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■ Bearing Procedures ■ Oxygen Sensor Fuel Trims ■ Hardware: Use It or Lose It



MAGAZINE November 2013

COVER STORY: Dual-Clutch Transmissions






1994-1999 Second Generation Standard Legacy brakes had vented rotors with single-piston floating calipers until 1998. The caliper housing pivots on a fixed upper pin that is replaceable.

Assortment of Dos and Don’ts Don’t use an impact for installation or removal. While it may appear to

Subaru Legacy Brake Job Wheel Bearing Pointers

be easier to use an impact wrench, it is not recommended.


Dual-Clutch Transmissions Coming to your shop soon! The first dual-clutch transmissions you will likely see will be on compact cars, hybrids and even trucks. They are out there and the warranty period is ticking away. Publisher Jim Merle, ext. 280 email:

Managing Editor Tim Fritz, ext. 218 email:

Ad Services (Materials) Cindy Ott, ext. 209 email:

Editor Andrew Markel, ext. 296 email:

Technical Editor Larry Carley

Circulation Manager Pat Robinson, ext. 276 email:

Graphic Designer Dan Brennan, ext. 283 email:

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Subscription Services Maryellen Smith, ext. 288 email:

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8 Quick Tip: Motor Oil 10 Viewpoint 12 ASE Test Prep 14 Gonzo’s Toolbox 16 Industry Review 25 Special Supplement:

HOME OFFICE 3550 Embassy Parkway Akron, Ohio 44333-8318 330-670-1234 FAX 330-670-0874


VICE PRESIDENT Jeff Stankard 330-670-1234, ext. 282

Maintenance Matters

28 Alignment Specs:

Sales Representatives: Bobbie Adams 330-670-1234, ext. 238

2006-2010 Ford Fusion

34 Brake Hardware Tips 40 TPMS: Relearn Procedures 47 SHOP: Product Showcase 48 Emissions 50 Tech Tips 56 SHOP: Product Showcase 59 RAPID RESPONSE 60 Classifieds 64 Brake Lights


Doug Basford 330-670-1234, ext. 255 Sean Donohue 330-670-1234, ext. 206


AUGMENTED REALITY CONTENT IN THIS ISSUE: ASE Test Prep Alignment Specs: 2006-2010 Ford Fusion

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SmartChoice™ Mobile App, powered by Federal-Mogul


(Open AVI Play and hold your smart device over the SmartChoice™ logo) AVI Test Prep 53 Brake and Front End is a member of and supports the following organizations:

PRESIDENT Bill Babcox 330-670-1234, ext. 217

Dean Martin 330-670-1234, ext. 225 Glenn Warner 330-670-1234, ext. 212 John Zick 949-756-8835 Jamie Lewis 330-670-1234, ext. 266 List Sales Manager Don Hemming 330-670-1234, ext. 286 Classified Sales Tom Staab 330-670-1234, ext. 224

BRAKE & FRONT END (ISSN 0193-726X) (November 2013, Volume 85, Number 11): Published monthly by Babcox Media, 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333 U.S.A. Phone (330) 670-1234, FAX (330) 670-0874. Periodical postage paid at Akron, OH 44333 and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to BRAKE & FRONT END, P.O. Box 13260, Akron, OH 44334-3913. BRAKE & FRONT END is a trademark of Babcox Publications, Inc. registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark office. All rights reserved. A limited number of complimentary subscriptions are available to individuals who meet the qualification requirements. Call (330) 670-1234, Ext. 288, to speak to a subscription services representative or FAX us at (330) 670-5335. Paid Subscriptions are available for non-qualified subscribers at the following rates: U.S.: $69 for one year. Canada: $89 for one year. Canadian rates include GST. Ohio residents add current county sales tax. Other foreign rates/via air mail: $129 for one year. Payable in advance in U.S. funds. Mail payment to BRAKE & FRONT END, P.O. Box 75692, Cleveland, OH 44101-4755. VISA, MasterCard or American Express accepted.

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he American Petroleum Institute (API) has evaluated results from its annual motor oil testing program and determined that almost one in five samples of bulk motor oil purchased from the marketplace in each of the past five years has failed to meet API motor oil performance standards. “API has launched a new phase in its Motor Oil Matters program that will provide the information necessary to consumers to ensure they receive the high-quality motor oils that they expect for their vehicles,” said Kevin Ferrick, API’s Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System manager. API purchased and tested more than 1,800 motor oils dispensed from bulk tanks over the past five years and reports that nearly 20% of the bulk oil samples tested failed to meet API standards. API compared the test results against thousands of licensed oil formulations to determine the identity of the oils and to verify that the oils met the performance level claimed.


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“The Motor Oil Matters program reminds consumers about the importance of using quality motor oils in their cars and trucks,” added Ferrick. “The Motor Oil Matters program also calls on certified oil change locations to go the extra step to verify the quality of the oil on invoices and receipts.” API recommends that consumers and shops visit to find a Motor Oil Matters (MOM) certified oil change location, look for the MOM symbol at approved locations, read important information on oil quality, and download the MOM oil change checklist to take to their next oil change. Oilchange locations and motor oil distributors that share MOM’s commitment to provide high-quality motor oils — and submit to independent, third-party auditing — have the opportunity to be recognized by MOM through the Motor Oil Matters distributor and installer licensing programs. ■


By Andrew Markel | Editor

MONDAY MORNING MIL Light Quarterback


onday mornings are typically not very productive for me. I typically will hide in my office with the light off to avoid people asking about their latest weekend-induced car problems. Half of the questions are about sounds they have heard coming from their vehicles, and if I could take a look. The other half are questions about MIL lights that have come on. When I started, most of the issues were catalyst efficiency codes or EVAP systems. I would not erase the code and advise them they should go to a shop to have the problem fully diagnosed. Most of the people were concerned that they were doing damage to their vehicle. This is a good thing. Then there is Mike. (The names, places and cars have been changed to protect the names of the innocent. However, most of these stories are true.) He is a good friend, but he is a little paranoid of shops and the ‘OEM Conspiracy.’ He is also a little bit of a ‘skinflint’ looking for new ways to save money. But, he is also concerned that he could be damaging his vehicle by letting a MIL light condition go for too long. Some Monday morning starts out with one of Mike’s stories about how he was taking the kids to one of their numerous sporting events in the area or going to their cottage on the Portage Lakes. With the skill of a master storyteller, he usually describes how a glowing light came on in the instrument binnacle at the worst possible time during his travels and how the light had put damper on his entire weekend. I like Mike’s stories. Last week, he faced ABS and stability control system MIL lights that had him flipping through the owner’s manual in a parking lot looking for solace (he could not find my cell phone number). The light stayed on after he started the car after a trip to a Swenson’s Drive In.


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The vehicle is not as important to this diagnostic dilemma as was his reaction to the light. In my experience, most people who have an ABS light illuminated are almost in a state of denial. They rationalize that it may go out soon or that they do not need this critical safety feature (these are typically the people who need it the most). Believing it won’t leave them stranded, they typically put off a trip to the shop. Mike’s reaction to the ABS and Stability MIL lights was appropriate for the situation. The SUV he drives is usually loaded with kids and equipment. He has had to use the stability control system more than once after addressing a distraction in the backseat. On my advice, he took it to a shop. After some diagnostic time, they found that a large amount of orange soda made its way into the center console and to the yaw and lateral acceleration sensor cluster where it caused an issue with the CAN bus connecting it with the ABS module and other systems. The shop was able to handle the problem because they had the proper tools and training. The next day the story about him interrogating his kids about the orange soda was very entertaining. Is your shop seeing more ABS, stability control and traction control light complaints coming into your shop? If you are, we have a can’t miss AVI training webcast sponsored by BRAKE & FRONT END. The webcast will feature trainer Bob Pattengale. The hour-long online event will discus the latest diagnostic strategies when it comes to ABS and stability control systems. Bob will also show you how future brake technology like automatic braking and emergency assist will impact your shop. When: December 10, 2013 at 6 p.m EST Cost: $50 Where: ■

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ASEA2 Automatic Transmission/Transaxle Test Prep: TORQUE CONVERTER BASICS By Gary Goms


he concept of using a torque converter, oil pump, planetary gear sets, clutches, bands and a computer-controlled hydraulic valve body to transmit torque and to change gear ratios is relatively simple. To illustrate, the torque converter allows the engine to idle in gear with the vehicle stopped and multiplies engine torque during the initial stages of acceleration. In addition to an electronically controlled clutch that prevents the torque converter from slipping during cruise conditions, the primary parts of the torque converter are the impellor, stator and turbine. Each of these parts has a set of curved vanes that accelerates and controls the flow of oil in the torque converter housing. The impellor, which is driven by the engine, uses centrifugal force to push oil into the turbine. The turbine, which is attached to the transmission input shaft, receives the impact of the rapidly moving oil to develop a torque input to the vehicle’s drivetrain. The difference between the speeds of the impellor and turbine is called stall speed. Generally, stall speed is limited to 1,500-2,000 rpm to prevent over-heating the transmission oil. Torque converter hydraulic “lock-up” occurs when oil velocity in the converter is high enough to keep the impellor and turbine rotating at nearly the same speed. The stator, which is attached to the transmission front oil pump assembly, contains a one-way roller clutch assembly that locks the stator in place during acceleration and allows it to freewheel during deceleration. During acceleration, the impellor is rotating faster than the turbine. The stator redirects oil from the turbine into the faster-rotating impellor blades to multiply torque. During deceleration, the direction of oil flow in the converter reverses because the turbine becomes the driving component. The stator must then freewheel to allow the oil to reverse its direction of flow. ■


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Gonzo’sToolbox By Scott “Gonzo” Weaver

Driving, Drinking and Grandpa


n one of many slow days at the shop, I had a small job come in from one of the local tire shops. This rather young girl brought the car to me from the tire shop just a few blocks away. She told me she was the owner and that the tire shop was rude and wouldn’t help her, so I called the tire shop to find out what the deal was. Her problem was an occasional no start. The tire shop didn’t want to get involved with this because it had a breath analyzer attached to the starting system. My opinion, if you get behind the wheel in a condition that would require having to blow into a plastic tube to start your car, you really should take stock of your life. I needed to find out why this car won’t start. First thing I did was disconnect the breath machine to verify if the problem was the car or the analyzer. Once the unit is disconnected from the car I have to call the 800 phone number on the device to let them know that it is an authorized disconnect and not the driver trying to bypass the system. It’s quite an ordeal. Not the physical disconnecting of the unit but, the information you have to know to prove that you are actually a repair shop when


it comes to properly disconnecting the unit. With that over with, I got back to diagnosing the problem at hand. It turned out to be a bad starter motor. I called the parts warehouse and got prices on a replacement starter for the owner. Later that day the owner called back and said they had just put a starter on so I must be mistaken. It was a newer starter, but was not really a quality rebuilt unit, but it had a life-time warranty. Against my better judgment, I removed the starter so they could handle the core and warranty. She came for the old starter and sometime later showed up with the replacement starter. I informed her that the quality of my diagnostics or the charges had not changed, however, if

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the car fails to start for any reason beyond the bolts falling out of the starter, it is coming out of her wallet. It went in one ear and out the other. A while later, Grandpa showed up with one hell of a chip on his shoulder to pick up the car. (I think old Grandpa threw back a few before he showed up, too.) “This is higher than the tire shop,” he said angrily, “I don’t think I should have to pay that much for it if the other shop could have done it for less.” I reminded him the tire shop may have a lower labor cost, but they also said they didn’t have the necessary skills to actually make the proper diagnosis and/or the repair. He rambled on about how he had fixed cars when he was younger and knew a lot about cars and if I could cut him some slack. Sorry Grandpa, maybe I’m doing you a big favor, you spend a few bucks with me, that way you’ll be a few bucks shy of that next six pack. That might keep you or your alcoholic granddaughter from getting behind the wheel drunk and I might actually be preventing a future fatal accident. So do me a favor, save some of that hot air for the breath machine, you’ll need it to start the car. ■

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Industry Review


AASA Know Your Parts Campaign Redefines Value Is there a formula for aftermarket parts value? According to the latest iteration of the popular Know Your Parts campaign, developed by the Automotive Aftermarket Suppliers

Association (AASA), the answer is yes. The formula is: function, plus quality over time, equals value; in simple terms, the equation says price is not always an indicator of value.

A new creative approach for the Know Your Parts campaign features professor “Al” who bears a striking resemblance to Einstein. He explains the formula isn’t rocket science and value to the service provider means not having to do the job again because of installing inferior parts. This light-hearted approach to a serious subject was created by the agency for the Know Your Parts campaign, Montgomery Advertising. The quality formula will be integrated into all Know Your Parts marketing tactics utilizing various media including print and banner ads, the website and social media. There also is a video created for the campaign in which professor Al defines and explains the parts value formula. “Too often in our industry, the word ‘value’ is equated with low price,” said Bill Hanvey, AASA vice president, programs and member services. “This new campaign points out that real value involves proper function and superior quality. We want repair professionals to consider the product benefits that deliver real value to their customers when they chose a replacement part.” The Know Your Parts program continues to grow as it educates repair professional about the importance of installing only top quality parts from trusted manufacturers. According to Hanvey, the redefining value approach grew from a strategy meeting conducted earlier in the year with the AASA Marketing Executives Council. “The idea that the word ‘value’ was often used to define lower priced parts options seemed like a misuse of the word to us,” Hanvey

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Industry Review explained. “We wanted a creative execution of the concept that real value is defined by quality, not just low price. Judging by the growth of the campaign and the number of visits to the Know Your Parts website, there is recognition by the service provider and the end consumer conducting their own research that indeed ‘value’ should not always be associated with the lowest price.” The new video with Al explaining the formula can be viewed at For more information about Know Your Parts, contact: Bill Hanvey, or 919-406-8856.

SKF Expands Drivetrain Product Line And Updates Differential, Transfer Case and Transmission Kit Catalog SKF has announced the addition of 18 new part numbers to its line of SKF differential kits. The new part numbers, available in either a standard kit (prefix SDK) or master kit (suffix MK), include a range of rear differential kits for Chevy/GMC, Cadillac, Dodge and Ford applications. Standard differential kits from SKF contain all the components needed for a complete repair, including: -

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Industry Review pinion bearings, differential bearings, pinion seal, pinion nut, crush sleeve (where applicable), gear marking compound and brush, thread locker and silicone sealant. Master differential kits contain all of the elements that come with the standard kits as well as pinion shims (where applicable), pinion adjusting shims, differential shims and ring gear bolts. “We have evaluated our drivetrain line and added 18 new SKUs to provide increased application coverage,” said Doug Fike, product man-

ager, SKF. “With the addition of differential kit SKUs, we are able to provide installers the convenience of having everything needed for servicing a rear differential in one kit, now for a broader range of applications.” Additionally, SKF has updated its SKF Differential, Transfer Case and Transmission Kit Catalog (457604) to include up-to-date application listings and general information about SKF drivetrain kits, detailed axle identification pages, a reference guide for crush sleeve kits that

includes a “where used” section and a quick-reference buyer’s guide. The current catalog is available online as a downloadable PDF. The SKF drivetrain kits line – consisting of differential, transfer case and transmission kits – now includes more than 270 SKUs for automotive, light-duty and commercial vehicle applications. For more information about SKF, contact your local SKF representative, visit, call 800882-0008 or visit the SKF e-catalog at

Wagner Brake Helps Consumers And Installers Recognize Certification Markings On Low-Copper Brake Pad Packaging Federal-Mogul’s Wagner Brake brand is reaching out to automotive parts distributors and service providers to increase awareness of the new packaging “LeafMark” designation covering “low copper” compliant brake pads. Recent legislation in California and Washington has mandated the dramatic reduction of copper and other potentially hazardous substances in original equipment and replacement brake pads and shoes. To help professional technicians and consumers determine whether brake pads comply with the low copper requirements, the Automotive Aftermarket Suppliers Association (AASA) and industry brake manufacturing registrar NSF International established a series of LeafMark designations to be used on product packaging: Level “A” designates compliance with requirements concerning cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and asbestos. Level “A” compliance is required by Jan. 1, 2014, in California and January 2015 in Washington state. Level “B” designates compliance with each of the above metals — all of the requirements of Level “A” — as well as copper, which must be reduced to less than 5 percent of material weight. Level “B” compliance is required by 2021. Level “N” designates compliance with the “Zero Copper” requirement, which takes effect in 2025. Federal-Mogul recently introduced Wagner ThermoQuiet CeramicNXT brake pads featuring what FederalMogul states to be the first full-line offering of 2021-compliant low-copper formulations. The Level “B” LeafMark designation, indicating full compliance with 2021 requirements, is now being added to ThermoQuiet CeramicNXT packaging. “Thousands of automotive service providers are now beginning to see the industry’s low-copper LeafMark on Wagner ThermoQuiet packaging,” said Martin Hendricks, vice president and general manager, braking, FederalMogul Vehicle Components segment. “Federal-Mogul and Wagner Brake are proud to lead the industry in adopting of these important new product requirements at the OE and aftermarket levels.” To learn more about the industry’s shift to low- and zero-copper brake pads, visit All trademarks are owned by Federal-Mogul Corp. or one or more of its subsidiaries in one or more countries. ■


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By Larry Bailly



Photo 1


tandard Legacy brakes had vented rotors with single-piston floating calipers until 1998 (See Photo 1). The caliper housing pivots on a fixed upper pin that is replaceable. The lower pin is a sleeve, held in place with a through-bolt. Performance models have had full floating two-piston calipers (See Photo 2). With either design, the critical areas of wear and operational movement are the pins. Both designs use a fixed-pad carrier with a floating fluid housing. The following is a normal sequence for replacing the front brakes. Remove the wheel and inspect for any obvious leakage at the flex line or caliper. Inspect parts for obvious damage from contact with the wheel or suspension. Clean the caliper with a brake cleaning machine or brake parts spray. Loosen or remove the caliper retaining bolt or bolts. Photo 2


Photo 3

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Connect a bleeder hose to the bleed fitting and use a suitable container to catch the old fluid. Open the bleeder and either pry or compress the piston into the caliper housing to expel the fluid from the caliper to prevent this tired fluid from being forced back into the system. Remove the caliper bolts and pull the caliper “knuckle” off of the pad carrier. In the case of the fixed pin-type, pivot it upward on the upper, fixed pin (See Photo 3), slide it inward and remove. Use a hook to hold the caliper out of the way; you should always avoid hanging the caliper with the hose. Inspect the caliper piston for leaks or torn seals. This is where the decision is made to reuse or replace. Remove the bolts holding the pad carrier to the steering knuckle and remove the carrier. Clean all of the contact surfaces of the pad carrier with a wire brush and/or parts cleaner. Any machined or contact surfaces should be carefully inspected. Depending on the design, remove the sliding pins, clean and relube or replace the fixed pin if it’s corroded. I use a silicone-based caliper lube that has a temperature limit of more than 600° F for coating either type. Measure the thickness of the rotor and compare to specifications. We do have some issues with lateral runout on Subarus, so be critical and conservative. Unless you can have a considerable margin left after turning, replacement is often the best choice for a Photo 4

BrakeJob Photo 5

quality repair. Whether you resurface or replace the rotor, clean and inspect the rotor mounting surfaces on the hub and the rotor (See Photo 4). Install the rotor and use a lug nut to hold it in place on the hub. Reinstall the pad carrier. Torque the bolts to specification; this is one component where over-tightening can be dangerous. There is still some dispute over whether to lubricate every contact point between the pad and the carrier. With some models, the use of shims (See Photo 5) makes lubrication seem like overkill, but used sparingly, a little lube on contact points should be OK. Just don’t get the lube on the braking surfaces. Install the pads to the pad carrier, making certain that the shims and guides all stay in place. Generally speaking, the wear indicator goes at the trailing edge of the in-board pad. Reinstall the caliper housing over the pads and carrier, again making sure none of the shims are dislodged from their correct position (See Photo 6). Install and torque the retainer bolts for

Photo 6

the caliper housing. You should be able to move the caliper housing easily on the pins. If not, find out why and correct as needed. Finally, inspect and reinstall the wheel. Torque the wheel lugs in a cross pattern to avoid warping the rotor or hub.

REAR BRAKES About the only difference between the front and rear brakes is the inclusion of a park brake. All of the front brake procedures apply. Additional steps are required to assure that the parking brake mechanism is cleaned and inspected. If new rotors are installed in the rear, sometimes it’s necessary to back off the adjusters to install the new rotors. The same thing goes for models with rear drum brakes. Again, be critical with either rotor or drum dimensions. I make it a standard practice to always adjust the parking brake shoes during regular services. One or two clicks on the adjuster will make a huge difference in the holding power and travel of the brake lever. â–

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Wheel Bearing Torque Dos and Don’ts Keep it clean! No debris or lubricants on threads. This will cause a faulty torque reading.


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DON’T USE AN IMPACT FOR INSTALLATION OR REMOVAL While it may appear to be easier to use an impact wrench, it is not recommended. OEM and bearing manufacturers always recommend using a torque wrench for installation. During removal, an impact wrench can damage the axle nut threads and shock the CV joints. It can also create a false sense of security when adjusting a nut or bolt, which may be under or over torqued. This can leave a hub assembly susceptible to failure. Also, in almost all cases, use a new axle nut. Some axle nuts are


designed to be used only once, and can not be adjusted.


a general torque specification for a locking nut. There can be large differences depending on bearing type and housing. Always check the service information for the correct procedure. Overtightening adjustable

tapered roller bearings is a common error that can lead to premature failure. Tapered roller bearings on the front of RWD vehicles are never preloaded. They’re snugged up with no more than 15 to 20 ft. lbs. of torque while rotating the wheel to make sure the bearings are seated. The adjustment nut is then loosened 1/6 to 1/4 turn, and locked in place with a new cotter pin. As a rule, endplay should be about 0.001 to 0.005 inches. Many vehicles require the wheels to be on the ground for final torquing to OEM specifications. This assures the proper mating of the split inner rings of the bearing needed to achieve the proper internal clearance. For specific mounting instructions, refer to the vehicle manufacturer’s service manual for that model.

DON’T REUSE THE OLD NUT Be aware that some hubs come with a new nut in the box. This is typically when a one-timeuse, self-staking nut secures the hub. In these applications, a new nut must always be used when installing a hub. Reuse of the old nut could potentially cause the nut to loosen during vehicle operation. 25

WheelBearing DO CLEAN THE AXLE SHAFT BEFORE INSTALLATION Clean and inspect the axle shaft prior to installing a new hub assembly. Use a fine file, wire brush, emery cloth or honing stone as appropriate to remove

any debris, nicks or burrs. Don’t use any lubricants on the threads or washers. This can change the torque readings.

DO NOT FORGET TO INSPECT THE BORE Once the bearing is removed,

inspect the bore of the knuckle for damage. The bore should be free from corrosion. Check the bore for roundness using a snap bore gauge. The gauge should rotate in the bore easily. Any distortion in the bore can cause a new bearing to fail prematurely.

DON’T FORGET TO CLEAN THE WHEEL SPEED SENSOR AND TONE RING Cleaning the sensors and resetting the air gap can often restore normal operation. But if the tone ring is corroded or damaged, it must be replaced. Do this before the final torque is applied to the axle nut.

DO MEASURE RUNOUT IN THE FLANGE AFTER INSTALLATION A distorted flange will have runout. This runout can cause vibration and eventually disc thickness variation in the brake rotors. Every manufacturer has its own specification for wheel flange runout. Most specifications fall between 0.0015” and 0”. Most manufacturers are moving to a zero runout and endplay specification in the flange. This “perfect” specification is because any runout in the flange will be magnified by the rotor.

DON’T USE YOUR TORQUE WRENCH AS A SOCKET WRENCH Use a torque wrench to apply a specific torque value during the final assembly process. Do not use a torque wrench as the primary means of tightening or loosening fasteners. ■ Reader Service: Go to

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2006-2010 I

n 2006 when Ford introduced the Fusion, many could not help but to compare it to the third- and fourth-generation Taurus models. The previous generation had a reputation for broken springs and tire shredding bushing problems. The


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2006-2010 Fusion is a different story. AWD and Hybrid models do not differ significantly from the FWD models, and the same is true for 4-cylinder and V6 models. One of the only differences in AWD model specs is the rear ride height. If you get one of these vehicles in your shop, you need to be aware of a few things at write-up that could turn a “menu priced” alignment into a very expensive procedure. Be aware, adjusting the camber or caster in the front requires replacement of the

upper ball joint with an aftermarket adjustable unit. Also, the caster can be adjusted with new upper “plus or minus” control arm from Ford.

Front Suspension The front suspension on the

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AlignmentSpec Fusion uses a double ball joint arrangement on the lower control arms. If one of the links or joints is damaged, it can create steering problems like poor returnability and inconsistent steering feel. There is no built-in camber or caster adjustment for the front suspension. Adjusting these angles requires an adjustable ball joint for the upper control arm. The adjustable aftermarket ball joint is easy to install and will give ±1.0º of camber or caster. Some adjustable ball joints can give as much as ±1.5º. The caster can also be altered by changing the upper control arm. Ford has released four different control arm part numbers (two for each side) that alter the caster by ±0.4º depending on the control arm ordered. This is not a “standard adjustment,” but should be used as a last resort if the vehicle can not be brought to within specifications. When you reinstall the upper control arm, it is critical to align the bushings in the body bracket. Failure to do so will result in noise and vibration. When installing the bolts that attach the control arm to the vehicle, do not tighten fully. To align the hole in the upper arm with the hole in the body bracket, insert a 6.35mm (0.25 inch) drill bit through both holes. Tighten the upper arm-to-body bolts to 35 ft./lbs. and remove the drill bit. Inspection of the suspension components is necessary before performing an alignment. Replacing damaged suspension components may save time and be more profitable as opposed to Reader Service: Go to

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WIX® Filters, a member of the Affinia Group family of brands, in conjunction with Brake & Front End, ImportCar and Underhood Service magazines, named Bogi Lateiner of 180 Degrees Automotive in Phoenix the third-annual Best Tech at the AWDA conference on Nov. 4 in Las Vegas. “Bogi’s vision for the automotive service industry seeks to empower consumers through knowledge of automotive basics,” said Mike Harvey, brand manager for WIX Filters. “Her approach to consumer education also includes outreach to women on how they can pursue careers as auto mechanics. She represents the future of automotive technicians and is an exceptional choice for this year’s ‘Best Tech’ award.” Lateiner, a 13-year veteran in the automotive service industry, is an ASE-certified technician. She teaches basic car care classes for women and appears on a national TV show called “All Girls Garage,” targeting female viewers. “I started a repair shop in my driveway with little more than a strong passion for educating my customers and a commitment to the highest quality of service and repair,” Lateiner said. “I wanted to create a shop where everyone could feel comfortable and where I could be a part of elevating the reputation of the automotive industry.” Today, 180 Degrees Automotive is an 8,000-square-foot, state-of-theart facility with the look and feel of a coffee shop and designed with the customer in mind. Amenities include a children’s play area, art gallery, comfortable couches and free Wi-Fi. WIX Filters and Babcox Media also named two finalists for the Best Tech award – Jeff Florey of The Auto Shop in Santa Cruz, CA, and Audra Fordin of Great Bear Auto Repair in Flushing, NY.

AlignmentSpec installing adjustable components. Take time to look at the alignment readings and compare them side to side. While a shifted or damaged cradle may be impossible to diagnose with the naked eye, the camber and caster angles can be more conclusive.

Rear Suspension The rear suspension is adjustable without any parts or kits. The toe is adjustable using a toe link. Camber is adjustable by an eccentric bolt in the lower control arm. There have not been any reports of sagging or broken rear springs like on the Taurus model it replaced.

Ride Height Jounce the car’s suspension several times, making sure to pull up and release several times. In the front, the first measurement is taken from the center of the inboard lower control arm bolt to the ground. Next, measure the distance from the ground to the underside of the control arm directly under the strut. Subtract the second measurement from the first; this will give you the height specification for that side. Average the measurements for both sides. On all models, including AWD, the distance should be 211/16" (68mm) ¹ 3/4" (19mm). In the rear, the first measurement is taken from the center of the inboard lower control bolt to the ground. Next, measure the distance from the ground to the center of the bolt of the outboard pivot bolt. Subtract the second measurement from the first and this will give you the height specification. Average the measurements for both sides. The specification for the rear for FWD models is 2-9/16" (65mm). On AWD models, the specification is 2-1/32" (52mm). On both models, if it is below specification by 7/8" (19mm), check for damaged springs or suspension components.

Steering Position Sensor Stability control was optional in 2009 and standard in 2010. If a toe adjustment was made, it is not required to calibrate the steering. â– 32 November 2013 |

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By Andrew Markel, Editor

Brake Hardware Items Not to Be Neglected The integrity of the caliper guide pin boots is critical to the life of the pads and ensuring even wear.


Abutment clips reside on the caliper bracket lands on most vehicles. They create a uniform surface for the pads to make contact with. Some abutment clips include fingers that hold the pad in place. These are consumable components in a brake system, not only because of rust and wear, but because the anti-rattle features can fatigue over time. New abutment clips are being used on some new vehicles that help to push the pads back from the rotor to reduce drag and allow for less wear on the pads and rotors. Failing to renew these components as part of a brake job could reduce the life of the brake job and increase comebacks.

CALIPER GUIDE PINS If the caliper is not free to move, the culprit might be bent or binding mounting


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pins. Even if guide pins are not damaged, swollen or hardened guide seals or lack of lubrication may cause the caliper to bind resulting uneven pad wear. Always inspect all mounting surfaces and hardware for corrosion,

wear or misalignment. Replace all mounting hardware and install a replacement caliper using the proper caliper lubricant.

ANTI-RATTLE CLIPS Heating and cooling cycles

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Abutment clips need to be replaced with the brake pads. Heat and cooling cycles can weaken springs and clips causing noise.

can weaken springs and antirattle clips. Weak parts can result in excessive caliper/pad movement or binding causing noise and other related problems. This can lead to uneven and premature pad wear, rotor wear and pulling. On some floating calipers, the most neglected piece of hardware is the clip in the bridge.

CALIPER GUIDE PIN BOOTS Most floating brake calipers use a rubber or plastic insulator or shim around the mounting bolts of the caliper. This sleeve of soft material loses resiliency over its lifetime. This is hastened by the high-temperature environment of the brakes. As materials wear, instead of

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being round they are flattened by the torque from the brakes into an oval shape that can cause excessive caliper movement. This can cause noise like rattles and thumps even if the brakes are not applied. Always inspect and replace if necessary any dust boots or grommets that protect caliper bolts or slides. If the soft parts look OK, clean out all the old lubricant and replace with new lubricant. Unlike steel, soft parts like rubber are sensitive to chemicals. Choosing the right lubricant for these parts is critical to ensuring the integrity of the part. If the caliper boots fail to make a seal with the caliper bracket and bolt, water can be sucked into the cavity as the bracket contracts and cools.

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BrakeHardware SHIMS Insulating the brake pad from the caliper can be done two ways. The first option is to go the "chemical" route with sprays or paste coatings. This type of noise solution involves coating the back of the pad prior to installation. The coating serves as a layer between the pad and caliper. If your shop uses any of these products, make sure to follow all manufacturer directions on where to apply and what the curing times are. Not following the directions can mean a comeback. The second solution is a physical shim that is a sandwich of materials that is staked to the back of the pad. One drawback to shims is "shim migration" or shifting that can negate its insulating abilities. But, automakers and aftermarket parts suppliers are developing an attachment system to alleviate this problem. Some automakers stamp notches and posts that index and stake the shim on the pad. Certain manu-

facturers of shims use pressure-sensitive adhesives to secure the shim to the backing plate. But over time, moisture and heat can destroy the adhesive. One new design to secure the shim to pads are clips that clamp on to the sides of the backing plate. These clips reduce the tendency of the shim to shift or fall out during the life of the brake linings.

CALIPER BRACKETS Caliper brackets corrosion can occur when the caliper is exposed to road de-icing salt. Corrosion on the lands and slides should be removed with a wire brush or wheel. If the corrosion is not removed, it can cause the pads to bind even if a stainless steel abutment clip is on top of it. Also, clean the sealing surfaces around the caliper guide pin. If the surface is not smooth, the boot can’t make a good seal. New caliper brackets are available separately and some remanufacturers include it as part of the caliper assembly. Just make sure you return the old bracket to get full credit for the core.

PAD SEPARATORS More and more OEMs are including springs that are designed to push the pad away from the rotor after the piston retracts. These clips can increase fuel economy while eliminating brake noise. These springs/clips can be difficult to install, but they always should be re-installed. Some aftermarket brake companies are offering a solution that can be used on the caliper. The clips are designed to push the pad away from the rotor. This can keep the brakes cooler, reduce noise and extend the life of the pad. The clips fit between the pads and rotor and push the pads away from the rotor. These clips have more spring, while not preventing the movement of the caliper’s piston. They also have the potential to reduce pulsation complaints. ■ Go to

38 November 2013 |

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Relearn Procedures Require TPMS Tool


ost vehicles require some type of “stationary” relearn procedure to reset the system. This requires some type of TPMS tool to activate each of the tire pressure sensors in a specified sequence so the TPMS control module can relearn their new locations. On some GM applications, a J41760 magnetic tool is required to “wake up” the sensors. On most other applications, a factory TPMS tool or an aftermarket TPMS tool that broadcasts a radio signal is needed for the sensor position relearn procedure.


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On some applications, the TPMS relearn tool can be connected to the vehicle’s OBD II diagnostic connector to read and clear codes, display system data and perform sensor ID programming. On many Asian and European applications, each individual tire pressure sensor has a unique ID code. Vehicles that currently require this kind of reprogramming include most Hyundai, Infiniti, Kia, Lexus, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Subaru, Suzuki and Toyota models. If one or more sensors have been replaced, the new ID

information has to be input directly into the system. So if you don’t have a TPMS tool that can do this, your only alternative is to send your customer back to the new car dealer to have the ID reprogramming done. TPMS relearn procedures vary a great deal from one vehicle to the next, so you also need access to the TPMS service data for the vehicle, or a reference manual or chart that covers the relearn procedures. Without this vital information, you can’t reset the system. Essentially, most relearn

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TPMS procedures require you to put the system into a relearn mode. On some, this may require a command from a scan tool or plug-in TPMS tool. Or, you may have to cycle the ignition key on and off a certain number of times while stepping on the brake pedal. On others, the keyless entry fob may be used to wake up the TPMS module and ready it for relearning. When the TPMS is ready, it may signal by beeping the horn or flashing the hazard lights. The TPMS activation tool is then placed near one of the tire pressure sensors, and a button is pressed for five or six seconds to wake up the sensor. As soon as the TPMS module recognizes the sensor and learns its position, the system signals again by beeping the horn or flashing the hazard lights. You then repeat the same procedure for each of the remaining tire pressure sensors in the specified order until the relearn procedure is complete. Even on vehicles that have a key fob or driver

information center relearn procedures, scan or dedicated TPMS tools that can interface through the OBD II connection can have advantages when it becomes to difficult to reprogram vehicles. With some procedures using a J-41760 magnetic tool, you are flying blind. Problems with the key fob, antenna and even the module or serial data bus connection can leave you chasing your tail. With a scan or dedicated scan tool, it is possible to perform a more accurate relearn and diagnosis and problems.

STUCK IN A LOOP Toyota vehicles prior to 2009 are equipped with a Tire Pressure Warning Reset Switch that can be used for initialization. When the button is pushed and held for more than three seconds, the vehicle’s receivers are open and looking for the currently stored TPMS IDs. What if there is a missing or broken sensor? What if there are new sensors on the vehicle that have not yet been programmed? This will cause the vehicle to become stuck in a loop, searching for TPMS IDs that are no longer there. If you have a scan tool and try to enter into the initialization mode, it might say, “Lost Communication With ECU” or similar message. Bartec USA has developed the Toyota Loop Reset tool to handle this issue. When a Toyota vehicle is stuck in the “loop,” the technician will not be able to write IDs using the OBD COMMS, and the tool will “error out.” To verify it is a result of the loop condition, the technician can select the READ IDs option, which will connect and read out the IDs. IF THIS IS SUCCESSFUL, THE VEHICLE IS IN THE “LOOP.”

HOW TO USE THE BARTEC WRTRST50 TO RESET THE VEHICLE 1. Turn the ignition to the ON position. 2. Insert the WRTRST50 into the OBD II port on the vehicle. Once connected, press and hold the button on the WRTRST50 for at least 20 seconds. Do not cycle the ignition switch to the "OFF" position during this step. 3. Remove the WRTRST50, and resume the TPMS relearn procedure. Note: Tool does not work with Land Cruiser models. ■ Reader Service: Go to

42 November 2013 |

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Dual-Clutch Transmissions: Coming to Your Shop Sooner than You Think By Andrew Markel, Editor


ual-clutch transmissions are coming to your shop in the near future. They started gaining popularity in high-performance vehicles like the BMW M3, Audi TT and Nissan Skyline. But, the first dual-clutch transmissions you will likely see will be on compact cars, hybrids and even trucks. They are out there and the warranty period is ticking away.

EVERYDAY VEHICLES WITH DUAL-CLUTCH TRANSMISSIONS AS OPTIONAL OR STANDARD • Dodge Dart and Journey • Ford Fiesta and Focus • Hyundai Veloster • Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution • Volkswagen Golf, Tiguan, Beetle, EOS and Jetta • Volvo V40, V60 and V70 Most of the drivers who will own these vehicles will not know they have a dual-clutch transmission connected to the engine. Most of them will think they have an automatic that gets great gas mileage. A dual-clutch transmission is more than just two clutch plates where there was just one. The two clutches are not connected. The clutches power shafts with one nested inside the other. These input


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shafts connect to what could be called counter shafts that run parallel to each other. One shaft can have the odd numbered gears while the other has the even gears. Some manufacturers call each shaft “sub transmissions.” The shafts connect to the output shaft. Through sleeves, clutches and synchronizers typically found in manual transmissions, the gears are engaged. While one gear on a shaft is driving the wheels, the next anticipated gear is engaged and readied on the opposite shaft while its clutch is disengaged.

Instead of a linkage connected to a shifter in the cabin, the shift forks are actuated by hydraulic or electric solenoids. The actual shifting is done by opening one clutch and closing the other and maintaining the power flow at any time. The shifting behavior can be finetuned by software allowing very different characteristics using the same transmission. It can act like a normal automatic transmission, or the driver can shift it like a normal manual with button mounted behind the steering wheel or shifter.


There are two types of dual-clutch transmission clutches — wet and dry. Wet clutches are used on highoutput engines so the oil can cool the plates. Dry clutches are typically found on lower output engines. Most clutches that are making their way to market have diaphragmstyle pressure plates regardless if they are wet or dry. The clutches can be engaged hydraulically or electrically.

a dual-clutch transmission is the transmission and engine can always be connected to the wheels. There is no lag during a gear change as a clutch is disengaged and a gear is selected. Compared to conventional transmissions, one manufacturer claims a 5–10% reduction in fuel consumption from just this one feature. The number one reason OEMs are adopting this technology is efficiency. A dual-clutch transmission is lighter than a comparable automatic with the same

number of speeds. Less weight equals better fuel efficiency. Internally, the dual-clutch transmission is more efficient than an automatic because there are fewer moving parts. Also, with an automatic transmission the engine has to drive a pump and some energy is lost in the torque converter and clutch packs. Another advantage is that fuel saving features like stop-start and sail (free-wheeling) are just a matter of software, not hardware.

WHY DUAL-CLUTCH? The performance advantage of 45

Powertrain SERVICE OPPORTUNITIES Dual-clutch transmissions have clutches that wear and will eventually need replacement. Most units coming to market feature the clutches packaged together as a complete unit. The serviceability of these units has yet to be explored. Some dual-clutch transmissions have valve bodies that are mounted in the pan or in the case. Some transmission manufacturers call this the “mechatronic” part of the transmission. These valve bodies are not too much unlike current automatic transmission valve bodies. This is a considerable service opportunity. The actuators that move the shift forks are also prone to failure. Fluid maintenance is also key in keeping a dual-clutch transmission operating as designed. Most current dual-clutch transmissions hold 4 to 9 liters of fluid. Some of these, like the BMW M3 dual-clutch transmission, also have a filter. The Ford Fiesta has a 150,000 mile service recommendation for normal conditions. Volkswagen also recommends a 150,000 service interval, but recommends 30,000 miles if the vehicle is used for towing. Some manufacturers say that the fluid will last the life of the transmission, which is code for “until the warranty runs out. “ The primary service opportunity for these transmissions will be diagnostic time. ■

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46 November 2013 |

Shop Federal-Mogul has announced extensive enhancements to its range of ANCO Profile beam (flat) wiper blades with several new features that the company says will help ensure best-in-class performance and provide nearly 100-percent coverage of late-model vehicles with just 12 SKUs. New ANCO Profile wipers feature patented Articulated Contact Technology, which permits unrestricted flexing for more uniform pressure distribution and improved conformance to today’s curved windshields, according to Federal-Mogul. Each Profile blade is equipped with an integral, symmetrical spoiler that ensures increased downforce for exceptional blade-to-glass contact and includes the brand’s exclusive DuraKlear rubber compound for a consistent, clear wipe in a full range of weather conditions.

Reader Service: Go to The Beta 1491 Oil Filter Wrench’s straight design requires less turning space to loosen or tighten oil filters. The wrench is designed to slip over the end of an oil filter. The technician can then tighten the steel band around the filter by turning the knurled knob at the top of the wrench. It is designed to fit oil filters from 2-1/2” to 4-5/16” diameter allowing it to work on most automobiles. The steel band is replaceable. This unique design provides more precise control when loosening filters and less chance of slipping and busting your knuckles.

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Tracerline Dye-Lite All-In-One full-spectrum fluorescent dye easily pinpoints leaks in all oil and oil-based fluid systems, including engine oil (includes synthetics), fuel, automatic transmission fluid, power steering and hydraulic fluid (petroleum-based). AllIn-One dye ensures optimum leak detection because it actually contains two distinct fluorescent dyes. One dye fluoresces best under ultraviolet light and the other under blue light. All-In-One dye is highly concentrated. To use it, just add the dye and allow it to circulate through the vehicle’s fluid system. The dye escapes with the host fluid through even the tiniest leak. When the system is scanned with a high-intensity UV or blue light inspection lamp, the dye fluoresces a bright yellow-green, exposing the exact location of every leak.

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Tenneco has introduced new brake pad sets to the Monroe Total Solution line of ultra-premium ceramic and semi-metallic brake pads. The new pad SKUs cover over two million popular late-model passenger vehicles, and the Monroe Total Solution line now offers 97percent coverage of domesticand foreign-nameplate applications. Monroe Total Solution brake pads feature ceramic and semi-metallic friction formulations engineered for quality stopping power and pedal feel, reduced dust and long life.

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Air Fuel Ratio Sensors vs Oxygen Sensors


ith fuel prices rising, the need for accurate air/fuel mixture monitoring is more important than ever. The engine computer needs to know what the fuel mixture is with a high degree of precision so it can optimize fuel economy as well as emissions. If the information received by the powertrain control module (PCM) from its sensors is not accurate, it may command too much fuel or not enough. A rich mixture wastes fuel, while a lean mixture may misfire and waste power (while also causing a big increase in hydrocarbon emissions). Many late-model imports such as Honda, Toyota, Volkswagen and others use “Air/Fuel” (A/F) sensors rather than conventional oxygen

This badly contaminated oxygen sensor produces a biased signal that causes a rich condition after the engine enters closed-loop operation.

(O2) sensors to monitor the exhaust gases coming out of the engine. What’s the difference? An air/fuel sensor can read a much wider and leaner range of fuel mixtures than a conventional O2 sensor. That’s why they’re also called “wideband” O2 sensors. Another difference is that A/F sensors don’t produce a voltage signal that suddenly changes on either side of Lambda when the air/fuel goes rich or lean. A conventional O2 sensor will produce either a rich reading (0.8 volts) or a lean reading (0.2 volts) when the fuel mixture changes. An A/F sensor, by comparison,

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November 2013 |

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Emissions as much as you would expect when you create a lean or rich fuel condition, you may wrongly conclude that the A/F sensor is bad. The most accurate way to test A/F sensors is with a factory scan tool that displays the PCM’s actual voltage reading for the A/F sensor, or an aftermarket scan tool that can do the same.


The coat of soot on this unheated oxygen sensor reduces its sensitivity to changes in the air/fuel mixture ratio.

produces a changing current signal that varies in direct proportion to the amount of unburned oxygen in the exhaust. On Toyotas, the PCM sends a 3.0-volt reference voltage signal to the A/F sensor. A detection circuit inside the PCM then monitors changes in the current flow, and generates an output voltage signal that is proportional to the air/fuel mixture. At Lambda, when the air/fuel mixture is 14.7 to 1 (stoichiometric), the current flow through the sensor is zero. Another point that can trip up an unwary technician is that the A/F value displayed on a scan tool can be misleading. Many scan tools with “generic” OBD II software automatically convert the PCM’s A/F sensor voltage output to a more familiar 0 to 1 volt scale like that of a conventional O2 sensor. If you are not aware of this fact, and wonder why the voltage reading for the A/F sensor PID seems unresponsive, or does not change

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A/F sensors fall prey to the same ailments as ordinary O2 sensors. A contaminated sensor will not produce an accurate signal or generate an accurate air/fuel mixture reading. Sensors can be contaminated by engine coolant from internal coolant leaks (leaky head gasket or cracks in the cylinder head), or by phosphorus if the engine is burning oil. The underlying cause here may be worn valve guides and valve guide seals, and/or worn piston rings or cylinders. Other sources of contamination include RTV sealers that contain high levels of silicone, or certain gasoline additives. If an A/F sensor is lightly contaminated, it may be lazy and take longer to respond to sudden changes in the air/fuel mixture. If the sensor is heavily contaminated, it may not respond to changes at all. Compression leaks or misfires that allow unburned oxygen to enter the exhaust, and exhaust manifold air leaks, can also mislead the sensor. ■ 49

TechTips This month is sponsored by:

Cadillac: Front Brake Hose Fitting Corrosion - Replace Front Brake Hoses Models: 2003-2007 Cadillac CTS Originally sold or currently registered in Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, D.C., West Virginia, Wisconsin General Motors has decided that a defect, which relates to motor vehicle safety, exists in certain 20032007 model year Cadillac CTS vehicles originally sold or currently registered in states that use road salt or deicers. Some of these vehicles have a condition in which the front brake hose fitting at the caliper may corrode due to snow or water, containing road salt or other contaminants, entering and being retained in the hose sleeve. If the fitting corrodes significantly, the brake hose may develop a leak. A sign of a brake hose leak would be fluid spotting on the ground. If enough fluid were lost, the brake system warning light and a "Check Brake Fluid" message in the Driver Information Center would illuminate (in rare cases, the brake hose may rupture suddenly without prior warning), and vehicle stopping distance may increase. If stopping distance is limited, a crash could occur. Vehicles Involved VIN breakpoints: Year Division Model From Through 2003 Cadillac CTS 30100001 30175617 2004 Cadillac CTS 40100001 40192626 2005 Cadillac CTS 50100002 50237748 2006 Cadillac CTS 60100001 60213969 2007 Cadillac CTS 70100003 70198443 Parts Information Parts required to complete this recall are to be obtained from General Motors Customer Care and Aftersales (GMCC &A). Courtesy of AllData


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Toyota: RAV4 Recall and Inspection Tags If you get a 2005-2011 Toyota RAV4 in your shop for an alignment of a complaint of either rear tire wear or a knocking noise, you need to be aware of a recall and inspection campaign Toyota is performing. Toyota Safety Recall C0J involved inspecting the right and left Rear Suspension Lower Arm No. 1 (“arm�) for looseness. Based upon this inspection, it may have been necessary to replace the arm(s). Toyota received reports from dealers indicating that some vehicles experienced symptoms of the recalled condition after being inspected or repaired. Upon investigation, it was discovered that some inspections were not adequate and portions of the repair procedure may not have been performed correctly. Based upon this information, Toyota is re-notifying all owners covered by Safety Recall C0J. The notification will apologize to customers and inform them that their vehicles may not have been inspected or repaired correctly. The letter will request the customer to return to the dealership for a revised inspection and remedy procedure. If a lower arm has been inspected and has passed, it will have an epoxy tag on the arm indicating that it passed the inspection. If it does not, send the customer to the dealer for the recall to be addressed. Courtesy of Toyota

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TechTips CHRYSLER: ETC Light Illuminated Or Diagnostic Trouble Code P2122 And/Or P2127 Set OVERVIEW: This bulletin involves disconnecting the wire harness clip near the ETC Sensor.

MODELS: 2010 (RT) Town & Country/Grand Caravan (Includes International Markets) NOTE: This 1-APP Sensor 2-Adjustable Pedal Motor bulletin applies 3-Wire Harness Clip to vehicles (wiTECHTM or StarMOBILE) equipped with power adjustwith the appropriate ing pedals with or without Diagnostic Procedures availmemory (Sales code XAP or able in TechCONNECT, verify XAM) built before September the adjustable pedal system is 17, 2009 (MDH 0917XX). functioning as designed. If SYMPTOM/CONDITION: DTCs are present other than Some customers may experithe ones listed above, record ence an ETC light illumination. them on the repair order and Upon further investigation the repair as necessary before protechnician may find that DTCs ceeding further with this bulP2122 - Accelerator Pedal letin. Position Sensor 1 Circuit Low If the above condition is presand/or P2127 - Accelerator ent, perform the Repair Pedal Position Sensor 2 Circuit Procedure. Low have been set. This condiREPAIR PROCEDURE: tion could be caused by the 1. Gain access to the APP wiring to the APP sensor being sensor (Figure 1). held too tight, causing the 2. Locate the push pin wire wiring to become loose resultharness clip next to the APP ing in the ETC light illuminasensor (Figure 1). tion. 3. Using a pry tool, remove the DIAGNOSIS: push pin clip. Using a Scan Tool Courtesy of MotoLogic Go to

52 November 2013 |

TechTips Ford/Lincoln:

rear brake drag or rear brake noise

FORD: 2010 Taurus 2009-2010 Flex LINCOLN: 2009-2010 MKS 2010 MKT ISSUE Some 2009-2010 Flex, MKS and 2010 Taurus and MKT built on or before 12/14/2009 may exhibit rear brake drag and/or off-brake cyclic noise. The noise may be caused by pad to piston misalignment or corrosion on the brake caliper bracket.

ACTION Follow the Service Procedure steps to correct the condition.

SERVICE PROCEDURE 1. Remove the rear wheels and tires per Workshop

Manual (WSM), Section 204-04. 2. Remove the rear brake pads. The notch in the caliper piston should be aligned with the pin on the backside of the inboard brake pad. (Figure 1) 3. Replace the caliper anchor bracket and anchor bracket bolts. Ensure the piston slots are aligned. The new caliper anchor brackets should have a small amount of grease under the brake pad spring clips. Grease should not be applied to the surface of the spring clips or come into contact with the pads. 4. Install new brake pads. 5. Install the rear wheels and tires. ■ Courtesy of MotoLogic

Statement of Ownership, Management and Circulation (Act of August 12, 1970; Section 3685. Title 39. United States Code.) Publication Title: Brake & Front End Publication Number: 0193726X Filing Date: Sep. 23, 2013 Issue Frequency: Monthly Number of Issues Published Annually: 12 Annual Subscription Price: $69 Complete Mailing Address of Known Office of Publication: 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, Ohio 44333-8318, Summit County. Contact Person: Pat Robinson Phone: 330-670-1234. Complete Mailing Address of Headquarters of Publisher: Same as above. Publisher: Jim Merle (address same as above). Editor: Andrew Markel (address same as above). Managing Editor: Tim Fritz (address same as above). Owner: William E. Babcox, Babcox Media Inc., 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333 Known Bondholders, Mortgagees and Other Security Holders Owning or Holding 1 Percent or More of Total Amount of Bonds, Mortgages or Other Securities: None. Publication Title: Brake & Front End Issue Date for Circulation Data Below: August, 2013. Extent and Nature of Circulation:

Average no. copies each issue during preceding 12 months

Actual no. copies of single issue nearest to filing date



35,141 35,141

35,732 35,732

1,457 702 2,159 37,300 262 37,562 94.2%

898 690 1,588 37,320 318 37,638 95.7%

A. Total Number of Copies B. Paid and/or Requested Distribution – Individual Paid/Requested Mail Subscriptions Stated on Form 3541 C. Total Paid and/or Requested Circulation D. Nonrequested Distribution – Outside County Nonrequested Copies Stated on PS Form 3541 – Nonrequested Copies Distributed Outside the Mail E. Total Nonrequested Distribution F. Total Distribution G. Copies Not Distributed H. Total I. Percent Paid and/or Requested Circulation

Publication of Statement of Ownership will be printed in the November 2013 issue of this publication I certify that the statements made by me above are correct and complete. Pat Robinson, Circulation Manager September 23, 2013

54 November 2013 |

» Spotlight


Got the shakes? Take Rein. OE quality anti-vibration and suspension parts guaranteed to fit the first time, every time.

With CRP’s exceptional line of Rein Automotive genuine suspension and anti-vibration parts, you’ve got expansive vehicle coverage for a wide variety of popular applications on leading European makes and models back to the 1990 model year. We have over 700 anti-vibration and suspension part numbers, and are first to market with many new, genuine anti-vibration and suspension replacement parts for Audi, BMW, Mercedes Benz, Mini, Porsche, SAAB, Volvo, and VW.

bar links, tie rods, driveshaft mounts, engine mounts, and strut and transmission mounts as well as other key anti-vibration and suspension components. Not quite sure which Rein Automotive parts are right for your customer’s vehicle? CRP’s got you covered here too. In addition to complete technical and customer support, our undercar program features easy look up on CRP’s online application catalog, which can be accessed at:

Because suspension parts are subject to some of the most brutal forces on the road, we know how important it is to maintain good suspension maintenance and service. We also know how critical it is to use replacement parts that have the same fit, form, and function as the parts with which a vehicle was originally built. Just like every part that carries the Rein Automotive brand, you can count on CRP for OE quality, precision fit, and outstanding performance from our full range of ball joints, control arms, sway

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Ranger Products, a division of BendPak, recently unveiled its new QuickJack portable jack system that makes vehicle maintenance — on the track and off — convenient and lightning fast. The 3,500-lb. capacity lightweight QuickJack can go anywhere and can be easily stowed in the trunk or back seat of most cars when not in use. Bring it to the track or drop it on your garage floor to perform routine maintenance in the comfort of your home, all in seconds. The QuickJack collapses to a low 3” profile so it fits where other jacks don’t. Contact Ranger Products at 805-933-9970 or visit

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Jasper Engines & Transmissions offers the Ford 6R60/6R75 rear-wheel-drive and fourwheel-drive transmission on exchange. This six-speed CAN (Controller Area Network) electronically controlled automatic transmission is available for 2006-’08 Ford Explorer and Expedition application. The units have the transmission control module (TCM) mounted inside the transmission on the valve body. JASPER installs a thermal conductive layer between the TCM and the valve body, and updates all early shallow pans to the latest deep pan design.

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Honeywell Friction Materials announces the arrival of Stop, its newest brake pad line. The Stop brand offers a high-value brake pad with a competitive price. Stop brake pads are designed to meet OE specifications for fit, form and function. Honeywell includes all the recommended brake hardware in the box for Stop to reduce installation time, improve bay efficiency and restore OE performance.

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This holiday season get the DIYer in your life a gift you know they will love. Head on down to NAPA and get your choice of three tool sets for only $19.99 each: GearWrench five-piece ratcheting wrench set, Carlyle 19-in-one ratcheting driver bit set or EVERCRAFT nine-piece Screwdriver Set. At participating NAPA AUTO PARTS stores, while supplies last. Offer valid Nov. 17 through Dec. 31, 2013.

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When performing a clutch repair on select Subaru applications, including the Baja, Forester, Impreza, Legacy and Outback models, you may observe excessive damage sustained to the throw-out bearing retainer. Schaeffler offers two LuK RepSet clutch kits, 15-030 and 15-031, which resolve this situation. Every LuK RepSet contains a new clutch, disc, release bearing, pilot bearing, spline and lubricant. These two kits contain a release bearing and repair sleeve designed to slide over the throw-out bearing retainer, thereby protecting and lengthening the life of the clutch and drivetrain system.

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56 November 2013 |

Shop Bosch has just introduced the new Bosch Blue Disc Brake Pads, targeted to general repair shops that service a variety of makes and models. According to the company, the new Bosch Blue Disc Brake Pads are perfectly suited for the ‘everyday driver’ who is looking for the best performance and value. Packaged in a blue box familiar to automotive technicians across the world, Bosch Blue Disc Brake Pads cover vehicles from 1956 through the current model year. With 997 SKUs for North America (United States and Canada), Bosch Disc Brake Pads provide more than 95 percent vehicles in operation (VIO) coverage.

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Raybestos brand chassis parts – an Affinia brand – announces that listings for 25 makes and 61 models covering the 2014 model year have been added to the Raybestos chassis catalog. Ball joints and control arms have been added for the following 2013’14 models: Honda Odyssey: P/N 502-1296, Left Upper, P/N 502-1297, Right Upper; Acura RDX and 2013 Honda CRV: P/N 505-1386, Lower; and Toyota 4Runner: P/N 507-1725, Left Lower, P/N 507-1724, Right Lower, P/N 502-1267, Left Upper and P/N 502-1268, Right Upper. Arnott Inc. has released its 2014 product catalog, which provides detailed information on more than 260 air suspension replacement products including new product offerings for BMW, Mercedes-Benz, Audi and more. The 36-page catalog features Arnott’s entire product line broken down by application and provides part numbers correlated by year and model. A PDF download is available at

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Standard TPMS sensors are engineered to match OE fit, form and function, plus they can be ID cloned to the sensor they replace using a TechSmart cloning tool. Each clone-able sensor has a unique sensor ID, the right protocol and matching body style. Technicians can bypass complex factory relearn processes, saving time and money. Reader Service: Go to

Hunter’s Quick Check inspection system, which performs a comprehensive vehicle inspection in under three minutes, uses new WinAlign 14 software to communicate with cutting-edge devices and provide valuable information about a vehicle’s alignment, brake performance, battery health, tire health and emissions. The Quick Check inspection system builds on Hunter’s patented alignment check system which measures alignment angles that affect tire life. The alignment check takes only 58 seconds, and produces total toe and camber measurements for both axles. Reader Service: Go to 57

Shop Federal-Mogul Corporation and its Wagner Brake brand are shifting to environmentally friendly low-copper brake pads. Federal-Mogul recently introduced Wagner ThermoQuiet Ceramic brake pads featuring the first full-line offering of 2021-compliant low-copper formulations. Now featured in ThermoQuiet Ceramic pads, the Wagner OE21 lowcopper formulations are 35% quieter and offer 15% more stopping power and up to 40% greater fade resistance than previous formulations. Visit

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Continental Commercial Vehicles & Aftermarket has introduced the VDO REDI-Sensor Installer Kit for automotive technicians. The new kit comes with one of each of the three REDI-Sensor sensor assemblies and four sensor service kits. The REDI-Sensor Multi-Application TPMS Sensor Program allows technicians to cover 85% of TPMS equipped vehicles without waiting for parts delivery. All of the components in the kits are included in a special tackle box. For more information, visit or contact

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Centric Parts has introduced StopTech Big Brake Kits for the 2013 Lexus GS350 sedan. The kit uses floating directional AeroRotors (front 355 x 32 mm; rear 345 x 28 mm), as well as billet aluminum mounting brackets with stainless-steel studs, DOT-compliant stainless steel braided Teflon brake lines, StopTech’s Street Performance brake pads, plus six-piston ST-60 calipers for front and four-piston ST-40 calipers for rear.

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ACDelco Enhances Power-Steering Product Lineup — ACDelco has significantly enhanced its portfolio of power-steering products with an all-new line of Professional Remanufactured steering components designed to provide consumers with quality and affordable solutions while exceeding your high standards. The line includes power-steering pumps, rack-and-pinion gears and steering gears. Learn more at or your ACDelco distributor.

Reader Service: Go to Mitchell 1 announces the release of its 2014 Emission Control Application Guide (ECAT14) for domestic and import cars, light trucks, vans (diesel engines) and Class ‘A’ motor homes with gasoline engines, model years 1966 - 2014. The new guide provides vehicle-specific emission system information for repair shops that perform smog inspections. To order the ECAT14, call 888-724-6742 or visit Additional information about Mitchell 1 products and services is available on the company’s website,

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58 November 2013 |

It’s Fast, Easy and Accurate! Get FREE PRODUCT AND SERVICE INFO from the companies featured in this issue of Brake and Front End. >> VISIT and click on the company from which you want information. >> OR, go to and click on the Brake and Front End Rapid Response logo.







Parts Plus


APA Management Group


Permatex Inc


Auto Value/Bumper to Bumper Bartec USA, LLC

Cover 4 42


47, Insert



CARQUEST Auto Parts Centric Parts

5 22, 23

Raybestos Chassis Schaeffler Group USA


SmartChoice by Federal-Mogul


Specialty Products Co


Standard Motor Products



Wagner Brakes/Federal-Mogul

CRP Industries


WIX Filters



Harbor Freight Tools


Jasper Engines & Transmissions


KYB Americas Corp.


Moog Steering & Suspension


NAPA Nucap Industries

8, 9


Chrysler Group LLC

Motorcraft,Ford Motor Company

3, 52

6, 7 31


Cover 2, 1 Cover Call Out, 11, 33 38, 48

O'Reilly Auto Parts


Packard Industries


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Post your job for just $50 a month! Visit to get started today! Contact: Karen Kaim p) 330.670.1234 ext. 295 f ) 330.670.7153 59


60 November 2013 |



Why switch to PDQ? PRICES. Low prices. High Quality. Always. 1st time buyer? Order from this ad and receive these special prices.

Call now to order or to receive a free 2012 catalog 1-800-434-5141 www.autobodysupplie m

Advertising Representatives The Tech Group Bobbie Adams 330-670-1234, ext. 238 Jamie Lewis 330-670-1234, ext. 266 Dean Martin 330-670-1234, ext. 225 Sean Donohue 330-670-1234, ext. 206 Glenn Warner 330-670-1234, ext. 212 John Zick 949-756-8835 List Sales Manager Don Hemming 330-670-1234, ext. 286 Classified Sales Tom Staab 330-670-1234, ext. 224

62 November 2013 |


Filters Mechatronics Kits Oils Hard Parts Manuals Torque Converters Audi • BMW Jaguar • Porsche Range Rover • VW

Authorized Distributor

ERIKSSON INDUSTRIES • 800-388-4418 Old Saybrook, CT • FAX 860-395-0047 •



his customer chose an interesting solution when the air

ride suspension on his SUV started to leak. The rubber

block looks like a wheel chock wired to the trailing arm of

the suspension. I am sure the ride was not the most comfortable. â– Bradley Pogue

Do you have your own bad brake story and picture? If you do, it could be worth $75 and, if selected, your story could appear in BRAKE


Send digital picture and your contact information to:


November 2013 |

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Brake & Front End, November 2013  

Brake & Front End delivers application-specific undercar technical information and diagnostic strategies for even the most advanced vehicles...

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