively small in the U.S. with only about 800,000 passenger cars currently powered by a diesel engine. But those numbers are expected to grow significantly in the years ahead – especially if fuel prices continue to rise and auto makers offer diesel-options in more makes and models. By comparison, there are about 6 million diesel-powered light trucks registered in the U.S. and over 2 million diesel-powered heavy-duty trucks. New clean diesel technology has drastically reduced emissions and now accounts for over 28% of all trucks registered in the U.S., according to R.L. Polk. Introduced in 2007 to comply with new government regulations, clean

diesel engines are now found in nearly half a million heavy-duty trucks. One of the changes that clean diesel technology brought with it was the need for higher-quality motor oils. The American Petroleum Institute (API) introduced the current CJ-4 oil standards back in 2006 so diesel motor oils would be compatible with 2007 model year engines equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), exhaust aftertreatment systems and designed to burn ultra-low sulfur (less than 15 ppm) diesel fuel. The higher operating temperatures and tougher emission requirements for clean diesel engines meant the oil had to provide better oxidation resistance, high temperature stability and soot control.

Diesel Oil Additives One of the basic differences between oils formulated for diesel engines and those formulated for gasoline engines is more detergent and dispersant in the additive package. Diesel engines (even clean diesels) still produce a lot of soot that ends up in the crankcase. If the oil can't keep the soot in suspension, it can end up as sludge in the

crankcase and elsewhere in the engine. Diesel oils also contain a higher concentration of the anti-wear additive zinc-dialkyl-dithio-phosphate (ZDDP) to protect highly loaded sliding surfaces (like cam lobes and lifters) against wear. The amount of ZDDP allowed in gasoline motor oils was cut back to 800 ppm in 2005 to help extend the life of the catalytic converter, but was allowed to remain at 1200 ppm in diesel motor oils. The actual level of ZDDP in offthe-shelf diesel oils may vary from as low as 1000 ppm to as high as 1600 ppm according to various lab tests that have been performed by independent sources. That's because the anti-wear properties of the oil depend, not only on the amount of ZDDP in the oil, but also other additives in the oil and the quality of the base oil itself. The shift to low ZDDP gasoline motor oils in the market caused a sharp rise in flat tappet cam failures, especially in engines with stiffer than stock valve springs. Cam failure was not an issue in engines with roller cams because the rollers reduced friction on the cam lobes. This lead many engine builders to recommend using diesel oil in 49

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Diesel Oil gasoline engines if the engine had a flat tappet, high-lift performance cam and high-pressure valve springs. The extra ZDDP in the diesel oil provided the extra protection needed to prevent the cam from failing. Today, we have numerous "racing oils" and "street performance oils" that are formulated with higher concentrations of ZDDP to protect flat tappet cams, as well as aftermarket ZDDP crankcase additives that can be used to fortify current gasoline oils in engines with flat tappet cams.

Diesel Oil Requirements In addition to the API oil quality requirements, every OE engine supplier and vehicle manufacturer has its own oil specifications and viscosity recommendations. These include Allison, Caterpillar, Cummins, Detroit Diesel, Deutz, GM, Ford, Mack, Mercedes-Benz, Navistar, Volkswagen, Volvo and

others. The specifications can vary depending on the model year and engine application. GM, for example, introduced its "dexos" specifications several years ago, and says that oils that meet its dexos2 specification should be used in its 2011 and newer diesel engines.

Oil Viscosity For many years, 15W-40 had been the most common viscosity for diesel motor oils used in trucks. It provides a good high temperature protection and can be formulated from conventional base stocks or synthetics. But, one of the drawbacks of a 15W-40 oil is that it makes the engine harder to crank when the engine is cold, so a thinner viscosity may be recommended for winter use in cold climates. In recent years, a number of oil companies have introduced thinner 5W-40 diesel oils – not only for cold weather operation, but also for year-

round use. Most of the 5W-40 diesel oils are a synthetic-blend or a full synthetic to achieve the cold flow characteristics needed for easy starting. Other cold weather diesel oils include 0W-30, which is formulated for subzero arctic-type conditions. One of the benefits of using thinner oil is improved fuel economy. Thinner oils reduce drag and can help boost fuel economy from 1 to 3%. Switching a big overthe-road truck from a traditional 15W-40 oil to a full synthetic 5W-40 can produce significant fuel savings over time. Of course, one of the tradeoffs of using a thinner full synthetic is its high initial cost, which can be up to two times or more than a conventional or blended motor oil. Passenger car diesel applications are typically using thinner viscosity oils. The 2014 Chevy Cruze 2.0L turbo diesel is factory-filled with a dexos2 5W-30 motor oil. Many of the European turbo diesel powered cars also recommend 5W-30 as well as 5W-40 and 10W-40.

New Diesel Oil Standards & Viscosities

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As of this writing, the target date for the introduction of a new set of API diesel oil standards is set for April 2016, almost 10 years after the last upgrade in oil standards. In the past, the main driving force in upgrading oil performance standards was emissions compliance. Today, the driving force is fuel economy and reducing carbon emissions. API is still finalizing what exactly the new requirements and test procedures will be for what will likely be two new diesel oil ratings: one to replace the current CJ-4 standard (which will be backwards compatible for current CJ-4 applications), and a second oil standard (as yet unnamed) that will apply to 2016 and forward next generation diesel engines. What they want is a new thinner viscosity oil that can provide better fuel economy while withstanding even higher operating temperatures with no sacrifice in durability, oxidation resistance, wear resistance and shear stability.

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Diesel Oil

Illustration of a two circuit full flow and bypass oil filtration system (Source: Baldwin Filters)

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API is still developing the tests these new oils will have to pass in order to meet the new levels of performance. The current test procedure for determining oil viscosity is to heat an oil sample to 100 degrees C and measure how fast it flows through a calibrated orifice. The test for the new 2016 diesel engine oil may involve heating the oil to 150 degrees C to measure its viscosity. Additional tests may include scuffing resistance, shear stability, oxidation stability and how well the oil can handle aeration. There was also discussion as to whether or not a new test might be needed for compatibility with biodiesel fuels, but the consensus now is that biodiesel compatibility is not an issue now that biodiesel fuel quality has improved. For now, the two new oil standards are code named PC11A

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Diesel Oil for the oil that will replace the current CJ-4 oils, and PC11B for the next generation 2016 and forward engines. There may even be a new viscosity rating to help differentiate the PC11B oil from current viscosities that are on the market. According to one oil company, oils that meet the new PC11B requirements will likely have a high temperature viscosity rating around 26 (slightly lower than a traditional 30 weight), resulting in blends such as 5W-26 or 10W-26. The PC11B oils may be a blend of conventional and synthetic oil or full synthetic. It's also likely that the new PC11B oil may NOT be backwards compatible with current or older diesel engines (that will be up to the diesel engine manufacturers to decide on a case by case basis). It may be okay to use PC11B oils in some 2007 and newer engines, or it may not. This may present some challenges for truck fleets that operate a mix of newer and older engines. Most fleets prefer to use a single grade and viscosity motor oil in all of its engines, but that may not be possible depending on what engine changes appear in 2016. Future oil compatibility issues may seem to be far removed from engine builders who are overhauling older, high-mileage diesel engines. But as technology continues to evolve and move forward, we need to keep abreast of changes that eventually affect all aspects of engine building.

Diesel Break-In Oils Engine break-in is a critical process that can make or break an engine. Using a high-quality engine assembly lube on all sliding surfaces as the engine goes together, and priming the oil system prior to the initial start-up are absolute musts for proper break-in protection. But what type of break-in oil should you use? John Deere recommends using its special diesel break-in oil in John Deere engines. In fact, John Deere ships all of its new and remanufactured engines with break-in oil in the crankcase. John Deere's "Plus-50 II" break-in oil (which is available in 15W-40 and 10W-30 viscosities) should only be used for the first 100 hours of engine operation. Once the engine is broken in, the oil should be drained and replaced with regular oil (conventional, synthetic blend or full synthetic). Most other diesel engine manufacturers make no specific break-in oil recommendation, and say to use the same oil that would normally be used in the engine (usually a conventional 15W-40 oil). This oil can be used until the engine is fully broken in (which may not be until the first normally scheduled oil change interval or up to 10,000 miles), or it can be changed after a certain time or mileage period (which will vary depending on the application). A number of oil suppliers have special break-in oils that can be used in gasoline or diesel engines. These products can be single weight or multi-viscosity and are usually formulated with a conventional mineral oil base stock and a special additive package that promotes rapid ring seating. Many break-in oils also contain higher levels of ZDDP for extra wear protection. Most break-in oils should only be used during the initial break-in process (1 to 2 hours), then drained and replaced with ordinary oil.

Oil Change Intervals Vehicle manufacturers have been pushing extended service intervals to reduce maintenance costs for fleets and consumers. Fleets often base oil change intervals on the results of oil analysis, but most consumers either go by the OEM recommended service intervals or rely on an oil reminder service light to tell them when an oil change is needed. On late model light trucks, 7,500 miles is the standard recommended oil change intervals for GM Duramax, Ford Powerstroke and Dodge Cummins turbo diesel engines. However, this is for "normal" (light duty) service. The recommended oil change interval for most "Severe Service" applications (vehicles that are used for towing, hauling heavy loads, operated off-road in dusty environments or spend a lot of time idling, especially during cold weather) is usually 3,000 miles. Most of these engines hold 10 to 12 quarts of oil, so changing the oil unnecessarily wastes money. Stretching the oil change intervals to reduce costs is fine provided a highquality oil (such as a synthetic blend or full synthetic) is used along with OEM quality oil filtration. With heavy-duty trucks, oil change intervals also depend on use. For light-duty over-the-road hauling, some OEMs say the oil can go 40,000 to 50,000 miles Circle 54 for more information 54 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

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Diesel Oil Approximately 75% of the contaminants trapped by the oil filter are combustion byproducts (soot and sludge) rather than engine wear particles or dust or dirt from the outside environment. The filter's holding capacity (how much dirt it can hold) as well as its efficiency are important because both determine how long the filter can last before it has to be changed. You want a filter with high efficiency (98% or higher) to trap as many contaminants as possible, but you also want a filter that has adequate capacity so it doesn't plug up before it is changed. If the filter media becomes clogged to the point where the filter goes into bypass mode, the engine will be running on unfiltered oil. When an engine is being started for the first time, the oil filter should be prefilled with oil to minimize the time it takes the engine to develop normal oil pressure. The filter should also be changed every time the oil is changed, not every other time to reduce the risk of filter clogging. Another tip that can prevent engine warranty claims or problems down the road is if the engine has an external oil cooler, the lines and/or cooler should be inspected and cleaned to make sure there are no contaminants lurking inside that could cause problems. Any junk in the oil cooler can pass right through to the engine's main oil gallery that feeds the main bearings, cam bearings and timing gears. â–  Illustration of a Cummins 2-stage full flow/bypass oil filter.

before a change is needed. As with the light pickup trucks, extended oil change intervals require a highquality oil and good filtration. For harder use applications, the recommended service interval typically drops to 15,000 to 25,000 miles. Many of these engines hold up to 40 quarts or more of oil, so when the oil is changed it does have a significant impact on operating costs as well as engine durability and longevity.

Oil Filtration Because diesel engines produce a lot of soot and combustion byproducts that end up in the crankcase, good filtration is needed to protect the engine from these contaminants. The oil filters on diesel engines are typically much larger and have a higher holding capacity than those on gasoline engines. Many heavyduty trucks have used two separate oil filters: a full flow filter and a bypass filter to help assure good filtration under all operating conditions. Newer diesel oil filter designs often combine full flow and bypass features into a single filter. Combination filters typically have a wraparound pleated full flow media inside with stacked disc bypass media at the top or bottom. Full flow filters (or the full flow portion of a combination filter) typically trap debris 30 microns or larger, while bypass filters (or the bypass portion of a combination filter) capture contaminants down to 10 microns in size. Some combination filters can even trap particles as small as 5 microns. Smaller particles can actually cause more engine wear over time than larger particles.

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TURBOCHARGERS: The Future of Small Engine Performance


urbochargers are making a comeback, big time! Auto makers are under pressure from the government to boost their Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) numbers to over 40 mpg by 2021. One of the ways they are going to accomplish this is to downsize engines and add turbochargers to boost performance so smaller engines can still deliver satisfactory power and acceleration. Downsizing engines not only reduces fuel consumption but also reduces carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (which is important in reducing the impact of carbon emissions on global warming and climate change). According to some projections, up to 90% of cars and light trucks in the U.S. may be turbocharged a decade from now. Nearly 16% of all new 2013 model year passenger cars’ engines were factory equipped with some type of forced induction system (turbo or supercharger). In Europe, turbos are already used on about 60% of vehicles. Most of these are small turbo diesel engines, but a growing number are also turbocharged gasoline engines. If we are headed in the same direction, it will be a significant change from the types of power plants the auto makers have been building for the past several decades. Among the domestic auto makers, Ford is leading the charge with its ever-expanding line of EcoBoost engines. (See illustration above). Ford's 56 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

2014 lineup includes a Fiesta with a tiny 1.0L three-cylinder turbo that delivers over 40 mpg on the highway, also a 2.0L turbo Fiesta ST (32 mpg highway), three different turbo options for the Fusion (1.5L, 1.6L and 2.0L), a new 365 horsepower twinturbo V6 for the F150 pickup, turbo 3.5L engines in the Taurus Police Interceptor, Explorer Sport, Lincoln MKS and MKT, and a new 305 horsepower turbo 2.3L for the 2015 Mustang. GM is also moving in the same direction with its direct injection Ecotech engine line (some of which are turbocharged and some are not). GM's newest Ecotech turbo offerings include a turbocharged 1.0L threecylinder engine with direct injection for the European market, and a turbocharged 1.4L four-cylinder engine for the Chevy Cruze in China. The Cadillac Twin-Turbo 3.6L V6 is a power-dense six-cylinder engine in the midsize luxury segment – producing 420hp and 583 (430 lb-ft) of torque at 2,500 RPM.

GM's highly rated 272-hp 2.0L turbo four that delivers 31 mpg highway continues for 2014 in the Buick Regal GS, Cadillac ATS and Chevy Malibu LTZ. There's also a turbo four available in the Chevy Cruze as well as a turbo diesel engine option. Not all of GM's turbos are strictly for fuel economy. The 2014 Cadillac CTS and XTS are available with an optional twin-turbo direct injected 3.6L V6. It's GM's most powerful production V6, producing 420 hp and 430 lb.-ft. of torque with 12 lbs. of boost. Fuel economy is rated at 25 mpg highway, which isn't bad for an engine that can accelerate either car from 0 to 60 mph as fast as a Mustang GT (4.6

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Technology at more turbo options beyond existing performance models such as the Nissan GTR, Subaru WRX, Mitsubishi EVO, Mazda Speed3, plus various BMW, Porsche and VW models, etc. Like the domestic automakers, every car company will have to make a variety of changes to improve their CAFE numbers in the years ahead. Hybrids are one way to go, but turbocharged clean diesels are less expensive than hybrids and give a faster payback. More passenger car diesels are being offered (Jeep and Chevy Cruze), but downsized turbocharged gasoline engines are still considered the most economical way to realize a significant improvement in fuel economy by many automakers. The typical downsized The turbocharger is an exhaust gas-driven turbine fan. It uses exhaust pressure to spin the turbocharged gasoline turbine and compresses the air entering the engine, pulling it through the system by the engine is about 20% more crankshaft, forcing fresh air into the engine. fuel efficient than a naturally aspirated gasoline engine with seconds). available in its Dodge Dart SRT4, and equivalent power output. A Turbos are making a comeback at is developing single and twin turbo turbocharged diesel engine is up to Chrysler, too. Chrysler built a slew of variants of a 3.0L V6 for possible 40% more efficient than a naturally turbo 2.2L and 2.5L engines back in the introduction in model year 2015 or aspirated gasoline engine. 1980s and 1990s. In recent years, they 2016. The single turbo engine may had the Neon SRT, Crossfire SRT and eventually replace the current 5.8L How Much Power? PT Cruiser turbo models, followed by Hemi V8 in some applications (sorry The average car only needs about 20 to a 2.4L turbo Dodge Caliber SRT4. Hemi fans). Chrysler also has a turbo four Import automakers are also looking 30 horsepower to travel down the

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Technology highway. Extra power is really only necessary when accelerating, merging onto an expressway, passing, climbing a hill or carrying extra weight. This kind of power can be easily provided by a downsized engine with a turbocharger. Hanging a turbo on a small engine allows a little engine to breathe big. With only 6 to 8 pounds of boost pressure, a turbo can increase power output 15 to 25% or more over a naturally aspirated engine. Consequently, a turbo four cylinder engine be used in place of a larger V6, and a turbo V6 can replace a larger V8 with no loss of performance. Eventually, we'll see turbocharged three-cylinder engines replacing many four-cylinder engines. A turbo is exhaust driven and draws no power from the engine as a belt-driven supercharger does. Superchargers can deliver right-now boost at low RPM, but the trade-off is a constant drain on the engine when the extra boost pressure isn't needed. A turbo, on the other hand, is just along for the ride and doesn't develop any boost pressure until the throttle opens and exhaust flow increases. It then spools up and starts pushing more air into the engine. Turbos can rev up to 200,000 RPM or higher, but it can take a few seconds to reach such speeds. Because of this, engineers design turbo systems so they can reach maximum boost pressure with minimum lag. Using a relatively small turbo allows it to spool up much more quickly and reach higher speeds. Some of the newest turbos are now revving to over 250,000 RPM! Proper sizing of the turbo is essential to reduce lag. A smaller turbo will spool up more quickly at low engine speeds than a larger turbo, but a large turbo flows more air and develops more boost pressure and power. Since the emphasis now is more on fuel economy than all-out performance, most of the new passenger car turbo engines are equipped with relatively small turbos that deliver just enough boost to offset the smaller displacement of the engine. Some "variable geometry" turbochargers (also called "variable nozzle" or "variable vane" turbos) have movable vanes that change the "aspect ratio" of the turbo. Aspect ratio is the relationship between the size of the turbo and how much air it flows at various speeds. A turbo with a smaller aspect ratio will spool up faster and deliver more boost at low RPM but may not flow enough air at high RPM. A turbo with a large aspect ratio will flow lots of air and deliver lots of boost at high RPM but will be slow to spool up at low RPM. Using movable vanes to change the effective aspect ratio of the turbo means the turbo will perform better across a wider range of engine speeds. Closing the vanes at low RPM increases exhaust velocity and spins the turbo faster. Opening the vanes at higher RPMs allows the turbo to flow more air and make more power. Boost pressure is controlled by a "wastegate." The wastegate valve opens a bypass circuit that controls how quickly boost pressure builds. It also limits peak boost pressure so the engine doesn't go into detonation. Too much boost pressure can destroy an engine that isn't designed to handle it. The operation of the wastegate is controlled by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM), so it is possible to tweak the turbo's output by reprogramming the PCM.

The boost strategy on most late model engines is to develop boost as quickly as possible and to maintain peak torque output across a broad RPM range. The resulting power curve is much flatter than a comparable nonturbocharged engine, which typically rises in direct proportion to engine speed and peaks out around 5000 to 5500 RPM before dropping off. The boost pressure created by a turbo can bring the power curve up quickly by 2500 RPM and keep it relatively flat all the way to the engine's redline.

Turbo Tweaks Aftermarket "tuner" scan tools have been a popular toy for reprogramming turbocharged engines as well as nonturbo engines. Most of these tools provide one of several different calibrations that alter the stock fuel mixture, ignition timing, boost pressure and rev limiter settings. Some tools allow the user to play around with the settings (which can be dangerous if you don't know what you're doing), while others provide one of several preprogrammed performance tunes. Most of the tool suppliers can also provide custom tunes based on other engine modifications that have been made (such as exhaust system modifications, different cam, heads, induction system, throttle body, etc.). A word of caution regarding the use of tuner tools on diesel pickup truck engines – Many of these tools can provide an extra 100 to 150 horsepower for towing, pulling or showing off. Even so, GM recently announced that it will

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Technology NOT honor engine or drivetrain warranty claims on trucks that have been modified with a performance tuner. GM says its engines are designed for a specific amount of turbo boost pressure, and that increasing boost may result in engine or drivetrain damage. A modified tune can always be returned back to the stock settings, but doing so leaves telltales in the PCM that a dealer can check to see if the PCM tune has been changed. Dialing up the boost pressure is a quick and easy way to increase power in any turbo engine – up to a point. The stock fuel injectors in many diesel engines can safely handle higher boost pressures but that's usually not the case with gasoline engines. The flow capacity of the stock injectors in a gas engine can quickly max out if turbo boost is increased more than a few pounds beyond stock levels. This may cause the fuel mixture to go dangerously lean, resulting in detonation, melted pistons or a blown head gasket. To prevent such a disaster from happening, the flow rate of the injectors have to be matched to the boost pressure and airflow delivered by the turbo. Consequently, if you want to dial up the boost pressure for more power, you're going to need a set of higher flow injectors. In gasoline engines, more octane is also needed as boost pressures go up. The engine's knock sensor can back off timing and boost pressure if detonation is detected, but that also kills performance. Most turbo engines recommend

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premium fuel because the higher octane helps the air/fuel mixture resist detonation. Premium pump gas is usually only available with octane ratings of 91 or 93, so higher octane racing gas or alcohol (methanol or ethanol) may be needed if turbo boost pressures are increased beyond stock. The bottom end of most turbo engines is strong enough to handle a moderate increase in boost pressure over stock. But for a real killer street or race engine that's running lots of boost, stronger pistons, connecting rods and crankshaft are probably going to be a must.

Turbo Maintenance One thing all turbos need to survive is good lubrication and cooling. The turbine and compressor wheels are mounted on a shaft that is supported by water-cooled bearings in a center housing. The bronze shaft bearings are pressure lubricated and must have a steady supply of oil to handle the high shaft speeds. Synthetic oils are best for turbos because they can handle higher operating temperatures. Regular oil and filter changes are also essential to prevent viscosity breakdown, varnish deposits and sludge that can damage the turbo's shaft bearings.

Turbo Troubles The most common problem with high mileage turbos is bearing wear, although blade erosion can also be an issue if the vehicle has an ill-fitting, damaged or missing air filter. Turbine wheel damage in the turbo housing can also occur if an engine has had a valve or piston failure and shrapnel exited an exhaust port. Noise such as whistles or hisses can be caused by air leaks in the turbo housing, connections or plumbing. Squealing or scraping sounds can be caused by bad shaft bearings or the wheels inside the turbo scraping against the housing. Oil inside the compressor housing would tell you the shaft seals are leaking. Bad turbo shaft bearings can reduce turbo speeds and boost pressure, or they may cause the turbo to stop spinning altogether. A good turbo should spin freely with no drag, scraping or noise when spun by hand. Any wheelto-housing interference will create drag and prevent the turbo from reaching normal speeds. Wheel end play is also critical. The back and forth movement (axial play) of the wheels in the turbo housing should usually be less than .0035 inches. More play would tell you the turbo needs to be rebuilt or replaced. The turbo center housing that contains the bearings and shaft assembly can be replaced separately, but most remanufactured turbos are sold as complete units with both wheel housings preinstalled. Balance is absolutely critical in a turbo because of the speeds at which they operate. If a compressor or turbine wheel is damaged or bent, it can upset the balance. If a new wastegate is not included with a replacement turbo, it should also be changed on a high mileage vehicle. Additional parts that may be needed with a turbo replacement include hoses and clamps, and an oil and filter change. Make sure the oil and coolant lines that feed the turbo are clear and flowing normally to prevent a repeat turbo failure. Turbo control issues can be caused by the solenoid that

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Technology stored in a battery/capacitor setup. When the driver hits the accelerator pedal, the energy storage system discharges and spins up the compressor side of the turbo to create instant boost pressure. Another difference is that the new F1 turbos don't use a wastegate to limit boost pressure. The energy storage unit controls the speed of the turbo, speeding it up or slowing it down as needed to change boost pressure. Several companies are also working on electricallydriven turbochargers, including "hybrid" turbos similar to those used on the F1 race cars, as well as electrically-driven centrifugal superchargers that provide boost pressure without using exhaust flow or a belt drive to spin the compressor wheel. As we move forward with more and more turbo engines, the opportunities to rebuild and modify these engines will continue to grow. Some see this as a niche opportunity for engine builders who specialize in turbos, while others see it as an expanding market opportunity for shops that have to service any kind of engine that comes in the door. â– 

A turbocharger utilizes a single-stage radial-flow or "centrifugal" compressor (air pump), as seen on the left of this cutaway from Borg-Warner.

regulates vacuum to the turbo wastegate, a faulty wastegate, MAP or MAF sensor problems, or even a plugged catalytic converter that creates excessive backpressure.

New Turbo Technology Two-stage turbos are now being used in some European engine applications. The twin-turbo setup uses a small turbo for low RPM boost, and a larger secondary turbo to deliver increased airflow at higher engine speeds. Multistage turbos are also used on many large diesel engines to boost power. Although it doesn't affect production vehicles, advances in racing technology often filter down to everyday production engines. For the 2014 racing season, rule changes in Formula 1 racing now require teams to use downsized turbocharged 1.6L V6 engines instead of the previous naturally aspirated 2.4L engines. The new turbo engines use less fuel and produce around 600 hp, which is less than the 750 hp produced by the larger naturally-aspirated engines. The difference in power is made up by using an electronic energy storage system that can deliver an extra burst of power (about 80 hp) for a short period of time, keeping overall performance about the same as before. The energy storage system uses the exhaust side of the turbo like a generator to recover and store energy during deceleration and at high RPM when the turbo generates more power than the engine needs. The energy is

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Flathead Feature

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The 239 and 255 Flathead Engines BY BILL HOLDER PHOTOS BY PHIL KUNZ


n 1939, a huge change occurred in flathead history with the advent of the larger 239.4 cid version. The engines were directed toward different types of race vehicles. Included were the fledgling NASCAR stock cars, sprint and championship open wheel cars, and a single class in hydroplane racing. It also wasn’t surprising to find a 239 flathead-powered vehicle running on the sands of Bonneville. This engine would be the longest standing of the flatheads, lasting 11 years from 1939 to 1949. It was used in Mercurys and Fords beginning in 1939 and 1946, respectively. There were a number of different versions of this engine with the top horsepower rating being 110. Early on, the engine could by identified by the 24 studs and nuts on the head, later to be replaced with 24 bolts. Since we are looking back at historical revelations on the flathead, it should be noted that in 1940, Ford manufactured ten experimental aluminum Flathead blocks. But the program never made it beyond that point. To this day, only one of those unique blocks has been identified. The concept, though, is not dead, as Ardun has recently produced a replica aluminum flathead engine block. It displaces 284

62 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

cubic inches, but can be used only with the Ardun Heads. Set-up with the Ardun heads and a 4-71 blower, it can produce some 382 horsepower.

Fishing for Success

In Part 1 of this two-part feature on flathead engines (April issue) , we took a look at the Ford V8-60 and 221 versions. View it online at

building racecars after the war, the only thing we used were the 239 flatheads. We got them from junkyards and cars on blocks sitting in backyards,” he said. “We would strip them down to the bare block and let them sit out in the weather for two or three months. They would get real rusty, which tended to temper the metal and

Former NASCAR driver and engine builder Curtis ‘Crawfish’ Crider was a successful user of the 239 engine, winning many races on the Daytona Beach course following WWII. This is a good old ‘40 Ford stock car He remembered them with a with a 239 bored and stroked to great fondness. “When we started

276cid. Swain said that with its Offy heads, competition cam, and twin Strombergs, it’s worth about 200 horsepower.

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Flathead Feature make it less likely to crack. We used the most popular. For racing, the stock the 239s, but they didn’t stay at that exhausts weren’t used. They were displacement for very long. We didn’t replaced with homemade headers have any displacement limit so we fashioned from steel tubing and even bored and stroked them out to about pipe. Sounds pretty crude, but they 297 cubic inches. That was a bunch turned out to be pretty effective. and it really added to the Induction for these early NASCAR performance. “The stock horsepower of that flathead was quoted at about 100 horsepower, but I think with the modifications we made to them that they were in the 150-175 range. I never had a dyno to measure it, but I could really feel the difference on the track.” Curtis added that Canadianbuilt flatheads were very desirable because the walls were much thicker than the American versions, allowing considerably more boring to be accomplished. “Many times, we were well over 300 cubes with those upnorth blocks,” he said. A sign in the flathead garage of Mike Swain from Many of the flathead engine western Ohio says it all about this wondrous enbuilders used aftermarket race gine. Swain has over 30 flatheads of various sizes pistons with Jahns being one of and ages.

machines was accomplished with both single and multiple carb set-ups. Crider explained that one of the most potent set-ups consisted of three Stromberg 94 two-barrel carbs. With a tuned version of those engines, it was possible to make something like 5,000RPM, considerably higher than the stock flathead’s figure. The horsepower of this fine Ford continued to rise with the revs. One of the secondary NASCAR classes was the Sportsman Class, which carried a single two-barrel running on pump gas. No additives could be added to the fuel with most of the teams using either Amoco 100 octane white gas or 120 octane aviation fuel. Former driver Goober Sosbee explained, “Some of the teams added ether to the fuel to increase the octane.” The Modified Class had a pressure-fed three-carb set-up featuring Stromberg 97 onebarrel carbs. There was some rejetting done to increase the

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Flathead Feature The French Connection flow, which resulted in more horsepower. Offenhauser intake manifolds were a popular mounting platform for the various carb arrangements conceived by early engine builders. Crider added that the flathead was very durable and many times would last all season with only minor freshening. “Usually, when a racecar changed hands, the flathead went along with the car,” he said. “Fuel was carried in the trunk in the form of a military ‘Jerry Can’ fuel container. Cooling was usually accomplished with the stock radiators. Usually, there was a sturdy steel bumper on the front to protect the radiator.” The power potential of the 239 flathead was also very applicable in sprint cars of the period. A typical sprint car of the 1940s time period would be a Mercury 255 with a 8BA block, probably a bore and stroke job kicking up the displacement, aluminum Offy heads and manifold, with a pair of Stromberg carbs. Flathead engine builder Mike Swain

This 50s Ford has a 239 Flathead with both a blower and four carbs. The George Montgomery machine was run at Bonneville. (Ohio George Photo)

indicated that there is a limit on the number of carbs on a performance flathead. He explained, “When you get too much fuel in the engine, it tends to get sluggish and a loss of power occurs.” Famous engine builder ‘Ohio

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Some Flathead enthusiasts have had some success with French military flatheads. Around the year 2000, a number of French Army Flatheads were acquired and brought to the U.S. with the assistance of Halibrand Engineering and Motor City Flathead. The engines were reportedly about thirty pounds heavier than the American version. The numbers of these French versions, which were cast by Simca, were produced in far fewer numbers than their American counterparts. Another downside with the French version is that some sanctioning bodies for speed competitions in the U.S. have not allowed these engines to be used.

George’ Montgomery started working on mostly 239 flatheads in about 1950. He explained that the ability of the flathead block to be ported and relieved made it an excellent candidate for developing big-time performance. ”I remember that I built

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Flathead Feature A stock 255 Mercury flathead in a ‘’50 Mercury.

lost.” Montgomery said another way to make big horsepower during the period was the use of the advanced Arden heads, which looked a lot like the later Chrysler Hemi heads. “Those heads could really breath a lot better than most other types,” he said. Montgomery explained that there was some unique engine building and utilization at Bonneville. “In 1952, I remember seeing a blown flathead which was topped by four carbs. There was a really wide set-up where a pair of hopped-up 239 flatheads had been joined crank-to-crank like multiengine pulling tractors are today.

The 255 Mercury Flathead Engine a 239 flathead engine that I bored and stroked out to 296 cubes. I added three Stromberg carbs to an Edelbrock manifold and ran 117 mph top speed at Bonneville. For about the first 10 years of my engine building activities, flatheads were my main concentration.

“I remember another hot flathead machine I built, putting a 239 with aftermarket heads, a hotter cam and dual carbs. Heck, there weren’t many drag strips during those days so I would drag race this car in downtown Dayton and a local radio station would broadcast them. It hardly ever

Engine builders particularly liked the 255cid flathead with its four-inchstroke crankshaft which provided the extra displacement. Usually, that crank was stroked an additional 1/8” up to 4 1/8” by rodders and racing types. The stock cams were replaced with aftermarket pieces, hot rod

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Flathead Feature Early in his career, NASCAR superstar David Pierson powered his machine with this 239 flathead with Edelbrock heads and probably considerable internal upgrades.

brands like Harman and Collins or Isky. The cylinder heads were usually fly-cut or milled. Machining the heads in such a manner brought the heads closer to the block and raised the compression ratio, which many times was lifted to 11-1 from the stock figure of 7-1. Also, many teams used the Offenhauser finned-style aftermarket heads. The 255 resulted in a 10

horsepower increase to 95 horses for the bigger Mercury. To cope with the increased compression that was realized, the 255 heads now used 24 studs to hold them in place, up three from the earlier 21. Needless to say, this more powerful flathead found its way to motorsports engine builders. One of the hottest flathead configurations was the so-called Tattersfield Super Race set-up, which

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was bored out to 295 cubic inches with Offenhauser heads, and an aftermarket manifold mounting four carburetors. It also sported a lighter flywheel and made about 230 horsepower on alcohol. Another open wheel application for the flathead was an Indy Car in 1950. It involved the use of a 255 Mercury punched out to 270 cubes and mounting Arden heads. It was competing against purpose-built power plants, but it still made the first alternate position with a 124+mph lap at the Brickyard. Engine builders also found that both Roots and GMC superchargers provided significant power for Mercury flathead-powered drag machines. During the time period, it was possible for supercharged flathead dragsters to turn the quarter mile in the range of 112 mph. For hydroplane racing, the 255 was ideal for the 266 class and required only a slight overbore to reach the required replacement. Different teams modified the engine with different numbers of carburetors. Longtime engine builder Rich Willim explained that the engine with three carbs was capable of about 220 horses, but with the advent of fuel injection from Hilborn, that number could be raised to about 240. The ‘Alter Ego’ F class hydroplane was also a highly successful user of the Mercury flathead and was the first hydroplane over 100 mph in 1950 with driver Paul Sawyer behind the wheel. This particular flathead was only slightly over bored to 258 cubes, which is interesting since that was eight cubic inches below the class limit. It was equipped with Edelbrock heads, Hilborn Injection, a Vertex mag and a Clay Smith cam. Smith, by the way, was a heavy player in the engine build and said that the horsepower was about 230. An interesting fact that increases the significance of the accomplishment is that all other competing engines were designed for boat racing where this 255 Mercury was designed to push a 1946 Mercury.

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Flathead Feature Aftermarket Offy heads and twin Stromberg 94 carbs pump up the performance from this sprint car flathead.

And speaking of Hilborn Injection, it is sad to note that the man behind that significant power enhancer, Steve Hilborn, just recently passed away at 96. Earlier he explained, “Trying to run carbs on methanol is a constant problem. The methanol reacts to the pot metal in the carburetors and had the tendency to clog the jets. That was the reason I investigated the fuel

injection concept.” His early research involved the use of a surplus aircraft fuel pump and a set of nozzles to serve as the induction system for a 239 flathead. In 1948, he mounted the engine on his streamliner and ran 150 mph on the dry lakes. And finally, we would be remiss if we didn’t mention Flathead legend John “Mr. Flathead” Bradley. Bradley was a drag racer and record-holder in the midfifties who reached the Drag Racing Hall of Fame with his

nitro-methane-fueled rail dragster. Known as the “Flathead Flyer,” this injectednitro-burning, highly-modified Flathead engine used custom fabricated heads, extra exhaust pipes and a mag driver. Bradley, who had the title of driving the fastest naturally aspirated rail dragster, passed away at the age of 87 in Dec. 2012 .n

Many drag enthusiasts will remember John Bradley's Flathead Flyer. Photo by Bob Plumer

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Fast Lane

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The Nitrous Wars CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Jim “Animal” Feurer


he period from 1981 to 1984 in American Hot Rod Association (AHRA) was called "The Nitrous Wars." Up until the middle of the 1980 season, AHRA and NHRA Pro Stock minimum weight was mandated by cubic inch, multiplied by a weight factor. The factors varied as to brand, model, type of engine, wheelbase, etc. Suddenly, in the mid-1980 season, AHRA, hoping to create Pro

Stock crossover entries, changed the rules to mirror the IHRA Pro Stock rules. In 1978, IHRA had changed from factoring to fixed minimum weights and unlimited cubic inch. Big blocks had to be 2,350 pounds. Small blocks had to be 2,150 pounds. AHRA's change left us small block guys holding the bag. Factored-type small block cars, me included, ran small de-stroked CI engines using big RPM to make the In the winter of 1980, nitrous system companies saw an opportunity to promote their wares in a national professional

needed power. I had a 339 Cleveland that I buzzed out almost 12,000 RPMs. Factored small block Pro Stock cars could not get near 2,150 pounds. The average small block car was designed for 2400 pounds.

Enter: Nitrous Oxide! In the winter of 1980, nitrous system companies like NOS, Laser and ICE saw an opportunity to promote their wares in a national professional class and arena. They proposed to AHRA a ni68 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

trous option for Small Block Pro Stocks. AHRA accepted. The Rule was: “Add 250 pounds to the base weights.” In the next three years, that decision got the AHRA, nitrous companies and everyone else involved the exposure that was intended. We controversial "bottle baby" racers also got a lot of ink in the race papers. Before 1981 was over, the nitrous companies ads in the media were running rampant. Especially NOS. Full-pages – even in AHRA's rival sanction and race paper, the NHRA National Dragster. Nitrous system companies blasted each other like election ads. Rival companies would try to steal successful nitrous racers to switch so they could bolster their ads. Other products started to appear to augment the nitrous usage. Many of those companies used the "he switched" type ads. Comp Cams offered an Animal Jim special nitrous cam when I switched to their products.

Hence – The Nitrous Wars. In ‘83, one nitrous company was going to sue NOS and I for running a full-page color National Dragster ad that I was featured in. My lawyer reviewed all the ads in that issue. He pointed out that I was in another condemning product ad on the flip side page of NOS's. My lawyer laughed and said, “Hell, most all the ads are deroga-

69 Speedville_Layout 1 5/16/14 3:43 PM Page 69 is the ultimate online destination for lovers of all things racing, restyling and restoration. The site provides speed enthusiasts a top-notch blend of technical content from Babcox Media experts, along with news, contests, videos and more.

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Fast Lane

By 1991, the Nitros Wars were just a memory, but one that was look on fondly.

tory.” He wrote the plaintiff company a letter and that was that.

Weight Gain Besides adding 250 pounds to the base 2,150 pounds, 50 pounds was added for canted valve heads, and even more for a Lenco. So my ‘79 Zephyr with nitrous,

canted valve Cleveland and Lenco transmission had a minimum weight of 2,600 pounds. Originally, I was dead set against the nitrous deal. By fall of ‘80, I got with Jack Roush to start a 600-inch Boss 429. In December 1980, Mike Thermos of NOS called me. Mike proposed a sponsorship for me to run AHRA with my Cleveland small block using

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Here we are at the 1982 AHRA Spring Nationals in Tulsa. The next race was Gateway, which we won – and put me #1 in Pro Stock. The 1981-’83 seasons were all run with our nitrous small block

NOS. I Told him I was against the nitrous program. I was building a Mountain Motor to run IHRA as well as AHRA. After Mike explained the sponsor program, it got me thinking. This is a pretty good offer. I still have some good Cleveland pieces. I would just need bigger CI short blocks. I did a 180-turn and agreed to the NOS deal. Later in ‘81, I bought a 427 CI Aluminum Cleveland Short Block from Jack Roush. 4.125" Bore X 4" stroke with six bolt mains. I then became a major threat. During 1975 to 1983, I had over a dozen PS Cleveland engines. Sizes ranged from 339 to 430 CI. T he big ones I used with nitrous were two aluminum block Cleveland 427s. I also had a special "Furnace Brazed" Cleveland iron block 430 CI from a process of boring the existing cylinders completely out, installing huge thick sleeves and dipping the block in a vat of liquid braze. All surfaces had to be decked, all threaded holes re-tapped, protruding sleeves cut, block line bored, square decked and water jackets filled with special epoxy. The block was then bored and honed with a deck plate to desired size and O-ringed. A girdle was used for the 4 bolt mains. This was a very

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This was the win at AHRA Gateway Nationals in 1982. NOS owner Mike Thermos, Jody Trover track owner, Miss AHRA, me, Terry Shirley and the

expensive and long process that made that block almost indestructible. I also built a couple 409 CI iron 4 bolt short blocks with 4 .030 over bore and 4 inch billet cranks. Those blocks were also filled with epoxy – as were most my prior iron blocks. Before my first run with NOS, I knew the effort would be all out. I was concerned how the typical small block light-weight PS components would take it. I would soon know. Mike Thermos himself came to the 1981 AHRA Gateway Nationals to be with me at my NOS debut. The NOS system Mike sent to me earlier was already installed. It was an 8V Cheater plate system with a "Big Shot” nitrous solenoid, a fuel supplement solenoid and regulator. The system also included several 10lb. bottles, braded lines, fittings, wiring, buttons, gauges and switches. Also included in the package was a very essential purge

A shot of my 1983 All Star Helmet.

system. The NOS plates were placed under the two 1050 Holley Dominators. The double spray bar holes were pointed slightly downward aimed at the intake tunnel ram port runners. The upper nitrous bar helped scavenger the fuel from the lower bar. Spray bar hole sizes, fuel pressure, bottle temperature/pressure (usually 900 pounds) and ignition timing determined the tune up. As time went on, we learned other factors as well, such as line size (diameter and length) from the bottle could make a difference. Purging was essential. The purge system included a small solenoid plumbed into the main nitrous solenoid fitting. It had it's own button. A separate 3/16” hard line was attached to the exit side of the purge solenoid exiting upward behind the scoop so I could judge the exiting froth while purging. Purging while staging cleared the main line of any gassy pockets so pure liquid nitrous was at the solenoid entrance. Gas pockets could cause a bog or even an explosion, blowing the scoop to kingdom come. The aerosol effect of purging cooled the bottle if too much pressure was noticed. Nitrous pressure is about 10 times the bottle temperature. There was no such thing as a controlled nitrous pump. We would heat a cold bottle with a butane torch. If it was too hot we would use an ice pack or

continues on page 80

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72-74 Diesel Products 5/16/14 4:05 PM Page 72

Diesel Products Cylinder Sleeves PowerBore Cylinder Sleeves has recently released its new Power Ductile material. Power Ductile is a high-tensile strength ductile iron that exceeds even the high strength of the standard 100-70-03 ductile. It is the strongest material on the market for cylinder sleeve applications. 330-332-1566 ext. 138 Circle Number 131 Diesel Nitrous System If you think the torque of that monster diesel is something to brag about, then you should feel it with the extra power of NOS from Holley. This kit p/n 02519NOS, fits all diesel applications and works well with stock and modified applications. Vehicles with computer upgrades will benefit even more as nitrous will aid in a clean combustion. Comes complete with 10 lb. bottle, bottle brackets, nitrous feed line, large nitrous solenoid, electrical wiring and complete instructions. Features adjustable HP settings, gains up to 75 hp on stock applications and higher hp gains with computer modifications. 1-866-464-6553 Circle Number 130

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Power Stroke Pistons Diamond Racing Pistons has announced new, sturdy 2618 billet aluminum pistons that replace the original equipment aluminum castings for Ford Power Stroke V8 6.0 and 7.3L turbocharged diesel engines. The pistons receive the protection of a Double Diamond coat that adds longevity, reduces friction and decreases wear. Shelf-stock part numbers are available in all common bore sizes, while custom units are offered in virtually any bore size. Standard dish volumes and swirl chambers with undercut rims to promote turbulence are used for shelf-stock part numbers. Conveniently, custom dish designs are produced to customers’ specifications. Further customized options are engineered for competition applications, including side gas-ports to enhance ring seal. To complete the kit, Diamond provides a three-ring pack using a steel top ring, an RBT second ring and a conventional oil control ring. Their thicknesses measure 1/16, 1/16, and 3/16in. 877-552-2112 Circle Number 133

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Performance Dampers Fluidampr Performance Diesel dampers are now available for all late-model Chevy/GM, Ford and Dodge/Ram diesel trucks. Protect your engine with the technology high power diesel OEMs use. Recommended whenever performance upgrades are made for superior protection while achieving optimum performance across your entire rpm range. Maintenance free. Fluidampr is the official damper of DIESEL Motorsports. SFI 18.1 approved. 716-592-1000 Circle Number 134

Diesel Injector Cleaner Diesel Purge from LIQUI MOLY does as the name suggests: it gives diesel engines a thorough cleaning. It was developed to dissolve deposits and improve the engine characteristics. It is highly effective against deposits in the injectors and in the fuel system. The risk of deposits increases when the quality of the diesel fuel is below optimum standards. Regular application of Diesel Purge helps to increase operational reliability and economy. In addition, Diesel Purge improves the ignition performance of diesel fuel, prevents partial-load knocking, and protects against corrosion.

Airflow Advance FLOW Engineering (aFe Power) offers a complete line of diesel performance air filters, intake systems, intercoolers, turbochargers, exhaust systems and accessories for GM Duramax, Dodge Cummins, and Ford Power Stroke diesels. The complete aFe Power product line is available at Motor State Distributing for immediate shipment. 1-800-772-2678 Circle Number 135

Medium Duty Diesel Rings Hastings offers very broad piston ring coverage for medium duty diesel engines, from Dodge to Ford to GM, Mercedes to Nissan. This includes replacement rings for the very popular 5.9L and 6.7L B-Series Cummins diesel engines. Each ring set is engineered for the requirements of modern diesels. Look for our familiar blue and gold box. 800-776-1088 Circle Number 136

Circle Number 137

Cummins 6CT 8.3 Cylinder Head The new Cummins 8.3L complete cylinder head from Access Industries Co., includes new springs and valves. It can be used with any Cummins 8.3L (6C, 6CT, 6CTA) 12-valve engine (21inch intake port). The Cummins 6C 8.3L engine is widely used for truck, industrial, gen-spec. and marine applications. 1-866-210-9251 Circle Number 138 73

Supply Line

Diesel Products

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Diesel Products Filters/Airflow AIRAID Filter Company offers a complete line of premium performance filters, cold air intake systems, modular intake tubes computer designed for maximum air flow producing additional horsepower, torque and improved performance. The complete AIRAID product line is available at Motor State Distributing for immediate shipment. 800-772-2678 Circle Number 139

Chevy Crankshaft Scat offers a new 9000 Cast GMC Diesel crankshaft available for the Chevy 6.5L engines. For stock replacement or mild performance use, why risk running an old factory crankshaft? Scat offers builders a new, stronger replacement. Features include: precision-ground, straight-shot oil holes and rough balanced — all at a great low cost. p/n: 9-6.5L-3819-6280 Short No. 965L3819. Stroke: 3.819”. Min. Rod Length: 6.280”. Rod Journal: 2.399” 310-370-5501 Circle Number 140

74 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

Power Stroke Lift Pump Fuelab offers its Velocity 200 In-Line High Performance Lift Pump for the 2008-2010 Ford 6.4L Power Stroke to supply the increased fuel demands of engines modified for more power. This premium quality, powerful, speed controllable is a reliable replacement for the weak OE Ford lift pump. Brushless motor for long life and low current draw. Flow through design for cool operation. 200 GPH high flow rate and aerospace design based poppet relief valve provides stable fuel pressure to injector pump. p/n: 30305. Hand-built in the USA. . 217-324.3737 Circle Number 141

Diesel Fuel Cleaner Penray’s Total Diesel Fuel System Cleaner is especially helpful in dissolving and preventing the formation of asphaltenes in diesel fuel, while cleaning other deposits and contaminants from the fuel system. Benefits of this innovative Penray product include greatly extended fuel filter life, as well as that of injectors and other precision fuel system components. As such, maintenance costs are reduced, and fuel economy is increased. 800-323-6329 Circle Number 142

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Engine Pro High Performance Connecting Rods

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Fast Lane continued from page 71

Up on the tires for 1000 feet. Gosh how I miss that!

purging to cool it. A switch armed the nitrous. For delivery of the nitrous and fuel supplement to the engine, I eventually used two methods. First was a switch under the gas pedal. Soon, I learned the nitrous needed to deploy quicker than just flooring the pedal. I connected a line lock button to my first Lenco shift handle to be pushed simultaneously with the clutch release, giving a splitsecond lead on foot pedal delivery. The Zephyr left so hard the GS pulled my leg up. I had to fasten a wooden block on top of the pedal. Later, we learned besides purging, we could also "burst" the nitrous a bit with the shifter button while staging. The sudden roar could also shake your opponent. In later years, MSD would come up with magical electronics such as Omron roller switches, MSD retard, rev limiter and timers. But alas, in 1981 that stuff was not yet available. In ‘81 to ‘84 everything was done manually. For my Nitrous Small Block debut I used my best engine - A Roush 353 Cleveland. I was ready to make my first run ever with nitrous. After the burnout, I armed the nitrous and purged while staging. I was careful to hold the throttle pedal down only 3/4 of the way to get 9,000 RPMs, being careful not to floor it to the nitrous button. Mike Thermos guided me in. The yellow flashed and I simultaneously popped the clutch, let go of the line lock button and jammed the pedal to the metal activating nitrous delivery. Wow! The car launched like a rocket with the front wheels three feet high. All I saw was sky. It was by far the quickest and fastest run I ever made. What a rush. After three qualifiers we were number five. Warren Johnson with his IHRA Mountain Motor was number one. One qualifying shot left. Mike and I saw a chance to make a big noise if we aced WJ out of number one. We took the NOS plates off and Mike drilled a bigger jetting pattern in the spray bars. (No foggers or jetted plates yet in ‘81). Last qualifier: I was on a perfect run. I felt the extra power. But number one was not to be. At 1,000 feet the Merc nosed over, smoke came in the car along with that ugly smell I came to hate. The tune up was too frisky. 80 May 2014 | EngineBuilder

Saturday night would be spent replacing pistons. We learned the pistons needed thicker roofs, heavier and fuller skirts and thicker wall wrist pins. No gas ports. To lighten the pistons the thicker skirts could be internally ditch cut. Oil rings needed to be standard tension and top and second ring gaps widened to .006” for nitrous. Top ring thickness changed from .043 to 1/16th. Those changes helped conserve the rings. We even tried two ring groove pistons to get the ring package lower out of heat. But leak down suffered. Head gaskets were a problem. With no copper gaskets available for Fords, your best bet was the McCord 351 Boss Cleveland gaskets with studs and O-rings, which lasted about four runs. After four qualifying runs, you spent Saturday night

changing the head gaskets for eliminations on Sunday. Keeping oil out of combustion chambers was imperative. Nitrous enhances any substance to ignite. Unwanted oil in the combustion chamber dangerously affected the tune up. Snug bronze walled valve guides and posi fit seals were needed. By mid-‘82, we had handled several problems and ran pretty good. I led the AHRA in National Pro Stock points, and won in AHRA, including the ‘82 Gateway Nationals and won some Circuit and Match races. The "Bottle Babies" as we were called, had a definite advantage at high altitude. AHRA reduced big block weight by 50 pounds for the complaining big block racers. Which did not help. “How Ironic!” At the ‘83 AHRA Winter Nationals in Tucson, we still shined. I was presented the AHRA Grand National AllStar Award. But as always in racing, by mid-‘83, the worm had turned. The big block guys had enough of the "Bottle Babies." Bigger and better aftermarket Mountain Motors had arrived. Burning our small blocks to the ground, we could not keep up. Plus, AHRA was fading. My tour of duty in the "Nitrous Wars" was over. In ‘84 I went to a 672 Ford Kaase Boss Mammoth Hemi using all new Allen Root parts. I ran Pure Mountain Motor Pro Stock the next three years managing several wins a year. ■

C3 Access_Layout 1 5/16/14 3:43 PM Page c3

Circle 83 on Reader Service Card for more information

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Circle 84 on Reader Service Card for more information

Engine Builder, May 2014