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>Oiling Systems

>Super Comp Engines

>Machine Shop Market Profile

SERVING ENGINE BUILDERS & REBUILDERS SINCE 1964 2013 JUNE

EngineBuilderMag.com

SEE OUR EXCLUSIVE DIESEL SECTION ON PG 26!


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Contents 06.13

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Features

ON THE COVER

Performance Diesel

Oiling System Technology

Most OE engines use a wet sump system, which can be modified for performance applications to improve oil control and increase horsepower. A dry sump system, on the other hand, has been specifically designed for performance applications and is mainly used at the higher levels of racing. Technical Editor Larry Carley explores the options ............20

Our inaugural Performance Diesel Guide addresses the growing internal engine parts market and the bolt-on performance market. Included with the guide are articles covering performance diesel engine building, turbos and tuning, a directory of parts suppliers and our diesel performance product showcase. ..............26

20 Machine Shop Market Profile

Part 1 of our Annual Machine Shop Market Profile report written by Associate Publisher/Editor Doug Kaufman provides results from our examination of the machine shop market. In this report, we track trends in the production of engines, cylinder heads and crankshafts, as well as specific business data ................................................................41

26 Columns

41

Tales From the WD........................16 By Dave Sutton, Contributing Editor One Minute Might Save You Thirty!

Super Comp Drag Racing The Super Comp class is the fastest of the heads-up Super classes (8.90 index). Four and six-cylinder- powered entries may have a minimum weight of 1,000 pounds; all others cannot weigh less than 1,350 pounds. Technical Editor Larry Carley investigates the market..............................52

Final Wrap....................................68 By Doug Kaufman, Associate Publisher/Editor Knowing You, Knowing Me

DEPARTMENTS

52 Sleeves and Liners

Whether a sleeve is being installed in an aluminum or iron block, dimensional accuracy is an absolute must. Contributing Editor Bob McDonald looks at sleeves and liners for performance and diesel applications..................58

Industry News......................................................8 Events ..................................................................6 Shop Solutions ....................................................14 2013 Supplier Spotlight ........................................63 Cores/Classifieds/Ad Index ..................................66

58 COVER DESIGN BY NICHOLE ANDERSON

ENGINE BUILDER founded Oct. 1964 Copyright 2013 Babcox Media Inc.

ENGINE BUILDER (ISSN 1535-041X) (June 2013, Volume 49, Number 06): Published monthly by Babcox Media Inc., 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333 U.S.A. Phone (330) 670-1234, FAX (330) 670-0874. Periodical postage paid at Akron, OH 44333 and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to ENGINE BUILDER, 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333. A limited number of complimentary subscriptions are available to individuals who meet the qualification requirements. Call (330) 670-1234, Ext. 275, to speak to a subscription services representative or FAX us at (330) 670-5335. Paid Subscriptions are available for non-qualified subscribers at the following rates: U.S.: $69 for one year. Canada: $89 for one year. Canadian rates include GST. Ohio residents add current county sales tax. Other foreign rates/via air mail: $129 for one year. Payable in advance in U.S. funds. Mail payment to ENGINE BUILDER, P.O. Box 75692, Cleveland, OH 44101-4755. VISA, MasterCard or American Express accepted. Publisher reserves the right to reject any subscription that does not conform to his standards or buying power coverage. Advertising which is below standard is refused. Opinions in signed articles and advertisements are not necessarily those of this magazine or its publisher. Diligent effort is made to ensure the integrity of every statement. Unsolicited manuscripts must be accompanied by return postage.

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Events

Industry Events June 22 AERA Tech & Skills Regional Conference Hosted by National Performance Warehouse Los Angeles, CA www.aera.org or 888-326-2372

July 20-22 EFI University at Pro Car Associates Akron, OH www.efi101.com or 866-316-7744

September 18 AERA Tech & Skills Regional Conference Dallas, TX www.aera.org or 888-326-2372

September 18-20 68th Annual PERA Conference Dallas, TX www.pera.org

September 25-26 Rottler 6th Annual Open House Kent, WA www.rottlermfg.com/open_house.php

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September 27 AERA Tech & Skills Regional Conference Hosted by Rottler Manufacturing Kent, WA www.aera.org or 888-326-2372

October 2 MERA Remanufacturing and Sustainability Conference Troy, MI www.mera.org or 248-750-1280

November 5-7 AAPEX Show Las Vegas, NV www.aapexshow.com or 708-226-1300

November 5-8 SEMA Show Las Vegas, NV www.semashow.com or 702-450-7662

For more industry events, visit our website at

www.enginebuildermag.com or subscribe to

www.aftermarketnews.com. 6 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

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Industry News

8-13 Industry News 6/19/13 9:00 AM Page 8

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Hastings Manufacturing Company Acquired by RFE Investment Partners Hastings Manufacturing Company, a nearly 100-year-old global manufacturer of piston rings, has announced its acquisition by RFE Investment Partners (RFE), together with management. The firm currently manages more than $450 million in committed capital. RFE is a private equity firm based in New Canaan, CT with over 30 years of experience investing in growth companies with strong management teams operating in the manufacturing and service sectors. “We are very excited to partner with RFE and continue to grow the business,” commented Bob Kollar, president and CEO. “RFE has a strong track record of acquiring businesses and successfully taking them through their next phase of growth.” Hastings also announced that

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Marion Holt has been appointed to the position of vice president of business development reporting to Kollar. In this capacity, Holt will be responsible for complete management of the company’s sales and marketing in the U.S., Canadian and Australian aftermarkets. Holt assumes the position most recently held by Tom DeBlasis of Hastings. DeBlasis will be expanding Hastings’ growth plans as vice president of business development in the European, African and Middle East aftermarkets. Jeff Guenther will focus on the increasing growth for the company as vice president of business development in the Mexican, Caribbean, Central American and South American aftermarkets. “Hastings Manufacturing Company has great brand recognition, world-class manufacturing and a strong leadership team,” commented Jim Parsons, managing director and partner at RFE. “We see tremendous opportunities for

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Hastings Manufacturing Company and are excited to become partners in their future growth.” For more information visit www.hastingsmfg.com.

Federal-Mogul Board Elects Co-CEO of F-M Corp. and CEO, Global Aftermarket The board of directors of FederalMogul Corp. has announced the election of Kevin Freeland to the position of co-CEO of FederalMogul Corp. and CEO of FederalMogul's Vehicle Components Segment (VCS), effective June 17. Freeland will report to the company’s board of directors. Federal-Mogul's VCS is one of the largest independent global suppliers of leading, premium-branded automotive parts to the automotive aftermarket. The company manufactures and distributes more than 20 of the world’s most recognized auto parts brands, including ANCO wiper blades, Champion spark


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Industry News

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plugs, MOOG chassis parts and Wagner brake products. Freeland replaces Mike Broderick,

who held both positions since June 2012. According to Jim Burke, director of corporate communications at Fed-

eral-Mogul, Broderick is completing a brief transition with the company. Freeland joins Federal-Mogul after 32 years of merchandising, marketing and procurement experience, most recently as chief operating officer of Advance Auto Parts Inc. Prior to joining Advance Auto Parts, Freeland spent eight years, from 1995 to 2003, with Best Buy Co., a specialty retailer of consumer electronics, office products, appliances and software, serving as senior vice president in its procurement and distribution group and, ultimately, president of its Musicland Division.

Elgin Receives JASPER Engines & Transmissions 2013 Service Award

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Elgin Industries has once again been honored as one of the leading suppliers to JASPER Engines & Transmissions, receiving the 2013 JASPER Service Award during a recent ceremony in Jasper, IN. Elgin has supplied internal engine components to JASPER for more than 60 years and has held Preferred Partner status with the company for 12 years. JASPER relies on Elgin for a broad range of advanced valvetrain products, including pushrods, rocker arms, lifters and valve springs, with a majority of these parts being designed and manufactured in Elgin’s state-ofthe-art facilities in Elgin, IL. The JASPER Service Award is presented to manufacturers who provide exceptional service in each of several critical business areas, including product quality, fill rate, accuracy in billing and credit processes, and overall responsiveness. “We are approaching our 95th year of operation and quality and customer service are every bit as important today as they were when we first opened our doors,” said Elgin Industries President Bill Skok. “With 60 years of mutual growth and success, Elgin and JASPER have defined the qualities of a strong business partnership. We are very proud to serve this great company and its thousands of customers across North America.”

Racing Industry Pioneer Harvey Crane Passes Away Harvey J. Crane, Jr., founder of Crane Cams, Inc., and a pioneer figure in the 10 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

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Industry News

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racing and performance automotive industry, passed away Friday, May 31, 2013, following a brief illness. His passing came peacefully, with his daughter, Susan Farris, at his bedside in Gainesville, FL. Crane was born in Hallandale, FL, August 17, 1931, discovered hot rods at age 13, and opened Crane Engineering on January 1, 1953, in a rented corner of his dad’s shop. After initially struggling, the business came alive in the early ’60s. According to Crane advertising and marketing veteran Jim Hill, Crane early on recognized the need to have an organization that represented the industry, and he was one of SEMA’s first members and exhibitors at the

first SEMA Show. He was later recognized by SEMA and inducted into the SEMA Hall of Fame. He was also inducted into the East Coast Drag Racing Hall of Fame, in Henderson, NC among many such honors during his 60+ year career in the industry. Harvey James Crane, Jr., is survived by four children: David Crane; Mona Crane; Steven Crane and Susan Farris, and his beloved companion dog, Stormy. He was preceded by his first wife, Mildred and by his second wife, Maxine Solis.

New AETC Website Debuts Each year the Advanced Engineering Technology Conference (AETC) brings together engine builders, racers, engi-

neers and media members from around the world to exchange information on popular engine-building topics. In an effort to make information about the conference even more accessible, AETC has recently launched an updated, easy-to-navigate website: wwwaetconline.com. The 24th annual Advanced Engineering Technology Conference is slated for December 9th – December 11th and will be held just prior to the PRI Trade Show at the Indiana Convention Center. The redesigned site features an overview of the conference and a news section, as well as a continually updated list of speakers and schedule. It also includes a testimonial section where users can read about the experiences of past attendees, and a lodging tab that features hotel recommendations as the conference shifts to its new home in downtown Indianapolis. Users can also register online. The updated website, including updated seminar topics, can be found at www.aetconline.com.

Melling Engine Parts, Dura-Bond Consolidate Sales and Marketing Efforts Melling Engine Parts and Dura-Bond Bearing Co. have announced a consolidation of their sales and marketing efforts. Charles Barnett, vice president of sales and marketing at Dura-Bond

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THIS ISSUE:

PG 14 >> Shop Solutions

PG 20 >> Oiling Systems

Bearing Co., will be heading up the consolidated efforts. Barnett has been a long-term employee at the company as president prior to the Melling purchase several years ago. He also had a career with ACDelco/General Motors and previously served as general sales manager for PACCAR Parts, prior to working at Dura-Bond. For more information about Melling Engine Parts, visit www.melling.com.

New AAIA/AASA Report Projects 3.4 Percent Growth Through 2016 The U.S. automotive aftermarket industry is expected to grow 3.4 percent annually through 2016 to $263.8 billion, adding an additional $32.6 billion to the economy, according to a jointly produced Channel Forecast Model sponsored by the Automotive Aftermarket Industry Association (AAIA) and the Automotive Aftermarket Suppliers Association (AASA).

PG 26 >> Performance Diesel

IHS Global Insight, a global leader in economic and financial analysis, forecasting and market intelligence, conducted the market sizing and forecast for the associations. Data is based on U.S. Department of Commerce, Federal Reserve Board and U.S. Census Bureau’s data, IMR and Polk data as well as proprietary IHS economic analysis and forecasting models.

Goodson’s Tech Services Manager Tapp to Retire Goodson Tools & Supplies for Engine Builders has announced the retirement of former Tech Services Manager, Jim Tapp. Tapp, whose last day is June 28, 2013, has been with Goodson Tools & Supplies since April 1992. According to David Monyhan, Goodson Sales Manager, “Jim has been at the heart of many of our new products over the years. He has experience in running his own shop and teaching at a tech school, which gave him a unique perspective on the shop supplies business. Jim will be missed and we wish

Industry News

him the absolute best.” Tapp says that once he retires he plans to get his home machine shop reorganized so he can work on small engines and “finally finish the 1937 Ford Half-Ton Pickup I’ve been trying to get to for years.” For more information about Goodson, visit www.goodson.com.

SEMA Hall of Fame Names Four New Members George Barris, Eric Grant, Wade Kawasaki and Joe Schubeck will be inducted into the SEMA Hall of Fame during the SEMA Installation Banquet & Gala Fundraiser, Friday, July 26, at the Sheraton Fairplex Hotel & Conference Center in Pomona, CA. The Hall of Fame recognizes individuals who have raised the stature or growth of the automotive specialty-equipment industry. Detailed biographies of each inductee can be found at www.sema.org/hof. ■ Have industry news to share? Email it to Doug Kaufman at dkaufman@babcox.com

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Removing Stubborn Dowel Pins Do you ever have solid dowel pins that are worn or tapered, and the slap hammer slips off no matter how tight you make it? Add a dab of valve lapping compound to the dowel pin. It works wonders. Most of the time the pin slaps right out. Jeffrey Myers MAR Automotive, Inc. Philadelphia, PA

Making Your Own Valve Seal Removal Tool In older vehicles, valve seals often stick and are hard to remove. Tool manufacturers make handy tools to remove the seals, but they can be costly. Here is how to make your own valve seal removal tool. Start with a pair of new or used vise grips, take an old socket or some tubing stock and cut it down the middle. Weld the halves to the jaw of the vise grips. You now have an inexpensive valve stem seal removal tool. Roy Maloney Engine & Performance Warehouse Houston, TX

Lighting Up Your Shop Proper lighting in a machine shop can make a big difference in the quality of your work, and also make a positive impression on customers. We have all ventured into “black holes” of machine shops and wondered how anybody can turn out good quality work in a place like that. Replacing old lighting fixtures with new, more efficient fixtures is one way to increase light and reduce your electric bill. Probably the easiest way to make your shop brighter and well lit is to paint the walls and ceiling white. Painting the floor a practical color, like grey, and keeping it clean is another way to keep things light and make a positive impression with your customers. Something you may have already thought of – don’t paint the bottom few feet of your shop walls white. That is probably taking light and 14 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

white too far. Steve Rich Sterling Bearing, Inc. Kansas City, MO

Measuring Camshaft Thrust Button Clearance in Chevy V8 Engines If you need to measure proper clearance for your small block or big block Chevrolet V8 camshaft thrust button, modeling clay works very well. Here is what you need to do: • Install the gasket and chain assembly onto the engine without the thrust button; • Then, take a wad of soft modeling clay and put it into the hole where the thrust button will go; • Next, install the cover and then remove it. This squishes the clay into shape; • Now, carefully remove the clay and measure the thickness. Some light oil on the surface will keep it from sticking to the metal; • Finally, select the proper length thrust button or machine it to the proper length and proceed with the installation. Jeff "Beezer" Beseth BeezerBuilt Newtown Square, PA

Yet Another Way To Remove Bushings If you run into a situation where you have to remove a bushing from a blind hole and a pilot bearing puller will not work, here is another way to get the job done. Take a standard threading tap that is close to the I.D. of the bushing and thread the bushing. You can then use a slide hammer or other type of puller to remove the bushing, or you can thread it all the way in and then jack the bushing out with a bolt. Lee Johnson Pro Performance Denver, CO Editor’s Note: In our March 2013 issue we ran a Shop Solution titled "Which Piston Rings to Use 7.3L Ford V8 Diesels." Below is a reader’s response to

the Shop Solution followed by comments from the author. On the 7.3L engines listed in the article, why would you use a Hastings manufactured ring? Sealed Power designed and dyno-tested these ring packs for IH years back and came up with new specs for people to follow. So if you really want to seal your 7.3L, do your homework. What would you set your gap on your #2 ring? Want to do this again soon? Dennis Decker via email Re: Nice to see people are paying attention to details.... Second rings gaps are important. Research done starting in the ’90s found that many engines could benefit from increasing the gap on the second ring. This change reduces combustion gas pressure pulses between the top and second ring that can cause the top ring to lose its seal against the piston ring groove. The benefits of these wider gaps, within reason, are improved power, better oil control and reduced emissions. Hastings Manufacturing has long been on top of these revised larger second ring gaps. Here are the second ring gaps that have been designed into the Hastings ring sets for the Ford 7.3L engines based on OE recommendations and our own piston ring testing and development: • 1988-’94 Ford 7.3L IDI Naturally Aspirated (Rectangular 2nd rings) Second ring gap .062˝ - .072˝ (Set #2M4741); • 1993-’94 Ford 7.3L IDI Factory Turbo (Keystone 2nd rings) Second ring gap .055˝ - .065˝ (Set #2M4873); and • 1994.5-2003 Ford 7.3L DI Power Stroke (Rectangular 2nd rings) Second ring gap .062˝ - .072˝ (Set #2M4882). You can be assured that Hastings Manufacturing Company supplies piston rings that are top quality. Hastings is TS-16949 and ISO14001 registered and has a long history as an original equipment supplier to Ford,


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General Motors, Chrysler, Harley-Davidson and many other engine manufacturers. Response from Ray Falkenrath, Director of Product Development, Hastings Mfg. Co.

Factoid of the Month Which vehicles are the most American made? It is a common belief that many Toyota and Honda vehicles are more American made than our “Big Three” vehicles. Not so, according to Prof. Frank DuBois of the Kogod School of Business at American University. His recent study viewed 253 cars, trucks and SUVs to determine which had the most domestic content. The study takes into account labor, R&D, inventory, capital spent, engine parts, transmission parts, body, interior, chassis, electrical and profits. Here are the most American made cars, according to the study: Buick Enclave, Chevy Traverse, GMC Acadia 88.5 Ford F-Series trucks, Dodge Avenger 87.5 Chevy Corvette, Ford Mustang 85.0 Toyota Avalon (highest ranked import) 81.0

Shop Solutions – The Power of Knowledge Engine Builder and Engine Pro present Shop Solutions in each issue of Engine Builder Magazine and at enginebuildermag.com. The feature is intended to provide machine shop owners and engine technicians the opportunity to share their knowledge to benefit the entire industry and their own shops. Those who submit Shop Solutions that are published are awarded a prepaid $100 Visa gift card.

Engine Pro is a nationwide network of distributors that warehouse a full line of internal engine components for domestic and import passenger car, light truck, heavy duty, industrial, marine, agricultural and performance applications. They also produce engine parts under the Engine Pro name that offer premium features at an affordable price.

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Tales From The WD

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One Minute Might Save You Thirty! You face a litany of questions when ordering parts, but it’s worth the time

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he call, one of hundreds made every day, goes something like this: “Hello. This is Billy-Joe-Bob, can I help you?” “Yeah Billy, this is Hank with Smith Machine. I’m working on an F-150 with a 4.6 and I need some parts.” “OK, Hank. I have several Smith Machines, do you know your account number?” “No.” “OK, can I get your phone number?” “Ah, yeah.” “Hank, now that I’ve got your account up, can you give me more info? On a 4.6 I need the year and the VIN number. You know the eighth digit?” “Well, I think it’s a ’99 and he didn’t give me the VIN. Aren’t they all the same?” “No, they’re not. Is it a Windsor or a Romeo? Single cam or dual cam? Oh, and for the timing set, I do need the exact year.” “Windsor or Juliet? Err, Romeo? Really? Why do I need to know all that? How can I tell?” “You need to know all that so I can get you the correct parts. You can tell by getting me the VIN number.” The fact that this conversation mimics the one he had yesterday while trying to find parts for an import engine – an even bigger nightmare – still doesn’t dawn on Hank. The real fact of the matter is he could spare himself all this grief and waste of time by doing a better job of receiving his labor. No, Hank didn’t lie to Billy when asked about the vehicle identification number (VIN) – his customer really didn’t give that to him. No one ever seems to offer the critical info. That is why you have to ask for it. Just as you have to ask for a name and phone num-

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CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Dave Sutton dsutton@enginebuildermag.com

ber. What if your customer, say Joe’s Repair, doesn’t have the VIN? That’s OK. Just make sure that Joe knows you can’t get his job started until he gets that for you. If Joe is a smart man and wants to get that car done and out of his bay, he sure as heck will get that info to you quickly. Let’s turn this around. Same conversation but this time Billy doesn’t do his job, doesn’t ask the right questions. Sure, old Hank doesn’t know and neither does he, so he’ll just choose the first part he finds. It was just an estimate, right? So Hank gets a price on a mystery part and the snowball begins its journey down the hill. His quote to his customer is wrong, and odds are, it will probably be too low. Somewhere down the line, the go ahead is given and the mystery part is ordered. Now we’ve added shipping costs to all the time we’ve spent acquiring a quote and then the part. We’ve all been here so there is no surprise when the part or parts are wrong. But we have time, freight and money tied up in the wrong part. Add in return freight, all for nothing, and we’re back to square one. Now you’re calling Billy-Joe-Bob and you’re mad. But let’s ask ourselves, who’s at fault here? I personally hate fault. It accomplishes nothing and is only a defense mechanism to protect our own fragile egos. Resolve comes only when we move forward. And since this isn’t a waltz, let’s not take two steps forward and one step back. First, we must face the fact that it is not always as simple as year, make, model and VIN. I know it can be impossible to acquire even these, but many times I would be asking for more. Sometimes much more. We work


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WD Tales

on a variety of engines and there are a engine manufacturer, cubic inch and turer’s CPL number. variety of questions to answer to get horsepower rating will be just the start. When you’re talking about parts the correct parts. Let’s look at some We’ll also need to know if it’s standard like crankshafts, cylinder heads or congeneral applications and see what you or reverse rotation. Some reverse rotanecting rods, a casting number will might be asked to provide to make tion engines were available with both most likely be required. sure you get the right parts the first gear drive and chain drive camshafts. When I started this story, I claimed time. You might be asked if the pistons are that one minute could save you 30 For most import or domestic pasflat top, domed or dished. Solid, hyminutes or more. If that one minute is senger cars and light truck applicaused to collect the information I’ve tions you need an accurate year, described, it could easily save you If you guess or assume you make, model, cubic inch or liter the 30-plus minutes you’ll waste displacement, and for anything know the vehicle information, calling your parts distributor only from this century or from the ’80s to learn you need to contact your you’re going to be wrong. and ’90s we need the eighth digit customer for more info before you from the manufacturer’s VIN. can call your distributor again to I started in the parts business bedraulic or roller lifter camshaft, oval or get what you needed in the first place. hind the counter in 1974. I left that rectangular intake port heads and the If your shop rate is $70- $80 an hour, store in the early ’80s and by then, we firing order are all potential questions you’ll save yourself $35-$40 in wasted were occasionally asking for a VIN when trying to identify a marine entime. Not quite free money, but you get number. It’s now 30-plus years later, gine. the point. and the VIN is needed to find most any Heavy-duty and industrial engines There are still two more points to part for a modern vehicle. Why do I alrequire year, make, chassis model and make. First, if you guess or assume you ways get that long silence on the other engine size, but these type of applicaknow the vehicle information, you’re end of the phone when I ask for it tions will also require an engine serial going to be wrong. And you know today for an engine part? number. Parts for Caterpillar will also what they say if you assume, you make Marine applications get to be more require an arrangement number, while an ass of you and me. And I personally complex. Year, boat manufacturer, Cummin’s parts require a manufacdon’t like being made an ass. Given the

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right circumstances and a bar, I’ll do that for myself! Seriously, please don’t guess. The second point I’d like to make takes us into the future. Have you noticed how difficult it is today to get current cataloging? Things are changing at a rate that the parts manufacturers can’t even keep up with, yet alone catalog. Plus, with cost being a major concern, printed materials are often going by the wayside. If your shop is equipped with a computer and Internet access, you can have available the most current information. But I’m not seeing a high percentage of shops with computers or Internet access. That’s going to have to change. As we move forward, I believe, one of the most difficult jobs we’ll face is gaining access to the information we’ll need. Many of us old-timers still appreciate a catalog. When you have the book open, you have access to several pages of info and you can compare, size up and find what you’re looking for. Without a catalog, you’ll need the correct answers to each of the electronic catalog prompts to get to a part number. Now having that information is mandatory. This is like the snowball rolling downhill. Today I train you to give what is needed to your WD to get you the correct parts. Tomorrow you start training your customers. Get a proper work order, one that prompts you into asking the right questions and filling in the blanks. Collect this info at the time you bring in the job. You may not need to get their name and number if they’re a regular, but get the info anyway. If the delivery driver doesn’t have it, make him or her responsible for getting it to you. Assert that the job won’t leave your counter until you’ve got the info you need to do the work and get the parts. Repair shops usually want it yesterday. Plant a seed that you can’t start until you get that info and watch ’em move. Knowledge is power. Having the right knowledge, or information, will make parts acquisition quicker and easier. And the less time you have invested getting the parts, the more time you’ll have to get the job done and the more profitable those parts will be. ■

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Feature

20-25 Oiling Systems 6/19/13 8:55 AM Page 20

Oiling System Technology

BY TECHNICAL EDITOR LARRY CARLEY LCARLEY@BABCOX.COM

Keeping a steady supply of oil flowing can be a challenge in racing applications

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il is the lifeblood of every enWith circle track racing, the car is gine. Any significant loss of oil always turning left so the oil wants to pressure can destroy an engine climb up the right side of the oil pan. in a split second so the oiling system Extending the oil pan sideways on the must provide a constant supply of oil right side and using baffles, trap doors under all operating conditions. and an offset pickup helps keep the With performance engines, keeping pickup submerged in oil so the pump the engine lubed with a steady supply can deliver a steady supply of oil. A of oil can be a challenge because of the dry sump system can do the same G-forces that may be encountered. One thing while offering some ground of the most demanding applications is clearance advantages with a shallower the marine environment. Strapping a oil pan, but the typical Saturday night big V8 or a pair of V8s into a boat hull dirt track racer usually can’t afford a and running at full throttle across dry sump system. Track rules may also water can push any oiling system to prohibit the use of a dry sump oiling the limit. The constant pounding and system, depending on the class. bouncing of the hull against the waves As for drag racing, it’s all straight makes it hard to keep a wet sump line acceleration down the strip. The oil pickup fully submerged in oil all the wants to climb up the back of the pan, time. That’s why a dry sump system is so a deep oil pan with baffles and extra often the best way to go for a marine performance engine. The challenges are similar in road racing. The high lateral G-forces (up to 2 G’s) combined with hard braking (up to 3 G’s) and rapid acceleration (up to 1.5 G’s) create a lot of sloshing inside the oil pan. Baffles and trap doors in the oil pan can control oil movement to some extent, but a dry sump setup is usually better for this This performance high volume type of racing. A shallow dry (18% over stock) for late model sump oil pan also allows the enLS engines delivers improvegine to be positioned lower in the ments in flow and pressure across chassis to keep the center of grav- the engine operating range. ity closer to the ground. oil capacity With off-road racing, vertical is usually G-forces can pull the oil away from the recommended to maintain steady oil bottom of the oil pan in a wet sump pressure for the duration of the run. system. Every time the vehicle leaps Don’t forget there’s also deceleration at over a hill or flies through the air, the the top end once the vehicle passes oil pump pickup may suck in air, causthrough the timing lights, so baffles or ing a momentary drop in oil pressure. a trap door inside the pan that prevents Again, a dry sump setup can provide a the oil from sloshing forward is also a more reliable supply of oil under such good idea. demanding conditions. Street performance is probably the 20 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

easiest oiling application to deal with because the G-forces acting on the oil in the crankcase are less severe and less abrupt. Most street performance cars and trucks are driven the same as a stock vehicle 95% of the time, so a stock wet sump oil pump and stock oil pan are usually adequate. Extra oil capacity is always nice because it helps keep the oil cooler and adds some extra insurance against oil starvation under hard use. For higher horsepower engines or street/strip applications, an aftermarket performance oil pan with baffles and extra capacity would be recommended. A high volume oil pump might also provide some additional cooling for the bearings and be better able to maintain oil pressure at higher engine speeds.

Oil Pump Tech With most wet sump oiling systems there are two basic designs: a twingear or gerotor-style oil pump mounted inside the oil pan on the underside of the engine block, or a crankshaft-driven gerotor pump mounted on the front of the engine (Chevy LS, Ford modular, etc.). A stock oil pump is usually adequate for stock or slightly modified engines. But if you are building a high-power, high-revving engine with extra bearing clearance, a high-volume oil pump usually becomes necessary. There are several factors that affect the flow characteristics of wet sump oil pumps. The pump’s flow capacity depends on engine rpm and the displacement of the pump. The faster the pump turns, the more oil it flows – up to a point. Above a certain rpm (typically around 5,500 rpm for SB/BB Chevy oil pumps), flow tends to level off because oil flow into the pump can’t keep up.


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THIS ISSUE: PG 26 >> Performance Diesels

The flow capacity of the pickup screen and pickup tube become a restriction that limits how much oil the pump can deliver to the engine. Cavitation occurs when bubbles form inside the oil pump. When the oil that is being sucked into and pushed out of the pump can’t keep up with the gears, tiny vacuum bubbles form on the trailing edges of the gears. These are similar to the bubbles that form behind a high-speed boat propeller. The bubbles create drag, reduce pumping efficiency and cause a drop in oil pressure. Over time, they can also erode the surface of the gears. Cavitation can also occur when air is sucked into the pump. Aerated oil causes a similar drop in pumping efficiency, oil pressure and flow. Either way, cavitation is bad news. The thicker the viscosity of the oil, the harder is it to pull it up the pickup tube into the pump. Using a lower viscosity synthetic oil can help here because it flows easier and is less likely to cause cavitation inside the oil pump at higher engine speeds. The most impor-

PG 41 >> MSMP Pt.1

PG 52 >> Super Comp Engines

tant factor, however, is the diameter of the pickup tube and the type of inlet screen on the pickup in the oil pan. Small pickup tubes and/or a restrictive inlet screen can be a major cause of oil pump cavitation. The inlet screens or drilled covers that are found on some aftermarket performance oil pump pickups can actually restrict oil flow at higher engine speeds – especially when they are used with a high-volume oil pump. The larger the mesh size of the pickup screen or the diameter of the drilled holes on the pickup cover, the better. The only function the screen or cover performs is to prevent big chunks of debris from being sucked into the oil pump. The pickup provides no meaningful filtration because the clearances inside the oil pump are usually only a few thousandths of an inch so any debris larger than that will cause interference or damage inside the pump. With wet sump performance applications, use the largest diameter pickup tube that will fit the pump. Many aftermarket performance oil

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pumps have larger inlets for this very reason. According to one source, if the diameter of the pickup tube is 20- 30% larger than the inlet port on the pump, the tube will never become a restriction or cause cavitation inside the pump. Also important is making sure the oil pump pickup tube and inlet are correctly matched to the oil pan, and that the inlet is positioned at the correct height above the bottom of the pan (typically 1/4˝ to 3/8˝). If the inlet is too close to the pan, the narrow gap can restrict flow. If the inlet is too high in the pan, the pickup may suck air under hard cornering, accelerating or braking. Oil problems caused by mismatched oil pans/pickups and mislocated pickups are more common than you think. Oil flow can be increased by carefully porting, blending and rounding any sharp edges in the oil pump inlet and outlet ports, by minimizing clearances between the pump gears and the gears, housing and cover (typically .0015˝ to .002˝), and by using a pump with taller or larger gears. A high-vol-

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ume pump is often necessary for a high-revving engine or one with looser bearing clearances. The pressure delivered by the pump depends on the spring in the oil bypass valve. The stiffer the spring, the higher the relief pressure of the bypass valve and the more oil pressure the pump delivers before the bypass valve opens. The old rule of thumb of running 10 psi of oil pressure for every 1,000 rpm

is still valid for most applications. But some racers are getting by with less oil pressure and are gaining anywhere from 5 to 30 or more horsepower! It takes a certain amount of horsepower to drive an oil pump, so using the least amount of oil pressure that’s necessary to maintain a safe level of lubrication

This LS wet sump oil pan conversion retains a wet sump setup but uses an external pump like that from a dry sump system.

saves power that would otherwise be needed for the pump. Many NASCAR teams are running less than 5 psi of oil pressure per 1,000 rpm, and are using low viscosity synthetic oils with tighter bearing clearances to keep the oil film in the bearings. Most oil pumps use an internal bypass valve to vent excess oil pressure. The advantage with this design is that it delivers oil at a steady pressure while allowing pressure to build quickly in a cold engine. The drawback with this setup is that during deceleration, oil can actually flow backward from the pump into the pickup tube. When the driver stabs the throttle to accelerate, there can be a slight delay in oil delivery until the reverse flow is overcome and oil is again flowing in the right direction into the pump. By comparison, some racing pumps have an external bypass valve that dumps excess oil pressure back into the crankcase. This prevents the reverse flow effect and helps maintain a steady flow of oil when an engine is decelerating and accelerating rapidly. Some performance oil pumps also use a ball bypass valve rather than a piston or cup-style bypass valve. Ball valves are used in automatic transmissions because they are self-cleaning and less likely to stick.

“Energy Recovery� Oil Pump Every oil pump needs a bypass valve to vent excessive pressure, otherwise bad things might happen to the pump or engine if oil pressure was not controlled. But every time excess oil pressure is vented through a bypass valve it represents lost energy. Verne Schumann of Schumann Sales & Service has come up with a way to recover much of this lost energy with his newly 22 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

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patented “Energy Recovery” oil pumps for SB/BB Chevys and Fords. Schumann said the new “ER” design “diminishes the input effort required, yielding the same gallons per minute (gpm) volume and pressure as high-effort pumps. Normal internal hydraulic pump bypass lock-ups are This unique pump features an energy eliminated. Unique energy recovery system that converts spent energy into active input oil supply. recovery engineering converts spent energy into acreused to tive input oil supply flow.” Schumann feed the pump. It has a siphoning effect said his new ER pumps are 30% more that improves oil flow into the pump efficient and significantly reduce the and reduces the chance of oil starvation power needed to drive the pump. when the engine is accelerating hard or Schumann is not making any speis experiencing lateral G-forces. cific horsepower claims for his pumps, Chevy LS Oil Pump Issues but on one dyno test, an engine The front mounted oil pumps on showed a 10 to 15 hp improvement by Chevy LS engines have been a chalsimply changing the oil pump. lenge for many engine builders. The Schumann’s Energy Recovery pumps on these engines have critical pump uses an external hose to connect clearances that require the pump gears the bypass valve discharge port to the to be precisely centered with respect to pickup tube. By rerouting oil back into each other and the pump housing. The the pickup tube, the oil pressure that recommended procedure is to mount would otherwise have been wasted is

24 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

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the oil pump with the block out of the vehicle sitting upright with the crankshaft in a vertical position so the crank will be centered in the main bearings. Shims must then be positioned between the inner and outer gears, and the outer gear and housing before the four housing bolts are tightened down to secure the pump to the block. If this procedure is not followed, the oil pump may bind and/or break as soon as the engine is cranked or started. The stock pump housing can also be easily distorted if it is clamped in a vice, causing the pump to bind when it is installed on the engine. Schumann makes a special work fixture that allows the LS pump to be held securely without bending the housing. Mike Osterhaus, Product Development Manger for Melling said the front mounted oil pumps on many late model engines has created opportunities for engine builders because many original oil pumps cannot meet the demands of a performance engine. He said Melling’s line of “Select Performance” oil pumps eliminates those issues while supplying increased performance and durability at an affordable price. Osterhaus said that aftermarket oil pumps for the Chevy LS engine and similar applications are available from a variety of sources, but that many of those offerings are based off original equipment oil pumps. “The original equipment pumps cannot compete against the performance and durability of a Melling performance oil pump, which was designed from the start to be used in performance engine applications.” He said improvements include increasing the pressure tightness of the pump assembly to reduce oil leakage. Crank-driven pumps have larger surface areas which need to be sealed. Reducing the leakage coming from the pump results in improved oil quality and flow delivered to the main gallery. The pumps are also cast in 356T6 aluminum, precision CNC machined and hard-coat anodized for improved durability. Galling can also be a problem in some applications, such as GM 5.3L, 6.0L and 6.2L V8s. A severe galling condition can arise from the tolerances and materials used in the original GM oil pumps. This situation cannot occur in


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PG 41 >> MSMP Pt.1

PG 52 >> Super Comp Engines

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the Melling oil pumps because of changes that have been made in the design of the pump itself. “Our high-volume 10296 performance pump for the Chevy LS flows 18% over stock, and delivers improvements in flow and pressure across the entire engine operating range, not just at hot idle.” Another option for the LS is to eliminate the stock front mounted gerotor pump altogether and use an external oil pump. TJ Grimes of Baker Engineering/Pro Cam said his company makes a Chevy LS wet sump oil pan conversion that retains a wet sump setup but uses an external pump like that from a dry sump system to supply oil to the engine. The oil pan is only 6-1/2˝ deep but is 13˝ wide and holds 7 quarts of oil. The modification requires blocking the oil ports for the original front-mounted pump. The conversion eliminates the long pickup tube that can delay flow to the stock pump and reduces the risk of oil starvation. Grimes says the trend is to make wet sump oiling systems work like a dry sump system but without the cost or complexity of a full dry sump system. “You can keep windage down inside the crankcase by using scrapers to pull oil away from the crank.”

Dry Sump Systems With dry sump oiling systems, the setup is entirely different than a wet sump system. Most dry sump systems use one to four or more scavenge pumps to suck oil out of the pan (and other locations on the engine), and one or two pressure pumps to feed oil back into the engine. Oil aeration is controlled by using an oil/air separator and routing the oil into a vertical storage tank before it is pumped back into the engine. The tank adds additional oil-holding capacity to the system to help keep oil temperatures down. The external plumbing makes it easy to add an external oil cooler as well. Pulling oil and air out of the crankcase also increases horsepower by reducing windage and drag on the crankshaft. The only drawback with dry sump systems is their cost, which can range from $1,500 up to $3,500 or more, depending on the setup. Bill Dailey of Dailey Engineering says his company specializes in high-end custom dry sump pumps and pans for racing applications. “A lot of people sell off-theshelf components for dry sump oil systems. We do too. But many racers want special mountings or designs to fit their specific race car. So most of what we do is custom work for racers.” One such product is a custom billet oil pan with an integral oil pump. “They won’t allow it in NASCAR, but where rules allow it, the setup provides a smaller and cleaner installation,” said Dailey. What kind of oiling system you ultimately decide to use in an engine you are building will depend on the application, your customer’s wishes and how much money he is willing to spend to keep his engine lubed. Lubrication is one area where you don’t want to take chances. ■

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26-31 Diesel Engines 6/19/13 8:53 AM Page 26

Sponsored by:

BY CONTRIBUTING EDITOR RON KNOCH RKNOCH@ENGINEBUILDERMAG.COM

Diesel Hot Rods Exploring opportunities for performance diesel engine work

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ith all of the bolt-on diesel diesel, an abused engine will fail components that are availwhen you need it most. able on the market these Today’s diesel enthusiast often days, why would you get into offerknows the basics of how to work on ing performance engine rebuilds for his diesel engine, but when somethe diesel market? I’m sure you are thing goes wrong internally, that’s asking yourself this question every when he will seek you out for retime you get a call from pairs. This is a someone with a diesel en- Today’s diesel hot rods may cost gine asking how they can the same to build as a big block get more power. But beChevy, but these 800+ hp turbo lieve me when I tell you it diesels will last 150,000 miles and deliver great fuel economy. is a growing market. And better yet, it’s one that can make you money! Over the last three years the used diesel truck market has seen a yearly increase in sales of about 10-12 percent and is slightly above new diesel trucks sales. This tells you the older trucks are still in use and require more maintenance from the local diesel shops or garages. If you are familiar with diesel engines, and how they work, you know diesel engines last longer than their gasoline engine counterparts IF they are maintained properly throughout their life. Like any good technician will tell you, whether it’s gas or 26 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

huge opportunity for a local shop to step up and solve your customer’s problem. The common theme that we see over and over with diesel guys is that they add bolt-on performance items without thinking of reinforcing the internal parts of the engine or


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Performance Diesel Market drivetrain. Bigger doesn’t always mean better when it comes to diesels, you upgrade one component you had better upgrade other important parts of the engine as well. I get calls all of the time from people who have a blown engine, blown the turbo or blown tranny. I ask them immediately, “Did you turn your tuner up all the way and floor it?” And most answer, “Yeah, sure did!” Yes, many bolt-on components can produce extra horsepower and torque, but the problem is the original stock engine is not rated for that much power, so when it is pushed to the limit, parts start breaking. I will cover some of the engine parts that break easily when this happens, and I’ll cover a few each month in my Diesel Motorsports column in the pages of Engine Builder until we have explored all aspects of a performance diesel engine. One of the first questions I ask is, do you have performance head bolts installed? If your customers are increasing the power through various bolt-on components, the heads and rods are the first to cause significant problems inside the engine. In fact, many turbo suppliers are now recommending that customers install performance head bolts before using their products!

28 Month 2013 | EngineBuilder

bochager, cylinder heads, pistons, valvetrain and application. The most significant power gains in a diesel engine come from increasing the amount of boost delivered by the turbo (or turbos if their are multiples). But there’s more to it than just bolting on a bigger turbo. The camshaft must have the right exhaust characteristics so it will spool up the turbo faster and keep it spinning at peak efficiency in the engine’s power band. For some types of pulling, the power band can be quite narrow, maybe 3,000 to 5,000 rpm for a diesel pulling truck. A street truck, by comparison, may make most of its power at even lower rpms. If engine speed drops too low during a truck or tractor pulling event, the turbo can stall or “chirp,” causing the boost pressure to suddenly drop. This kills power and may even cause the engine to stall. Diesel experts say that one of the tricks to getting more power is to pay more attention to the pressure developed in the cylinders. With gasoline engines, you want to increase valve duration to get more power. But this approach doesn’t necessarily work with all diesel engines. By doing just the opposite and decreasing duration you will gain more power, say some experts. One tip for Cummins engines is that the press fit cam gears used up to 2003 have a tendency to push Cummins is like the SBC for diesel guys, off the end of the who as much pride in tricking out their camshaft if the engines as street rodders do, with cusengine is moditom paint schemes and attractive wiring fied to produce and plumbing to show it all off. But the over 600 horseinternals also need attention, too. power. For modified Cummins engines, converting to a bolt-on drive gear set is recommended. Since most diesels run at relatively low rpms compared to gas engines, modifications to the valvetrain are often not necessary for mild builds (until they want big horespower, that is). This means you don’t need monster springs and pushrods to prevent the valves from floating at high speed. On the other hand, there may be some concerns about the effects of turbo boost on the intake valves.

Building For Performance

Building a performance diesel engine takes a different approach than a performance gas engine build. While most diesel engines are turbocharged, they make most of their torque and power at relatively low rpm. The bottom end in a diesel engines is already fairly stout, with forged steel crankshafts and heavyduty connecting rods, so the amount of modifications that may be needed are usually minimal for a mild performance build. And because most street performance and pulling applications don’t require a lot of rpms, engine balance is not as critical as in a high-revving gas engine. However, pistons may have to be cut, modified or replaced, depending on how much turbo boost the engine runs, what kind of fuel it will be burning and what kind of modifications are being made to the camshaft and valvetrain. Because diesels require a lot of compression, camshaft duration tends to be short with minimal overlap. Valve lift may also be limited by the tight piston-to-valve clearances in some diesel engines. So unlike gas engines, you can’t go with extreme lift and duration setups to make more power. A bigger camshaft can provide more power, but only if the lift and duration are right for the tur-


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Performance Diesel Market

Many diesel engines run very high boost pressures, from 80 to as much as 200 psi on some really ex-

30 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

springs on the intake valves forcing the valves open. While some diesel experts say that for every 10 psi increase in boost, you should use springs that are at least 10 psi stiffer than the stock springs, others say this really isn’t necessary because when the piston is coming up on its compression stroke, the pressure developed inside the cylinder will hold the intake valves shut. On Cummins engines, for instance, there is a concern that overly stiff valve springs may increase wear in the cam bores. In Cummins engines, there are no cam bearing inserts – the camshaft Pistons may have to be cut, journals run directly modified or replaced, dependon the machined ing on how much turbo boost bores in the block. the engine runs, what kind of Because of this, exfuel it will be burning and what tremely heavy valve kind of modifications are being spring pressure made to the valvetrain. pushing the rocker arms, pushrods and treme engines. So there’s a concern lifters down against the camshaft that really high boost levels may may cause the bottom of the cam overcome the force exerted by the bores to wear out. As the cam settles

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lower and lower into the block, it upsets valve lift and timing, causing a significant loss of power. One way to prevent this in a performance Cummins engine with stiffer than stock valve springs is to machine out the cam bores in the block and install aftermarket bearing inserts. Any engine builder who is currently doing gasoline engine performance work could probably do diesel performance work too, say diesel experts. You do have to learn about diesel fuel systems and how to correctly set up the injection pump, injectors and turbo. But the machine work you do on the block, heads and other internal parts are pretty much the same as any other performance engine. Many diesel performance engines are running 130 to 180 psi of boost pressure, so when you modify a stock engine to produce significantly more power, you also have to increase the flow capacity of the fuel system. You may have to modify the injection pump so that you can double the fuel delivery. The injectors can be modified by increasing the number and size of the nozzle orifices. Stronger fuel lines are also a must to handle higher fuel pressures. There are also ample opportunities to do diesel performance modifications for the street. It’s fairly easy to tweak the turbo and squeeze an extra 100 or more horsepower out of an engine without sacrificing fuel economy or everyday driveability. To maintain good driveability and throttle response, you want the turbo to spool up quickly and provide good low end torque. Experts say that street-driven diesel trucks tyically develop peak power between 1,800 and 3,200 rpm. Depending on how the truck is geared, a drag truck may be set up to run at a somewhat higher rpm. But it doesn’t take much rpm to hit big torque numbers with a diesel. ■ Ron Knoch is president of DIESEL Motorsports, a marketing company for the diesel industry that is also the only santioning body for diesel motorsports. For more information about getting involved in performance diesel or a schedule of events, visit www.DIESELmotorsports.US.

While sled pulling is the bulk of the performance diesel market, diesel drag racing has a loyal following and is continuing to grow.

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by high strength ARP® main studs and connecting rod bolts. ARP® is constantly developing premium quality fasteners for diesel applications. Recent offerings include high strength flywheel and flexplate bolts, balancer bolts and polished stainless steel or black oxide finish chrome moly valve cover bolts for Duramax applications. And there’s more on the way! Check out our dedicated diesel site, www.ARPdiesel.com for o up-to-date information.

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32-35 Turbos/Tuners 6/19/13 8:51 AM Page 32

Turbos & Tuning

BY MICHAEL FREEZE MFREEZE@ENGINEBUILDERMAG.COM

Diesel engine modifications are ramping up due to consumer demand, say experts

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here is nothing more fast and DPF removes soot – “the black furious than the roar of a turbo smoke” – from the exhaust gas of a engine when it is finely tuned diesel engine. The filters can remove at and performing efficiently on all levleast 85 percent of soot from the exels. Whether pulling gear with the haust, thus emitting less of the black diesel truck or revving the street hot smoke that is accustomed with the legrod, making the most out of the turbo end and allure of the diesel-powered is crucial to most engine builders. As vehicle. But as the DPF helps with the consumer’s appetite for speed is maintaining clean air, some turbo steadily increasing, so is the demand diesel enthusiasts such as Snow’s for more diesel engine modification. aforementioned “wild-haired guys” “Our customers demand more became discouraged about the sacrihorsepower each year and we have to fice of horsepower and torque. deliver,” says Justin Norris, Diesel SpeAs a result, DPF-Delete kits were cialist with Precision Turbo and Enmanufactured to bypass the soot gine in Hebron, IN. “For example, we cleanse and recoup the torque and started with a 3x3 (inlet/outlet) for the horsepower that were nabbed by the 3.0 truck pulling class back in 2009, filter. But currently under the EPA then a 3x3.35 in 2010, after that was the Clean Air Act, DPF-Delete tuning 3x3.6 in 2012, and now we are working products are strictly for off-road use on a 3x4. and are illegal on public highways. “In the motorsports world, staying “The EPA has cracked down and current with the latest innovations and levied some stiff fines on everyone technologies is absolutely essential from manufacturers to the guys who with regards to remaining competiown the vehicle,” says Gale Banks, tive,” Norris explains. CEO of Banks Power in Azusa, CA. In addition to the origins of diesel “Right now they are going after the pulls, the diesel tuning market has people who make the stuff, the distribevolved, joining drivers who have utiutors and some of the online sellers.” lized the power of turbo for their own Although some sellers boast claims use. “The diesel tuning market is split into three camps,” explains Matt Snow, owner of Snow Performance in Woodland Park, CO. “‘The Towing Guy,’ who wants better fuel economy, intact warranty and some power; ‘the Power Guy,’ who still wants his diesel particulate filter (DPF) intact; and ‘the WildHaired Power Guy,’ who doesn’t care about emissions testing or warranty. Of course, there is some overlap, but the biggest change – for the WildHaired Power Guy – is the recent crackdown by the EPA on DPF-delete tuners and exhausts.” Most performance diesels run at least Located one turbo, or two, such as this Banks 6.6L under the Duramax twin-turbo (sport truck build) with marine water-to-air intercooler. vehicle’s frame, the 32 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

of major horsepower and torque gain, Banks contends the extra work for the actual gain might not even be worth the trouble. “It’s truly not much gain,” he says. “Maybe worth about 20 hp more on a 700-800 hp configuration. Bottom line: if you tune your diesel right, things can perform pretty well and you don’t have to face jail time or million-dollar fines.” Aside from black smoke, there are many other aspects to consider for the engine builder, Norris says. “Generally, the first question we should always ask a customer is ‘How much power do you want?’ And from there we can start the selection process,” he said. “If the charger is too big, then it may not light or run into compressor stall when the motor lugs down to a low rpm. If the charger is too small, then we may not hit the power goal and the charger may also fail as a result of over-speeding. After the power goals are addressed, engine size, rpm and how much fuel are the three big questions, because those aspects will determine how much energy is available to drive the charger.”


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Performance Diesel Market Norris suggests the best way to gauge turbo sizing is to monitor the drive pressure in relation to the boost. A ratio of 1:1 is ideal for efficiency, but more boost than back pressure can lead to compressor stall. “Our chargers seem to perform really well with about 20 more psi of drive pressure compared to boost, which helps the charger lug,” Norris explains. “A ratio of 2:1 drive pressure to boost starts to become a restriction and is a sign that the turbo is too small. Different turbine housing sizes can also help finetune how a certain turbo size performs on an engine.” When it comes to today’s turbochargers, Banks, who’s considered a pioneer in diesel motorsports and engine building, says although there are many variables and a lot of geometry involved in maintenance, turbos are still basic to the core. “If you are going to repair a turbocharger, you need to be able to balance a turbocharger. You shouldn’t take a turbocharger apart and change wheels without balancing the rotating group as an assembly,” he says. “That’s the turbine wheel and the compressor wheel. You balance them or otherwise you may be fragging turbos and not wondering why or killing the bearing system and not wondering why. The crucial element is if you are going to overhaul, modify or upgrade, you need to know how to do it properly.” Like Banks Power and other diesel performance shops, Ryan Flanders of Industrial Injection out of Salt Lake City, UT, considers turbocharging an exact science where the products are heavy duty in a constant process to balance their customers’ needs for towing and performance. “What we do is take turbo parts to different chargers and we build a charger for certain applications. For instance, we have a guy who needed a towing turbo. We built it with stronger internals so it will last 200,000 miles at a maximum of 50 pounds of boost running at 600 hp,” Flanders says. Industrial Injection’s Silver Bullet 62 turbocharger and other diesel turbos are part of the work of a dedicated turbocharging team that “builds, rebuilds and repairs turbos all day, every day.” Flanders says his company has a wing concentrated on building Cum-

mins and Duramax engines for street and race performance that gather up to 600 hp to the flywheel and 550 hp to the wheels. “We want to build these engines to last. They need to last 100,000-200,000 miles,” Flanders says. “We fully go through the cylinder heads, valves and better valve seats on the Cummins for instance, as well as higher strength valve springs and modified camshaft

for two different stages: street and race.” In addition to the hot rod preferences, the diesel pullers have their penchants for turbo performance. “An individual who tows with his diesel doesn’t want any turbo lag. In fact, large single turbos are fine for competition but on the street, where instant torque is needed, they can make a high horsepower truck feel like

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Performance Diesel Market a dog, along with heavy black smoke,” Snow warns. “Variable vane singles work great up to about 650 hp. In fact, we just tested a new variable vane design called The Switchblade by Blaylock Turbochargers that spooled as fast as a stocker with 600 hp capability and it’s very nice on the street. Of course, you could go to twins but that gets expensive very fast.” To handle the power of max diesel performance, Snow explains that the degree of strength of internal engine parts vary and ultimately depends on the make of vehicle, but one commonality is pressed-in valve seats. “This becomes an issue with the high combustion temperatures caused by over-fueling. After a while from repeated super heating and cooling, the engine will drop an exhaust valve seat, causing piston and cylinder wall damage,” Snow says. “Water methanol injection helps with this in that EGTs (exhaust gas temperatures) are reduced to safe levels even with prolonged high engine load states while towing.”

34 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

As the basic turbocharger brings more air in the combustion chamber more efficiently, water methanol injection is the equal mix of water and methanol that cools the engine allowing it to receive more fuel while keeping the combustion heat steady. Thus, giving the tuned engine/vehicle added horsepower. Snow Performance offers such a system, the Comp-One, for its performance diesel market complete with loaded tunes. “The tunes include tow, performance and extreme ranging from 50 to 190 hp increases,” he said. “With the water methanol, this makes the CompOne worth up to a 260 hp increase. Better yet, these tunes can be used safely even while towing as the injection cools EGTs 200-300° F.” Far from the latest new trend, water methanol injection dates back to the research of Sir Harry R. Ricardo with water injection and later during the World War II era that provided various warplanes a tremendous turbocharged boost with equal parts water and methanol.

Circle 34 for more information

“It is remarkable,” says Banks of the long-time injection method. “When I was a kid in the 1950s, I read a book called The High Speed Internal Combustion Engine by Sir Ricardo. He started with water injection and then it went to water methanol. The Ricardo labs are still around today designing engines for major auto manufacturers. They are a real high-tech company.” Banks says his shop, which also provides a water methanol injection offering in the StraightShot, is currently working with professional semitruck race driver Mike Ryan to build a Freightliner with a Detroit Diesel 60 series engine in hopes of breaking the world record at Pikes Peak International Hill Climb in Colorado Springs this summer. “We are doing a 3.8L screw-type supercharger blowing into a monster turbocharger to help break the record that Mike currently holds with the truck,” Banks explains. “It has three different injector points: the water methanol as well as a charger and cooler. We are also using the pure


32-35 Turbos/Tuners 6/19/13 8:52 AM Page 35

Performance Diesel Market water system to mist the intercooler core and also to cool the brakes. This water methanol controller can be used for brake cooling and the intercooler misting system injects straight into the intake.” Another benefit to water methanol injection, Snow says, is that it doesn’t leave a signature on the vehicle’s PCM (power control module) and works with most of the newer emissions equipment. “Water methanol injection actually reduces emissions so the incidence of regeneration is reduced, which saves a tremendous amount of fuel,” he says. As manufacturers are looking for new ways to tune or utilize other triedand-true electronic tuning aids, the main goal continues to be enhancing an engine that pushes performance to the maximum. “A hot tune will give the engine more fuel, which will create more power and increase EGTs,” Norris says. “Adding a bigger turbocharger and a better intercooler will help bring the EGTs down and maximize the

power potential of the tune.” Most manufacturers caution that bigger is not always better – and the best way to simply monitor any progress is through use of gauges. “Gauges are a must. If you buy a programmer that doesn’t have the built-in gauges to monitor everything, you should get them. You need to know that boost and exhaust gas temperature are tuned with different settings, so you can get the most bang for your buck,” Flanders says. “We build these huge injection pumps and some people figure that the bigger pumps mean they can turn up the fuel rail pressure above a normal setting. “The pumps we build fuel more than a stock pump,” says Flanders. “They are there to give you the fue you need, but if you turn them up too much, you are going to over-pressurize. Then, you are going to have failures. We have to inform people that it’s not about maximizing every setting and saying ‘let’s go.’” In the long run, it is best to have tuning aids that do not overwhelm, for

Circle 35 for more information

example, the transmission or torque converter, but rather complement the engine or, as Banks describes, “honoring the host.” “It’s as if I go over to your house for dinner and when we’re done, I volunteer to help you wash the dishes and I end up breaking every one of them,” he says. “That’s not honoring the host. You put too much stuff on the vehicle, it ends up killing the engine.” Banks says that most diesel turbocharger manufacturers are steadily keeping a pulse on the industry and it’s coming back as the economy and turbo technology gets better. “The diesel industry peaked and then we had the recession. Now construction is coming back and guys are buying trucks,” he said. “Most of those trucks are out of warranty and we are going back and doing those trucks from scratch. When we apply today’s technology to a 12-valve Cummins or a 7.3L Ford, to me, it’s kind of exciting. These are affordable hot rods today for guys who are into trucks, and we are after them.” ■

EngineBuilderMag.com 35


36-38 Diesel Products 6/19/13 9:32 AM Page 36

Performance Diesel Products CP-Carrillo Diesel Rods CP-Carrillo diesel rods are made from a proprietary blend of steel and are designed for the extra heavy-duty treatment of the diesel engine. Compare the Carrillo rod to OEM and you will immediately see the difference; greater cross sectional strength, Arc Serration not concentric to the bolt hole allowing oil to escape during assembly and during operation, and tested for quality assurance before leaving the building. This line of products is built by race industry professionals who have engineered quality rods specifically for racing or pulling diesel engines with horsepower and torque. CP-Carrillo first offered Duramax rods and now offer them for Cummins and Powerstroke. www.cp-carrillo.com Circle Number 118 Or call (949) 567-9000

Water/Methanol Injection The Snow Performance COMP-ONE system is a completely new concept, combining powerful tuner programing and innovative water/methanol injection to give diesel truck owners the single most powerful upgrade they can do. The water/methanol injection reduces combustion temperatures, lowering exhaust gas temperatures (EGT) by 250-300째F. The system is also safe to use on vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPF). www.snowperformance.net Circle Number 119 Or call 866-365-2762

Circle 36 for more information 36 June 2013 | EngineBuilder


36-38 Diesel Products 6/19/13 9:33 AM Page 37

Performance Diesel Products Banks SpeedBrake The Banks SpeedBrake™ reduces downhill speed by nearly 80-percent without touching the brake pedal; keeping brakes cool and ready for emergencies should they arise. It increases the stopping power and extends the service life of brakes. Plug-in connection makes for a clean, simple installation without cutting or tapping into vital wire harnesses. The SpeedBrake uses the truck’s own components to provide safety when towing, so there’s no added mechanical parts necessary. With its patented technology, the SpeedBrake controls transmission shifting, locks and unlocks the torque converter and infinitely varies a VG turbo’s vanes to hold set speed and maximize stopping performance. It controls the gear selection in order to select the best gear for any given braking situation without building excessive engine RPM. Three levels of braking aggressiveness are available: high, medium and low. An auto mode automatically maintains a specified downhill speed from 25 to 75 mph. The Banks iQ keeps the driver informed by displaying important parameters and on-screen alerts. In addition, it displays numerous vehicle parameters, from current braking effort and operating gear to braking mode and target speed. www.bankspower/bp2 Circle Number 120 Or call (800) 340-7775

Circle 37 for more information

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36-38 Diesel Products 6/19/13 9:33 AM Page 38

Performance Diesel Products Duramax High-Strength Valve Cover Bolts One of the more exciting kits that has recently been introduced from ARP Products is its new high strength valve cover bolt kits for the 2001-’04.5 GM Duramax 6.6L and 2004.5 -’10 GM Duramax 6.6L LLY, LBZ, LMM and LML engines. Rated at 170,000 psi tensile strength and available in either 12 point or Hex, 8740 chrome moly with black oxide finish or polished stainless steel. The ARP external 12 point and Hex drives also eliminates “stripping,” common with the OE internal allen drive fasteners.

www.arpfasteners.com Circle Number 121 Or call (805) 339-2200

New Line of Billet Cams No Limit Manufacturing offers a new line of billet camshafts, and camshaft regrinding for diesel applications. No Limit’s billet cams are manufactured from 8620 or S7 tool steel. The cams feature a higher effective surface hardness to prevent roller tracking. The cams are cryogenically treated to relieve internal stresses, for the best durability and strength. Available in flat tappet or roller profiles, No Limit stocks many cores for diesel trucks and tractors. Custom cams for any gas/diesel engine are also available, customized for your application and engine build. www.nolimitmfg.com Circle Number 122 Or call (715) 384-4422

High-Performance Sleeves PowerBore Cylinder Sleeves produce high-performance sleeves in gray iron, ductile iron and other ferrous materials for all applications including automotive, motorcycle, truck, tractor, marine and more. Custom-sleeves can be made to print and ready to ship in less than 3 weeks. All parts are made in the USA.

Circle 38 for more information 38 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

www.qccast.com Circle Number 123 Or call (330) 332-1566


39 Diesel Directory 6/19/13 8:46 AM Page 39

Performance Diesel Market Directory AMSOIL, INC. 925 Tower Ave Superior, WI (800) 777-8491 www.AMSOIL.com info@amsoil.com Filters, Oils/Additives & Performance Products

ARP 1863 Eastman Ave Ventura, CA 93003 (805) 339-2200 www.arpfasteners.com Head Bolts, Fasteners Banks Power 546 Duggan Ave. Azusa, CA 91702 (800) 339-2860 bankspower.com/bp3 info@bankspower.com Thomas Boardman Turbos and Components, Pumps, Exhaust & Manifold Components Champion Oil 1001 Golden Drive Clinton, MO 64735 (612) 845-1972 www.championbrands.com Oil, Lubes

Cloyes Gear 7800 Ball Rd. Fort Smith, AR 72908 (479) 646-1662 tmurphy@cloyes.com Tim Murphy www.cloyes.com Timing Chains, Gears CP-Carrillo 1902 McGaw Irvine, CA 92614 (949) 567-9000 www.cp-carrillo.com Rods, Pistons Custom Diesel, Inc. 2536 Fairview Road, Morristown, TN 37814 (877) 259-4977 www.custom-diesel.com Performance Kits, Steering Stabilizer, EGR Performance Kits

Design Engineering, Inc. 604 Moore Rd Avon Lake, OH 44012 (800) 264-9472 www.designengineering.com Nitrous Systems for Gas/Diesel Performance, Heat Protective Wraps, Covers, Etc.

Elgin Industries 1100 Jansen Farm Dr. Elgin, IL (847) 742-1720 www.elginind.com sales@elginind.com Rick Simko Camshafts, Valvetrain Components Flowmaster Mufflers (BM Group) 100 Stony Point Rd Santa Rosa, CA 95401 (707) 544-4761 www.flowmastermufflers.com Exhaust systems; Subsidiaries: Hurst Shifters, B&M Racing Fuelab 826-A Morton Court Litchfield, IL (217) 324-3737 www.fuelab.com Fuel Pumps for Gas or Diesel Performance Industrial Injection 5919 South 350 West Murray, Utah 84107 (800) 800-4103 www.IndustrialInjection.com Turbos, Injectors, Engines, Pumps

MAHLE Clevite, Inc. 23030 MAHLE Drive Farmington Hills, MI (248) 347-9700 www.mahle-aftermarket.com mahle.clevite@us.mahle.com Bill McKnight Turbos and components, Filters, Bearings, Camshafts, Crankshafts, Engine Kits, Valvetrain Components, Pistons, Piston Rings, Sleeve Assemblies, Gaskets

Mahle Motorsports 270 Rutledge Road Unit B Fletcher, NC 28732 (888) 255-1942 www.us.mahle.com Pistons

No Limit Mfg. 1710 E. 29th St. Marshfield, WI (715) 384-4422 www.nolimitmfg.com nolimitmfg@yahoo.com Eric Staab Camshafts, Connecting Rods, Cylinder Heads, Valvetrain Components, Sleeves, Billet Main Caps Pacific Performance Engineering 303 N Placenta Ave Fullerton, CA 92831 (714) 985-4825 www.ppediesel.com Tuners, Engine Parts, Transmissions Precision Turbo & Engine 616A South Main Street Hebron, IN (219) 996-7832 www.precisionturbo.net info@precisionturbo.net Justin Norris Turbos and Components, Injectors, Fuel Delivery Components

PRW Industries, Inc. 1722 Illinois Avenue Perris, CA (951) 436-7900 www.PRW-USA.com erin.post@prwnetwork.com Erin Post Flexplates Sinister Diesel 2025 Opportunity Drive Suite 7, Roseville, CA 95678 877-692-4110 EGR Upgrades, Diesel Engine Parts, Transmissions Snow Performance 1017 Highway 24 East, Unit A Woodland Park, CO 80863 (866) 365-2762 www.snowperformance.net Diesel Engine Accessories, Engine Tuners Turbonetics, Inc. 2255 Agate Court Simi Valley, CA 93065 (805) 426-0333 www.turboneticsinc.com Turbochargers, Pressure Control Valves, Intercoolers We thank these suppliers for their contributions to our Inaugural Performance Diesel Section. This is by no means an exhaustive list of suppliers of performance diesel components. For additional contacts, we encourage you to visit www.enginebuildermag.com and access our exclusive online Buyers Guides.

EngineBuilderMag.com 39


Feature

40-49 MSMP 13 6/19/13 9:02 AM Page 40

I

n June of 1984, the magazine you’re reading now – then called Automotive Rebuilder – began surveying the jobber machine shop audience to determine the size, scope and health of the engine rebuilding industry. Since that time, a lot of things have changed at this magazine and in this industry. What hasn’t changed is the fact that we have consistently surveyed the same machine shop/custom engine rebuilder (CER) population to get a snapshot of this industry from the experts – you, the engine rebuilder. Numbers can give a cold, stark impression of the growth or decline of an industry, but we believe the information in this study is still the most reliable data available for tracking trends in the production of engines, cylinder heads and crankshafts, as well as specific business data. We thank every one of our survey respondents for taking the time to contribute to this report. The data generated for this year’s

40 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

BY ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER/EDITOR DOUG KAUFMAN DKAUFMAN@BABCOX.COM

“AS WE’VE DECLARED MANY TIMES IN THESE PAGES, THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS A ‘TYPICAL SHOP’ – YOU KNOW THAT EACH COMPANY IS UNIQUE.” Machine Shop Market Profile was collected through survey questionnaires sent to the machine shop/custom engine rebuilding membership of the Engine Builders Association (AERA). Four different questionnaires, consisting of four pages each, were developed to obtain the information contained in our profile. We mailed questionnaires to the membership of the AERA and contacted a random sample of Engine Builder subscribers with an email survey containing key questions regarding production. In all, we heard from more than 180 locations that are performing machine work and building engines in the U.S.

Analysis of the data was completed by Babcox Market Research. The survey information reflects data for production year 2012. Part 1 of this two-part profile includes data on monthly production of engine blocks and cylinder heads, broken out by engine size as well as by gas and diesel configurations, crankshafts, core sourcing, shop equipment ownership and purchasing, and total production time spent in specific engine building areas. As we’ve declared many times in these pages, there is no such thing as a “typical shop” – you know that each company is unique. However, you can use these averages to see


41 SAP_Layout 1 6/19/13 9:08 AM Page 41

Circle 41 on Reader Service Card for more information


40-49 MSMP 13 6/19/13 9:02 AM Page 42

Engine Production Data

Feature

how your business compares. Nationally, the numbers look like this: the average machine shop produced nearly 21 gas and diesel engines monthly last year, up from 18 in 2011. Cause for celebration? A blip on the radar? It’s a nice return after last year’s slight downturn from a huge 2010. Of course, small variations in numbers can actually be dramatic percentage changes – this is the nature of statistical-based articles. The key, of course, is to look at the big picture with intense focus on some of the major points. Increases were seen almost across the board, although six-cylinder gasoline engines (up 25 percent in 2010) saw a modest decline this year. Eight-cylinder diesels (another bright spot last year), fell slightly as well, but generally, the engine market appears to be doing quite well, all things considered. V8 gas engines – which declined last year (partially, we believed, due to the “Cash for Clunkers” program and vilification of large engines in the wake of gas price increases) – jumped impressively. Four- and sixcylinder gas engines saw modest increases. The number of unspecified “other” gas engines fell rather dramatically last year from slightly more than 12 per year in 2011 to less than 2 per year in 2012. Overall, gas engine production increased around 18 percent in 2012. The diesel engine segment experienced another great year last year, except for the aforementioned V8s. The growth of 4-cylinder, 6-cylinder and “other” engines indicates that industrial, commercial and agricultural opportunities remain. Overall, the number of diesel engines climbed to 3.1 engines per month, an impressive 24 percent increase from last year. The average national monthly gas and diesel engine production of almost 21 units translates to 252 en-

42 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

AVERAGE NUMBER OF GAS/DIESEL ENGINES REBUILT PER MONTH IN 2012 2012 GAS ENGINES 4 CYLINDER 4.0 6 CYLINDER 4.2 8 CYLINDER 9.4 OTHER 0.15 TOTAL 17.8 DIESEL ENGINES 4 CYLINDER 0.80 6 CYLINDER 1.76 8 CYLINDER 0.44 OTHER 0.14 TOTAL 3.1 TOTAL NUMBER OF ENGINES 4 CYLINDER 4.8 6 CYLINDER 5.9 8 CYLINDER 9.8 OTHER 0.3 TOTAL 20.8

2011

2010

2009

2008

3.7 4.4 5.6 1.4 15.1

4.0 3.3 10.1 0.52 17.9

2.9 3.1 6.1 0.13 12.2

3.1 2.3 4.9 0.08 10.4

0.57 0.86 0.65 0.040 2.5

1.8 1.4 0.46 0.5 4.1

0.68 1.2 0.6 0.06 2.5

0.75 1.4 0.6 0.4 2.8

4.3 5.3 6.3 1.8 17.7

5.8 4.7 10.6 0.19 22.1

3.6 4.3 6.7 0.12 14.8

3.9 3.7 5.0 0.6 12.7

ENGINE PRODUCTION INCREASES/DECREASES RESPONSE INCREASED REMAINED THE SAME DECREASED

2012 40.6% 35.9% 23.4%

2011 26.5% 70.6% 2.9%

2010 29.3% 40.4% 30.3%

2009 15.8% 47.4% 36.8%

2008 9.6% 57.7% 32.7%

TOTAL AVERAGE INCREASE AVERAGE DECREASE

100% 14.4% 8.8%

100% 13.0% 20.0%

100% 4.5% 14.0%

100% 29.7% 20.8%

100% 12.5% 22.3%

REBUILT ENGINE SALES – DOMESTIC AND IMPORT GAS DOMESTIC IMPORT TOTAL DIESEL DOMESTIC IMPORT TOTAL

MSMP Part 1

2012 71.5% 28.5% 100% 2012 84.1% 15.9% 100%

2011 68.6% 31.4% 100% 2011 86.2% 13.8% 100%

2010 69.6% 30.4% 100% 2010 80.3% 19.7% 100%

2009 71.8% 28.2% 100% 2009 88.8% 11.2% 100%

2008 73.2% 26.8% 100% 2008 84.1% 12.9% 100%


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Engine Production Data

Feature

PERCENTAGE OF ENGINE REBUILDING FALLING INTO THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES

“OF THE 3,000 - 5,000

2012

2011

2010

2009

AUTOMOTIVE GASOLINE

46.2%

44.9%

38.7%

46.9%

PERFORMANCE

20.1%

19.6%

22.5%

27.6%

INDUSTRIAL ENGINES

6.6%

10.6%

4.7%

8.3%

MEDIUM-DUTY DIESEL

7.5%

6.3%

5.5%

2.5%

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL

4.9%

6.3%

3.7%

3.7%

PERFORMANCE DIESEL

4.3%

2.0%

1.6%

MARINE ENGINES

4.2%

4.0%

3.8%

3.7%

MOTORCYCLE/MOWER/OTHER SMALL

1.7%

3.2%

1.1%

2.8%

HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL

3.8%

2.1%

11.9%

3.7%

OTHER TYPES

0.6%

1.0%

5.0%

0.9%

PERCENTAGE OF SHOPS THAT REBUILD THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES AUTOMOTIVE GASOLINE

2012 92.3%

2011 93.1%

2010 90.0%

2009 95.7%

PERFORMANCE GAS

84.6%

86.2%

80.0%

78.3%

INDUSTRIAL ENGINES

46.2%

65.5%

53.3%

60.9%

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL

46.2%

62.1%

56.7%

60.9%

PERFORMANCE DIESEL

15.4%

17.2%

23.3%

MARINE ENGINES

61.5%

58.6%

60.0%

60.9%

MOTORCYCLE/MOWER/OTHER SMALL

34.6%

37.9%

30.0%

47.8%

MEDIUM-DUTY DIESEL

53.8%

44.8%

40.0%

52.2%

HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL

38.5%

27.6%

46.7%

21.7%

OTHER TYPES

7.7%

10.3%

16.7%

13.0%

PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL REBUILT ENGINE SALES RETURNED AS WARRANTY Returned

2012

2011

2010

2009

2.8%

3.0%

1.5%

1.8%

PERCENTAGE OF WARRANTY RETURNS WHICH ARE ACTUALLY CUSTOMER INSTALLATION OR DIAGNOSTIC PROBLEMS Customer Caused Percent change

2012

2011

2010

2009

86.2% 7.9%

79.9% 26.8%

63.0% -10.5%

70.4% -8.6%

FULL-SERVICE MACHINE SHOPS, IT’S ESTIMATED THAT BETWEEN 648,000 TO 1.26 MILLION GAS AND DIESEL ENGINES WERE BUILT DURING 2012.” gines produced annually. This is down from the 264 reported in 2010, yet is still higher than the annual production of 216 engines produced during 2011 and the 152 engines produced during 2008 by the typical CER. Projected onto a universe of 3,000 to 5,000 full-service machine shops, it’s estimated that CERs accounted for between 648,000 to 1.26 million gas and diesel engines built during production year 2012. Last year the market range for the same size universe was 924,000 to 1.08 million units. If you add in an estimated 450,000 engines remanufactured annually by approximately 30 North American production engine remanufacturers (PERs), the combined total number of engines rebuilt in 2012 by CERs and PERs would be approximately 1.21 million to 1.71 million units. This compares to an upper range of approximately 1.53 million engines produced by PERs and CERs during production year 2011. At an average retail cost of approximately $2,600 per engine, we calculate that the total rebuilt/remanufactured engine market generated between $3.15 billion and $4.45 billion in rebuilt engine sales in 2012.

EngineBuilderMag.com 43


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Engine Production Data

Feature

PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL DIESEL ENGINE REBUILDING PRODUCTION IN FOLLOWING CATEGORIES

PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL REBUILDING BUSINESS IN GAS ENGINE PRODUCTION FOR FOLLOWING CATEGORIES 2012

2011

2010

2012

2011

2010

SHORT BLOCKS

7.3%

7.9%

10.3%

SHORT BLOCKS

3.4%

4.7%

8.4%

LONG BLOCKS

11.9%

11.3%

22.6%

LONG BLOCKS

14.1%

10.0%

24.0%

COMPLETE ENGINES

23.7%

31.5%

23.6%

COMPLETE ENGINES

22.3%

22.3%

13.7%

HEADS*

49.3%

41.8%

33.8%

HEADS*

52.4%

53.3%

43.5%

CRANKS

7.8%

7.5%

9.8%

CRANKS

7.9%

9.6%

10.4%

*Not used on long blocks or complete engines

*Not used on long blocks or complete engines

PERCENTAGE OF ENGINE PRODUCTION (TOTAL) THAT IS PERFORMANCE-RELATED PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS 2012 2011 31.4% 33.0% 20.9% 21.6% 11.6% 11.4% 2.3% 5.7% 7.0% 6.8% 3.5% 6.8% 17.4% 11.4% 5.8% 3.4%

One to 10% 11% to 20% 21% to 30% 31% to 40% 41% to 50% 51% to 70% More than 70% None/no answer

PERCENTAGE RANKING AS #1 ENGINE REBUILT 80% 70% 60% 50%

50%

40% 30% 21%

20% 12% 8%

10%

6%

2%

1%

0% Chevy GM 350 (Others)

Ford (Any)

HD/ Comm

44 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

Import (Any)

Chrysler (Any)

MSMP Part 1

Others

More rebuilders said they saw a production increase in 2012 – unfortunately, more also saw their production numbers decline. However, the bulk of our respondents (more than 76 percent, as a matter of fact) said production numbers stayed the same or increased. Of those who did report an increase, it was, on average, nearly 14.5 percent. The average decline was a relatively mild 9 percent. Sales of rebuilt engines in 2012 trended in different ways. Import gas engines fell nearly 3 percentage points while domestic gas engines rose the same; the diesel market saw import engines hand the domestics a 2.1 percentage point decline. We’ve used the word “diversification” a lot in Engine Builder recently. While certain shops specialize in a particular type of engine, increasingly we see the successful shops being the ones who can, frankly, do it all. With less competition, someone has to do the rest of the work, you know. According to our survey respondents, the percentage of engine rebuilding falling into various categories in the typical shop breaks down like this: automotive gas – 46.2 percent; performance – 20.1 percent; industrial – 6 percent; medium-duty diesel – 7.5 percent; automotive diesel – 4.9 percent; performance diesel – 4.3 percent; marine engines – 4.2 percent; heavy-duty diesel – 3.8 percent; motorcycle/mower/other small – 1.7 percent; and other types – 0.6 percent. As you can see in the chart at left, the small block Chevy 350 continues to be the strongest engine out there. Other engine platforms made a moderate attack last year, but the Mouse continues to roar. The perennial king is ranked as the number one engine built by half our responThe small block Chevy 350 continues to be the most common engine rebuilt and despite its age and the wealth of competition, the numbers for 2012 are up a healthy percentage from the previous year.This year, the small-block Chevy was noted as the #1 engine rebuilt by 50 percent of the shops – last year that figure was 40 percent. And proving that GM has staying power,“any other GM engine” accounts for another 21% of shops, so about 70 percent of shops say a GM engine of some kind is their number one product.


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Crankshaft Production Data

The national average number of gas and diesel crankshafts reground monthly by the typical CER increased in 2012, from 21 units in 2011 to 28.5 units in 2012. Diesel crank production decreased in 2012 relative to 2011, falling from 4.8 to 3.6 total units per month. Gasoline crankshaft regrinding increased, percentage-wise,

“CYLINDER HEAD WORK REMAINS THE SINGLE BIGGEST PART BUT COMPLETE ENGINES AND HEADS TOGETHER ACCOUNT FOR 73 PERCENT OF THE TYPICAL REBUILDING BUSINESS.” dents. In fact, a GM engine of some kind is listed number one by 71 percent of our respondents. Fords account for 12 percent; Heavy Duty and Commercial engines account for 8.8 percent; imports for 6 percent; Chryslers for 2 percent; and “other engines” for 1 percent. Each year we ask survey respondents to tell us about their engine building business by breaking down their operation into five specific machining processes – production of short blocks, long blocks, complete engines, cylinder heads (not used on long blocks or complete engines) and crankshafts (also not used in long blocks or complete engines). When we asked for the percentage of business in gasoline engines they did in each, we found things to be fairly stable from last year – with the exception of complete gasoline engines. Cylinder heads became a bigger part of the typical shop’s production. In 2011, this category accounted for about 42 percent of the typical shop’s gas engine production – this year it’s nearly half. Cylinder head work remains the single biggest part but complete engines and heads together account for 73 percent of the typical rebuilding business. For diesel engine builders, it’s a slightly different story. Declines are seen in short blocks, cylinder heads and crankshaft production numbers, while complete engines stayed even with 2011 results. Long blocks saw an increase. Complete engines and cylinder heads still account for 75 percent of total diesel engine rebuilding production numbers.

Feature

AVERAGE NUMBER OF GAS AND DIESEL CRANKSHAFTS GROUND PER MONTH IN 2012 GAS CRANKSHAFTS 4 CYLINDER 6 CYLINDER 8 CYLINDER OTHER TOTAL DIESEL CRANKSHAFTS 4 CYLINDER 6 CYLINDER 8 CYLINDER OTHER TOTAL

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

6.8 4.6 13.0 0.5 24.9

6.0 4.7 9.0 .036 20.1

6.5 5.6 8.7 0.25 21.05

5.6 4.0 6.7 0.26 16.6

5.9 4.2 7.2 0.09 17.4

0.96 6.6 0.4 0.22 3.6

1.3 1.7 1.4 0.4 4.8

2.7 2.9 0.4 0.4 6.4

1.0 1.2 0.7 .17 3.1

0.7 1.1 0.6 0.08 2.5

“DIESEL CRANK PRODUCTION DECREASED IN 2012 RELATIVE TO 2011, FROM 4.8 TO 3.6 PER MONTH” TOTAL AVERAGE NUMBER OF GAS AND DIESEL CRANKSHAFTS GROUND PER MONTH TOTAL NUMBER OF CRANKSHAFTS 4 CYLINDER 6 CYLINDER 8 CYLINDER OTHER TOTAL

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

7.8 6.6 13.4 0.7 28.5

7.3 6.4 10.4 0.76 24.9

9.2 8.5 9.1 0.65 27.5

6.6 5.2 7.4 0.43 19.6

6.6 5.3 7.8 0.17 19.9

CRANKSHAFT PRODUCTION INCREASES/DECREASES RESPONSE INCREASED REMAINED THE SAME DECREASED TOTAL

2012 16.4% 65.6% 18.0% 100%

2011 16.1% 74.2% 9.7% 100%

2010 14.8% 55.6% 29.6% 100%

2009 9.1% 69.7% 21.2% 100%

2008 12.5% 62.5% 25.0% 100%

EngineBuilderMag.com 45


40-49 MSMP 13 6/19/13 9:02 AM Page 46

Cylinder Head Production Data

Feature

AVERAGE NUMBER OF GAS/DIESEL CYLINDER HEADS REBUILT PER MONTH IN 2012 2012 GAS CYLINDER HEADS 4 CYLINDER 14.8 6 CYLINDER 10.0 8 CYLINDER 19.6 OTHER 0.8 TOTAL 45.2 DIESEL CYLINDER HEADS 4 CYLINDER 2.0 6 CYLINDER 3.3 8 CYLINDER 1.2 OTHER 0.3 TOTAL 6.8 TOTAL NUMBER OF CYLINDER HEADS 4 CYLINDER 16.8 6 CYLINDER 13.3 8 CYLINDER 20.8 OTHER 1.1 TOTAL 52.0

2011

2010

2009

17.1 11.5 12.7 2.6 43.9

16.7 8.6 14.9 0.78 41.3

13.4 8.0 12.4 0.15 36.4

2.1 2.9 2.5 0.6 8.1

3.9 5.8 2.5 0.6 12.8

2.2 2.9 2.1 0.3 7.5

19.2 14.4 15.2 3.2 52.0

20.6 14.4 18.4 1.4 54.8

15.6 10.9 17.0 0.45 43.9

PERCENT NAMING AS NUMBER ONE CYLINDER HEAD REBUILT 59% 57% 2012

13% 12%

9% 6%

2011

12% 9% 8%

4%

6% 3%

Any GM

Any Import

Any Chrysler

Any Ford

HD/ Commercial

Others

PERCENT OF CYLINDER HEAD REBUILDING THAT IS ALUMINUM Average 2012 51% 46 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

Average 2011 42% MSMP Part 1

Average 2010 56%

going from just over 20 total units produced monthly during 2011 to almost 25 total units produced in 2012. These declines are, as we’ve seen in other segments, partially attributable to the availability of quality aftermarket components. The increases? We can also point to quality: well-made products can be rebuilt and customers don’t want to waste money if they don’t have to. Cylinder head production numbers remained level year-toyear, although gas head production increased about 3 percent, going from 44 units monthly in 2011 to 45 units produced each month last year. V8 cylinder head production swung the pendulum; all other categories were down. Diesel heads rebuilt monthly continued last year’s fall. Total diesel cylinder head production fell from 8.1 units rebuilt monthly in 2011 to 6.8 units in 2012, an overall 16 percent decrease. Sixcylinder diesel head production actually increased slightly but all other categories fell. The percentage of cylinder head rebuilding that is aluminum increased in 2012, although not quite back to 2010’s level. Diesel cylinder head rebuilding also rebounded somewhat last year, though not to the level some expect and many hope. As with complete engines, General Motors continues to dominate in the cylinder head rebuilding market, and to an even greater degree, according to our survey respondents. When asked what

PERCENT OF CYLINDER HEAD REBUILDING THAT IS DIESEL Average 2010 30% Average 2011 16% Average 2012 20%


47 acyl_Layout 1 6/19/13 9:07 AM Page 47

Circle 47 on Reader Service Card for more information


40-49 MSMP 13 6/19/13 9:02 AM Page 48

Shop Equipment Data

Feature

SHOP EQUIPMENT PROFILE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT Aqueous cleaning

% OF SHOPS AVG. NO. AVG. WHO OWN OWNED AGE

48%

21%

10.2

% LIKELY TO PURCHASE

% PURCHASED LAST YR.

5.0%

5.0%

Ultrasonic cleaning

21%

2%

7.9

2.0%

2.0%

Solvent cleaning

81%

33%

14.5

2.0%

0.0%

Aluminum head welding

50%

10%

12.7

0.0%

0.0%

Blasting equipment

100%

26%

13.7

5.0%

0.0%

Cam grinder

2%

0%

30.0

0.0%

0.0%

CNC machining center

12%

2%

3.3

2.0%

0.0%

Crack detection

83%

48%

17.1

0.0%

0.0%

Crankshaft grinder

62%

5%

14.2

0.0%

0.0%

Crankshaft polisher

76%

2%

15.7

5.0%

0.0%

Crankshaft straightener

48%

0%

21.4

0.0%

0.0%

Crankshaft welder

21%

0%

19.4

0.0%

0.0%

Cylinder boring bar

88%

21%

18.8

2.0%

0.0%

Cylinder honing machine

90%

14%

18.2

0.0%

0.0%

Dynamometer

24%

2%

10.9

0.0%

0.0%

Electrical testers

21%

12%

13.6

0.0%

0.0%

Engine balancing

55%

0%

18.0

0.0%

0.0%

Flywheel grinder

86%

10%

17.3

0.0%

0.0%

Head/block resurfacer

93%

38%

16.1

0.0%

5.0%

Heat cleaning

48%

10%

12.3

2.0%

0.0%

Lathe

71%

19%

23.3

0.0%

0.0%

Line boring (blocks)

55%

2%

18.0

0.0%

0.0%

Line boring (OHC heads)

26%

0%

14.5

2.0%

0.0%

Micropolishing equip.

19%

2%

15.3

2.0%

0.0%

Pin-fitting & rod recon.

83%

14%

21.1

0.0%

0.0%

Pressure testing

88%

14%

14.3

0.0%

0.0%

Spray washers

81%

17%

11.6

0.0%

2.0%

Valve guide & seat machine

95%

24%

17.7

2.0%

2.0%

Valve refacer

93%

17%

17.2

2.0%

5.0%

Valve seat grinder/cutter

86%

14%

19.4

2.0%

2.0%

Wet blasting/Cleaning

10%

2%

4.0

2.0%

0%

AVERAGE AGE OF ALL EQUIPMENT IS 15.5 YEARS IN 2012

PRESENT VALUE (DEPRECIATION INCLUDED) OF YOUR MACHINE SHOP EQUIPMENT YEAR 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 48 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

AVERAGE $191,000 $248,905 $223,000 $179,066 $146,650 $158,135 MSMP Part 1

PERCENT CHANGE -30.7% 11.6% 24.6% 22% -7.3% -11.9%

the number one cylinder head rebuilt in their shop was, 59 percent named a GM product, up from 57 percent in 2011. However, other brands are making their presence felt as well. Import heads are second place with 13 percent of shops naming them as their top product. Ford and heavy-duty/commercial sit at 9 percent each. Chrysler has made a nice recovery – named number 1 by 6 percent of respondents, Mopar outshines the “other” category (3 percent). Just as with complete engines, performance cylinder head work continues to be an important component of the typical shop’s work. When we asked what percentage of total cylinder head production is performance related, in 2012, almost 97 percent of respondents said they do some amount of performance cylinder head work. “Repair before replace” is an increasingly common mantra in some segments of the cylinder head business. We found that a smaller percentage of diesel heads are being scrapped (although aluminum heads continue to be scrapped at a higher rate). When they are repaired, rebuilders continue to leave the work to the experts. Our survey results indicate that 36 percent of respondents say they do aluminum cylinder head crack repairs themselves and 35 percent do their own diesel head repair. Welding is used as a repair method nearly 75 percent of the time with aluminum cylinder heads and 36 percent of the time with diesel heads. Pinning remains the most-often used method for repairing diesel cylinder heads (done 65 percent of the time) but is used in only one-quarter of the aluminum head repairs. Equipment suppliers may be the biggest winners, according to our survey respondents. The average amount spent on shop equipment in 2012 was $19,327, the most


40-49 MSMP 13 6/19/13 9:02 AM Page 49

Shop Equipment Data we’ve seen in more than five years. The average amount spent in 2011 was $11,274, and continues a very interesting cyclical pattern. Over the past eight years, the year following an increase shows a corresponding decline…but the rebound the next year has been dramatic. Our expectation for 2012 equipment purchases was that it would be exceptional – next year is likely to be off somewhat, but it is likely to be higher than the 2008 equipment sales level. Shops indicate that the present value of their equipment (including depreciation) is over $191,000 and is approximately 15.5 years old. 2012 Survey respondents say 42 percent of their purchases were of new equipment and 58 percent of equipment was used. In most cases, shop owners say they’re spending more time performing many of the necessary tasks to doing a complete engine build than last year. We attribute this to the fact they’re busier than they’ve been. Of course, new CNC or other updated equipment can ease that labor burden. Survey respondents say likely equipment purchases include various types of cleaning equipment, crankshaft polishers, CNC machining centers, valve seat and guide service equipment as well as other types of machining equipment. ■

A complete downloadable version of this report can be found online at www.enginebuildermag.com. Part 2 of the Machine Shop Market Profile – which includes additional information on financial data, employee information and customer base analysis of the typical CER/machine shop compared to the national average – will be presented in July.

Feature

PERCENT OF TOTAL PRODUCTION TIME SPENT IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS CATEGORY DISASSEMBLY/CLEANING BLOCK RESURFACING CYLINDER BORING CYLINDER HEAD RESURFACING VALVE GUIDE AND SEAT WORK CYLINDER HEAD CRACK REPAIR CONNECTING ROD RECON VALVE RECONDITIONING FLYWHEEL GRINDING CLUTCH RESURFACING CRANK GRINDING/POLISHING CRANKSHAFT WELDING OTHER

2012 17.3% 6.0% 12.4% 15.4% 15.5% 2.5% 5.7% 9.9% 2.6% 0.0% 4.4% 0.4% 7.6%

2011 14.9% 5.4% 12.2% 13.5% 13.4% 0.9% 5.8% 8.7% 4.0% 0.6% 8.5% 0.7% 11.3%

2010 16.7% 5.5% 12.4% 15.6% 14.0% 2.0% 4.7% 10.6% 4.2% 0.3% 4.8% 0.7% 8.5%

2009 17.1% 6.9% 11.0% 15.4% 12.6% 2.6% 5.8% 10.8% 3.9% 0.3% 5.1% 1.2% 7.3%

2008 13.2% 8.4% 12.0% 17.7% 15.4% 2.3% 5.5% 10.0% 5.3% 0.4% 4.7% 0.2% 4.7%

AVERAGE AMOUNT SPENT ON MACHINE SHOP EQUIPMENT IN 2012 PERCENT CHANGE*

2012

$19,327

71%

2011

$11,274

-38.7%

2010

$18,400

78%

2009

$10,566

-22.8%

2008

$13,684

18.5%

*From previous year

PERCENT OF EQUIPMENT PURCHASED THAT IS NEW AND USED

USED 58% NEW 42%

EngineBuilderMag.com 49


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51 driven_Layout 1 6/19/13 9:07 AM Page 51

Circle 51 on Reader Service Card for more information


Feature

52-57 Super Comp 6/19/13 8:45 AM Page 52

Super Comp Drag Racing There are no rules for engine size, but engine builders should look to build for consistency in this class

BY TECHNICAL EDITOR LARRY CARLEY LCARLEY@BABCOX.COM

W

hat does it take to build range anywhere from 150 to 190 a winning engine for mph. It’s not the speed that matSuper Comp drag racters most – it’s the elapsed time. ing? The Super Comp drag racing In Super Comp, you just have to class runs on a 8.90 time limit, beat the other guy to the finish with essentially no rules regarding engine displacement, carburetion or type of The majority of vehicles racing vehicle. Engines in Super Comp are rear engine can burn either gasoline or alco- rail dragsters because they are lightweight, relatively simple hol but no nitro and affordable. or nitrous. Engines can be naturally aspirated or boosted with a blower. Most racers are running a single four-barrel Dominator-style carburetor, although a few are using injectors on their engines. To be competitive in the Super Comp class, you don’t need the fastest car in the field. In fact, that’s why most of the people who race in this class like Super Comp. The cars that race in this class typically hit 165 to 175 mph in the traps, but speeds can

52 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

line without breaking out of the 8.90 limit. If you run a lower ET, and both racers break out, then whoever is closest to the 8.90 time is the winner.


52-57 Super Comp 6/19/13 8:45 AM Page 53

Most of the dragsters are powered by big block Chevys, ranging from 509 to 632 cid, although some racers are running Chrysler engines or even small block Chevys.

Super Comp is a more affordable alternative to some of the other drag racing classes where it can take lots of power and lots of bucks to be a winner. In Super Comp, you can be competitive with a 600 to 800 hp engine in a rear engine dragster. Some racers are running upwards of 1,200 hp, but they don’t really need that much power. In fact, some racers say if a car makes too much power and is too fast, it makes it harder for the driver to judge his distance to the finish line and the car in the other lane. Ideally, you just want to nose out the other car at the finish line while staying within the 8.90 time limit. The majority of vehicles racing in Super Comp are rear engine rail dragsters because they are lightweight, relatively simple and affordable. Most of the dragsters are powered by big block Chevys, ranging from 509 to 632 cid, although some racers are running Chrysler engines or even small block Chevy V8s. A popular setup is a 565 cid big block Chevy built to redline at 7,500 rpm while making 900 to 1,000 horsepower. Charles Linne, president of the Pacific Northwest Super Comp Association says his group races at four different strips and usually averages 15 to 20 competitors per event. “You probably need at least 800 horsepower to be competitive in our series but you don’t need any special tricks to be a winner. It depends more on driver skill than the engine or chassis.” Linne races a Super Comp dragster himself and has his car dialed in to run consistent 8.90 ETs. “Once you’ve established a baseline, you can fine-tune your car to run 8.88 to 8.92 consistently.” Linne says that racing in Super Comp doesn’t require much engine maintenance compared to racers in some of the higher classes such as Comp Eliminator who are constantly tearing their engines down and replacing parts. “I’ll run my engine two seasons before I’ll refresh it,” he says. Linne believes one thing every Super Comp racer needs is an accurate weather station to monitor temCircle 53 for more information EngineBuilderMag.com 53


52-57 Super Comp 6/19/13 8:45 AM Page 54

A typical Super Comp event at some local tracks will usually attract 26 to 27 competitors. At an NHRA divisional event, there may be 80 or more cars, and at an NHRA national event there could be 140.

perature, humidity and barometric pressure. These are the variables that affect engine tuning so you have to know what kind of jetting and timing changes to make as the weather changes. Rich Kwasiborski of the Midwest Super Comp Series says a typical Super Comp event at a local track in Illinois will usually attract 26 to 27 competitors. At an NHRA divisional event, there may be 80 or more cars, and at an NHRA national Super Comp event, the field is usually limited to 140 cars. “Many racers are now using some type of data acquisition system that records engine rpm, torque converter and driveshaft rpm to see if they are getting too much tire slippage,” says Kwasiborski. “This kind of information is necessary to help them dial in their cars so they will be more consistent.” Kwasiborski says most of the dragsters in the Midwest Super Comp Series are in the 900 to 1,000 horsepower Circle 54 for more information 54 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

range, turning 7,500 rpm and running 160 to 180 mph with 4.10 gears. The engines are equipped with one of two kinds of throttle stops: under the carburetor or in-line. The throttle is usually CO2 operated, which controls how quickly the throttle comes on and off. “You don’t want all the power to hit the wheels all at once; otherwise you’ll lose traction,” Kwasiborski explains. He says most of the engines are lasting up to three seasons, thanks to the fact that most of them are being cooled by radiators to keep the heat under control. “A lot of these engines have radical cams that require a lot of valve spring pressure and strong pushrods, so you have to keep an eye on the valve springs and the roller lifters,” Kwasiborski says. “But other than that, the engines hold up well.”

General Engine Building Tips If you are building an engine for a customer


52-57 Super Comp 6/19/13 8:45 AM Page 55

THIS ISSUE:

PG 58 >> Sleeves & Liners

who wants to race a Super Comp dragster, consistency and reliability are essential. You want a strong block (cast iron or aluminum), a strong crankshaft (forged 4340 steel), and rods (H-beam) and pistons (forged) that can take the pun-

PG 64 >> Product Spotlights

PG 68 >>Final Wrap

Feature

hol or a high octane racing fuel you can run more compression. A leaded racing fuel rated at 107 pump octane can typically handle compression ratios in the 12:1 range. Run the engine on 110 pump octane leaded racing fuel and the compression ratio can be bumped up to 13:1. Use 112 pump octane racing fuel and the engine can be built with up to a 15:1 compression ratio. Oxygenated racing fuels can typically make up to 3 to 7% more power than leaded racing fuels. The higher the oxygen content of the fuel, the Super Comp doesn’t require much greater the engine maintenance compared to potential some of the higher classes such as power Comp Eliminator. Racers in Comp ishment. The top comgains it can seem to be constantly tearing enpression rings should be deliver. An gines down and replacing parts. steel or ductile iron with oxygenated a moly facing to withfuel such as stand the heat. The compression E85 ethanol (85% ethanol and 15% ratio will depend on the fuel, so if gasoline) typically carries an ocyour customer wants to run alcotane rating of 110 (or 116 for some

Circle 55 for more information EngineBuilderMag.com 55


52-57 Super Comp 6/19/13 8:45 AM Page 56

E90 blends). A compression ratio of 14.2:1 works well with E85. The compression ratio will also depend on the size of the combustion chamber (small versus large) and valve overlap and timing. The higher the compression ratio, the greater the thermal efficiency of the engine and the more power it will produce. Camshaft selection will depend on the heads and how much power you want to make. You’ll need a cam with a lot of lift and duration if you want to make 800 to 1,000 hp, but you don’t have to go crazy with lift, duration and valve spring pressure. A cam that delivers a flatter, broader torque curve will be easier to race and tune than a cam with a narrower and peakier torque curve. A typical cam profile that is capable of producing up to 1,000 hp in a BB Chevy 565 engine would be 283/296 degrees duration at .050” lift, and .824˝/.785˝ of lift with 1.7 ratio rocker arms. The roller lifters and pushrods should be stout enough to handle Circle 56 for more information 56 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

Super Comp cars typically hit 165 to 175 mph in the traps, but speeds can range anywhere from 150 to 190 mph. It’s not the speed that matters most – it’s the elapsed time. You have to beat the other guy without breaking out of the 8.90 limit.

the required valve spring pressure for up to two racing seasons. The cam drive system should also be strong and reliable, and allow easy cam timing adjustments. Engine oiling is also critical, so you want an oil pump that will provide plenty of oil pressure and flow, and a baffled oil pan to prevent the oil from climbing up the back of the pan when the dragster is accelerating down the strip. Since the engine is going to be turning a lot of rpms, a good balance job is critical for reliability. Engine assembly, break in and tuning is like any other performance engine you might build. Make sure everything is thoroughly lubricated when it goes together, and that the oil system has been primed before the engine is fired up for the first time. ■ For more information about drag racing engine builds, scan the QR code or visit enginebuildermag.com.


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THIS ISSUE:

PG 58 >> Sleeves & Liners

PG 64 >> Product Spotlights

PG 68 >>Final Wrap

Feature

DRAG RACING ENGINE BUILDING TIPS

Left: Roller cam bearings are a plus in a race engine for a couple of reasons. They can handle very high valve spring pressures better than plain bearings, and they help reduce power-robbing friction. Top right: Main bearing clearance is checked by bolting the caps to 100 ft.lbs. with the bearings installed, then measuring with a dial bore gauge. Bottom right: The cap on this connecting rod for a 565 sportsman engine is torqued to 95 foot-pounds. A bore gauge to measure bearing clearance is then used and the coated bearings are set to .0025˝-.0032˝ clearance . The rods are forged from 4340 steel alloy that has a compact, uniform grain structure for ultimate strength. The wrist pin and big end bores are honed to a +/-.0002˝. tolerance, and the wrist pins have bronze alloy bushings. (Photos courtesy of Atech Motorsports)

Circle 57 for more information

EngineBuilderMag.com 57


Feature

58-62 Sleeves 6/19/13 8:43 AM Page 58

BY CONTRIBUTING EDITOR BOB MCDONALD BMCDONALD@ENGINEBUILDERMAG.COM

Sleeves & Liners

The differences may come down to what type of engine you work on

I

often hear customers ask about the difference between a sleeve and a liner. It’s an understandable question. Automotive guys call them sleeves and diesel guys call them liners. And while they may be used for similar purposes, the perception of what they do may be very different among different groups. Many automotive enthusiasts understand that sleeves are used in the

58 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

repair of damaged cylinder bores in engine blocks or in heavily modified four-cylinder engines for racing. While this may all be true, the fact of the matter is they both are the same. The term “liners” is often used in relation to cylinder bore repair in a diesel engine. Either way, it is still understood to be an item that is machined and inserted into the engine’s block as a way to repair the cylinder bore.

Circle 58 for more information

But, what other way would a sleeve and or a liner be used, other than to repair, when dealing with today’s modern power plants? Most cast iron automotive engine blocks do not require sleeves because the iron is hard enough to resist piston ring wear. This is important because the purpose of the cylinder is to seal the piston rings. Over time, as the engine components become worn, a


58-62 Sleeves 6/19/13 8:43 AM Page 59

THIS ISSUE: PG 26 >> Performance Diesel Guide

rebuild will be inevitable. But cast iron engine blocks allow the cylinders to be bored and oversized pistons installed. The only time that a sleeve is required is when the cylinder is cracked or there is not enough material in the engine’s casting for the cylinder to be bored. In either situation, the cylinder that is in need of repair can be machined for a sleeve that will be interference fit, which means that it will need to be pressed into the cylinder block. The same can be said for mid-size diesel applications. Diesel blocks are usually thick enough to be machined, so the only time a sleeve should be needed is when the cylinder is cracked. But diesel engines are also more expensive to repair. Most of the time, when a diesel is in need of repairs, it is because there is a problem with one or more of the cylinder bores. Damage to the bore comes from extreme temperatures that may distort – or melt – the pistons. When the piston becomes distorted to this extreme, it will gall the cylinder bore leaving melted aluminum behind. Generally this is referred to as a “burnt

PG 41 >> MSMP Part 1

PG 63 >> Product Spotlights

hole,” and in most instances is found in only one cylinder. The engine block can be machined to accept a replacement sleeve, repairing the bad cylinder and requiring only one replacement piston, saving the rest of the block. Of course, engines aren’t only made from cast iron. Today, even daily drivers have lightweight aluminum engine blocks. These aluminum blocks are manufactured with a “cast-in-place” dry sleeve, in which the cylinder sleeve is placed into the mold when the aluminum cast is poured to form the cylinder block. This can be a very costeffective design, but can restrict the potential of the engine’s power. This sleeve design will be perfectly reliable for the purpose it was designed, but frankly, it typically won’t be able to take the stress it would face in a high horsepower environment. One example of this is the GM LS1. The factory sleeves may not be able to take the heat in some high-performance applications. Another method used to produce some production aluminum engines is

Circle 59 for more information

Feature

to use no sleeves at all. Instead, the aluminum cylinders are coated with a nickel silicone alloy or some other special plasma coatings that resist wear and offer longevity, durability and a improved ring seal.

Sleeve Construction Most sleeve manufacturers today form sleeves by a centrifugal casting process. Molten metal is poured into a rotating mold in which the centrifugal force drives the material toward the walls as the mold fills. The finished sleeve is easy to machine and offers great strength and durability compared to ductile iron. Sleeve manufacturers offer a wide range of bore diameters ranging from 2” to 8.5” that can range up to 24” in length. Sleeve thicknesses are available from 3/32” and 1/8” for bores up to 5-1/8”. For some special applications, sleeve wall thicknesses of 1/16” and 2mm can be achieved. Special iron alloys are used for each manufacturer’s castings. Each has been formulated to provide the supplier’s ideal blend for ease of installation with

EngineBuilderMag.com 59


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Feature

trouble-free boring. The sleeves contain alloys found in today’s plated cylinders that will not peel or flake. These alloys offer superior tensile strength with efficient and quick heat transfer.

Fit and Finish One thing that needs to be addressed is the thermal efficiency of a sleeve and the type of block into which it is installed. It all comes down to interference fit. Because sleeves are flangeless, a tight fit keeps the sleeve from moving up and down in the bore when the engine reaches operating temperature. When a sleeve is installed into a cast iron block, the process is fairly simple and effective. The sleeve, which is mostly constructed of ductile iron, is pressed into the cast iron block. When pressing a sleeve into an iron block, there needs to be an interference fit between .0015” to .002”. As the engine operates under normal conditions, the cast iron sleeve can transfer heat from the cylinder into the cast iron of the engine’s block. Coolant is circulated

60 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

through the engine block and surrounds the cylinders to effectively remove heat from the installed sleeve. However, cast iron and aluminum dissipate heat differently, due to a different rate of expansion. For an aluminum block, there needs to be an interference fit of .003” to .004”. When a sleeve is installed into an aluminum cylinder block is where a potential problem can begin. In an aluminum block, heat may be removed from the aluminum cylinder block but not properly transferred from the cast iron sleeve into the aluminum bore. The sleeved cylinder can overheat, causing damage to the piston and rings because of this poor heat dissipation between the different alloys. It’s very important to understand when installing a sleeve, that the engine block must be machined as round and straight as possible. Concentricity is very important to eliminate bore distortion. Most sleeves are very accurate in outside bore dimensions. If the block is not truly accurate

Circle 60 for more information

by being bored round and straight and the sleeve is pressed in, piston clearance and ring seal will become a problem. If there is a poor fit with a lot of gaps, the sleeve can run the risk of moving up and down in the bore. Also, if there are gaps from poor machining, there will be hot spots in the cylinder from poor heat dissipation into the engine block.

Wet Sleeves When it comes to dealing with engine blocks like GM’s LS engine with the cast-in-place sleeve, replacement can be a problem. If the original sleeve becomes worn, the cast-in-place sleeve will have to be machined out. When you do this, there will not be enough material to support a replacement sleeve. The alternatives are to machine out the cylinders entirely and convert the block to a wet sleeve design. Heavy-duty diesel engines have always integrated a wet sleeve design, often referred to as a liner. The liner can easily be understood as a removable


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THIS ISSUE: PG 26 >> Performance Diesel Guide

cylinder bore. In a diesel engine, the liner is designed with a flange at the top that fits into the deck of the cylinder block. There are no cylinder walls in the cylinder block; the liner is the cylinder wall. On the outside of the

PG 41 >> MSMP Part 1

PG 63 >> Product Spotlights

Feature

liner, there are machined recesses at the block from coolant leaks. This allows top and bottom that house rubber Oengine coolant to pass around the rings. These rubber O-rings seal the cylinder liner to remove heat from the liner at the top pistons and rings yet not Heavy-duty diesel engines have and bottom of leak coolant into the oil pan always integrated a wet sleeve the engine or cylinder head. design, often referred to as a The rebuild process of a liner. The liner is designed with heavy-duty diesel engine is a flange at the top that fits into typically referred to as an the deck of the cylinder block. “in-frame� rebuild, because most of the time, new components such as bearings, gaskets, pistons and rings can be installed without engine removal. The frame of the vehicle is simply used as the engine stand. During the in-frame, once the pistons and rings are removed from the cylinder, a special tool is used to pull the liners out of the engine block. When new liners are installed, they come already fitted with new pistons, connecting rods, and rings ready to be inserted into the cylinder block. Most heavyduty rebuild kits come with internal components pre-fit and ready for installation for the application so there is no need for liner boring or piston fitment.

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58-62 Sleeves 6/19/13 8:43 AM Page 62

Feature

If your application is for hardcore performance or a severe-duty, a design has been invented that allows you to machine the block to accept a patented sleeve design known as Modular Integrated Design (MID). In the MID process, the block is machined so the sleeves can be siamesed and nested into the block to form a solid deck surface. The sleeve flanges are held in tension, reinforcing the upper deck area. The beauty of this design is not only strength, but each sleeve can be replaced if needed. Each sleeve is fitted together by integrating them side-byside to lock in the entire cylinder block. The sleeves are a wet design just like a diesel in which water flows around the sleeve and not the cylinder block. This wet design promotes water flow from the block to the cylinder head to give stability to the cooling system. There is also water flow around the flange of the sleeve by ported water flow called Swirl Coolant Technology. The MID process has a specific sleeve design for each engine applica-

tion. For each engine design, the manufacturer will model the sleeve according to cylinder head and combustion chamber shape, with increased water flow to areas that are subject to the most heat. Heat transfer will also be directed to a set of “registered fins” integrated into the sleeve for the application. While heat can be translated into energy, high resident heat in the combustion chamber can lead to detonation. A range of MID sleeve designs that cover many performance applications is available. Keep several things in mind when thinking about sleeves and liners. Whether their purpose is going to be repairing an OE application or to go all out in the restructuring of the engine block, they have to be able to perform a number of tasks. They should be concentric in shape to offer good ring seal and wear resistance. The sleeve or liner will need to be manufactured with an alloy that is going to provide an antigalling property that will offer a sliding surface for the rings and be able retain

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lubricant and transfer heat. Therefore, when needing to install either of the two, you will need to consider the application as to what the sleeve or liner will be used for and the work you’ll have to do to install them. It may not be a simple process, but it can give an old block new life. ■ Very special thanks to the companies that contributed to this report: Darton Sleeves (www.dartonsleeves.com); IPD Parts (www.ipdparts.com); L.A. Sleeves (www.lasleeve.com); and Melling Engine Parts (www.melling.com). For more information on cylinder sleeves or liners, visit Engine Builder online (www.enginebuildermag.com) and search for articles and tech bulletins. Or access our exclusive online Buyers Guide for additional product and contact information. Scan this QR code to go directly to the page.

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63-65 Spotlights 6/19/13 8:41 AM Page 63

Product Spotlights

Engine Pro High Performance Connecting Rods Engine Pro H-Beam Connecting Rods are forged from 4340 steel and produced on CNC machinery. They are finished in the U.S. to ensure precise big-end and pin-end bore sizes. Rods are magnafluxed, heat treated, stress relieved, shot peened and sonic tested to ensure they provide the strength required for high horsepower applications. Engine Pro connecting rods equipped with standard 8740 bolts are rated for up to 700 horsepower in small blocks, and 850 horsepower in big block applications. Visit, www.goenginepro.com.

Engine Pro Phone: 800-ENGINE-1

www.goenginepro.com Circle 101

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Product Spotlights

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Ultra Double Pumpers Holley’s Ultra Double Pumpers are now available with a manual choke. The Ultra Double Pumper carburetors feature all aluminum construction and are equipped with metering blocks and a base plate made from 6061–T6 billet aluminum. These carburetors come with a tumble-polished aluminum body with three anodized color options (Red, Blue, or Black) for the base plate and metering blocks. They are also available in the popular Hardcore Gray hard coat anodized finish. The all-aluminum construction makes them approximately 5 lbs. less than a comparable zinc carburetor.

Holley Performance Products Phone: 270-781-9741

www.holley.com Circle 107

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63-65 Spotlights 6/19/13 8:41 AM Page 65

Product Spotlights

Web-Based Valvetrain Parts Catalog SBI has released a Web-based version of its acclaimed catalog in order to provide users with real-time updates on additions to the company’s line of replacement valvetrain parts for close to 3,000 applications divided among late-model domestic and import passenger car, light truck, performance, marine, agricultural, heavyduty and forklift/industrial. The catalog also features listings of K-Line Bronze Bullet-brand valve guide liners and miscellaneous K-Line tooling stocked by SBI, Exclusive Master Distributor for K-Line. Based on SBI’s CD-ROM catalog, the SBI Web-based catalog allows the user to search the database by part type/part number, vehicle type, engine manufacturer, or specific engine and make codes.

S.B. International Phone:1-800-THE-SEAT

www.sbintl.com Circle 113

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High Volume Oil Pumps Orbit performance oil pumps are designed with high output and volume capabilities required for high RPM engines. The gerotors are precision machined from steelcopper alloy (FCO205), an exceptionally durable metal that assures dependability and durability. Tight housing and gerotor tolerances provide optimum pressure and flow requirements. Housings are die cast DC-12 aluminum and are anodized to prevent corrosion. All pumps are individually inspected and tested. Passenger car pumps are equivalent to OEM design, engineering and metallurgy to meet or exceed original equipment specifications. Present applications include nine applications (three performance and six passenger car); new applications will be added.

ACL Distribution Phone: 800-847-5521

www.orbitoilpumps.com

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Classified/Cores

66-67 Class-Cores 6/19/13 8:40 AM Page 66

USED AND REBUILT EQUIPMENT MACHINE REBUILDING

CBN TOOLING: WE RESHARPEN CBN’S!

JAMISON EQUIPMENT 1908 11th St., Emmetsburg IA 50536 800-841-5405 Check out our used equip. list at www.jamisonequipment.com

Call now to order or to receive a free 2012 catalog 1-800-434-5141 www.autobodysupplies.com

SPECIALIZING IN ENGINE CORES

GRANT WE BUY

(314) 421-5585 ST. LOUIS ★ FAX (314) 421-1436 (888) 421-5585

• CAMS • CRANKS

WE SELL • HEADS •RODS

3815 N. 21st ST.

ST. LOUIS, MO 63107

To Advertise in CLASSIFIEDS!

Call Roberto Almenar at 330-670-1234, ext. 233 ralmenar@babcox.com

66 June 2013 | EngineBuilder


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Classified/Cores

Need Reprints? Call

Tina Purnell at

330-670-1234, ext. 243

Advertiser Index COMPANY NAME

PAGE #

CIRCLE #

Dart Machinery Ltd

54

54

Liberty Engine Parts

4, 5

5

AAPEX

11

11

Darton International

6

4

Mahle Motorsports

35

35

ACL Distribution

23

23

Diamond Racing Products

Melling Engine Parts

21

21

American Cylinder Head, Inc.

47

47

/Trend Performance

16

16

Packard Industries

60

60

Apex Automobile Parts

7

7

Dipaco Inc.

34

34

PAI Industries Inc

12

12

ARP/Automotive Racing Products Inc

31

31

DNJ Engine Components

1

1

Permatex Inc

Cover 3

69

Atech Motorsports

10

10

Driven Racing Oil, LLC

51

51

PowerBore Cylinder Sleeves

33

33

Automotive Service Equipment

37

37

Edelbrock Corp

13

13

Pro Cam/Baker Engineering

24

24

Avon Automotive Products

58

58

Engine & Performance Warehouse

17

17

PRW Industries Inc

31,36,38

Bill Mitchell Products

56

50

Engine Parts Group

15

15

Quality Power Products

29

29

Brad Penn Lubricants

6

6

Engine Parts Warehouse

59

59

Rottler Manufacturing

Cover 4

72

31,36,38

Chrysler Group LLC

8

8

ESCO Industries

62

62

Safety Auto Parts Corp

41

41

Cloyes Gear & Products Inc.

27

27

Goodson Mfg Co

18

18

SB International

3

3

Cometic Gaskets

56

56

GRP Connecting Rods

61

61

Scat Enterprises

Cover 2

2

Comp Performance Group

19

19

Henkel Corp

9

9

Schumann's Sales & Service, Inc.

22

22

T & D Machine Products

57

57

Comp Performance Group

55

55

Holley Performance Products

53

53

Dailey Engineering

25

25

Injector Experts

62

63

Dakota Parts Warehouse

25

12

King Electronics

10

14

EngineBuilderMag.com 67


Final Wrap

68 Final Wrap 6/19/13 8:40 AM Page 68

Knowing You, Knowing Me

In total, this is a great industry; Individually, you’re even better

F

or almost 30 years now, Engine Builder has been asking the professionals in this industry about business. We ask you for detailed information on how much you charge, how much you make, how much you spend and how much you have left over. We compile all of this information into several different reports each year – in this issue, for example, Part 1 of our annual Machine Shop Market Profile is presented. Next month, we’ll make Part 2 available. Our annual Labor Costing Studies look at how much – on average – the industry charges to work on the Late Model Hemi or a Ford Zetec or the Navistar 7.3L diesel. The average is very important to us, because it gives us (and you) a nice, statistical snapshot of this industry The 10,000-foot view, if you will, lets us see things in broad strokes and provide information that will benefit the whole. What’s important to remember, of course, is that each of these data points is an individual. Like a Georges-Pierre Seurat painting (or one of those cool photo mosaic posters that catch your eye at the mall) a close inspection of the

total picture yields some very colorful stories. We’ve met a lot of great people at trade shows and industry events and believe me – meeting you, hearing from you by phone, email or even good old fashioned U.S. Mail (yes, they still deliver that to our offices) – each individual character adds a level of detail to the big picture. Our profiles of shop owners and operators allow us to share your stories, with the assumption that we can all learn something from others’ experience. Shops seem to be more willing than ever to share details of their business practices in order to help their fellow industry colleagues – a rising tide raises all ships. The details are vitally important in your business of course. Specs and tolerances must be maintained in order to produce the highest quality product. In our business, details are just as important. I will admit that we went out of spec recently, which has led to some confusion. In April’s issue, we failed to give credit where credit is due with regard to the photos and comments in Larry

Associate Publisher/Editor Doug Kaufman, ext. 262 dkaufman@babcox.com

enginebuildermag.com 3550 Embassy Parkway Akron, OH 44333-8318 FAX 330-670-0874

330-670-1234

68 June 2013 | EngineBuilder

Senior Executive Editor Brendan Baker, ext. 228 bbaker@babcox.com Tech Editor Larry Carley lcarley@babcox.com Group Publisher Jeff Stankard, ext. 282 jstankard@babcox.com

Graphic Designer Nichole Anderson, ext. 232 nanderson@babcox.com Advertising Services Tina Purnell, ext. 243 tpurnell@babcox.com

Sales Representatives Roberto Almenar ralmenar@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 233 David Benson dbenson@babcox.com 330-670-1234 ext. 210

Director of Distribution Rich Zisk, ext. 287 rzisk@babcox.com

Bobbie Adams badams@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 238

Circulation Manager Pat Robinson, ext. 276 probinson@babcox.com

Don Hemming dhemming@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 286

Sr. Circulation Specialist Ellen Mays, ext. 275 emays@babcox.com

Karen Kaim kkaim@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 295

ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER/EDITOR Doug Kaufman dkaufman@babcox.com

Carley’s article on Performance Gaskets and Surface Finishes. Thanks to representatives from Fel-Pro/FederalMogul, MAHLE Clevite, Magnum Gaskets and Apex Automobile Parts. We also failed to give proper credit for the photography that accompanied the article. MAHLE Clevite supplied some informative illustrations about coatings on MLS gaskets, and FelPro/Federal-Mogul contributed several photos, including the opening photo of an MLS gasket with its proprietary LaserWeld Technology. This technology has been used in a 3,300 hp Big Block Chevy. We apologize for the oversight. Our goal is zero defects, and we didn’t hit the mark. Your knowledge and experience are valuable resources and we appreciate the confidence you place in us. Please let us know if you have suggestions for markets, technical issues or engines we should be addressing in print or online. As we refine our aim moving forward, we’ll continue to count on you, the individual, to help us craft a product that is of value to the whole. ■

Dean Martin dmartin@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 225 Jim Merle jmerle@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 280 Tom Staab tstaab@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext 224 Glenn Warner gwarner@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 212 John Zick jzick@babcox.com 949-756-8835

Babcox Media Inc. Bill Babcox, President Greg Cira, Vice President, CFO Jeff Stankard, Vice President Beth Scheetz, Controller In Memorium: Edward S. Babcox (1885-1970) Founder of Babcox Publications Inc. Tom B. Babcox (1919-1995) Chairman


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EB June 2013