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What is modernity? A quick introduction into the origins, history and development of modernity; how it’s developed and affected the world of design as well as the difference between modernism and post-modernsim.


Ameteur typographer An aspiring graphic desinger’s take on post-modern artist, El Lissitzky, to create their own font.

Modernity and Art Discover modernism and post-modernism in action, looking at the artists Dali and Picasso, the sexism of the Pioneer Plaque and the cake sculpturor from TLC’s very own Cake Boss.

Project Pracitce The works of a univeristy plores different pruposes, medias, using techqniues both modernism and

student that exaudiences and and ideas from post-modernism.


is a movement towards modifying traditional beliefs in accordance with modern ideas, especially in the Roman Catholic Church in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the artistic industry, a movement and style that aims to depart significantly from classical and traditional forms. The first steps of modernism were introduced in what we call “historical modernism” which consisted of the industrial revolution in England as the first. This included the first factories, as a means of developing product more quickly and efficiently as well as providing work, the suffragette movement and automobiles such as cars and buses. However, within the art industry, modernism looks towards the functioning and taming of the natural world perspectival and to put it on paper. Modernist artists include Pablo Picasso (co-starter of the cubism movement), Georgia O’Keefe (the mother of American modernism) and Roy Lichtenstein (pop and comic artist). Modernism has often been recalled as “organized chaos”’ it has a definite structure but a rebellious style and appearance.

Girl before a mirror - Picasso

- Roy Lichtenstein

“Where modernity would be the colour TV, post-modernity would be the 3D TV.” “Cow’s Skull with Calico Roses” - Georgia O’Keeffe

Burj Al Arab - Dubai


is a late 20th century movement regarding art, architecture and social changes. Two key events that gave birth to post-modernism were the technological revolution and social revolution. The technological revolution, which created tools we could use to create post-modern artwork and the social revolution which influenced what post-modernism was, why it was here and what it represented.Whereas modernity would have been the TV and the colour TV, post-modernism is the 3D 32” plasma TV . Post-modernism is, although very similar to modernism, it is less organized and less limited regarding content and layout. Post modern art-work would break colour schemes and put colours together that don’t really match, draw objects as different dimensions like Dali, or typography that has words of mixed cap locks and letters of mixed fonts. Post modern artists include Salvador Dali (Surrealism artist), and architecure has also been influenced by the idea of post modernism. The Arabic architecture in Dubai is unlilke any other in the world. Post-modernism also refers to social aspects, such as language, ethical opinions, the way people dress, as well as architecture, even the graphics of television change with post-modernity. For example; cartoons, especially in colour, would be classed as modern. However 3D animation and 3D cinemas would be classed as post-modern.

“The temptation of St.Anthony” - Salvador Dali

Dreamworks animation - Shrek

Ornamental vagina - Richard Nilsen


was a was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker and ceramicist who specialised in surrealism and cubism. He was born on 25th October, 1881 in Malaga, Spain, but spent the majority of his adult life in France. He has been labelled as one of the most influencial artists of the 20th century and was also the co-founder of the cubism movement. He is classed as modernism. Picasso’d most famous pieces include “The Weeping Woman” and “Guernica” as well as a self portrait he did in cubist style. Picasso would use colour to set moods and show hidden feelings . The Weeping Woman, as well as “Dora Mar”. The Weeping Woman (pictured above, left) has many colours going on, but all can be identified. The outside of her face and hand are yellow and green. Yellow means fear and green

Guernica - Picasso

represents envy. However the dashes of cool colours such as purple and blue, as well as the pale blue around her mouth symbolise sadness. The story behind the Weeping Woman, therefore, is open to interpretation which makes it interesting. Additionally, even shapes can make a difference and being a vital part of cubism, Picaasso has done just that. Her eyes are completely rounded; no sharp edges, which suggest this woman is helpless and has been severely hurt in some way, like the roundness of the eyes of a deer, for example or other creatures that are easy targets. The Dora Maar is also interesting. She appears to be a content, beautiful woman sat in her chair. But on closer inspection, her nails are long, red and sharp and her eyes are different colours; one red and one green. Green is envy and red is anger. As for black, it can be interpreted in many ways, such as mysterious, evil, sadism etc. The Guernica is very different to the majority of Picass’s pieces. It’s stil cubism, but there is no

colour at all. It’s all in gray scale. Guernica is to portray the bombing of he city if Guernica during WW2 and the devistation it caused. This helps us suggest some of the meaning behind some of the colour schemes Picasso uses. The blacks and greys clearly mean sadness and destruction and any colour there might be, whether it have a positive or negative connotation, is some kind of passionate emotion, but here in Guernica, there is none. The same can be found in “The Old Guitarist” painting by Picasso, which isn’t even cubism. But it still uses minimal colour, the main one being a blue over-tone on the entire piece apart from the guitar. Even the placement of colours speaks for its self. The Guitarist is blue and drawn, meaning he is clearly unhappy, but the guitar is still a yellow-ochre wood shade, possibly meaning the guitar is now his only pleasure in life. Much like Dali, Picasso’s paintings are left open to interpretation which makes them fascinating to all audiences.

The Weeping Woman - Picasso

Dora Maar - Picasso

The Old Guitarist - Picasso

The Pioneer plaques are a pair of gold-anodized aluminium plaques which were placed on the 1972 Pioneer 10 and 1973 Pioneer 11 spacecraft, in the hope that either craft would be encountered by extra terrestrial life. It was hoped aliens, who may be able to decipher what humans are and where earth is in comparison to the rest of the solar system, would find it. One think i do like about it is its simplicity. I used this as inspiration for my Earth Artifact project because, what ever the prejudice connotations are behind the Pioneer Plaque, it is still a pictoral message indicating what humans are, and where we live in comparison to the solar system without using language or complex imagary, which is what needs to be used to a greater or lesser degree within my own project, as it is for the same purpose regarding aliens.I also llike the diagram of the solar system and the arrow pointing to and from the space craft of which the plaque is (and therefore, where the aliens would be), to the Earth, indicating that’s where it’s from. However, because of the depiction of the man and woman on it, it has been the subject of controversy regarding sexism. I believe it is rather sexist in some aspects.

Firstly, look at the facial expressions of the man compared to the woman. The man is, or would be, facing the “aliens” that would hopefully find this image, whilst the woman is looking at the man. The man is the first to look into the face of the alien; he’s greeting them. This would tell the aliens that the male is important. The woman, however, is watching the man greet them, as if to be learning from him. So the alien and the woman are both now looking at the man. This would tell the aliens that, seeing as the woman isn’t greeting them, that sh e’s not as important

ever number is on the open side is symbolized as being “greater” than the adjacent number. On the plaque, behind the man and woman, there’s a similar looking arrow, with the man on the open side and the woman nearer the point. This could be interpreted as men are “greater” or more significant than women.

Additionally, even their posture puts them apart. The man stands strong and confident, waving his hand, while the woman is slightly slumped to a side with her hands by her side. This not only makes the man more noticeable, but stronger and more confident than the woman. This could divide into even more assertions; the woman is weak, rude due to not greeting the alien, insecure as she’s looking at the man, a member of her species. Her weak posture compared to the man could also imply she is lazy, or not as intelligent.

Lastly, in addition to the pioneer plaque are the Voyager golden records (above). They are gramaphone records made from gold-plated copper and were placed on the Voyager spacecraft in 1977. It has a similar purpose to the pioneer plaque, but as well as including images that portray the different people and cultures on Earth, it has music to go with it, from artists such as Beethoven, Bach, Mozart and Chuck Berry. It has around 116 images .Additionally, you can see the pattern on the record resembles that of the engraving on the Pioneer Plaque. These items were also intended for future humans as well, should Earth become uninhabitable and humans evolved.

Secondly, the linear graphics around them have subtle indications. The > symbol used in maths is used between two numbers; which

Having said this, the purpose for the sexism could well have been a reflection of the general attitude of the 70’s or it could have been made in a cyial manner by someone who wants to highlight the errors of human society, sexism being one of them.

Salvador Dali was born May 11, The Pioneer Plaque was originally a gold-engraved 1904 in Figueres, Spain. He was plaque sent out on the space crafts Pioneer 10 and one of the first surrealism artists Pioneer 11, which were launched in the 70’s into the andplanetary is, for alignment this reason, solar system’s that it classed might be as sun’s post-modern. Although his caught in the gravitational pull. It was hoped that it would be found by aliens, who would be able time was before the post-modto decipher what humans are and where earth is in ern movement, his work deficomparison to the rest of the solar system. Because nitelyof the reflected this style. of the depiction man and woman on it, it He has wouldofmorph theregarding shapessexism. and been the subject controversy natures of natural objects, such as clocks in “The Persistence of Memory”, his most famous piece which he completed in 1931. Dali was very much inspired by renaissance work, often making historical and religious references in some of his work. One of my favourite pieces by Dali is his painting of Narcissus. It is a painting of two haves; Narcissus before and after the Greek gods cursed him. They are both very different but the position of everything is in the exact same place as the latter picture. The post modern aspects of the right picture is the flower coming out of the egg, the ants crawling up the rock which is shaped like a hand and the checkboard i the background. No rhyme or reason, but still organized. The colour scheme is also different, the right image has more cool colours but the floor is orange, whilst the left more traditional looking picture has warm undertones with a blue pool. Another postmodern piece is “The Temptation of Saint Anthony”, whereby the horses

The Persistence of Memory - Dali

Elephants - Dali

Narcissus - Dali

and elephants have really long, thin, knobbly legs and normal upper bodies. Additionally, the elephants have hooves like the horse, which is definitely classed as postmodern. The painting is what Dali called one of his renaaissance works. The bottom piece of art is very interesting. Although it’s not a painting by Dali, it is called “Dolly in Dali-land” by James X Johnson. You can see he has carefully adapted Dali’s style and ideas and thrown them into one painting to represent what Dali might have thought about, or how he thought.

“The temptation of St.Anthony” - Salvador Dali

Firstly, the lips in a frame on Dali’s head are clearly taken from Dali’s painting, “Face of Mae West” where her face looks like a theatre stage. Her eyes are in pciture frames, her nose looks like it’s supposed to be a stool of some kind, her hair is the curtains and her lips a setee. The only thing different compared to the rest of Dali’s pieces is Dali’s paintings are usually crisp, as he uses traditional painting techniques and though his work is surreal, they nonetheless looked quite realistic, texture wise.

Face of Mae West - Dali

Dolly in Dali-land - James X Johnson



is a baker from New Jersey who is the host of TLC TV show, Cake Boss. He not only owns his own bakery, but provides a cake service whereby he bakes and creates extraordinary occassion cakes that could look like anything.

This article is dedicated to Cake Boos becuse the styles of cakes vary; Buddy always puts his own twist on it and makes sure the cake has a style and design. He’s not only a baker, but an artist. His work fields in both modernism and post-modernism. You could say the techniques he uses are post-modern. He often uses an airbrush pen filled with edible paint to spray over his cakes for a flawless finish of colour. He also uses metallic edible paint to create different textures, as well as clay sticks for embossing patterns like bricks, stones and padded pillows etc. In addition, when he creates his huge scukpture cakes, he uses wooden frames and rice crispy treats to mould shapes. Lastly, in some of his projects he uses electricity, usually for lighting but often for movement. He once made a car cake which had a motor and headlights that you could move with a remote control. Firstly, he creates traditional wedding cakes in what you could argue are either a postmodern or modernist styles.

The wedding cakes, for example, look like cakes; but the techniques an edible painting Buddy uses creates different textures on the cake. For example: the middle image is a wedding cake which has a tier that resembles a luxary pillow and the bottom tier has what looks like draped silk. The top tear also looks like a plant pot with flowers on top. This is not what traditionaly wedding cakes look like, but it’s a modernist addition to traditional wedding cakes through impeccible skill and artwork. Additionally, the bottom image of the leaning tower of Pisa next to a traditional wedding cake done by Buddy, is actually a wedding cake; the traditionaly statuettes of the model “bride and groom” are instead on a moped in front of the cake model of the tower of Pisa. This is definately post-modern as you could say the levels o f the bell tower resemble the tiers of a traditional wedding cake, but it has a completley different concept. On the other hand. most occassion cakes he makes are for certain companies, charities etc and the cake ends up not looking like a cake at all, but more like a sculpture. For example: One cake he made was a cake-replica of a roulette table. ou could class this as post-modern because it’s nothing like what traditional cakes look like, and even traditional cakes have come a long way modernity wise over the decades.

One spectacular cake he is known for making, which sadly ended up smashing, was his chandalier cake that he made out of sugar syrup “glass”. This is obviously post-modern as the cake it’s self was designed to hang upside down. Th e cake it’s self acts as a foam sponge with the sugar syrup glass shards stuck into it and sticking out. Fairy lights were even arranged around it to make the glass sahrds, which he coloued with food colouring, look like bulbs. The middle image is one of their famous cakes, the dinosaur cake. The cake was a complete replica of a t-rex, made completely out of rice crispy cake and sponge cake. Completle postmodern as it doesn’t looklike a cake at all. Wooden poles were used to build the cake around and to keep the cake upright. Lastly, one could argue the the bottom cake is either modern or post modern. It doesn’t look like a cake but you can see the foundation layer is indeed a cake and in the middle is a traditional 3 tier cake. It is also near-perfectly simmetrical.; there are 2 chocolate fountains on either side from which is coming a chocolate “river” that is pouring over the middle of the cake. However, the fact there are chocolate fountains there means it could be postmodern.

El Lissitzky , who was

born Lazar Markovich Lissitzky in Russia, was a modernist cubism artist who used shapes to create artwork such as circles and squares and portrays them in different dimensions. I used his shapes as inspiration to create my own font, using the shapes to create letters and negative space. The image, top middle, is the piece of artwork i used as inspiration for my font. Many of Lissitzkys artwork had their own sugnature style, such as using the same colours in most of his art and using the same shapes, btu all in different, unique patterns that created interesting modernist artwork. Additionally, since Lissitzky was born in 1890, his artwork was revelled in due to his use of 3D shapes and different dimensions which wasn’t a common site back then. This is partly what aspired me to use his work; he used letters, words as well as shapes to re-create objects, usually people figurines.

I firstly created a rule and used certain shapes for certain parts of letters, like a thick rectangle for a main line, a thin line for the flick on the R (for example), a block circle for a gap/hole and a semi circle for a curve (like C). It is simple and can easily be applied to every letter. I liked the way they all looked similar but had different outcomes nonetheless. For novelty, i simply used a big block circle for the “O�. I transformed this into a complete alphabet using grid lines to make every shape the same angle, height and width to create an equal font that could be used in words and sentences. I had trouble with the letters that required a curve like the J, C and G so i had to carefully use a compass and keep it at the same settings to create even, equal curves throughout the font. When creating a grid for any typography, you must use the appropriate lines and amount of lines for your font. Basic lines are the cap height (the line that joins with the top of a capital letter), the X line (the height of lower case letters), the bass line (where all the main bodies of letters sit), the ascender line (the heighest line for letters such as lower case f and l) and, finlly, the descender line (for the lower part of letters such as g, j, p or q).

You must decide which ones you don’t need, which ones you do need and if you need an additionaly middle line (this is especially useful for higher case letters like H and G that have a line through their middle). Using a grid I created on Adobe Illustrator and my final draft of the font, I went onto Photoshop and created one of each shape that I would use in my font (a rectangle, a line of 2 sizes for different letters and uses, a block circle and a thin semi circle). I re-arranged them all into my letters and used 2 colours to separate the shapes so you could easily see the cubism reference and so I could personally see what shapes were individual. Although I didn’t mean to use these colours (ultra marine and yellow ochre), they did resemble the colours the original artist used so I decided to keep them. I used the colours blue and yellow ochre because it not only helped me identify which shape was which on layered letters, but blue and yellow ochre match together well. I used yellow ochre as opposed to orange because yellow ochre is a colour El Lissitzky uses a lot in his work.

Earth Artefact

was a project set by Huddersfield University whereby the objective was to create an artefact that would describe humans effectively to extra terrestrial life. I started by looking at what first comes to mind when I think of the human race. Things like race, culture, nature and intelligence. After doing much research, I decided to look at famous philosophers because it would not only portray the intelligence of humans but the imagination and creativity of humans. It will also show how human civilization has changed and progressed. I started by researching and looking into different influential people and races, starting from the ancient Egyptians and working chronogically to the present. I eventually chose 7 philosophers for these specific reasons.

The Ancient Egyptians

were responsible for some of the most influencial and important day to day inventions in human history. At a time when the rest of the world had barely invented the wheel, the Ancient Egyptians had already learnt how to embalm the dead, make paper (papyrus), make-up (the eyeliner was used to protect the skin around their eyes from the sun), chariots and, of course, the pyramids. Even condoms have been found

in Egypt as old as 2000 years made of linen (another material invention). Even pen and “ink” was used to paint and write heiroglyphs and images.


was the first philospopher to conclude that everything in existence is made from a single molecule invisible to the naked eye. He called these “atoms” meaning, “unbreakable”. He correctly assumed there are many different shapes and sizes of atoms and the combination of atoms is what gives us our elements and materials. He also correctly assumed that the mass and weight of an object depends on the mass of the atoms they’re made from. He was a good choice as it is astonishing to think someone so long ago could make this discovery. His drawing of the Vitruvian man gave me an idea to use it as an introduction to my project.

Leonardo DaVinci

is famous for multiple things; firstly being his Mona Lisa painting and other various art work including the Vitruvian Man. This was a diagram that showed the proportions of the human body.


He also documented the earliest diagram of a helicopter, documenting the physics involved and required but lacked the technology to make it.

Ignaz Semmelweis

Vitruvian man - Da Vinci

Voyager Golden Record


was a famous astronomer, mathmatician and philosopher. He was a huge supporter of Corpenicus’ theory that the sun was at the centre of the solar system, going against the views of Aristotle, as well as the church, that said the Earth was at the centre. This ended him up under house arrest until his death. However it was his discovery that convinced people it was indeed the sun at the centre of the solar system. Although not the inventor of the first telescope, after hearing about one made in Holland, he decided to make his own, which ended up being far more superior. He was able to see the moon, the sun spots, the moons of Jupiter and the phases of Venus.

Ignaz Semmelweis,

although not the discoverer of the germ theory, was the physician who inspired this doscovery. He was a doctor who used to perform autopsies and deliver babies. As germs were unknown then, the threat of contamination was nonexistant. Septicemia was at an all time high and women often died of childbed fever (septicemia). Semmelweis looked at his hands and the first idea of contamination was born. He washed his hands and told his students to do the same before child birth or operations. Women stopped dying during child birth. He was mocked

The Pioneer Plaque

for his idea and imprisoned, where he died of septicemia. This is why he isnt as well known as he wasn’t given the chance to develop his theory, but were it not for him, germs would never have been discovered, or not at least not as early. This discovery is a gaint step for mankind in regards to medicin and mortality.

Albert Einstein

was the father of relativity and discovered the world famous equation, E=mc2. He won a nobel prize for physics and helped manufacture the atomic bomb which stopped the Japanese during WW2. E=mc2 has changed science with regards to physics as well as astronomy and chemistry. It is the equation of relativity. But it also helped us understand atomic mass. This helped create atomic bombs, matter and radiation. Recently, scientists have managed to disect an atom. This created particles decaying faster than the speed of light; probably the biggest discovery of this century. This couldn’t have been done without E=mc2 in the first place. Einstein is important in the same way Democritus is; after docvering the atom, Einstein discovered the nature of atoms and how to apply that nature to our society and tools.

Albert Einstein

Charles Darwin

Last but not least,


Darwin was my final decision.

He was fascniated by intelligent design. After becoming an atheist after his 10 year old daughter died, he refuted the idea that it was god’s creation; thus coming up with the theory of evolution. He concluded that animals evolve to adapt to their environments through “natural selection”. The animals most suited are called “the fittest”. His theory states that animals don’t “change”. Multiple varieties of a species existed but due to predators, food sources etc, the most adapted bred and survived, and in passing on their genetics, created a species perfectly adapted to their environment. The latter became extinct. He was first inspired during his voyage to the Galapogos islands where he studied finches. Finches live all over the world and look differenet, prodominently their beaks. He concluded that their beak shapes determined how they fed and what they ate; suitably adapted to correspond with the types of food available in their habitat. When thinking about presentational ideas, i started looking at existing artefacts such as the Pioneer Plaque and the Voyager record. The Pioneer Plaque was a metal plaque that has been sent

up into space on a satellite, in the hope that aliens find it. However I have too much content to fit it onto something so minescule. The Voyager record has a disc with music on it and a slide show of images of humans and human culture. This gave me the idea to possilby make a slide-show in the format of a short “film” with music playing over the top of it. However, because my philosophers are from different ages, using one genre/age of music would be inappropriate, and for the philosophers i have, there isn’t the appropriate music available. I therefore decided to create it in the form of a handbook that aliens could pick up and read, with the Vitruvian man as the front cover. However i wanted to avoid any form of sexism, like the Pioneer Plaque and i managed to find a Vitruvian “Woman” that someone had put on the internet. This also gave me an idea to be more creative with this work; to portray the philosophers whilst maintaing creativity and imagination, i decided to do them in art form; make each page a piece of art whilst showing who and what each philosopher was and did. The best way to do this, which would also make it mroe unique, is to do all the pages in similar styles relative to the philosopher themselves. However it

Galileo’s telescope


Ancient Egyptian condom

Atom bomb

couldn’t be completely that style because they were being done on the computer. But the idea was that as you read through the booklet, you saw changes in style, creation and philosophy. One thing i additionally talked about whilst researching humanity was language and communication. Although it would be inappropriate to make language the main focus of this project, with aliens being unlikely to understand our communication, I thought it would be interesting to, somewhere, include different languages and texts so that, if not understood, could be seen as diversity amongst humanity a well as the way we comminnicate. I did this by placing a quote of each philosopher in their native tongue on the ajacent page, which would be blank , so the quote would be next to the philosopher. I could not, however, do this for the Ancient Egyptians as I had no means to translate into ancient egyptian and heiroglyphs. For the rest, i used google translate.

Rebecca Sorsby

Street Graphic

was a project set by Huddersfield University. The objective was to create a piece of work the reflected street life, or art that was created on the street. I decided to look at issues and topics surrounding street life, as i always prefer my work to send a message. I started off by looking at poverty, crime, street culture and historical town centres. Whilst narrowing it down, i decided that historical towns aren’t quite related enough to streets, and culture is too diverse to do one piece of artwork on it. Finally, I decided to choose crime over poverty as there’s more to talk about with crime and, especially for young people, there are lots of graphic videos designed to teach people about street crime. After looking more into crime, i discovered that the majority of crime caused is by people with certain issues, especially younger people. This led me to look at mental illness in basic society, and what mental illnesses affect the most people. This, additionally, led me to look at psychopathy. 1 in 100 people are psychopaths, which means it’s more common than people think it is.

It is said that most business bosses and politicians are normally psychopaths, which gives them their position of power. Even knife/gun criminals and gangsters could possess this, and so i made psychopathy my main topic for street graphic, as the streets are unavoidable, like psycopaths. My message would be that they’re more common than people think and it’s best to teach yourself how to be aware of them when out on the streets alone. I started by looking at the symptoms and traits of psychopathy to determine what would be the best way to present my work and what would be the best things to include in its content. Certain traits include “proness to boredem; psychopaths are often found on the streets of larger cities or town centres”. This gave me the idea to use images of town centres within my work. Other symptoms include dreaming in black and white (meaning i could use black and white photos), lack of fear or empathy, which means they are very shallow and are impulsive; they don’t fear consequence and will do anything to get what they want. Lastly, because it’s a message i want to get across, i started looking up typography and quotes related to psychopathy, and thought of including typography in my final piece.

Jenny Holzer

Jenny Holzer

Rebecca Sorsby

Tegan Clancy

I began looking at Jenny Holzer; a projection artist who projects typography onto buildings and uses photography to capture her art and publish it. She was appropriate to research because i’m wanting to do typography and use town centres, which would have to include buildings. She always uses the same font in white: Impact. She, too, uses quotes and poems to project and use in her work . I also looked at Tegan Clancy, a pen and ink artist. She was appropriate also because it made me think about psychopaths dreaming in black and white and how their minds are pure chaos. Her style is black and white , rough and edgey. I used her work to inspire me to do the same with a picture i’d take of a town centre.

Rebecca Sorsby

Rebecca Sorsby

I began drawing buildings and other aspects of town centres and psychopaths using pen and ink tecniques.

Rebecca Sorsby

Rebecca Sorsby

The last artistic element i looked at was the front sover to Jon Ronson’s book, “The Psychopath Test”. It is split into two halves, one side being normal and the other one being “psychopathic”. I therefore decided a good thing to do would be to draw a town centre in two halves, one side from an avergae person’s point of view and the other from a psychopath’s, incorporating the styles i have researched. The next thing for me to do was to choose what to put in my fina piece. I researched different photos of town centres and expiermented with typography layered over them with the quote i had chosen, “In times of calm, we study them. In times of upheaval they rule over us” by a German psychiatrist called Ernst Kretschmer. I also used Jenny Holzer’s impact font for the normal side. After choosing an appropriate back ground (i wanted one with space in the middle so i could make a distinct line to cut the photo in half), i started experimenting with different fonts for the psychopath side. After i chose the appropriate font, I began drawing out my final piece, using pencile sketching for the normal side and pen and ink for the psychopath side.

I did many experiments with fonts, positions and effects on Adobe photoshop. In the end, i concluded to make the normal side sepia tone to seperate it more from the psychopath side which is in black and white. I additionally found a font that was used to credit photographs in the 19th century, so i used that to credit the quote i used in my final piece. Overall, i used pigeons in the psychopath side because, typically, pigeons are seen as vermin in the streets. A trait of psychopathy is “Gradiose sense of self worthconsiders themselves superior to other people�, so the pigeons represent the public in the eues of a psychopath. The black and white effect is to reflect the fact they dream in black and white as well as their hollow, shallow outlook on other people. In addition, you can see in the middle that where the picture crosses over , the road cuts off into the edge of a cliff with a man standing on the edge. This is simply to imply that getting caught up in the world of a psychopath means you are no longer in control of your life, they will do what they want to you in order to get what they want, and it is a dangerous zone to be in.

Joseph Cornell was

the artist of the Cabinets of Curiosity. These were essentially glass cabinets with 3D, small sculptures of objects, animals, replicas of paintings or photographs mdae out of either paper or card and arranged into the box to form the “curiosities”. They were to pictorially tell a story that was open to your interpretation. For my project, i had to make my own. Joseph Cornell is an artist who specialises in the theme of “Cabinet of Curiosities”. He created sculptures out of boxes and found objects to create a theme. Though it consisted of everyday, found objects nothing about hiswork was random. Some of his work, like the Medici Slot Machine are interactive which makes it much more interesting. Regarding development, a lot of his materials were basic scrap like cardboard, paper, wood, cork etc and found objects included photos, miscellaneous objects and particular instruments like compasses, watches etc. His signature art was very much compiled of birds, shells and many other natural objects combined within a mechanical looking aparatus. His style was very vintage, using old-looking wood for his boxes, parchment paper, old style photos

finished with a simple glass pane, like an old fashioned cabinet. This could be to sybolise that many peopel’s elders keep a collection of a variety of interesting “found” objects that are of an old style and period. I wanted my project to send out a clear message, so I started thinking about ethics and issues that were close to me, and the closest to me is animal welfare and what better animal welfare issue than endangered animals? I started looking at different potential “containers” and came across dioramas; huge models that depict a scene or situation. They can be often found in museums and, as of recently, have become more interactive, such as pressing buttons and making things either move or light up. Sometimes it’s something as simple as making factual snippets of text appear to describe what’s going on in the diorama. I decided this is the sort of thing i wanted to make and it would be a good way to send out a clear message whilst making a container containing curious things. Firstly, I wanted to find the theme for my cabinet so I could determine what type of container would be the most appropriate. After looking at different themes, such as musicc, politics and animals,

Medici Slot Machine - Joesph Cornell

I decided to choose animals. Firstly, it’s a subject that is personal to me and that I know a lot about and secondly, there is more you can do with the subject of animals content, context and appearance wise. I then broke the “animals” subject down into sub topics relating to animals, such as animal cruelty, endangered animals and animal anatomy (survival tactics, weapons, instincts etc). Before I went on to research more into the animals, I started researching what container type I was going to use. Because my theme is primarliy to do with nature, i wanted a “container” or format be relevebnt regarding the theme, so i began looking at garden containers. I found garden planters, plant pots etc then i started to come across fibre glass containers and other exotic looking containers (right middle and right bottom). So i looked into more exotic out-door ornamental containers, as my project is based around coinsidently exotic, wild animals. I found miniature zen gardens that are normally placed in the home. I thought this was the best format to use as it’s simple and it represents a small orniment

to decorate what would possibly otherwise be a dull room. The majority of endangered animals are endangered for many reasons, the main ones being for decoration, aphrodisiacs and trophy hunting. Gorilla hands are used as ash trays, tiger fur for rugs, rhino horns for viagra and elephant tusks for medicine and decoration. This, i believe, would make a strong point that these animals truly are beautiful, but are more beauitful alive and in the wild, rather than extinct. Back to the animals, i decided to choose endangered animals as the main theme for my cabinet of curiosities. It’s a subject I know a lot about and it’s something personal to me. It’s a great way to get a great message across without being over-baring or in people’s faces. It will be a good opportunity to re-create beautiful animals and show peopel that beauty, only to tell them it may not be around for much longer. I want to present it in a decorative way to show their beauty, but to also show how few there are left.

I started looking at diaramas. A diorama is a small scale model of a scene/situation. They can be large displays in museums/ art galleries etc or little models to keep as a deocration/ornament. They can be found mainly in museusm, which i thought would be perfect for my project, as it’s educational as well as artistic. I started looking at interactive diaramas, whereby pressing certain buttons will make models in the diarama move or light up, or maybe some text will appear explaining an aspect of the diarama. I therefore concluded to include some interactive text on laminated paper that had a footprint of each animal with facts about that animal underneath. Next I began to focus on which animals i should include on my final piece. I decided to choose a gorilla, panda, tiger and elephant, mainly because these are animals we have grown up knowing and recognizing as children and it would therefore come as more of a shock if an animal we know to be “common” is nearly extinct. I made them out of clay because this was the easiest method, as baking them made them hard enough to paint as well. However i made the elephant out of paper using origami technqiues as I didn’t have enough clay to make the elephant. As i used cartlidge paper as well, it made it easier to paint without the paper falling apart. I used an A4 sheet of green card as the base for grass to cover the wooden bottom.

I made everything out of baking clay so that i could paint them afterwards. I included a tropical flower and some leaves so the diarama didn’t look too bare. With the tiger, i only had enough clay to make the head, and i wanted the rest of the animals to be in proportion. Therefore, with tigers being good swimmners, i found an old mirror which i could use to look like a poolwith the tiger’s head emerging from it. To disuise the mirror a bit better, i made some tall grass to put around it. For extra decoration, I made a fossilised rock, as the flower would go on one side of the box, so i made something to balance it out and put on the other side. Next i experimented with positions around the boc and made a photographic record to determine which looked best. I also put a 5p coin next to them so you can see how big they are. I glued everything into place with super glue. Lastly, i made some interactive fact cards. I wanted to aim it at children, so i made two cards with the foot print of each animal to identify itm with facts of that animal written undernearth. The font i used was comic sans, as this is the most commonly used font for children’s documents. I additionally high-lighted key words so that children would know they were important. I used double sided sticky foam to stick them onto the side of the box and held them toegther with treasury tags.

Rebecca Sorsby

Final magazine