Artist Team: Freya Bardell and Brian Howe, Greenmeme Ecological Designer: Brent Bucknum, Hyphae Principal Investigator Dr. Michael Hamilton Editor: Joško Kirigin
Wired Wilderness Abstract: Our Climate Clock would be a pairing of artists-in-residence with the scientific and technological community of San Jose and the surrounding region. Using new and evolving sensing technologies, artists in the Wired Wilderness residency would make use of climate change bioindicators as the hands of a 100-year clock. Biannually renewed, the residency would take advantage of a variety of venue opportunities in and around San Jose to engage and communicate climate science to the community through iconic public art.
Table of Contents ABSTRACT 3 CLIMATE CHANGE 6 FOREWORD 8 INTRODUCTION 10 A STUDY OF TIME THE LIVING CLOCK
GEARS 22 Residency 26 Observatory 48 Venue 70 Trust 98 Funding 100 CONCLUSION & BEGINNING
Request For Proposals 112 Contributors 114 TEAM 124 FOOTNOTES 126
Climate change poses a threat to millions of species in all ecosystems across the planet. Tens of millions of people face catastrophic flooding and forced migration due to extreme weather. That this change is derived from human industrial activity is now beyond scientific dispute. However, there is a major disconnect between the actions of everyday Americans and the realities of climate change. As a species evolved to deal with the immediate threats of predators and food shortages, humans are simply not equipped to handle an existential crisis whose effect is long-term and whose cause is extremely incremental. We are limited in our scope of perceived time. It is the role of political leaders, scientists, and scholars to relay the warnings of climate change to the public. But in a climate of political denial, we believe it is the artist that can serve as an ideal ambassador between hard science and local communities to provoke a dialogue and enact public change.
Foreword What is the Role of the Artist in Understanding Climate Change?
We posed this question to artist, curator, and writer Janet Owen Diggs. Beyond the hammer and the mirror: if we are to have a future, artists must be part of it Sometime in the first half of the Twentieth century, either Soviet poet Vladimir Mayakovsky, or German playwright Bertolt Brecht, said: “Art is not a mirror to hold up to society, but a hammer with which to shape it.”[i] In 2005, influenced perhaps by the understanding that art can be either a mirror or a hammer, American environmentalist Bill McKibben decried what he perceived to be a lack of art created in response to climate change.“Oddly,” he wrote, “though we know about it, we don’t know about it. It hasn’t registered in our gut; it isn’t part of our culture. Where are the books? The poems? The plays? The goddamn operas?” [ii] McKibben has since celebrated the fact that artists are increasingly turning their attention to climate change. Subhankar Banerjee’s Arctic Reserve photographs and James Balog’s Extreme Ice Survey immediately come to mind as examples, as does Water Is Rising: a US tour by Central Pacific Island singers and dancers, which appealed for “everyone to do something that will help their own self
and, at the same time…help us as well.’’ [iii] But McKibben, skilled as he may be in other areas, rather missed the point. For while these artworks have an undeniably crucial role to play in raising awareness and urging us to action, artists have the capacity to do so much more than document a planet in flux and stir the gut. Beyond the mirror and the hammer, contemporary artists also operate “the lens” and “the needle.” And these tools are crucial to a human future that offers not only survival but “something more than just survival.” [iv] To elucidate, by “the lens,” I mean the capacity to employ the kind of micro-tomacro sliding scale suggested in Charles and Ray Eames’s film Powers of Ten (1968). It is this capacity that enables artists such as Helen and Newton Mayer Harrison to refuse the silo-based thinking that limits so many discipline-based scholars and practitioners, to say nothing of politicians. With works such as Peninsula Europe I (2000-2004) for example, the Harrison’s propose the reforesting of Europe’s high grounds to conserve and purify waters while generating biodiversity. The notion “peninsula” alone suggests the Harrison’s approach to Europe as a bioregion rather than a patchwork of geo-political divisions. While their reinvention of the term “high grounds,” which abandons the common Alpine definition of “the place where the trees stop” in favor of “the place where rivers begin”[v], re-envisions Europe from the perspective of its drain basins, ecosystems and waters. By approaching Europe as a bio-system that humanity is a part of, which has a life beyond the scale of human or – even more
limiting – political time, the Harrisons’ work generates proposals for “weathering” the impacts of climate change and environmental depredation. It both clearly articulates scientific complexity in an accessible fashion, and offers us a way to think that serves to shift perception away from those Copernican and Cartesian models, which are not currently serving humanity or Planet Earth well. The “needle” to which I refer is one that both knits and sews. Using small actions to make a larger structure, it is at the heart of engagement – and community-based projects that embrace “the political capital that art provides, not to create utopian worlds of the revolution-to-come, but to set up small, actionable projects that make immediate improvements in the socio-political domain.” In other words, these needles operate in “the realm of human interactions and their social context”[vi], where they stitch interpersonal exchanges and actions together. The work is pre-figurative, by which I mean that rather than appealing to power to change an unacceptable situation, the participants make and live the necessary changes. Such work “requires the democratization of the relationship between creative practitioner and community and a sharing of ‘expert’ and ‘lay’ knowledge.” [vii] It facilitates such sharing using the array of communication skills that art affords. But, instead of articulating the traditional artist’s independent, personal vision that emerges from “private symbolic space”[viii], this work constructs meanings collectively. To cite just one example, working with social brownfields – locations that for environmental, political or other reasons are unable to support life – Lauren Bon and
the Metabolic Studio make “metabolic sculptures”: site-specific objects that, through the process of their installation and maintenance, foster relationships, actions, and events that transform the site into a more healthful environment. As part of the Studio’s process with Silver & Water (2007-ongoing) for instance, a network of participants were brought into relationship with one another in the divisive context of California’s desiccated Owens Valley. Initiated in 2007 through the action of a “Community Glass and Water Orchestra”, the network has since generated community feasts, which have led to the propagation of community gardens, and more recently the making and wide scale distribution of soil. Whatever name such projects go by – Social Sculpture, Relational Aesthetics, Social Practice – the nuances that distinguish one form of “needle work” from another fade in comparison to the awareness of, engagement with, and value for interdependence that unites them all. At a time when humanity must collectively redefine “civil society” to include non-human creatures and systems in addition to humans, the needle and the lens offer multiple opportunities to see and value difference while promoting understanding. They enable us to practice ways of thinking and acting that will serve us well when climate change causes the structures we know to collapse, while at the same time providing practical ways to mitigate some of its most catastrophic impacts. To put it another way, rather than merely lodging climate change in our guts where fear so often lurks, contemporary artists have the tools that will help us move into an unknown future, gracefully. Janet Owen Driggs, February 2012
The Climate Clock challenge has been a unique opportunity to confront the design constraints of a 100-year project addressing climate change, where the durability of any approach requires us to address a project beyond our lifetime whose subject is in continuous flux. The goal is to create an artwork which inspires change in our collective behavior through raising awareness of climate change, within a budget of up to $20 million. This proposal provides what we see as most appropriate for dealing with the conceptual, cultural, and material sustainability of these conditions. At the core of our proposal is a belief that the project be distributed among generations of artists. In that way, what emerges over the next 100 years as the Climate Clock is a woven collective of artist visions, utilizing a variety of seeing modes, sensing technology, and calls-to-action in the context of climate change. The effect of these distributed artist actions is cumulative over the century, embedding the Climate Clock within the community and fostering public engagement more powerfully than any single, independent project. Rather than a liability, time becomes a partner of the Climate Clock, strengthening its message and shielding it from obsolescence.
To ensure this longevity, we have allocated the predominant portion of the project budget to an endowment to fund a 100year Wired Wilderness artist-in-residence program, safeguarded by a custodial Wired Wilderness Trust. This unwavering monetary commitment would remain proportional to whatever total amount is committed to the project and provide the same primary funding opportunities for all future artists engaging the Climate Clock. The Wired Wilderness project will be evolutionary in character, providing a framework within which residency artists can fully exploit a wealth of advances in climate science and visualization technology. In the three years we have been developing this project, the rapid technological developments in sensing and visualization of the environment have evolved at an exponential rate, humbling our attempts to prescribe any specific technology to the project. Time-lapse cameras, sensor networks, LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging), Google Earth, social networking, and other technologies are advancing relentlessly, with more streamlined sensing methods debuting nearly every month. Our project will eventually benefit from currently classified or inaccessibly expensive technologies, which eventually become off-the-shelf and scalable.
When we first began this project and were forming our team, we reached out to Dr. Michael Hamilton, an ecologist whose research has pioneered the use of digital media and remote sensing technologies for monitoring environmental and ecological changes. At that time he was in his final days as director of the James San Jacinto Mountains Reserve, part of the University of California network of research field stations. He had spent 26 years developing the field of ecological observing systems—technology-infused natural landscapes that included miniature wireless nodes to monitor microclimates, robotic sensors, and in-situ imagers and microphones to track plant and animal responses to seasonal conditions and perturbations. These technologies monitor, as Dr. Hamilton describes, “the pulse of nature.” He coined the term wired wilderness for his technology testbed at the James Reserve, and has since applied his expertise in helping establish ecological observatories around the world. Dr. Hamilton focused attention on the longterm monitoring of “bioindicator” species, those species whose population, behavior, or status could be used to tell a broader story about the health of surrounding ecology. Much of what we saw at the James Reserve continues to serve as inspiration to our Climate Clock vision. The reserve was a technological playground, where lasers, time-lapse cameras, acoustical recordings, and mesh sensor networks captured a diverse understanding the environment. As we learned from Dr. Hamilton, none of this technology matters in the field of climate science without defining a perspective for study. It is the responsibility of the observer to identify relationships between data and then
watch, sense, and record for a extended time. Only then do patterns emerge. An illuminating project at the James Reserve was a camera focused on a patch of moss for several years. An image of moss might seem trivial, but when the “moss cam” recordings are accelerated in time, we begin to witness a dynamic, breathing organism. The metabolizing behaviour of the moss becomes familiar in our time frame and reveals itself as a bioindicator. Manipulating time scale through sensing technology allows us to engage these bioindicators in-depth and concentrate on periods of heightened activity. When the moss cam is linked to the surrounding ecological observations, these data streams begin to resemble a clock, where nature’s processes are the driving mechanism and environmental change is a quantifiable sum. Observation and archiving of climate change are the primary hands of our Climate Clock. Empowered by an evolving archive, generations of artists will engage with an expanding ability to create within evolving conditions. The Wired Wilderness artist-in-residence, through evolving venues and measurement interpretations, will itself become an instrument to interpret ecological messages and define the San Jose area as its own object of study, becoming our most comprehensive regional bioindicator. The capability to manage such an ambitious project requires strategic partnerships. The San Jose area has a wealth of institutions capable of becoming stakeholders to the project. We have formed relationships with many of these institutions and created an environment where we need only to further engage them; the interest is there. Such institutions include San Jose State University, the University
of California, Stanford University, and a variety of Bay Area preservation societies.
slowing perception of time, which is subject to the frame-rate and resolution of the data set.
The roots of this project will grow from our partnership with Dr. Hamilton and our collaboration to shape his new reserve. Minutes outside of San Jose, the Blue Oak Ranch Reserve (BORR) has been our proving ground over the last three years. Among the rolling hills and oak trees of the 3,300-acre reserve, we have assisted in installing sensor and Wi-Fi networks and reconstructed the 100-year-old Amos White cabin to be a creative space for artists-in-residence to live and work.
Often these scientific data sets are relegated to government or academic “white papers.” Ideally, forces of mediation could bridge the gap between hard science and the day-to-day reality of public consciousness. In this context, artists can serve as the perfect ambassadors between climate data and the general public. Within the framework of a biannual artist-in-residence, these artist ambassadors we can convey the ongoing and ever-evolving issues of climate change through innovative and unforeseeable methods.
The development of the reserve is also tied to the operations of the nearby Lick Observatory. Together, BORR and Lick form a broad-scale observatory, capable of studying and archiving micro- and macro-scales of observation of the region. Lick is located on Mt. Hamilton, the highest point in the entire Santa Clara county. With an ideal view of the region, the observatory is equipped with the “HamCam,” a camera which has been snapping three-minute-interval images of San Jose for decades. When these images are sped up in time, the city itself comes alive with the seasonal patterns and cycles of metropolitan behaviour. Much like the moss cam, we begin to see emerging patterns of the city as a pulsing and living organism. As with moss, individual images streaming from the HamCam are not themselves all that interesting. It is only in our ability to manipulate time with sensing technologies that we are able to perceive the region’s metabolism, where the results are often unpredictable and hypnotizing. Our access to these phenomena are predicated on the technology of speeding or
Our Climate Clock would pair artists-in-residence with the scientific and technological communities of the San Jose region. Provided with new sensing technologies of climate change bioindicators, artists would employ a variety of venue opportunities in and around Diridon Station and the broader San Jose community. 13
A Study of Time The 100-Year Commitment
Mapping Change in the Environmental, Cultural, and Technological Climate Since 1800
The essence of our Climate Clock is a biannually renewed artist-in-residence that adapts to new sensing methods, technologies, and sensibilities to translate the realities of climate change. Regular updating of the project is essential to keep it relevant. History shows that predicting the future is a brutally inaccurate affair. New media, language, technology, scientific and cultural priorities, government and private funding, and design sense all play a major role in the way scientific information is perceived and processed. We believe it may be presumptuous that a single permanent public artwork, especially one mandated to be â€œiconic,â€? could convey a meaningful message for 100 years and beyond.
project is best served through an adaptive model, one in which the continuously renewed Wired Wilderness artist-in-residence program allows for creative reaction to unpredictable forces. The project will embrace the inevitable paradigm shifts in science and culture, sensing and archiving. Essentially, we are increasing the resolution of public perception over the next century. The effect will be cumulative: each two-year artist partnership will build from the newest sensing science and cultural sensibility. The result will be a tapestry of relevant messages that maximize public perception and, hopefully, reaction.
We formed a timeline of the previous 100+ years to follow the flow of science and culture vis-a-vis sensing, archiving, visualization, and interface technologies, environmental awareness, bioindicators, and art inspired by environmental issues and the way the public reacted to this new information. Patterns emerged: lone voices in the desert warning of climate danger were ignored; some individuals created unexpected iconic artworks that heightened awareness of environmental issues and led to substantive change in public behavior; climate science evolved with new sensing technology and archiving methods.
The effect will by cumulative: each two-year artist partnership will build from the newest sensing science and cultural sensibility. The result will be a tapestry of relevant messages that maximize public perception and, hopefully, reaction.
Trends of the past mirror trends of the future. We feel that the Climate Clock
Release of Rachel Carsonâ€™s book Silent Spring led to the subsequent banning of the synthetic insecticidec DDT.
The Living Clock: Bioindicators The Canary in the Coal Mine
Many climate specialists focus their research on atmospheric conditions, including CO2 concentration. There is no dispute that these conditions are the primary drivers of climate change, yet they only form one layer in a changing ecosystem, and not necessarily the most viscerally compelling to the public. When these atmospheric conditions are combined with geology, hydrology, and other regional processes, people have a more immediate relational understanding of the climate science. The most dynamic and emotionally compelling layer is when biological processes play out atop this canvas. Together, these biotic and abiotic (or non-living) processes couple to form a complete picture of our ecosystem. Biological processes are inherently entwined with human interests. We effect surrounding plants, animals, and ecosystems while coping and collectively adapting as we do to our surrounding. Just as the oak trees and lichen at the Blue Oak Ranch Reserve tell us about air quality, San Joseâ€™s creeks, fisheries, and salt ponds convey the regionâ€™s environmental health. Butterfly habitats react to car activity. Bird migration patterns indicate changing weather patterns. The closer we look, the more these bioindicators reveal the deeply interconnected cycles between humans and the ecosystem. Our project is focused on translating and amplifying the messages emerging from
these biological systems and bioindicators. We feel that nature is itself a Climate Clock, yet our limited perception of the environment and time prevents us from perceiving it. We believe that through a better understanding of biological time, we may find a path to clearer comprehension of the consequences of climate change, on ourselves and the ecosystem as a whole. The Wired Wilderness celebrates these biological processes as the primary hands of our 100-year Climate Clock, revealing not only the well-being of their local ecosystems but a broader picture of global climate change.
Through their population, status, and behavior, bioindicator species tell a broader story of the health of surrounding ecology.
Black Locust Bryan Nash Gill 2009/wood engraving on Okawara Paper, 39â€?x 35â€?
Table: Bioindicators species how they interact with environment
what they accumulate
what it tells us
exponential growth increase
NOx, SOx, Carbon Diesel PM
PLANT coulter pine oak posin oak aquatic macrophytes lichen
filter sediment, breathe and eat through the air
decompose organic material
PCDDs, PCDFs, Organo- chlorine Pesticides, and PCBs
high on food chain, bioacculators
filter sediment for plankton & food
accumulate heavy metals PCB, metals
Inland silversides (Menidia beryllina)
creek specific mercury loads
Alviso Salt Fla
eggs accumulate mercury
BIRD Clapper Rails
INSECTS & INVERTEBRATES
organic copounds decomposers
earthworms Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) bay checkerspot
permeable membrane, early warning indicator, benthic invertibrate rely on wildflowers, sensitive tp temperature and changes in grassland plant dependent effected by co2 deposition
high water quality co2 levels
Expressing Bioindicators: Experiments
Chlorophyll Chromatography Wired Wilderness, 2009
Gears Conceptualizing and Prototyping the Wired Wilderness
Art has a crucial role to play in communicating climate science in a persuasive way, altering not only the perception of climate change but directly affecting change in public behavior, breaking the paralyzing cycle of cognitive dissonance that is climate change denial. We feel a path to this artist-inspired clearer public comprehension of climate change is best served by a biannually renewed residency, one that partners artists with scientists studying the biological indicators that themselves form an implicit climate clock.
We present here the gears that form the mechanism of this clock: a Wired Wilderness artist residency coupling generations of artists with scientists on the cusp of climate science; a network of observatories focused on the San Jose region fielding bioindicator-driven climate data; a flexible venue paradigm embedding artists in the community; a trust to uphold the core principles and pragmatic issues of the Wired Wilderness; and a robust and self-sustaining endowment to insure the residencyâ€™s longevity. 22
Wired Wilderness Proof of Concept
Since being awarded our initial research funding, we have embarked on a series of 1:1 scale prototypes as proof of concept for the larger Climate Clock project. We wished to use our time and money to develop models which need only be scaled up in both budget and resources to grow from a modest artist intervention into a landmark public artwork. If the project can be built and successfully running on the amount received for our Montalvo Arts Center residency, then it has the potential to be successful long-term. Our own trial and error led us to develop and alter some of our initial assumptions and goals, change our strategies and build deeper roots to the project. For our team, the Wired Wilderness project has already begun. BORR has deployed environmental sensors in mesh networks and the 100-year-old Amos White cabin has been restored to serve for the next 100 years as a operational artist-in-residency studio. We will briefly discuss these prototypes: how and why they where chosen, what was discovered during their development process, and how they can serve as a starting point for the next century of study.
Wired Wilderness Team at Montalvo Arts Center Photo by Jaime Lopez Wolters
Constructon Documents Due 1Year
Zero 1: Artist awareness
Distributing the Challenge Over Generations
Proposals due: jury reviews
Jury Review: finalists chosen
Zero 1 Resident Chosen
Jury and Finalist Selection
Schematic Design Proposals Due
Zero 1 Climate Clock Challenge
The strength of the Wired Wilderness artist-in-residence is that it is rooted in a series of artworks with an ingrained biennial ritual. This builds returning interest and gives us multiple chances to get it right. The biennial art experience provided by each Wired Wilderness resident artist will culminate in a celebration of the completion of one project and the beginning of another, adding in aggregate over the next century. 26
Zero 1 Project Debut and New Climate Clock Challenge Venue Installation
Biennial Spiral showing the timeline for one climate clock artist cycle
The artist-in-residence facilitates multiple artists working over the next 100 years, maintaining the relevancy of the Climate Clock through its biyearly update. The program will offer an interdisciplinary opportunity for established and emerging artists to work with some of the world’s leading climate scientists and engage with the future Climate Clock venues. We have chosen to redefine the methods by which our project reaches the status of “iconic.” We believe the potential for
the project to reach such status lies in the networking of the necessary institutions to sustain this 100-year commitment. The artist-in-residence program will require working with regional and contemporary climate data. A biyearly rotation of artists insures the art experience is continually communicating current public interests. Through our own experiences during our residency, we have found that the artist can become a connective thread through which many disciplines can communicate and share knowledge.
The artist-in-residence program will require working with regional and contemporary climate data. A biennial rotation of artists insures the art experience is continually communicating current public interests.
In order to put out an Artist Call for the Wired Wilderness residency, we propose the creation of an advisory committee and administrative team at the Zero1 Biennial event or similar event, an international showcase of work at the nexus of art and technology in downtown San Jose. We believe that working with an exisiting art forum is an ideal opportunity for a Wired Wilderness gathering, and we would work within our shared mission in creating this opportunity to bring together artists, scientists, technologists, and the public to discuss current critical issues related to climate change. We would look to this forum to inform the Climate Clockâ€™s strategies for future artist and scientist engagement. Over the course of the gathering, the Advisory Committee and the Wired Wilderness administrative team will identify relevant climate change bioindicators, technology partners, venue opportunities and com-
munity partnerships. The gathering is meant to connect potential partners and create collaborative teams for the residency challenge. After the gathering, a call will be made and proposals are due within nine months for review by jury. Three finalists will be awarded funding to develop their proposals and compete to be the next Wired Wilderness resident. The proposals will then be reviewed by a distinguished jury. The selected artist fellow will then become engaged for a two-year period, within which to complete their project. This will create a â€œpassing of the torchâ€? whereby the previous Wired Wilderness artist hands off the project to the next. Ideas can be shared and the process can begin the next cycle. Projects may build off one another or attempt autonomy.
Formulating the Residency Our own residency at Villa Montalvo was a unique opportunity to develop the concept of the Wired Wilderness artist-in-residence program. Allowing us the opportunity to live within the region of study gave us a deep understanding of the city, its community, history, and environment. It allowed us to have physical interactions with the
Montalvo Arts Center, Studio 60 Photo by Jaime Lopez Wolters
San Jose community and Climate Clock stakeholders, enabling us to forge stronger partnerships. Together with our team partner Dr. Michael Hamilton and BORR, we embarked on reconstructing a studio cabin on the reserve. This will become the site for the first Wired Wilderness artist-inresidence.
Integrating with the Blue Oak Ranch Reserve Master Plan
The Blue Oak Ranch Reserve is in the process of expanding its facilities. Indeed, in developing the mechanics of the Wired Wilderness with Dr. Hamilton, we participated in the conversation that developed a master plan for the reserve. BORR hopes to expand its public outreach: the artists-in-residence will communicate ecological and climate change science investigated at the reserve, engaging the public and furthering the cause of the University of California Reserve System as a whole. BORRâ€™s development plan encompasses a broad range of subjects: siting criteria based on detailed biological inventory; a comprehensive range of green design principles for short- and long-term living and work spaces with a substantially reduced carbon footprint; advanced water conservation and waste recycling; solar and wind energy harvesting; embedded digital monitoring and control systems.
Our Wired Wilderness team has been fortunate enough to be directly involved in the detailed design phase of this plan. This experience informed us how to incorporate an artist-in-residence program into the reserve while maintaining the design principles outlined by the reserveâ€™s master plan. Additionally, it afforded us the ability to engage students from the department of environmental design at UC Berkeley in a charette to prototype the Wired Wilderness artist residency studio that could double as a residence for field biologists.
This image and the one at left show an artistin-residence concept for a canopy-based studio by students from UC Berkeley. .
UC Bekeley students join the Wired Wilderness team at BORR for a design charette.
Constructing a Studio: The Amos White Cabin
The Blue Oak Ranch Reserve is in the process of expanding its facilities, and the timing presents an opportunity to propose a specific space for an artistin-residence studio. Reserve director Dr. Hamilton identified potential sites within the ecologically sensitive area. One of the more compelling was the Amos White Cabin, thought to be built around the turn of the last century. The dilapidated rancher’s house was in need of serious restoration. About half a mile from the main field station, it sits at the edge of a seasonal stream, flanked in sycamore and valley oaks. The site has a natural spring that can provide fresh water to the cabin. It is very accessible from the road but also feels secluded and private. One of the main reasons for choosing this site is that the reserve is under tight environmental regulations under the California Nature Conservancy that limits new infrastructure. By building on the original footprint, we keep within these regulations.
The Amos White’s restoration is also a direct benefit to BORR, as the studio can also be used by researchers during the months when there is no artist fellow. In restoring the cabin, we are opting to remove many of the walls to create a large open platform. It is the hope that by softening the boundary between built and natural environment, the artist will have a closer connection to BORR’s natural ecosystems. For comfort, security, and warmth, a small yet hyper-efficient living quarters sits within the large open studio space. The cabin is fully connected to the reserve’s sensor network and nearby Lick Observatory atop Mt. Hamilton. The studio has been designed to be completely self sustaining, including a solarheated cowboy hot tub which will sit adjacent to a sunset-viewing and stargazing platform.
Constructing a Studio: The Amos White Cabin
Rendering: Vision for Amos White
Artist rendering of the completed Amos White studio.
â€œWe have a UC-wide commitment to making our reserve useful to the art community and other fields outside of the sciences. There are of course classes taught in photography, natural history writing, painting the natural landscape, etc. However, little in using science as the media for art.â€? Dr. Michael Hamilton
Rendering: Vision for Amos White
Amos White Cabin elevations
Mixing concrete for new pier foundations. The Amos White was given a totally new support structure.
Wired Wilderness New beams show true level and reveal how far the Amos Whiteâ€™s roof has grown askew over the century.
In restoring the cabin, we are opting to remove many of the walls to create a large open platform. It is the hope that by softening the boundary between built and natural environment, the artist will have a closer connection to BORRâ€™s natural ecosystems. .
Observatory Watching, Recording, and Learning from the World Around Us
We arrived at the need for an observatory in honor of the Lick Observatory on Mt. Hamilton, which has been continuously monitoring the night sky for over a century. The history of Lick Observatory also provides ironic insight into the Climate Clock project. Near the end of the 19th century, James Lick, a cunning land-baron and richest man in California, sought to preserve his legacy by erecting a pyramid larger than the Great Pyramid of Giza in his own honor in downtown San Francisco. Instead, advisers convinced Lick to build an observatory to house, as Lick would describe it, “a telescope superior to and more powerful than any telescope yet made.” Rather than a static mausoleum, the legacy of Lick became one of a continually renewed and sustainable contribution to science, education, and culture. As defined by Webster, an observatory is “a building, venue, or institution dedicated to the observation of natural phenomena.” Historically, the observatory was reserved for the study of astronomy and cosmology. Recently, however, scientists like Dr. Mike Hamilton at the Blue Oak Ranch Reserve have been expanding the definition of observatory beyond the stars and back to the earth. They are building the equivalent of Lick’s innovation, but in the new field of ecological observation.
The commitment of the Wired Wilderness project to provide a steady stream of regional scientific and cultural input for artists to interpret relies on the creation of an observatory. Within the budget proposed, such an ambitious observatory could never be sustained for a century. Therefore, a critical element to the success of the project has been to establish partnerships with scientists and institutions that share the common vision of establishing an earth observatory to address climate change. Their time-lapse studies, sensor networks, and other tools can aid artists in creating novel instruments and techniques for shifting our perception of time and the environment. The Wired Wilderness project seeks to create an analogous observational paradigm, one that directs the lens of observation onto not only the scientific study of biological systems around San Jose, but the cultural implications and reactions to climate change in the community.
Lick Observatory Photo by John Loo
Wired Wilderness Observatory
Scientific Goals -to use the latest in sensing equipment to better understand and monitor biological indicators for human and ecosystem health in the San Jose region -to increase resolution of the Wired Wilderness observatory throughout the Santa Clara Valley -to use the latest in visualization technology and art techniques to convey science to the community
BORR & Lick Observatory Observatory Network Observatory Nodes High-Speed Rail Network High-Speed Rail Stations Existing Rail Stations Protected Land Urban Park Network Bay Water Body Stream Network Sea Level Rise Fresh Water Waste Water Urban Oak Woodlands Urban Forests Grasslands Protected Land Impervious Surface
Wired Wilderness Observatory Networks
2 miles N
BORR & Lick Observatory Observatory Network Observatory Nodes Urban Oak Woodlands Urban Forests Grasslands Protected Land Impervious Surface
Wired Wilderness Vegetation Networks 52
10 miles N
The Climate Clock as Ubiquitous Observatory
In the long view, we see many more institutions committing to the Wired Wilderness to expand existing observatories and beginning additional ones. We have already initiated discussion with other institutions such as the US Geological Survey and Stanford University. The project is initiated with the understanding that eventually each of these ecosystem-sensing observatories will become nodes of a highly detailed spatial observatory of the Santa Clara Valley. Beginning with the various biological reserves, the observatories will form an increasingly ubiquitous network throughout the region. As Dr. Hamilton states, we will eventually be â€œobserving the ecosystem from the nanometer scale to the kilometer scale.â€?
BORR & Lick Observatory Observatory Network Observatory Nodes High-Speed Rail Network High-Speed Rail Stations Existing Rail Stations Protected Land Urban Park Network Bay Water Body Stream Network Sea Level Rise Fresh Water Waste Water Urban Oak Woodlands Urban Forests Grasslands Protected Land Impervious Surface
Wired Wilderness Observatory Networks 54
2 miles N
â€œOur goal is to be observing earths processes from the nanometer to the kilometer scale.â€? Dr. Michael Hamilton
Pardee Reservoir above San Jose after 2009 drought.
San Jose captures 75% of its drinking water from rainfall, usually buying water from the delta to make up for shortages. The Lexington Resevoir, above, is core to this life support, but the public is disconnected with water infrastructure and rarely draw the connection while passing on the 17 highway. Water supplies grow steadily more competitive.
Kirby Canyon Recycling & Disposal Facility shares Coyote ridge with the Bay Checker Spot Butterfly, federally listed threatened species.
Just as the oaks and lichen at the BORR tell us about air quality and fog levels, San Joseâ€™s creeks, fisheries, and salt ponds convey the regionâ€™s environmental health. Butterfly habitats react to car activity. Bird migration patterns indicate changing weather patterns. The closer we look, the more these bioindicators reveal deep interconnected cycles between humans and the ecosystem.
Potential long term nodes in the Wired Wilderness Observatory: left, Lexington Reservoir is shown from 3 angles: biota respond seasonally to hydrology, geology creates a dynamic visual indicator. Top, Coyote Ridge Reserve foreground, solid waste landfill background. Bottom, a storm drain into Guadalupe Creek.
A node of the VeLEA Network, with Lick Observatory in the background.
This is a map of the VeLEA Network we helped deploy at BORR, with 10 base stations and 50 nodes.
A 100-year Study The commitment of the Wired Wilderness project to provide a steady stream of regional scientific and cultural input for artists to interpret relies on the creation of an observatory. Within the budget proposed, such an ambitious observatory could never be sustained for a century. Therefore, a critical element to the success of the project has been to establish partnerships with scientists and institutions that share the common vision of establishing an earth observatory to address climate change. Their time-lapse studies, sensor networks, and other tools can aid artists to create novel instruments and techniques for shifting our perception of time and the environment. The Wired Wilderness Observatory is integrated with these academic institutions and research partners, but serves, a uniquely different function. We seek to create an analogous observation paradigm, that directs the lens of observation onto not only the scientific study of biological systems around San Jose, but the cultural implications and reactions to climate change in the community.
to the institutional partnerships necessary for the management, upkeep, and documentation of the Wired Wilderness project. These are not easy to come by. However, while often daunting to artists, 100-year studies are not uncommon in the scientific community. For example, institutions such as Blue Oak Ranch Reserve, and the broader UC Natural Reserve System, have been endowed and are committed to donors and the state of California to provide persistent ecological study in perpetuity. Currently the Wired Wilderness project has made a partnership with the UC Natural Reserve System. This partnership is an agreement to host artists and to maintain projects that have been created in partnership between scientists, reserve managers, and the Wired Wilderness artists.
Committed as we are to a 100-year artistin-residence, we must also be committed
VeLEA and Time-Lapse studies at Montalvo and BORR The Climate Clock is a woven collective of artist visions, utilizing a variety of seeing modes and sensing technology.
During our Climate Clock residency at the Montalvo Arts Center, we chose to work with time-lapse imagery to determine its feasibility for visualizing a compelling and persuasive message with a long-term data stream. These images have been provided by the Blue Oak Ranch Reserveâ€™s ecological sensing system. In 2009, BORR received funding from the National Science Foundation for $250,000 to further develop and deploy a new generation ecological-sensing system. Principal investigators Michael Hamilton and Tod Dawson describe the Very Large Ecological Array (VeLEA) as using commercially available wireless sensor network technology designed for general purpose environmental sensing. VeLEA will function as a scalable, configurable distributed wireless communication backbone to allow investigators
and educators at BORR to deploy offthe-shelf environmental sensors, network cameras, custom sensors, and specialized instruments at any location or habitat within BORR. VeLEA cyber-infrastructure will be of use to many users, for ecological research, instruction, and public education. VeLEA will directly benefit public understanding of climate change effects through outreach on their website and at the local science and technology museums in the Silicon Valley area. [ix]
Bird Box Time-lapse Center For Embedded Network Sensing, UCLA
Helping Build VeLEA
Raising a network camera tower, another node in the reserveâ€™s ecological sensing system.
Key to the Wired Wilderness project is our involvement in the deployment of the VeLEA environmental sensors across the reserve. In choosing to work with the network cameras, we have suggested and established ideal viewsheds for both scientific and artist interpretations of this data. This has begun the process collecting multi-year imagery of the ecosystem throughout the Blue Oak Ranch Reserve. We are continuing to work with university staff to develop scripts for adjusting the camera and compiling imagery. We have been building into the framework, revealing how creative interpretations of the time-lapse data can allow for storytelling.
This is an ideal baseline resource for artistic interpretation in the Wired Wilderness. When creatively visualized, time-lapsed data can reveal a deeper, more visceral understanding of time. Humans are visual creatures and generally limited in time perception. Time-based studies will make imagery of the earthâ€™s processes accessible: from the constant rising and setting of the sun to the dynamic ranges in seasons, from annual variations in vegetation to the diminishing, loss, and sometimes reestablishment of endangered species. This data has a crucial role to play in raising public awareness of climate change. However, in the hands of Wired Wilderness artists-in-residence, this sensing information will have the capacity to do much more than quietly document the changing ecosystem: knowledge will be translated into public awareness, engagement, and action.
Time Series: Static objects in a moving landscape
Lick Observatory HamCam
Lick is located on Mt. Hamilton, the highest point in Santa Clara county. With an ideal view of the region, the observatory is equipped with the “HamCam,” a camera which has been snapping three-minute-interval images of San Jose for decades. When these images are sped up in time, the city itself comes alive with the seasonal patterns and cycles of metropolitan behaviour.
A year of images from the Lick Observatory “HamCam” taken at 3PM everyday.
Four seasons of images from the Lick Observatory HamCam taken at 3PM.
Over the course of the year the tree in the foreground dies.
Venue Activating the City through sitespecific Wired Wilderness artist installations.
In order to discover venue opportunities within the Diridon Station area and San Jose as a whole, we carried out a series of site investigations throughout the region and located a wide variety of candidates. As we pondered our search, we began to see similarities in the ways we navigate the city and how the new highspeed rail station could serve as a microcosm of the entire city. Venue possibilities are compressed into a dense pocket of opportunity. In our research, we have created a series of maps which locate levels of ecological and cultural diversity across the city. Where there are intersections, we have defined a “hot spot” site ripe for activation by a Wired Wilderness artist. The sites of these “hot spots” vary from vacant lots to civic infrastructure and transport systems. Implementing a venue typology will take on a phased strategy. In the early residencies, artists could begin to engage with venue opportunities with underutilized lots around the station and river. As the project grows in parallel to the surrounding development, artists will begin to incorporate works within more long-term venue opportunities.
To the east of the train station development, just west of the river and 87 freeway, a series of underutilized narrow lots sit abruptly on the creek. In the long-term master plan of the city, this area is considered undevelopable, or overlooked, as there are no defined development plans for it. This is an ideal place for additional Wired Wilderness venue opportunities and infrastructure along the river. This would be a multi-year, landscapebased strategy to the project, creating venue opportunities in conjunction with an expanded northwest riparian corridor. The venue district is determined by the Diridon area plan. However, we also include how to expand beyond the formal planning area. One potential site for activation is the elevated freeway. As with many elevated transport systems, the 87 provides a physical blockade between the new Diridon neighborhood and the city. The Wired Wilderness art venues, will help to blur these physical impediments by utilizing the very infrastructure that divides the community as a canvas for creating cultural linkages between neighborhoods.
Hotspots as Observatories and Venues
This map is an example of how the Wired Wilderness Observatory might expand. BORR, our prototype observatory, is shown shaded to the east of San Jose. The dotted lines, to the north and south, show viable, short-term expansions of the observatory into the 5,000 acre Lick Observatory land to the south, as well as a northwestern expansion, through Alum Rock Park, and along the Penitencia Creek. The red mesh network of links and nodes shows how this observatory network might expand. This network is not random, but in fact derived from highly scrutinized locations base on either cultural significance, strategic partnership, or ecological importance.
BORR & Lick Observatory Observatory Network Observatory Nodes High-Speed Rail Network High-Speed Rail Stations Existing Rail Stations Protected Land Urban Park Network Bay Water Body Stream Network Sea Level Rise Fresh Water Waste Water Urban Oak Woodlands Urban Forests Grasslands Protected Land Impervious Surface
Wired Wilderness Observatory Networks 72
2 miles N
After the hotspots, we then try to express the ubiquitous nature of how the observatory could evolve to encompass existing physical infrastructure and eventually the entire city, from stream gauges, to reservoirs, to links and nodes of the proposed high-speed rail itself. Diridon Station is a critical hub for many different networks. It is both the confluence of transportation lines, as well as the confluence of two of San Joseâ€™s major creeks.
To some extent our design process for the venue has been both sited and siteless. When first awarded as a finalist in 2009, we were asked to propose our own site within the city. As the design process progressed and became more refined, we were given the future high-speed rail development at San Joseâ€™s Diridon Station as our new site. However, it is still unclear as to when and how this development will move forward. As such, we have worked to categorize typologies of conditions which exist almost universally within the urban fabric of San Jose, creating a bank of venue strategies from which elements can be picked to fit particular sites and purposes. This collection of typologies has been applied to our development of a proposal for the not-yet-existing high-speed rail station of San Jose. Independent of any specific venue, however, the lineage of the design
process is apparent, and we need only go back to our typological conditions and venue strategies to find a new solution to accommodate a new location. Our typology bank catalogues an opencompendium of venue solutions: surface or void, autonomous or distributed, structured or disordered, permanent or temporary, and so on. These typologies may manifest as walls, ceilings, floors, stairs, walkways, escalators, parks, public and private spaces, vacant lots, storefronts, streets, traffic junctions, on-ramps, platforms, roofs, and myriad of others. Included here are several of these typological archetypes that could be adapted to fit a series of venue possibilities.
We have worked to categorize typologies of conditions which exist almost universally within the urban fabric of San Jose, creating a bank of venue strategies from which elements can be picked to fit particular sites and purposes. Typology Catalogue
HIGH SPEED RAIL
IMMERSIVE DOME (PERMANENT)
IMMERSIVE DOME (TEMPORARY)
HIGH SPEED RAIL
IMMERSIVE DOME (PERMANENT)
IMMERSIVE DOME (TEMPORARY)
In this map of Diridon Station and surrounding area, blue shading indicates short term vacant lots, planned for use in the stationâ€™s redevelopment. These lots could serve as short term venue locations also help stimulate interest and culture in the area. Red dots suggest other potential venue locations.
Phasing & Opportunity Sites Diridon Station Redevelopment Area
The color gradient from red to yellow suggests hypothetical timing of availability for real estate with longer-term venue potential. Over time, the evolving art venues could aggregate and stitch together to form a cohesive network of permanent venue locations.
Activating the Neighborhood Phase I Opportunity Sites Typologies May Manifest as a Host of Possibilites
Examples of venue typologies include walls, ceilings, floors, stairs, walkways, escalators, parks, public and private spaces, vacant lots, storefronts, streets, traffic junctions, onramps, platforms, roofs, riverways, railway tracks, and a myriad of others.
Railway tracks through urban center
Underpass to overpass
Railway tracks parallel to freeways
This map shows potential long-term venue locations as red points and lines, in relation to a hypothetical fully-built Diridon Station area plan. Some of these venues are conceptualized in following pages.
Activating the Station Phase II Opportunity Sites Potential Venue Locations
Red dots suggest potential venue locations, both successive and reoccurring. The trajectory of venue placement can strategically create linkages through barriers like the freeway into other neighborhoods. Rather than a product of redevelopment, the Venue can serve as a catalyst.
Activating the Station Phase II Opportunity Sites Interactive Surfaces on the High-speed Rail Platform
Activating the Station Phase II Opportunity Sites Interactive Surfaces Below High-speed Rail Platform
Activating the Station Typological Archetypes
Venue prototype is derived from a combination of typologies.
Activating the Station Future Venue Locations
Activating the Station Possible Roundabouts and Greenbelts
Activating the Urban Ecosystem Urban Observatory
Beyond the yearly, ephemeral venue locations, we see an opportunity to create a longer-lasting impact. What emerges is a more permanent element to the Wired Wilderness: cultivating and nurturing bioindicators within the city.
We are particularly interested in how the Wired Wilderness can act as a catalyst to engage the city and encourage the community to consider the Diridon Area as an ecosystem and observatory in itself. Here we suggest how we could begin to protect and restore linkages through aggregating community involvement around venue locations.
Activating the Urban Ecosystem Greening Infrastructure Strategy
The lime green suggests new habitat corridors and riparian restoration that could be created in the station area through the Wired Wilderness. The opaque lighter green is existing greenbelt and darker green suggests vacant lots that could further stitch the urban greenbelt.
The Trust The Advisors, Planners, and Administrators
The Wired Wilderness Trust serves as would a board of directors for a business or non-profit. They exist to uphold and amend the core principles as well as address pragmatic issues related to the Wired Wilderness, as expressed in the projectâ€™s constitution. The trust will be made up of a core managerial and administrative staff, which addresses practical concerns to keep the project on target, and an advisory board, which dictates and interprets the ultimate focus and direction of the project. The advisory board convenes during the Zero1 Biennial to develop the biannual challenge for the next artist-in-residence.
The administrative team will oversee each residency cycle, ensuring that the Climate Clock keeps ticking for the next hundred years. This reassessment of the projectâ€™s status and its flexible and modifiable constitution will insure the Wired Wilderness may continually update its goals and address relevant questions in a shifting landscape of new climate change technologies and public perception.
Anthropology Art Astronomy Biology Communications Economics Geology Hydrology Meteorology Community Venue
ADMINISTRATIVE FORUM 99
Funding The Wired Wilderness Endowment
Overview: 100-year commitment The core financial strength of our proposal is that it does not need extensive capital to initiate. Indeed, it has already begun. By the spring of 2012, we will have renovated the Amos White Cabin into an artist residency studio at The Blue Oak Ranch Reserve. The residency framework and competition will be live on the web. The winner will have access to the Blue Oak Ranch Reserve, a backbone of regional climate data, as well as the support of a significant, multi-campus scientific community. Though the project has begun, we cannot guarantee a 100-year commitment to San Jose of the Wired Wilderness observatory, residency, and venue without a structure for long-term financial commitment. The only successful model we were able to find for doing so is an endowment. An endowment serves as our true 100-year commitment. At the core of this endowment lies our financial policy, an ethical and economic outline incorporated into the Wired Wilderness constitution. This policy will dictate the actions and investments to which the fund manager and the Wired Wilderness administration adhere. To make a
philosophical and economic commitment to the climate-focused mission of the project, we decided the fund will invest exclusively in socially and environmentally responsible businesses engaging in environmental sensing and climate change research. The majority of the funds will also remain in the Chicago Carbon Trading Market, or other carbon-based markets yet to exist. This uniquely and intricately links the financial success of the Wired Wilderness with the success of climate change technology, and ultimately public perception and acceptance. The single, basic unwavering financial policy of the project is that the principal fund of the endowment will never be touched, giving the last artist at least as much support as the first, but not limiting the project to grow beyond this. In order for the endowment to cover the basic administrative overhead of the Trust and provide each artist the same basic tools we were givenâ€”$50,000 for the residencyâ€”we would need to place a minimum of $4 million into an endowment. This would preserve the project for at least 100 years, accounting for inflation
A Uniquely Flexible Funding & Phasing Strategy
The Residency Funding Strategy
Beyond the endowment, which is a basic requirement to guarantee permanent project sustainability, the most unique strategy of our funding model is its flexibility. At an early stage in the development of our concept, we felt strongly that a unique funding model was incredibly important to the success of the project, would inevitably drive all elements of the project from observatory to venue, and should therefore drive the conceptual strategies for each element of the project.
The residency is at the heart of the Wired Wilderness and the one and only area permanently funded by the endowment. Since the artist is the single most critical element of the projectâ€™s architecture, even if the funding for the observatoryâ€” and venueâ€”eventually dwindle, the artist is guaranteed a three-month residency and supporting funds, providing for both financial and conceptual continuity.
Venue Funding Strategy Our paradigmatic approach to public art and current strategy for the Wired Wilderness venue is to deeply integrate with the existing infrastructure of the city, whether it be the Diridon Station or other infrastructure in the city. This is a important conceptual strategy, but also an economic one. Much like the observatory, where the funding for â€œartâ€? is leveraged against the preexisting infrastructural canvas, the scale and potential of the piece is far greater than that of a sculpture on a plinth.
Observatory Funding Strategy The nature of the strong collaboration with the sciences is a critical piece of the funding strategy. Our partnerships have allowed not only the project to begin, but for the $50,000 Climate Clock seed funding to be leveraged over tenfold. Utilizing a $1,000,000 grant from NSF for the reserve, the physical infrastructure was provided for the Wired Wilderness observatory. Further, BORR endowment funds matched our $25,000 committed to renovating the Amos White Cabin. This was possible due to our strategic decision to not be responsible for the physical infrastructure of the observatory. Into the future, these integral scientific collaborations will lead to reoccurring funding opportunities. They will manifest not only in the expansion of the observatory, but in the form of research grants, which often require community outreach. These can in turn be channelled into increased public awareness and activate a collective good.
There were two core variables we identified that would inevitably impact the funding and phasing of the Wired Wilderness venue: 1) infrastructure phasing, and 2) the current global financial crisis. First, with experience on other large-scale transportation infrastructure projects, we know that they can take a long time to complete and often develop cost and scheduling overruns. For example, some conservative estimates suggest the Diridon High-Speed Rail Station may not be completed until 2020 or beyond, not to speak of mercurial political and public will to see the project to completion. Secondly, the global financial crisis begun in 2008 continues to create stagnant economic growth and a climate of economic instability and unpredictability. The flexibility of our venue options and stability of our endowment strategy maximize the resilience of the Wired Wilderness, shielding the project from these variables. Because the physical venue of the Wired Wilderness evolves and aggregates over time, the project does not require the initial $20 million upfront: by design, the funds are spread over 100 years, allowing the project to draw upon additional annual endowments and match funding.
Developing The Funding Model The greatest long-term benefit of the Wired Wilderness project is to create an endowment for the long-term management and development of the project. In order to develop this funding model, we researched the endowment structure for various art and educational institutions and non-profits. The basic financial models were provided by James Pugh & Associates, LLC, an academic and private endowment financial consulting firm. Endowment returns varied dramatically, from 25% to -20%, with a 50-year average of 9-12%. Since fund returns are so speculative, we chose a conservative 8%. We then averaged a variety of typical fund management fees from a variety of sources. Finally, we incorporated a conservative 3% annual inflation rate. This endowment fund has been structured to support the three core elements of our climate clock proposal: 1) the artistin-residence, 2) observatory infrastructure, and finally 3) venue infrastructure and maintenance. The final endowment component is for the project manage-
ment services, an administrative staff to keep the clock â€œoiled.â€? To show all of these variables, we developed three interconnected financial models for the project: 1) an endowment, 2) an operating budget, and 3) a capital projects budget. With a better understanding the amount needed for operating costs, we are now developing a variety of strategies for the bricks-and-mortar funding for the Wired Wilderness project. We are looking at unique ways to integrate construction costs by funding through the endowment to maximize the return on capital. We are currently also talking to endowment specialists, fund managers, UC Berkeley, Stanford, and other institutions in the Silicon Valley, all possible strategic partners for the next phase of the Wired Wilderness endowment creation.
Modelling Different Scenarios Given the prevailing variables above, we then ran a few potential scenarios in which differing amounts of capital are infused into the endowment at different rates. To simplify the many permutations we examined, we developed an “optimistic” scenario and “pessimistic” scenario. The optimistic scenario assumes we get a significant amount of initial capital for a substantial endowment, with an additional $10 million towards the development of Wired Wilderness venue spaces. With the pessimistic scenario, we project little to no upfront capital, a far worse return rate, and a more piecemeal influx of capital. In this model we see the physical venue developing at slower rate but still insure the existence of the artist-in-residence.
Financial Model as Venue Model We have been using these various financial models to help sculpt our ambitions for the venue. In the venue section of this document, a variety of different design options are explored that could accommodate a variety of funding scenarios. Ultimately, the Wired Wilderness project has the capacity to reflect the energy and resources put into it. The venue or venues will essentially be the dependent variable in the Climate Clock, to be determined by the interest in the project and therefore the community support and funding.
• 25 Artists have participated. • Whether or not there has been Each artistic is given the same money added to the individual amount as original artist. project or the endowment, the • Somewhere around 2040, base $4 million endowment enough money was raised to continues to support artists create a central venue and until 2112, archive to the wired wilderness. • ...and perceivably beyond, if supported by the community
• 5 Artists and 5 biennial venues have occurred with 250-500k budget raised from city or donors. • Endowment reaches $4, which is enough to provide baseline support for full 100 years,
• 50 Artists have participated. • The endowment grows to $100 million, now supporting a staff of 50 • A central archive to the Wired Wilderness is constructed. • The Wired Wilderness projects cumulative 100 work is documented in multimedia experience. • The project continues on.
• Residency is already finished. • First artist selected at Zero1. • 30k award goes to the first artist. (Assume there is never a • Project realized 2014. $20 million budget and the • WW Team begins fundraising train station is never built) campaign • Minimal 30-50k goes is raised for each biennial • All additional fundraising goes to the endowment
(Assume $20 Million project, and standard Public Art process)
Sculpture removed some years ago, due to disrepair, lack of funding, and a new train station being built
• 25 Artists have participated, each artists is given, 100% more than original artists. • The project has gained popularity and an x-prize style competition emerges for businesses to partners to collaborate with artists on technological challenges. • The endowment grows to $50 million. • An artist/scientist collaborative research institution is built.
• Residency is finished. • 5 artists have already • First artist selected at Zero1. participated as train Station is • $30k awarded to WW team being built. goes to the first artist. • $10 million is spent on (Assume $20 million • First Project realized 2014. infrastructure budget and train station on • Wired Wilderness Team has • $10 million is placed in the track) worked closely with Train team endowment to integrate venue opportunities (The initial $2-million artist design fee is placed in endowment, to begin supporting the project)
2022 After 50 years, multiple replaced moving parts, and multiple vandals, the maintenance budget is spent and a few fans try to raise money for repair
• Artist gets $2 million design fee. • Artist work is installed in new • Works for 4-5 years on design shiny building, with a and fabrication until building is percentage of money for constructed maintenance
ENDOWMENT ACTUAL ACTUAL ACTUAL 2008 2009 2010 rate
Market Value - beginning of year FY Total Return Adds Gifts
25,000 26,750 48,620 8.0%
Takedowns Draw to operating Operating deficit Draw to inflation (added to next year) Fund management fees (125/10000) Total Changes market value - end of year
3.00% 1.25% bp
- 0 20,000 20,000
-0 -0 -0 (250) 1,750
-0 -0 -0 (270) 21,870
-0 -0 -0 (240) 23,650
26,750 48,620 72,270
OPERATING BUDGET ACTUAL
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
15,000 10,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25,000
Income Endowment draw Capitol Expenses Artist Residency Stipend Artwork Materials Outreach Administration Development IT Infrastructure Debt service PPRRSM (tsf to plant fd) Total expenses
3.0% 3.0% 3.0% 3.0% 3.0% 5.0% 5.0% ` 5.0%
Only the realistic financial model is shown. Others, were actually calculated and can be found on the website Financial Models Courtesy of James Pugh & Associates, LLC, (Academic & Private Endowment Financial Co
YTD PROJECTED PROJECTED 2011 2012 2013
-0 (25,000) (2,168) (903) (12,290)
10 YEARS 2022
50 YEARS 2062
66,343 5,236,736 19,580,226 5,307
(177,855) (665,351) -0 -0 (157,102) (587,407) (65,459) (244,753) 18,523 68,908
(3,029,164) (1,248,214) (2,569,467) (1,070,611) (1,065,545)
64,478 3,953,831 5,255,259 19,649,134
(1,255) (28,745) (1,864) (777) 2,331
(1,845) (113,155) (1,990) (829) 3,887,488
YTD PROJECTED PROJECTED
100 YEARS 2112
15,000 10,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25,000
15,000 15,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30,000
25,000 50,000 10,000 5,000 5,000 10,000 10,000 0 0 115,000
32,619 65,239 13,048 6,524 6,524 15,513 15,513 0 0 154,980
106,405 212,811 42,562 21,281 21,281 109,213 109,213 0 0 622,768
466,472 932,943 186,589 93,294 93,294 1,252,393 1,252,393 0 0 4,277,378
Conclusion & Beginning
Three years ago, three of us came together to tackle the challenge of the Climate Clock. Since then, our team has grown significantly and we have seen the prototype of the Wired Wilderness Project begin to stand on its own two feet. The residency and the challenges it seeks to confront are already in motion. However, to realize the Climate Clock, within the parameters of our proposal will require significantly more coordination, partnerships, and funding than our current condition. The ambitious goal of realizing an iconic 100-year artwork focused on climate change needs stakeholders that are willing and able to make such a long term commitment. The Climate Clock competition has been an invaluable opportunity to become exposed to the wealth of potential for such relationships in San Jose and the Bay Area. We have leveraged this opportunity to bring some of these stakeholders to you. We only need your support and commitment. Whether we win or lose, we will be eternally grateful for having been given this chance to engage with the subject matter of this competition so deeply. Thank you for your consideration. All the teams are amazing and there is no wrong answer, only your interpretation of what fits your definition of â€œiconic.â€? Thank you.
A list of recommended artists for the Wired Wilderness artist-in-residence is provided below. This is an incredibly abbreviated list of the many great artists working with visualization of climate change. The qualifications which place them on this list are based on our confidence in their ability to pick up this project and immediately know how to run with it. However, no two candidates stand out more than our current competitors, the teams of Amorphic Robot Works and Usman Haque, Robert Davis and Carol Lewis. Like us, they have spent the last three years investigating the feasibility of realizing a 100-year climate change artwork in San Jose. We see it as almost criminal to see the wealth of their research not be applied to the Climate Clock. Within the
parameters of this project, we ask them to consider being the first of the Wired Wilderness residents. It goes against our project ethos to not recognize their contributions and we see them as the most capable of providing a truly unique perspective to the Wired Wilderness Residency. We would ask them to consider a feature project within the future venues at Diridon Station, connected to the resources provided by the Wired Wilderness residency.
â€œArt is not a mirror to hold up to society, but a hammer with which to shape it.â€?
Lauren Bon http://www.metabolicstudio.org/ Amorphic Robot Works http://amorphicrobotworks.org/works/index.htm Bill Fontana http://www.resoundings.org/ Gelitin http://www.gelitin.net/mambo/ Helen and Newton Mayer Harrison http://theharrisonstudio.net/ hehe http://hehe.org.free.fr/ Usman Haque http://www.haque.co.uk/ Burrito Justice http://burritojustice.com/ Arron Koblin http://www.aaronkoblin.com/ Eve S. Mosher http://highwaterline.org/ Encyclopedia Pictura http://encyclopediapictura.com/ Jennifer Steinkamp http://jsteinkamp.com/
SAMPLE Request for Proposals (RFP) Open February 2012 to 15 June 2012 For residency periods between July 2012 and August 2012
The WIRED WILDERNESS Biennial PRIZE awards a site-specific proposal about Climate Change by a contemporary artist or artist team. STATEMENT The Wired Wilderness artist-in-residency facilitates multiple artists working over the next 100 years, maintaining the relevancy of the Climate Clock through ongoing updating of climatological perspective and artistic iteration. The program will offer an interdisciplinary opportunity for established and emerging artists to work with some of the world’s leading climate scientists and engage with the Climate Clock venue. The Wired Wilderness fellowship proceeds in the following phases: ! Phase 1: 3-month placement in the Amos White studio at Blue Oak Ranch Reserve.
! Phase 2: Two years to realize proposal from when Art Call is advertised. ! Phase 3: Presentation of project at the Zero1 Biennial during the Advisory Committee gathering ! Phase 4: Commitment to archiving process and passing on knowledge and experiences to future artist fellows. A – SCIENTIFIC FRAMEWORK The Wired Wilderness award is an opportunity to promote the entries and artists involved and to demonstrate the creative potential of art with regards to climate change and related issues. The aim of the award is to encourage artists to focus on climate change and help to foster public awareness. B – CALL FOR APPLICATIONS 2012 CHALLENGE We have put forward the following real world challenge: “Visualization of the effects of Climate Change on the Oak Woodlands of San Jose at the Blue Oak Ranch Reserve” APPLICANTS Residency is open to all artists. Artists working with data visualization are strongly encouraged to apply. ARTIST SELECTION The WIRED WILDERNESS PRIZE is a biennial project about climate change by a contemporary artist. Application assessment criteria are the following: ! Proposals must undertake an artistic project that addresses a rigorous scientific topic related to climate change. The selected artist will have access to the Wired Wilderness Trust (administrative team and advisory committee) during their residency.
! Proposals should be innovative in nature: yet relate to the larger project. ! Include the use of ecosystem sensing, data manipulation, sensor technologies ! Ability for project to be sited at the Climate Clock venue (you do not have to choose a specific location within the venue)
! Project must set something new in motion, building upon the greater Climate Clock project. ! Capacity of the proposal to engage the public. ! Capacity of proposal to be archived.The documentation and archiving of the work is critical and the artist fellow will work with the Climate Clock archivist and the venue to insure that work is properly conserved. SCIENCE OUTPUT Artists will partner with UC Reserve Director Dr. Micheal Hamilton and researchers investigating climate-related subjects at the Blue Oak Ranch Reserve (BORR). The broader UC Reserve system has made commitments to donors and the state of California to provide long-term ecological study. Dr. Hamilton is fully in support of the artist-in-residency program and has expressed “there is great value in bringing the art into the reserve system.” Artist will have full access to all sensor data collected to date. Modes and methods of collection is daily time-lapse imagery, soil and moisture data in excel format, field studies and notes, GIS data, and so on. A detailed list of sensor data being collected is available. If they choose, artists can work with researchers to set up new methods of data collection and outputs. Artists should indicate any specific disciplines they would like to interact with, and how their projects would be linked to such disciplines. Applicants may provide details of any additional local institutions, laboratories, or teams they wish to collaborate with. VENUE OPPORTUNITY Defined as a series of infrastructural opportunities within the station and rail developments, we see the venue as a connective thread. Details of the venue and art opportunities will be disclosed during the Wired Wilderness gathering at the Zero1 Biennial. On award of fellowship, artists will be given an orientation to familiarize themselves with their potential sites. C – ACCOMMODATION SCHEMES ON OFFER The selected artist will be presented with a 1-3 month residency at The Blue Oak Ranch Reserve, San Jose, CA. A stipend for living and funding to produce a final project will be provided. The final project will be integrated within a predetermined Climate Clock venue. Artists will have the support from the advisory committee. Accommodation for artist(s): Wired Wilderness will provide accommodation at the Amos White cabin as a studio. Wired Wilderness will provide for travel expenses. Wired Wilderness will provide a fixed allowance. Wired Wilderness will organize a seminar with each resident on a theme related to their project. E – ONLINE APPLICATION Applications can be submitted on Wired Wilderness website. Applicant must include: ! CV including a list of publications, exhibitions, or creations
Project Contributors Special Thanks Since being awarded our finalist residency at Montalvo, our team has focused significant time and energy into building relationships with academics, field scientists, local, state, and national governmental officials, professionals, and artist with relevant experience and expertise to dissect, understand, and communicate climate change realities in the San Jose region. Our team has been augmented by an amazing array of individuals and institutions, contributors who all believe in the Wired Wilderness projectâ€™s potential. Through our initial research funding, we have fostered relationships through a series of engagements with the UC Berkeley I-School and Architecture Departments, The Center for the American West at Stanford, and interactions with scientists and students from Santa Clara University, San Jose State University, the University of Colorado at Boulder, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, and the Southern California Institute of Architecture. Our outreach has encouraged partnerships between global change ecologists Wired Wilderness Project Participants: Jihyeun Byeon, Greenmeme JoĹĄko Kirigin, Greenmeme Gabriella Schnierle, Greenmeme Robert Glass, Julia Schmidt, Graham Prentice, Hyphae
like Adam Wolf, journalism professors such as Jon Christensen at Stanford, and anthropologists like Chuck Darrah at SJSU. They have been drawn to the project by the unique opportunity for a 100-year-long observation of human response to a how artists interpret and make relevant the complexity of our changing ecology. Partnership with researchers like Alicia Torregrosa at the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park provide critical linkage to the most respected organization in the United States for global climate change modelling. Through these interactions, a diverse network of roles have emerged within the Wired Wilderness/Climate Clock project. These roles define the total Wired Wilderness ambition within the realms of science, residency, and venue, encouraging a proliferation multi-disciplinary knowledge and frames of reference over its century-long lifespan.
Wired Wilderness Blue Oak Ranch Reserve (BORR), University of California Berkeley Natural Reserve University of California Berkeley Natural Reserve System University of California Berkeley, Information School Montalvo Arts Center, Lucus Artists Residency Program Mark Anderson, Associate Professor of Architecture, Department of Architecture Jon Christensen, Bill Lane Center for the American West, Stanford University Philippe Cohen, Director of Jasper Ridge Reserve, Stanford University Chuck Darrah, Anthropology Department Chair, San Jose State University Barbara Goldstein, Public Art Director, Office of Cultural Affairs, Public Art Program, City of San Jose Office of Cultural Affairs Michael Hamilton, Director of Blue Oak Ranch Reserve, UC Reserve System Catherine Koehler, Co-Director of McLaughlin Reserve, UC Reserve System Loan Luu, Department of Anthropology, San Jose State University Roberto Molina, City of San Jose Public Works James Morgan, Lecturer at Digital Media Art Nathalie Ortar Manigault, Visiting Professor at San Jose State University Mary Rubin, Senior Project manager, Office of Cultural Affairs, Public Art Program Kelly Sicat, Director, Lucas Artists Residency Program, Montalvo Arts Center Danielle Siembieda, ZER01: The Art & Technology Network Joel Slayton, Executive Director, ZER01: The Art & Technology Network Anne-Marie Todd, Associate Professor in Communication Studies at San Jose State University Alicia Torregrosa, U.S. Geological Survey Stuart B. Weiss, Creekside Center for Earth Observation Adam Wolf, Princeton Department of Global Ecology â€˜ Sarah Gervutz, San Jose State University University of California Berkeley, College of Environmental Design, Studio Project Marisha Farnsworth, Jeremy Fisher, Leslie Tom Magnolia Editions
Regional Partners UC Reserve Network
The University of California Natural Reserve System is a network of protected natural areas throughout California. Its 37 sites include more than 750,000 acres, making it the largest university-administered reserve system in the world. Most major state ecosystems are represented, from coastal tide pools to inland deserts, from lush wetlands to Sierra Nevada forests. The reserves also serve as a gateway to more than a million acres of public lands. Founded in 1965 to provide undisturbed environments for research, education, and public service, the Natural Reserve System contributes to the understanding and wise stewardship of the earth.
White-breasted Nuthatch at BORR Photo by Edward Rooks
1. Angelo Coast Range Reserve 2. Yosemite Field Station 3. Jenny Pygmy Forest Reserve 4. McLaughlin Natural Reserve 5. Sagehen Creek Field Station 6. Chickering American River Reserve 7. Quail Ridge Reserve 8. Stebbins Cold Canyon Reserve 9. Bodega Marine Reserve 10. Jepson Prairie Reserve 11. Valentine Camp-Valentine Eastern Sierra Reserve 12. Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory (SNARL) 13. Blue Oak Ranch Reserve 14. A単o Nuevo Island Reserve 15. Younger Lagoon Reserve 16. Fort Ord Natural Reserve 17. Hastings Natural History Reservation 18. Landels-Hill Big Creek Reserve
19. Kenneth S. Norris Rancho Marino Reserve 20. Sedgwick Reserve 21. Coal Oil Point Natural Reserve 22. Carpinteria Salt Marsh Reserve 23. Santa Cruz Island Reserve 24. Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains Reserve 25. Sweeney Granite Mountains Desert Research Center 26. Burns Pi単on Ridge Reserve 27. Box Springs Reserve 28. James San Jacinto Mountains Reserve 29. Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center 30. San Joaquin Marsh Reserve 31. Motte Rimrock Reserve 32. Emerson Oaks Reserve 33. Dawson Los Monos Canyon Reserve 34. Scripps Coastal Reserve 35. Elliott Chaparral Reserve 36. Kendall-Frost Mission Bay Marsh Reserve
Map of the UC Natural Reserve System
University of California Berkeley Blue Oak Ranch Reserve
Blue Oak Ranch Reserve is a Biological Field Station and Ecological Reserve operated jointly by the Berkeley Natural History Museum and the UC Natural Reserve System. The site provides undisturbed natural environments to conduct field-based research and instruction within a protected landscape, as well as in association with adjacent sites. This 3,260 acre ecological reserve is perched on the west-facing slope of the Diablo Range in northern Santa Clara County, California, seven air miles east of metropolitan San Jose and five miles northwest of Mt. Hamilton. Elevations range from 1,400 feet, where the Arroyo Aguague exits the ranch, to 2,855 feet at the top of Poverty Ridge. Ecosystems include native and non-native grasslands, ephemeral and perennial ponds and streams, coastal chaparral, riparian woodlands, oak woodlands, and stands of mixed conifer and hardwoods on north facing slopes. Habitats at Blue Oak Ranch Reserve supports 138 species of birds, 43 species of mammals, 10 species of amphibians, 26 species of reptiles, 7 species of fish, and hundreds of species of invertebrates. On-site facilities now include a campground with a large tent platform, potable water, campfire ring, access to indoor meeting and work space, a community kitchen, restrooms, and wireless Internet access. There is a reference weather station as well as a newly installed wireless environmental sensor network, and semi-portable WIFI hot spots suitable
for in-situ network cameras for remote observation. Other databases include species lists and GIS data layers. An adjacent 1,600 acre Nature Conservancy Reserve is available for research. Established in December 2007, Blue Oak Ranch Reserve now attracts field researchers and university instructors from many UC, CSU and private universities, businesses and non-profit organizations, and government agencies. Plans are underway to develop a 30-bed dormitory, seasonal cabins for long-term users, classroom, laboratory, and workspaces to accommodate up to 50 concurrent users.
Coyote Ridge Santa Clara County Open Space Authority
Imagine a place of sweeping vistas, singing grasses, wildflowers, eagles, falcons, coyotes, but few people. All this within view of one of the largest metropolitan areas in America. All this two miles from an interstate highway. The hills on the eastern side of the Santa Clara Valley, known collectively as the Diablo Range, are in places made up of a rock known as serpentinite, or more commonly, just serpentine. Coyote Ridge is a block of serpentine fifteen miles long and two miles wide just east of US 101. In the spring it is a mass of wildflowers, right down to the highway. Kestrels can be seen along the highway, hovering as they look for prey. Red-legged frogs can be seen in ponds, and pronghorns can be seen in the hills beyond.
Alicia Torregrosa, U.S. Geological Survey Stuart B. Weiss, Creekside Center for Earth Observation with a Bay Checker Spot Butterfly
At other times of the year the brown hills may go unnoticed. But if you look up, you will see outcroppings of the curious serpentine rock, so named because unweathered pieces can be green and scaly like a snake. And nestled in among these outcroppings, the rare and endangered plants. Perched on the rock may be a horned lark, or a California quail. And somewhere within the dried foliage, the larvae of the rare Bay checkerspot butterfly listed federally as a threatened species.
Lucas Artists Residency Program at Montalvo Montalvo has hosted resident artists since 1939; in 2004, the Sally and Don Lucas Artists Residency Program was created, with new facilities designed by six teams of artists and architects, and comprised of 10 discipline-specific live/ work studios and one commons building. The residency offers facilities and staff supportive of the creative process, in an environment conducive to both individual practice and the energetic exchange of ideas among international and culturally diverse fellows. The residency has earned international recognition as a model of curatorial practice supporting new and challenging contemporary work.
Montalvo Arts Center Photo by Jaime Lopez Wolters
Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve
Bill Lane Center for the American West
The Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (JRBP) is located near the Stanford University campus in the eastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains. The Preserve encompasses remarkable geologic, topographic, and biotic diversity within its 1,189 acres, providing a natural laboratory for researchers from all over the world. The Preserve offers educational experiences to students and docent-led visitors and refuge to native plants and animals.
The Center of the American West takes as its mission the creation of forums for the respectful exchange of ideas and perspectives in the pursuit of solutions to the region’s difficulties. The Center believe’s that an understanding of the historical origins of the West’s problems, an emphasis on the common interests of all parties, and a dose of good humor are essential to constructive public discussion.
San Jose State University
Department of Anthropology, San José State University
School of Journalism & Mass Communications, San José State University
San José State University is one of the best places in the world to do anthropology—and it is all about people. Situated in the heart of Silicon Valley, San José State serves thirty thousand students from a huge variety of ethnic backgrounds. From emeriti with decades of experience to students taking their first undergraduate Anthropology course, everyone has something interesting to contribute. Students have the opportunity to learn about how our ancestors adapted to changing environmental conditions or how our neighbors will cope with the emerging global culture. With the support of our dedicated staff, our distinguished faculty conducts research all over the globe—and right here in our own backyard.
Founded more than 70 years ago, the SJSU School of Journalism and Mass Communications is the largest of its kind in Northern California, offering degrees in advertising, journalism and public relations, as well as specialized sequences in reporting, editing, photojournalism, magazine journalism, and broadcast journalism.
The graduate program also offers a Master’s in Mass Communications. The key element connecting these disciplines is that they all require the clear self-expression, through words, images, audio, video and other means.
Children’s Discovery Museum
The purpose of Children’s Discovery Museum of San Jose is to serve the needs of children, families, and schools as a center for learning and discovery. For children, it is first and foremost a place to call their own, offering interactive exhibits and programs in a warm and inviting setting. Its educational mission encompasses the themes of Connections, Community, and Creativity. In its unique environment, children actively make connections among ideas, people and cultures. The Museum’s programs also encourage children to define their role in and contribution to both local and global communities. Finally, as a center for creative play and expression, Children’s Discovery Museum of San Jose provides opportunities for all of us to discover the world through the eyes of our children.
The principal investigators of the Wired Wilderness project are artists Freya Bardell and Brian Howe of Greenmeme, Brent Bucknum of the Oakland-based Hyphae design lab, and Dr. Michael Hamilton, ecologist and resident director of the Blue Oak Ranch Reserve.
GREENMEME Freya Bardell and Brian Howe Brian Howe and Freya Bardell are the founders and creative directors of Greenmeme, a cross-disciplinary collaborative based in Los Angeles. The focus of Greenmeme is in the design and creation of artistic environments that encourage public stewardship through sculptures that promote both the environmental and cultural awareness of a given site.
HYPHAE Brent Bucknum Hyphae (noun), plural for weblike, branching tubes the body (or mycelium) lar fungus, responsible sharing nutrients between
hypha: The fine, which make up of a multicellufor symbiotically soil and plants.
Brent Bucknum is the founder of the Hyphae Design Laboratory, a consulting and design firm dedicated to bridging the gap between innovative architecture and applied biological sciences. In the sustainable design community, Hyphae embodies the biological functions of a hyphal network. They provide the link between other disciplines to bring about deeply sustainable collaboration.
UC BERKELEY Michael P. Hamilton, Ph.D. Dr. Michael Hamilton is an ecologist, conservation biologist, and the reserve director of the Blue Oak Ranch Reserve, a unit of the UC Natural Reserve System due east of San Jose, California. He received his Ph.D. in Natural Resources Policy and Planning from Cornell University in 1983, and hold B.S. and M.S. degrees in biology and ecology from California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Dr. Hamiltonâ€™s research has pioneered the use of digital media and remote sensing technologies for monitoring environmental and ecological changes. At both the James San Jacinto Mountains Reserve and Blue Oak Ranch Reserve he has developed the field of ecological observing systemsâ€”technology-infused natural landscapes that included miniature wireless nodes to monitor microclimates, robotic sensors, and in-situ imagers and microphones to track plant and animal responses to seasonal conditions and perturbations.
[i] Both date and attribution are debated [ii] Bill McKibben: “What the warming world needs now is art, sweet art”, Grist, 4.22.2005. http://grist.org/living/mckibben-imagine/ Retrieved 2.9.2012 [iii] Laura Bleiberg: “They sing and dance to fight a global threat”, The Boston Globe, 11.13.2011 [iv] Janet Owen Driggs & Jules Rochielle Sievert: Something More Than Just Survival, Proboscis, U.K., 2012 [v] http://theharrisonstudio.net/?page_id=356. Retrieved 2.10.2012 [vi] Nicolas Bourriaud: Relational Aesthetics, Les Presse Du Reel, 1998 [vii] Shannon Jackson: The Cambridge Companion to Performance Studies, ed. Tracy C. Davis, Northwestern University, Illinois, 2008 [viii] Heather Davis: “WochenKlausur: When Art Becomes Social Change”, dpi: http://dpi.studioxx.org. Retrieved 2.10.2012 [ix] Todd Dawson, Michael Hamilton: National Science Foundation. Division of Biological Infrastructure. Field Stations and Marine Laboratories Program. FSML Very Large Ecological Array. , Co-PI - $247,771, 2009-2011
www.greenmeme.com www.hyphae.net www.blueoakranchreserve.org