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AC3.1 Architecture Dissertation The effect Frank Gehry’s practice had in the development of digital representation in architecture and its effect on building

Bradley McArdle Student no .33255523


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Page of Contents

1. Introduction

2. The advance in software and virtual reality 2.1. Early programs 2.2. Development of software 2.3. Shift in the profession

3. Effect on building design 3.1. Brought to the masses – Disney Concert Hall 3.2. Digital and physical 3.3. Form and function

4. Effect on construction techniques 4.1. Disney Concert Hall stalled 4.2. Projects developing the technology 4.3. Effect on construction after

5. Present day 5.1. Buildings born of the digital 5.2. Projects utilising the digital 5.3. Personal experience of the digital

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6. Conclusion

7. Bibliography

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Introduction

The advances in the digital representation of architecture continues to change our perception of architectural design, the question arises of how this will affect the development of the places and buildings in which we live. Mankind has become ever more reliant on technology for business, comfort, and leisure and this will have an effect on the way in which we design and use our buildings. As the realms of digital technology and architecture merged, and paper documents were replaced with computer screens and keyboards in the late 1980’s, the architects themselves found they had to adapt to new technologies. Those who adopted saw the merging as the catalyst for breeding new ways of thinking and the unlocking of design potential. These potentials were first explored by buildings such as Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum, which was designed using a variety of digital tools that included software and programs such as CAD/CAM and networking based communications between numerous groups to produce a powerful collaborative work, even though Gehry has a self-proclaimed “illiteracy with and scepticism of computers” 1. It is also changing the way in which architects communicate with colleagues and clients. Traditional plans, sections, and elevations are being replaced with cinematic experiences and fly-through’s to better express design intentions and allows the building to be experienced without having to be constructed first. This would not be achievable without the use of digital technology. With this in mind, in this essay I aim to analyse the development of digital representation with the use of case studies of projects carried out by Frank Gehry and his practice. Critics see the digital software and representation as nothing more than free design which will be confined to the computer screen until it can conform to the tectonic requirements of the real world. Of course, there are times when the design is realised where the old view of Figure 1

the tectonic versus the digital design is

replaced with the idea of the digital in service of the material. For example, the Yokohama pg. 5


Ferry Terminal in Japan by Foreign Office Architects (figure 1) was explored digitally with the form expressing the programmatic, constructional and structural concerns. The building was not only born but realised on a computer. This led to the exploration of interactive spaces such as the Fluxspace Project by Hani Rashid with pneumatically controlled air-filler envelopes which ever mutating form is relayed onto the web. The digital is used in a way of augmenting our experience of a physical space. As architects, we want to create spaces that provoke emotion and feelings, if digital technologies allow us to better provoke these emotions, then I see no reason why they should not be utilised. The digital of course does not only relate to the physical space but also to the virtual space. With virtual space already playing a large role in our lives (many shops and businesses now with their own online equivalent, even the Guggenheim Museum has virtual double which allows visitors to wonder round the exhibits without ever having to leave their homes) the future seems even more dependent on the virtual. We are already seeing the emergence of a network economy with modern day business relying on the balance between the material and the digital as a means of connecting consumers with suppliers and distributors. Companies such as Apple Inc. are already decentralised with a large amount of their production being outsourced to other companies and their communication allowing them to constantly adapt to ever changing circumstances. I believe that digital technology has had a positive effect on practice. Its greatest achievement I believe is that is has allowed architecture to cross over from the material world and into the virtual; it has allowed places that do not even exist to gain architectural merit. The New York Times conducted a survey of words used in press since 1996. Architecture was mentioned a total of 7,084 times, this wasn’t including the amount of times it was used to “refer to structures in computer programming rather than buildings� 2. I also feel that the boundaries of design have been pushed far beyond what was achievable before, the creative is no longer limited by skill with a pen and paper. I believe the main reason the traditional practices criticise digital representation maybe resentment. After years of honing their skills with drawing boards and sketching, the technology has come along to allow someone with poor drawing skills to produce something to the same standard (and possibly higher) with the click of a button. Of course, this could lead to the debate of whether or not it is the person or the computer doing the design and if computers will replace architects all together. I believe though that pg. 6


technology will never be able to match the passion or commitment that a person has, which of course comes across in design. I this essay I aim to analyse the development of digital representation and its effect on architecture and building, mainly with case studies from Frank Gehry’s practice. This is for two reasons. Firstly, the projects I am going to analyse each had a profound effect on the other, each developing certain aspects of digital design and manufacture that would later be employed in future projects. Secondly, Frank Gehry was one of the first architects to fully exploit digital representation and manufacturing techniques to create aesthetically pleasing and functional buildings, despite his computer illiteracy.

The advances in software and virtual reality Early Programs In the 1960’s the first graphical systems were developed for computer design. The main aim of these systems was to try and mimic the “predictive possibilities that…were being well practised in the field of structural engineering” 3. However, it was soon realised that optimisation was not an ideal approach. This is because the number of constraints, requirements, and intentions that come with an architectural problem cannot simply be solved by optimisation. This development took place at the same time as cybernetic theory was becoming popular. This questioned the new existence of man-machine relationships, suggesting that computers may indeed be utilised to stimulate and expand the human intellect. This led to the idea that architecture can be viewed and pursued as a system. The formulation of architectural solutions occurs through understanding and developing the complex relationships of material and social engagement that leads the shaping of form, space and structure. The first systems to be developed such as Sketchpad, GRASP and LOKAT were based up a systems-based approach. For example, Sketchpad, created by MIT member Ivan Sutherland (figure 2) applied the idea of Figure 2

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constraints to allow the testing and flexing of geometries. It was the first system of its kind to allow design to occur through a graphical input. The system worked by a light-pen creating points of geometry and geometry dependencies (figure 3). This allowed a Figure 3

graphic representation of parametric

instances showing different aspects of form, space and structure. It aided the development of fundamental computational methods such as parametrics and ruled-based systems generation. GRASP was a similar program, but generated random form utilising rule systems based on solar exposure and programmatic organization. LOKAT generated form but based on programmatic associations and proximity. This led to a shift in the view of architecture. It was no longer seen as a material object. It was now seen as being constructed from a series of interrelated systems. Programs could capture interrelated geometries, and utilise environmental factors to generate forms. “Chaos is the natural consequence of information overload, in which case, the power of information-processing machines might prove useful� 4. Early experiments were often based on single design briefs, but as programs would need to grow to adapt to more scenarios, they became more biased towards methods and objects which would eventually become standardised. These programs provided the framework which was necessary for the generation of complex forms, order and structure. Even in these early programs, the roots of computational architecture could be seen. Development in Software To understand the development of software, we must first look at the processes they take influence from. One such process is morphogenesis. This is the natural development of systems that provide complex organization, form and structure. The end result of which is a functional combination of system of performance and material resourcefulness. Applying this to architecture, the programs were used to design the form from a set of instructions which were defined by internal and external forces. This is linked to ideas discussed in John Frazer’s book, An Evolutionary Architecture. This suggested that architecture would develop like biological systems, through a series of environmental and

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evolutionary factors. This would be reflected in how the building would interact with its environment. This led to computer programs operating on an evolutionary basis. Parameters would generate Figure 4

a number of potential

solutions within the framework of a given brief. Algorithms are used to generate solutions to these briefs. They work on an evolutionary basis producing potential solutions without ever explicitly defining the evolutionary process itself, working on a multitude of possibilities as opposed to one (figure 4). Much like the natural systems they are based on, evolutionary algorithms they find novel solutions through evolution of selection, mutation and inheritance. This allows for truly explorative processes for form generation. Peter Weibel stated the “character of creativity is an open horizon, even though it is generated through a finite number of rules” 5. Algorithms are described as being the soul of the software as they are what allow the magnitude of form generation. In virtual reality algorithms are used to create simplified worlds where the very workings of materials can be studied with accuracy. This allowed architects to create interesting forms; however these had to be combined with a knowledge of the structural properties of form along with stresses and strains. Computers allow for design based upon “what is understood, but also as vehicles for exploring what is not understood.” 6. This software affected not only architects but other professions such as structural engineers. This allowed them to gain much greater understanding of surface tectonics, stresses and strains. Of course this aided the architects whose designs of the digital could now be realised in the real world. CAD/CAM software allowed these structures to be designed and built. It had been a mainstay in the design and engineering industry for the past 50 years. The CAD/CAM Software could easily be used to: 

Produce scale models

Rapidly prototype

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Allow for print scalability

3D model production

Similar programs such as CATIA (Computer Aided Three-dimensional Interactive Application) were used in the aerospace industry to develop and construct products. The reason that this kind of technology was such a mainstay in the aerospace industry is because the demands of this industry are unique. The products themselves must provide the highest possible performance. The reliability of these products has to be indisputable, as of course, people lives are at risk when undertaking air travel. Furthermore, as the air travel industry boomed, the demand for more products to be produced in shorter time periods became an issue. This kind of technology allows design ideas to be converted into real products and manufactured as quickly and as accurately as possible. Applied to architecture, it could be used to study structural analysis and construction techniques of a given design. The development of 3D modelling allowed architectural design and construction to expand. Shift in the profession This led to a radical departure from the norm in the profession. These programs spawned a new way of thinking in process of building design and manufacture that had not previously been explored but is evident today in contemporary architecture. This shift only occurred during the late 1980’s with architects like Frank Gehry working on projects such as the Disney Concert Hall. “The newfound ability to generate construction information directly from design information and not the complex curving forms is what defines the most profound aspect of much of the contemporary architecture” 7.

Effect on building design Brought to the masses Advances in technologies had radicalized how buildings were being formed and constructed. The first major scheme to bring this new form of technology to the masses was from Frank Gehry’s office. Gehry had been an architect for sixteen years before he came to recognition for designing his own house (Gehry House in Santa Monica, California in 1978). He was trained in an era when being an architect was an “act of social

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responsibility� 8. Although today he is known primarily for his use of digital aids in his design, even though Gehry claims to have an illiteracy of computers, he maintains that his main conceptual development is through sketching, modelling and client Figure 5

communication, utilising the digital world in service of the material world. The Disney Concert Hall (figure 5) is a perfect example of the digital aiding the material. Form and Function The brief of the project was to design a concert hall on the Los Angeles music centre site, next to the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, which was used as an opera house. The opera house was currently being used by the Philharmonic orchestra but the current building was not acoustically adequate for symphony music. During this point of the project, an acoustician was taken on board to carry out a number of studies on different concert hall configurations to find the perfect solution for the acoustics. They would create CAD drafted hand-cut models onto which the acoustician would perform ray-tracing studies. A common method of three dimensional scanning utilises a digitizing probe that traces surfaces features of the physical model (figure 6). This can be done in either two ways, manually or automatically. It is manually carried out using a three-dimensional digitising arm. It is automatically carried out using a Coordinate Figure 6

Measuring Machine (CMM). This utilises a digitising position sensor that is kept in contact with the surface of the physical model. These techniques usually employ laser light to illuminate the surface of the model which in turn are captured by digital cameras. These images are reproduced using optical pg. 11


recognition that recreates a digitized version of the scanned object. This can then be used in digital analysis or modelling applications. The configuration that was eventually decided upon was a modified shoebox in-the-round configuration. The acousticians “selection and influence on the project is an aspect…that Frank Gehry has often talked about” 9. Classical symphony halls hold 2,000 people, but the Disney Concert Hall had to hold 2,400. In order for them to adjust to the volume that the hall would require, further acoustic ray-tracing studies were carried out on the physical model that had been produced. This allowed them to place reflective, acoustical, tilted walls were developed on to the traditional shoebox design. This allowed the hall itself to maintain greater noise levels in the same acoustic volume that was theoretically correct for a 2,000 seat hall. The acoustical curvature of the concert hall would become the form generator of the building. The curvilinear forms of the interior would become reflected in the geometry of the exterior of the building. The exterior form of the building was achieved through a combination of both physical models and digital models. The digital form of the building was achieved by digitally scanning the physical model. The building consistently moved “back and forth between physical and digital surface models” 10. In Gehry’s case the digital is not used as conception but used as translation. The process of scanning the physical into the digital is the inverse of CAM and is often referred to as reverse engineering. This scanning creates digitally what is a known as a point-cloud. This is a pattern of dots that is mapped digitally. This is then converted by software to produce a close approximation of the forms geometry. This technique was used to model the entire exterior of the building as one of the concepts for the design would be that the exterior geometry would reflect the geometry of the interior. These digital surface models allowed for mock-up façade designs to be produced. This in turn produces digital control coding which is used to drive the various fabrication machines. Utilising both the digital and physical allows for any changes to the design to be made relatively quickly in the digital which of course can then be used to produce a model of the revised design, this of course is much more cost and time effective than producing a physical model by hand every time the design changes. Of course, once the mock-up designs have been finalised, they can be scaled up and produced at full scale.

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This new way of design thinking, incorporating the use of both physical and digital models, revealed that the complex and varied geometries of the form, would not necessarily affect fabrication costs. This led to the realization that computer-aided manufacture can produce a series of unique and individual pieces with almost the identical effort it requires to mass produce identical pieces. This realization led to a change in architectural manufacture and has since been exploited for design and aesthetic effect.

Effect on construction techniques Disney Concert Hall stalled Although, designs had been completed and the project was underway, a lack of funding and issues of how it would be built caused the project to stop in 1991, although a $100 million had been donated to the scheme by the Disney family. The halt was a due to concerns over the feasibility of the construction. One of the first questions asked of the scheme was “How do we build this, from what materials and systems?� 11. Another area called into question was the ability to complete all the documentation required for the normal portions of the building. In 1991, digital architectural production was still a taboo and it proved difficult to acquire the backing to complete the scheme. However, at the same time that the Disney Concert Hall was put on hold, a number of other projects were underway that utilised the digital for design and manufacture. These projects proved that the project was feasible and restored faith in the Disney Concert Hall. Projects developing the technology One of the projects that helped restore faith in the Disney Concert Hall was the construction of the Bilbao Guggenheim Museum (figure 7) also by Gehry, which would influence the structural design and manufacture that, would later be employed to help Figure 7

realise the Concert Hall. The design process of the Guggenheim

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(was similar to that of the Disney Concert Hall. It began with the design switching back and forth between the physical and the digital, again utilising the program CATIA to model the various elements of the buildings construction. The curvature of the Guggenheims form was used to its advantage as it would aid in the stabilization of the structure itself. The curves themselves were developed from a single standardized detail. These were then bent into the various shapes that were required. The design of the structure was aided by the development of programs such as Bocad. This program allows highly detailed steel design to be produced which can then be run through CAD/CAM manufacturing systems. The entire structure was designed through this program, proving that earlier concerns about the manufacture of the Disney Concert Hall could indeed be accomplished. During this point in the project, the cladding of the Concert Hall was changed. Originally, the clients did not want any kind of “Gehry style steel mesh” to clad the building, but once they had seen the aesthetic value of the Guggenheim, they decided to switch to a steel cladding. One of the reasons for this change was the fact that the building was to sit near the Northridge earthquake site. Many of the buildings in the area were constructed using moment frame structures, and had suffered damage during the earthquake. As the garage to the Concert Hall had already been built to the old criteria, the decision to lighten the building was undertaken. The Experience Music Project (EMP) in Seattle

Figure 8

allowed for the exploration in steel forms that influenced the fabrication of the cladding for the Concert Hall (figure 8). As with the concert hall, the exploration into the possibilities had been carried out utilising the digital as the primary source of data collection. These explorations were done using generative shape grammar algorithms (rule based systems for composition). These grammar algorithms have “the capacity to use the information of the digital model in a way that extends the number of variations a designer can evaluate” 12. The building itself was quite evolutionary as all the components had been

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fabricated directly from the digital models. By doing this, it allowed for quite a complex geometric form to be constructed on site, without mock-ups first being produced. The café area of the project had originally been designed based upon a polygonal grid as it was considered an inexpensive method of constructing it. However, by using digital methods, it was found to be much cheaper to produce a free form structure. As all the components necessary for the construction had been taken from the same digital model, it took only four weeks for it to be constructed. It proved that the computational processes were viable methods of constructing buildings. The methods used to construct the curvilinear acoustical roof of the Disney Concert Hall were also influenced by the EMP building. The fabrication of the steel and aluminium ribs would be used as support in the EMP were produced using CAD/CAM. CNC guided plasma cutters were used to cut the curving structural members with computer controlled rolling machines used to bend the flanges to the correct angle. This allowed for mass customization of pieces. The rib members produced were “curves of the 11th order meaning there is no Figure 9

true radius…No two of the

buildings 239 ribs are alike” 13. These ribs are what gave the project its structural strength. This knowledge was then applied to how the wooden roof (figure 9) of the Concert Hall would be designed and manufactured. With the aid of CAD/CAM, the surface of the roof was digitally modelled to complete the acoustical envelope that the symphony hall required. CAD/CAM was then used to generate all the templates for the individual wooden members. These could then be panelised with the inclusion of such fixtures as light fittings and hang points for connections and adjustments once in place. By adopting this method of fabrication, it allowed the roof members to be constructed with an accuracy of equal to, or less than 1/16th of an inch. The structure above the wooden members of the roof was complicated as it had to accommodate the primary structural supports and the mechanical service systems. To tackle this problem, the entire construction sequence and

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panel sequence was derived from control points that had been directly taken from the CATIA model, the digital in service of the physical. The cladding system employed was undertaken by a company that was confident in fabrication from digital data. The system used would be a shotcrete shell that would have panels placed directly on top of this. The system was developed digitally. This was done by importing the structural steel system created in XSteel into the CATIA program. Utilising these programs, they produced a stud frame system that was used to create ruling lines for were the cladding would be fixed onto the structure. As the model had been used to design and produce the entire cladding system, it allowed for the precision placement of connection points for the cladding to attach to the structure. The horizontal lines of the frame have back pan as infill which had all been pre-cut, numbered and coded in reference to the digital model. The cladding panels themselves were attached to this line system which formed the parameter of the back pan and the guttering. The numbering and coding of each individual panel had proved so effective that during construction, building schedules had to be adjusted as cladding was being fitted so quickly. Digital technology had actually improved building efficiency to a point where it was too efficient for the rest of the project. Effect on construction after The experimentation carried out by Gehry in the Disney Concert Hall project and the other projects that helped develop its construction and fabrication changed how buildings were constructed after. For the first time, computer technology that had been viewed as an aid to design as opposed to a hindrance. The combination of both the physical and the digital had created a new way of thinking that allowed for greater exploration into realms of design that were beyond the capabilities of the hand and pencil, and construction techniques that were much more time and cost effective. In architectural design today, it is the norm for elements, if not entire buildings, to be produced using digital design software.

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Present Day Buildings born of the digital Of course, Gehry is not the only architect that utilises digital techniques for design and manufacture. Since technology has started to play a much more prominent role in architectural design, more and more practices are producing buildings Figure 10

that have been completely designed and

manufactured digitally. Practices such as Foreign Office Architects and Coop Himmelb(l)au have produced some of the most prominent digital work to date, namely Yokohama Ferry Terminal in Japan (figure 10) by Foreign Office and the BMW Welt in Munich. Both buildings relied heavily on the digital technology for design, fabrication and construction. The complex form of the Ferry Terminal is comprised of programmatic order, structural and constructional concerns into a single form. Only through the use of the digital could the complex mutating form be fully designed and developed through a range of sections. These revealed the best way in which to manufacture and construct the building. The Ferry Terminal is a project that design and manufacture was not only aided by the digital, but in fact, born through the digital. As building design continues to develop and push the boundaries of form, the need for digital software to aid in design, construction and manufacture will be become more and more prominent. Projects utilising the digital Of course, it is not only full scale buildings that use digital design tools, but smaller scale projects also. As technology has been prominent for some time, it has started to make its way into mostly universities and in some cases, even schools. On a recent trip to Stuttgart, I visited the Stuttgart University Institute for Computational Design (figure 11). The university, allowing with its

Figure 11

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architecture students, produced a research pavilion utilising the digital for the design and manufacture. The Pavilion explores the biological principles of a sea urchin through computer aided simulation methods. The project aimed to explore the biological morphology of the sea urchin (figure 12) and apply these principles to architectural design, to allow for a high degree of adaptability and performance. The Echinoidea sea urchin proved to be the main influence on the pavilions design. The shell of this particular urchin is a modular system of polygonal plates which are linked by finger-like calcite protrusions. The high load bearing capacity of this structure is achieved by the geometric arrangement of the individual shell plates. Three plate’s edges always meet together at one point. This

Figure 12

Figure 13

allows the transfer of normal and sheer forces to be put onto the structure without any bending moments between the joints. The individual elements of the pavilion were designed using numerous computer simulation programs to recreate a structurally strong form derived from the sea urchins shell and produced using CNC machines. The strength of the individual members allowed the entire structure to be produced from 6.5mm plywood. The structure itself was very light considering its overall size, and even needed anchoring to the site to help it resist wind suction loads. The resulting structure itself is quite impressive and takes pride of place between the two university buildings on the campus (figure 13). These kinds of projects have only been made possible by the advancement in the realms of digital design and manufacture. The digital has allowed the students to explore biological processes, apply them to architectural design, and then produce the project itself within the university workshops. The digital is indeed playing a more and more prominent role in architecture, not only in practice, but in the learning environment too.

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Personal experience of the digital My personal experience of digital technologies has expanded recently. We recently acquired a RepRap machine (figure 14) for the production of our project models. It is in effect, a three-dimensional printer that produces models from digital design software using plastic cabling to create the forms. This basic form of Figure 14

computer-aided design has allowed students such as myself to experiment with producing mock-ups, prototyping, and of course, to much more quickly produce models (figure 15). The use of digital technology and manufacture is clearly becoming more and more prominent in each aspect of Figure 15

architectural practice, even the study.

Conclusion The development of digital technology has effected how buildings are designed and manufactured. Before the digital age, architects could only draw what they could construct, and they could only construct what they could draw. The digital age allowed the boundaries of design to be pushed further than was ever considered before as traditional methods and new age methods have begun to be used simultaneously. Pioneers such as Frank Gehry used sketches to produce physical models that could then be translated to a digital model through scanning, which would then allow it to be manipulated to produce complex geometric forms that would be too difficult to successfully communicate through just drawings, such as the Bilbao Guggenheim Museum. I believe the digital has expanded architectural expression as buildings can now take on complex forms that were considered unachievable before. Digital design programs have also allowed for forms to mimic biological processes, evolving through a series of processes based upon numerous possibilities. Of course, a common idea is that as technology evolves, it will gradually become more and more like biological systems. This is because biological systems respond directly to their environment, in both function and form, similar to successful architecture.

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The advancement of computer-aided manufacture has also effected how buildings are constructed. Parts can now be coded and numbered so that construction teams can quickly erect structures as each part is labelled to it specific location within the building. This helps to improve construction times and can improve construction efficiency. The construction of the cladding on the Disney Concert Hall caused the schedules of construction to be adjusted as the numbering and coding of individual parts proved so effective that it was being built too efficiently for the rest of the building be built at the same rate. I feel that digital technologies will only continue to play a more and more prominent role in all aspects of architecture. Building efficiency has improved so greatly that it would be almost a step backwards to shun it from modern design and construction. The café of the EMP building was constructed in just four weeks as all components were manufactured from the same digital model. Of course, human manufacture will always have its place within the construction of building components; however it will not be able to match the accuracy of computer generated components. The degree of accuracy has allowed complex forms to be produced, with fully customized parts, with almost the same effort it would require to produce identical pieces. In my opinion I believe that the greatest achievement of the digital technologies is allowing designs that were only achievable in the virtual world to be realised in the material world. Digital technology in architecture has opened up new horizons and potentials for design can now be pushed further than were considered possible. Of course, this kind of digital technology has found its way into other professions, one of the most notable being medicine. One of the most exciting developments in recent years has been the work carried out by Dr. Anthony Atala at the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine. Utilising digital technologies, he has carried out early experiments to solve the organ donor crisis. Using technologies such as ray-tracing and 3D modelling similar to those used in architecture, he uses living cells to manufacture organs that can be used in human bodies. Laser scans of the patient’s organ are taken which are then converted into a digital model. This is then used to ‘print’ an organ layer by layer using the patient’s own cells. One of the first cases of this was Luke Massella. He received an engineered bladder from Dr. Atala and his team when he was ten years old. This bladder has allowed him a better quality of life than he would have experienced had he not pg. 20


undertaken the transplant. This technology however is still in its experimental stages and is some years from global distribution. In conclusion, the development of digital design and manufacture has made a great impact on not only the way in which buildings are now designed and manufactured, but also is now beginning to have an impact on the quality of human life as well. It has made the transition from the aerospace industry, to architecture, and now to medicine. It will be interesting to see where it leads to in the future.

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Bibliography

1) Lindsey, B (2001). Digital Gehry. Switzerland: Birkhauser. p12. 2) Lindsey, B (2001). Digital Gehry. Switzerland: Birkhauser. p10. 3) Menges, A and Ahlquist, S (2011). Computational Design Thinking. London: John Wiley & Sons. p11. 4) Milne, M (1975). Computer Aids to Design. London: Mason/Charter Publishers. P31. 5) Weibal, P (2003). Algorithm and Creativity. Vienna: Bohlau Verlag. p96. 6) Terzidis, K (2006). Algorithmic Architecture. p59. 7) Iwamoto, L (2009). Digital Fabrications: Architectural and Material techniques. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. p5. 8) Lindsey, B (2001). Digital Gehry. Switzerland: Birkhauser. p21. 9) Kolaveric, B (2003). Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing. New York: Spoon Press. p104. 10) Iwamoto, L (2009). Digital Fabrications: Architectural and Material techniques. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. p5. 11) Kolaveric, B (2003). Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing. New York: Spoon Press. p104. 12) Lindsey, B (2001). Digital Gehry. Switzerland: Birkhauser. p72. 13) Gragg, R (1999). Museum Design Tests Hoffman’s learning Curve. The Oregonian

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Image Index

1) Mashima, S (2004). Yokohama Ferry Terminal. [photograph] (Foreign Office Architects). 2) (1963). Sketchpad computer design programme. [photograph] (MIT Museum archive). 3) (1963). Sketchpad being used to create geometries. [photograph] (mirage.studio.7). 4) (2009). Algorithms producing numerous variations on form. [image] (nz Architecture). 5) (2011). Disney Concert Hall exterior. [photograph] (Encyclopaedia Britannica). 6) White, J (1989). Digitizing one of the physical models. [photograph] (Architecture in the digital age). 7) (2007). Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. [photograph] (www.guggenheim-bilbao.es). 8) Matthews, K (2000). EMP Building by Frank Gehry. [photograph] (www.greatbuildings.com). 9) (2010). Disney Concert Hall symphony hall ceiling. [photograph] (jasoninhollywood.blogspot.com). 10) Mashima, S (2004). Yokohama Ferry Terminal. [photograph] (Foreign Office Architects). 11) McArdle, B (2011). Stuttgart University building from the courtyard. [photograph] (Personal photograph collection). 12) (2009). Echinoidea sea urchin shell structure. [photograph] (www.flickr.com/photos/haruspex). 13) McArdle, B (2011). Stuttgart University pavilion structure in the courtyard. [photograph] (Personal photograph collection). 14) Whelan, D (2012). RepRap machine and computer with the software set-up. [photograph] (Personal photograph collection).

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15) Whelan, D (2012). RepRap machine on the test run. [photograph] (Personal photograph collection).

Cover page White, J (1989). Digitizing one of the physical models. [photograph] (Architecture in the digital age).

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AC3.1 Dissertation