Page 1

An analysis of the 2014 Monetary Policy Statement Page 1

2014 National Budget Affords Industry Some Measure of Protection Page 4

ZimTrade to lead Trade Mission to Tete Page 9

FEBRUARY 2014

EU Launches €3m Trade Support Grant for Zimbabwe

The European Union has availed a €3m grant to support the Trade and Private Sector Development Programme (TPSDP) in Zimbabwe following the official launch ceremony held on 14 February 2014, at the Rainbow Towers in Harare. SEE PAGE 2

An analysis of the 2014 Monetary Policy Statement

INTRODUCTION

T

The Acting Governor of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, Dr. C. L. Dhliwayo presented her maiden Monetary Policy Statement (MPS) on 29 January 2014 amid the continued slowdown in economic activity in the country. The Statement was delivered against a background of waning business confidence, on account of a severe and persistent liquidity crunch, infrastructure bottlenecks as well as inadequate and often erratic service delivery. Dr. Dhliwayo noted that the country continues to face liquidity problems

“largely on account of export performance which compares unfavourably with growing import dependence”. She further noted that, “the country’s external sector position remains precarious on the lack of uncompetitive exports and absorption of disproportionately huge imports”.

Though Zimbabwe’s exports have increased since 2009 from US$2.2 billion to US$3.5 billion in 2013, imports have increased at a faster rate during the same period from US$3.5 billion to US$7.7 billion. The trade deficit has therefore, widened signficantly from US$1.3 billion to US$4.2 billion in the same period. Figure 1 below illustrates this trend.

2014 MONETARAY POLICY HIGHLIGHTS Restore RBZ as Banker to Government with effect from 31 March 2014. Restore Lender-Of-Last-Resort (LOLR) function of the RBZ with effect from 31 March 2014. Multi-currency system introduced in 2009 to expand from 5 currencies to 8, that includes the Chinese Yuan (CYN), Australian Dollar (AUSD), Indian Rupee (INR), and Japanese Yen (JPY). Financial sector implored to promote SMEs, and community development. Measures to ensure timeous repatriation of export proceeds jerked up. SME sector encouraged to form clusters in order to benefit from economies of scale. Banking institutions to comply with new minimum capital requirements of $100 million by 31 December 2020.

CONTINUED ON PAGE 3

Introduction of an appropriate Exchange Control monitoring programme to police repartriation of the export proceeds to ensure compliance to regulations.

Disclaimer: ZimTrade strives to compile reliable, research-based information that is passed on to our readers in good faith. However, ZimTrade does not accept any responsibility for the accuracy of the information supplied, nor does it guarantee the status or reliability of any third party included in the Newsletter. Similarly opinions expressed by third parties in abstracts and/or interviews are not necessarily shared by ZimTrade. For more information about ZimTrade and its activities log on to www.zimtrade.co.zw


Newsletter

February 2014

EU Launches €3m Trade Support Grant for Zimbabwe

2014 ZimTrade Activity Calendar Capacity Building Programmes Export Marketing Training Programme Harare April 2014 Export Marketing Training Programme Bulawayo May 2014

The grant will support the implementation of the interim Economic Partnership Agreement (iEPA) between the EU and the Eastern and Southern Africa and Indian Ocean (ESA-IO) States, ratified by Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles. Zimbabwe ratified the iEPA on 13 March 2012, which became operational at the beginning of May 2012. This Agreement allows duty free and quota free access of Zimbabwean products into the EU market, whilst still negotiating for a successor trading regime post Lome. Head of the EU Delegation in Zimbabwe, Ambassador Aldo Dell’Ariccia, said the programme is expected to contribute towards the improvement of valued added exports of SMEs whilst also seeking to strengthen the overall capacity of the private sector. “The programme will facilitate access for SMEs to market information and to the opportunities arising from iEPA implementation and this would also improve quality and availability of business development services for SMEs and the private sector” said Ambassador Dell’Ariccia. “It will also assist in strengthening the capacities of key actors – intermediary organisations and business associations, in order to provide better business development services to their members” he added. Officially opening the ceremony, Industry and Commerce Minister, Honourable Mike Bimha, commended the EU’s efforts to deepen and widen bilateral economic cooperation with Zimbabwe.

2

“This Programme comes at an opportune moment for the country as it is aimed at capacitating the private sector to meaningfully contribute to the current efforts by Government to revive the economy and also strengthen the capacity of all economic players in the implementation of the iEPA with the EU,”

said Minister Bimha.

Export Marketing Training Programme Kwekwe June 2014

He added that, the EU Programme, which would be implemented over two and a half years, compliments Government’s fiveyear economic blue print, the Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (Zim Asset), to turnaround the country’s economic fortunes.

Exhibitions / Trade Fairs

Minister Bimha also said “capacitating of such important institutions as ZimTrade, Standards Association of Zimbabwe, Business Council of Zimbabwe, SMEs and Women organisations is critical to the successful implementation of both Zim Asset and the interim EPA”.

Kenya Solo Exhibition June 2014

Commenting on the sidelines of the launch, the ZimTrade Chief Executive Officer, Ms Sithembile Priscilla Pilime, expressed her excitement following the successful launch. “We are extremely excited that the programme has finally been launched as this signals a landmark achievement. We commend the EU for the noble gesture, particularly given the current economic challenges the country is facing. We are also inspired with the involvement of the International Trade Centre, Geneva, as the Implementing Agency for the Programme. Their invaluable experience and expertise will indeed boost our confidence” said Pilime.

Zimbabwe International Trade Fair 22 – 26 April 2014 Source Africa – South Africa 18 - 20 June 2014

Luanda Int. Trade Fair (FILDA) 15 - 20 July 2014

Market Researches Kenya April 2014 Limpopo Province, South Africa May 2014 Angola May 2014

Information Dissemination Seminars Harare April 2014 Bulawayo May 2014

ZimTrade is confident that the Programme will reposition and strengthen its role as the national trade development and promotion entity that provides a high quality, client needs-driven trade information service to the Zimbabwean export sector, among other services.

Kwekwe June 2014

The implementation of this Programme is, therefore, a major building block towards attainment of objectives set out in the ZimTrade Turnaround Strategy (2012– 2017), currently under implementation.

ANNUAL EVENTS

Trade missions Tete, Mozambique May 2014

Annual General Meeting 19 June 2014 Exporters’ Conference and Awards 19 June 2014


Newsletter February 2014

An analysis of the 2014 Monetary Policy Statement Banks expected to increase support to SMEs. The Acting Governor urged Banks to provide support to SMEs. The support should transcend beyond providing affordable financing towards creating financial products that are suitable to their needs and perculiarities. Encouraging clustering strategies for SMEs in specific industries and value chains will enhance their bargaining power in raising loans.

The slowdown in export revenues is confirmed by a signficant slump in banks’ foreign currency receipts that declined by 2.1% from US$7.6 billion in 2012 to US$7.5 billion in 2013. On the other hand, foreign curreny payments (outflows) for 2013 hit US$8.9 billion against US$8.2 billion in 2012. The Acting Governor also raised concern over delays in the repatriation of export receipts, noting that outstanding receipts of US$318 million as at 31 December 2013, were too high, hence the need to penalise offenders. Policy Anchor The policy mix for the Statement has been anchored on the need to stabilise the banking sector through restoring the Reserve Bank as the Lender of Last Resort (LLR), as well as the Banker to Treasury.

COMMENTARY ON THE IMPACT OF THE POLICY MEASURES PRONOUNCED IN THE STATEMENT Sustaining the Multi–Currency Regime. The Reserve Bank reaffirmed Government’s pronouncements in the 2014 National Budget that the multicurrency regime will continue for the foreseeable future. By introducing four more currencies, that is the Chinese Yuan, Australian Dollar, Japanese Yen and Indian Rupee, the Acting Governor diversified the risks that had been compounded by the current currency mix. The Policy, which could have been motivated by the Look East Policy, is a bold move to consolidate trading relations and foreign direct investment with the East. For example, The Herald of the 18th of February 2014 notes that Zimbabwe currently imports US$438.79 million from China, whilst exporting US$85 million. The introduction of the Chinese

Yuan will improve the payments system between Zimbabwe and China, making it easier to trade. Zimbabwean exporters should, therefore, take advantage of this development to close the glaring trade deficit. This will also boost business confidence. Given the strong economic ties between Zimbabwe and China, the chances for Chinese investments in the banking sector are quite high, which would signficantly boost the liquidity situation. Restoration of RBZ as Banker to Government and Lender of Last Resort (LOLR) Facility. During the presentation of the 2014 National Budget in December 2013, the Minister of Finance and Economic Development, Honourable Chinamasa, revealed that Government will provide resources to the tune of US$200 million to capitalise the RBZ. The Acting Governor reaffirmed this by announcing that Government was sourcing between US$150 million and US$200 million to restore the RBZ’s function as Lender of Last Resort (LOLR), as well as banker to Treasury. This policy development will enhance the RBZ’s capacity to actively participate in the interbank market, and hence improve the availability of liqudity to banks for medium to long term lending initiatives to the productive sectors (including exporters) of the economy. This policy will, therefore, boost domestic and international business confidence and thereby raise prospects for unlocking international trade financing windows. This could also have a positive effect on the cost of funding as the liquidity situation improves, which will ease the cost of production and thus enhance export competitiveness.

The clusters could unlock significant production economies of scale and hence reduce both overheads and transaction costs of business as well as access to finance. SMEs could therefore leverage on these initiatives in their quest to expand production for exports. To date, Zimbabwe’s production function is characterised by a high proportion of SMEs, given the aftermath of the economic challenges during the period 2000–2008. During this period, the economy experienced a high degree of de–industrialisation, a scenario that will take time to reverse, unless foreign investment expands.

CONCLUSION

It is quite apparent that the Acting Governor took bold steps to restore banking sector stability and confidence. The restoration of LOLR role to the RBZ should have a positive effect on easing liquidity conditions and hence broaden the scope for banks to underwrite medium to long term loans. This should significantly ease the cost of borrowing and raise prospects for industry’s access to re-tooling funds. These developments should improve export competitiveness in the medium to long term as liquidity improves. The Central Government has also reaffirmed the pledge by the Minister of Finance and Economic Development to prolong the multi-currency regime, whilst also taking the initiative to diversify the basket of currencies available to the business community. This should also boost business confidence and hence engender a predictable business operating environment.

3


Newsletter

February 2014

2014 National Budget Affords Industry Some Measure of Protection Though the 2014 National Budget was tabled in Parliament two months ago, that is on 19 December 2013, it is still worthy to reflect on some of the policies, particularly those that have a bearing on industry viability and competitiveness. Industry Continues to struggle Of note is the fact that industry remains constrained, with challenges compounded by severe and persistent liquidity bottlenecks that have hindered access to affordable medium to long term funds. Infrastructure bottlenecks, erratic energy and water supplies continue to impact negatively on industry viability and competitiveness. Under the circumstances, industry capacity utilisation has, therefore, remained very low (i.e. 39.6% in 2013) and may not improve significantly unless liquidity and capitalisation are addressed. The country has experienced a major de– industrialisation phase since 1998 and requires a huge injection of both domestic and foreign investment for sustainable recovery.

4

Cushioning local producers Given this background, the Minister of Finance and Economic Development, therefore, introduced several tax incentives through the Budget to kickstart the manufacturing sector. The policy thrust was inclined towards providing some measure of protection to shield the fragile enterprise sector from the influx of imports from Asia, Latin America and South Africa, among other countries. This is meant to curb the influx of cheap imports that have eroded domestic market share, restore competitiveness of the local industry, as well as level the domestic playing field. In this regard, the Minister reviewed duty upwards for products in the steel and plastic manufactures, dairy and processing industry, biscuit manufactures, paint manufactures, metal and electrical manufactures, rubber manufactures, oil expressing industry

manufactures, clothing, beverages (aluminium cans), sugar, blanket manufactures, pharmaceuticals, baking industry manufactures as well as leather manufactures. The measures also included the suspension of customs duty on soya bean crude oil imports to boost local manufacturing of cooking oil. Table 1 summarises the new duty structure where mostly duty on finished goods has been increased from 0% for some products to a high threshold range of 30-40%, with some items now attracting specific duty. The clothing manufacturers’ rebate, which expired on 31 December 2013 was extended to 31 December 2014. On the sugar industry, Government increased duty from 10% to 10% plus US$100 per tonne to protect local sugar refineries. Companies should, therefore, take a closer look at Table 1 and gauge the extent to which these measures will affect their operations. These policy developments should, in the short term, cushion employment and avert possible company closures that have become more prominent on account of weak domestic business operating conditions. The Confederation of Zimbabwe Industries (CZI) State of the Manufacturing Sector Survey, conducted in 2013, revealed that more than 700 companies closed during that year. Some examples of the products that have flooded the domestic market include clothing, food stuffs and footwear. To complement these tariff related incentives, Government has also pledged to strengthen anti–dumping legislation to level the playing field with external competitors to curb the influx of imported goods and help shield the fragile industrial capacity in the medium to long term. Apart from this, Government will also enact the National Quality Standards Authority Bill to curb the importation of sub-standard goods. Looking into the future It is important to highlight that these measures are not permanent and hence the need for industry to take advantage of them whilst developing long term strategies to enhance viability and export competitiveness. This was also corroborated by the Minister of Industry and Commerce after the Budget when he highlighted that industry must take these to be temporary measures and work towards

more durable programmes to enhance competitiveness. Though protection is welcome, it may engender production inefficiencies and erode inflation gains to date. Industry competitiveness could also be enhanced if Government eliminates duty on imported raw materials as this reduces the cost of production. Government should also implement measures to ease the liquidity challenges to enable corporates to access stable and affordable medium to long term funding to finance capital goods acquisitions and other technology platforms. Only then can we be assured of some measure of competitiveness in our production systems.

“the Minister of Finance therefore, introduced several tax incentives through the Budget to kick start the manufacturing sector.”


Table 1: New Duty Structures Steel and Plastic Manufacturers HS Code

Item

MFN Rate (%)

SADC Rate (%)

Proposed Rate (MFN/COMESA/ SADC) %

3920.2010

Printed Polymers of propylene

10

0

40/30

3923.2100

Plastics bags of polymers

15

20

40/30

3924.1000

Plastic basins, buckets, plates & mugs

40

15

40/30

3924.9000

Plastic basins, buckets, plates & mugs

40

15

40/30

3917.2320

PVC Pipes

15

0

15

3917.2390

PVC Pipes

5

0

5

3917.3210

HDPE pipes

15

0

15

3917.3220

HDPE pipes

15

0

15

3917. 3290

HDPE fittings

15

0

15

3917.4000

PVC fittings

15

0

15

4202.1200

Trolley Case/Back Packs

40+$2.50/kg

5

40+$2.50/kg/25 +$2.50/kg

6305.3200

Woven polypropylene bulk bags

15

15

40/30

6305.3300

Woven polypropylene bags

15

15

40/30

5407.2090

Woven polypropylene cloth

10

0

40/30

7321.8200

Paraffin Burners

40

0

25/20

7210.4100

Galvanised steel sheets

15

20

25/20

7323.9290

Cast Iron Pots

40

0

20

7615.1900

Aluminium pots, e.t.c

40

0

20

7323.9190

Articles of iron, e.t.c.

40

0

20

7210.4990

Galvanised steel sheets

15

0

25/20

8716.8010

Wheelbarrows

25

15

40/30

8716.9000

Wheelbarrow Parts

5

0

40/30

MFN Rate (%)

SADC Rate (%)

Proposed Rate (MFN/COMESA/ SADC) %

Biscuit Manufacturers HS Code

Item

0910.12000

Ginger Powder

10

0

5

0801.1100

Desiccated Coconut

10

0

5

5


Duty Structures for... Dairy and Processing Industry HS Code

Item

MFN Rate (%)

SADC Rate (%)

Proposed Rate (MFN/COMESA/ SADC) %

0401.2000

Milk and Cream

40

10

20

0401.5000

UHT Fresh Milk

40

10

US$0.25/litre

0402.1090

Skimmed Milk Powder

0

10

US$2.50/kg

0402.2190

Full Cream Milk Powder

10

10

US$2.50/kg

Raw materials for Dairy Industry HS Code

Item

MFN Rate (%)

SADC Rate (%)

Proposed Rate (MFN/COMESA/ SADC) %

1806.2000

Ice cream coating

40

10

5

7607.1910

Aluminium Foil

15

0

5

7607.2000

Backed Aluminium Foil

15

0

5

2109.9010

Stabiliser

10

10

5

4421.9000

Ice Cream Sticks

25

5

5

2008.8000

Strawberry Pulp

25

0

5

2008.2000

Pineapple Pulp

25

0

5

2008.7000

Peach Pulp

25

0

5

Blanket Manufacturers

6

HS Code

Item

MFN Rate (%)

SADC Rate (%)

Proposed Rate (MFN/COMESA/ SADC) %

5603.1300

Batting

10

0

40%+US$2.50/kg

6003.3400

Knitted Lingerie

10

0

40%+US$2.50/kg

6005.3400

Knitted Fabric

10

0

40%+US$2.50/kg

6006.3400

Mattress Ticking

5

0

40%+US$2.50/kg

6301.2000

Blankets

40%+US$1.50/kg

0

40%+US$2.50/kg


Duty Structures for... Paint Manufacturers HS Code

Item

MFN Rate (%)

SADC Rate (%)

Proposed Rate (MFN/COMESA/ SADC) %

3208.1000

Paints Based on Polyester

15

0

20

3208.2000

Paints Based on Acrylic

15

0

20

3208.9000

Other Paints

15

0

20

3209.1011

Pigmented Water Thinned

15

0

20

3209.1091

Other Pigmented

15

0

20

3209.1099

Other Paints

15

0

20

3209.9011

Pigmented Water Thinned

15

0

20

3209.9019

Other Pigmented Paints

15

0

20

3209.9091

Other Pigmented Paints

15

0

20

3209.9099

Other Paints

15

0

20

3210.0011

Pigmented Water Paints

15

0

20

3210.0019

Non-Pigmented Water Paints

20

0

20

3210.0039

Pigmented distempers

20

0

20

3210.0091

Other Non-pigmented

15

0

20

Metal and Electrical Manufactures HS Code

Item

MFN Rate (%)

SADC Rate (%)

Proposed Rate (MFN/COMESA/ SADC) %

7605.2100

Aluminium Cables

10

0

20/30

7614.1000

Aluminium Cables

20

0

20/30

7614.9000

Wire Cables

20

0

20/30

7413.0000

Copper Cables

20

0

20/30

8544.6010

Copper wires

10

0

20/30

7


Duty Structures for... Rubber Industry HS Code

Item

MFN Rate (%)

SADC Rate (%)

Proposed Rate (MFN/COMESA/ SADC) %

4009.1100

Mining Hoses

15

10

25

4009.3100

Mining Hoses reinforced

15

0

25

4010.1100

Conveyer belt with metal

15

0

25

4010.1200

Conveyer belt with textile

15

0

25

4012.1190

Other Retreaded Tyres

5

0

US$2.50/kg

4016.9100

Floor covering

15

0

20

HS Code

Item

MFN Rate (%)

SADC Rate (%)

Proposed Rate (MFN/COMESA/ SADC) %

1518.0090

Emulsifiers

10

0

5

4811.9090

Wrappers for Margarine

10

0

5

Oil Expressers

3823.1900

Palm Fatty Acid

15

0

5

2103.9090

Spices

40

0

10

1108.1900

Starch

15

0

10

Oil Expressers Finished Goods

8

HS Code

Item

MFN Rate (%)

SADC Rate (%)

Proposed Rate (MFN/COMESA/ SADC) %

1515.1920

Vegetable oil

10

0

40

1517.1000

Margarine

15

15

40

3401.1100

Soap Tablets

10

10

40

3401.1900

Soap Bars

10

10

40

3402.9010

Washing powder (not for retail)

5

0

40


Newsletter February 2014

ZimTrade to lead Trade Mission to Tete

Tete, Mozambique

ZimTrade will lead Zimbabwean companies on a two-day Trade and Investment Mission to Tete, Mozambique in the second half of May 2014. The mission follows a similar initiative that ZimTrade organised in November 2012, when 25 local companies engaged entrepreneurs in Tete. ZimTrade also undertook a comprehensive market research of the Tete, Nampula and Niassa Provinces of Mozambiquein April/May 2013. Both the 2012 mission and last year’s research initiatives identified trade and export-related investment opportunities for Zimbabwean companies in sectors such as mining, engineering, construction, agriculture (mainly horticulture), tourism and related support infrastructure, , forged hand tools e.g. picks and mattocks, among others. Although a number of Zimbabwean companies are already doing business in Tete, there is tremendous scope for business expansion as well as room for new entrants. Tete is a fast growing coal mining centre. The Province also has vast potential in the agriculture, tourism and distribution sectors.

The objective of the forthcoming mission is to facilitate Zimbabwe companies to further explore the market opportunities in the Tete region. Participants are expected to develop and further strengthen business linkages with their counterparts in Tete. This includes negotiating for supply orders, service contracts, warehousing space and joint ventures.

Companies interested to participate in this Mission are advised to indicate their areas of interest by email to ctsimba@zimtrade.co.zw or snkala@ byo.zimtrade.co.zw

Tete is a fast growing coal mining centre. The Province also has vast potential in the agriculture, tourism and distribution sectors. Activities during the mission will include buyer/seller meetings, business networking events and, where feasible, visits (on-site meetings) to potential business partners.

9


Newsletter

February 2014

Trade Fairs and Exhibitions AFRICA ANGOLA

ZAMBIA

Ambiente – Luanda Environmental, Energy, Water and Waste Management 15th -18th May 2014 Tel: +244 926 405 970 Email: feiras@fil-angola.co.ao Website: www.fil-angola.co.ao

Aviana Africa – Lusaka International Exhibition of Poultry and Livestock in Africa 4th – 5th April 2014 Tel: +260 21 1290 506 Email: info.lusaka@radissonblu.com Website: www.radissonblu.com

Filda –Luanda International Fair of Luanda 15th – 20th July 2014 Tel: +244 926 405 970 E-mail: feiras@fil-angola.co.ao Website: www.fil-angola.co.ao

Zambia International Trade Fair - Ndola Ndola Trade Fair Grounds 25th June – 1st July 2014 Tel: +260 2 651 514/6 Email: marketing@zitf.org.zim

MOZAMBIQUE MOZABUILD - Maputo Mozambique’s International Building Materials and Construction Technology 26th - 28th February 2014 Tel: +258 2148 5438 Email: trade@ametrade.org Website: www.cicjc.gov.mz SOUTH AFRICA Rand Show – Johannesburg Music, Art, Funfair and Concerts Show 17th - 21st April 2014 Tel: +27 11 494 5616 Fax: +27 11 494 1005 Email: desraem@expocentre.co.za Website: www.expocentre.co.za Sustain and Build Africa-Johannesburg International Conference on Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Architecture Sandton Convention Centre 11th – 12th March 2014 Tel: +27 11 779 0000 Email: info@saconvention.co.za Website: www.saconvention.co.za Afrimold –Johannesburg International Trade Fair for Mould Making, Tooling, Design and Application Development in Africa International Conference on Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Architecture Sandton Convention Centre 3rd – 4th June 2014 Tel: +27 11 779 0000 Email: info@saconvention.co.za Website: www.saconvention.co.za

10

INTERNATIONAL GERMANY Global Shoes – Dusseldorf International Event for Leather goods and more 11th – 14th March 2014 Tel: +49 211 4 560 900 Email: info@messe-duesseldorf.de Website: www.messe-duesseldorf.de H+H Cologne - Cologne International Trade Fair for Creative Handicraft and Hobby 21st – 23rd March 2014 Tel: +49 221 821 0 Email: info@koelnmesse.de Website: www.koelnmesse.de Grindtec - Augsburg Grinding Machines Show Augsburger Messezentrum 19th – 22nd March 2014 Tel: +49 0 821 2572-0 Email: info@messeaugsburg.de Website: www.messeaugsburg.de MALAYSIA Malaysia International Furniture Fair Kuala-Lumpur Putra World Trade Centre 4th – 8th March 2014 Tel: +60 3 404 33999 Email: www.pwtc.com.my Website: www.pwtc.com.my

In the Library Electra Mining Africa 2014 A brochure highlighting the services offered by the Expo Centre situated in Nasrec, Johannesburg, South Africa. It will act as the exhibition host for the Electra Mining Africa 2014 Expo. African and Middle East Textiles Issue 3 2013 of the Africa and Middle Est Textiles magazine, this time features, articles such as spotlight on South Africa, Shanghai Text 2013 review, improved dye machinery offers sustainability, among other featured articles as well. Chemical Technology This edition features various aspects concerned with Chemical Technology which include articles on water treatment, materials of construction, mining and mineral processing. Mechanical Technology September 2013 edition, mechanical technology features articles ranging from robotics, mechatronics and automation, power, energy and energy management and more. Sparks Electrical News October 2013 edition of Sparks features articles ranging from motor control centres and motor protection, energy management and supply as well as lighting. International Trade Forum This edition of the 2013 issue is mainly concerned with ‘’aid for trade and features articles, covering topics such as; plugging SME’s into global value chains; lifting people out of poverty; towards a new generation of aid for trade, among other articles as well. Fruit World A journal for the International Produce Trade. This 2013 special edition reveals different aspects of Produce Trade as seen in different parts of the world. Spore The magazine for agricultural and rural development in ACP countries. The (October – November 2013) issue showcases a special interview.

For more feedback and comments, kindly contact Dillon Kamutenga on the following details: dkamutenga@zimtrade.co.zw or call +263 4 369330-41

Zimtrade newsletter february 2014  
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you