Issuu on Google+

Preliminary Study Analysis of the Fez Medina


Contents Project Choice Cultural Context Historical maps and Aerial views Physical Analysis Aspect and Prospect Figure Ground Vegetation and Ecology Topography and Geology Densities: physical demographic Transport Services


Type Academic Based Project

Economic Based Project

Based on several studies and opinion of the experts in the Fez conservation and rehabilitation programmes, it is highly depended on maintaining reviving cultural, religious, and commercial activities that were compatible with its morphology. Therefore, in my opinion, turning the Medina into a touristy area for the sack of tourists whom looking for Arab exoticism and romanticism is not a good idea at all.

Similar recommendations were made to protect and rehabilitate the traditional souqs and to establish craft-training centres and associations to support the surviving craft. Although in general crafts do not seem to thriving in the modern industrial world, Fez’s craft are something of an exception and could be organised to supply objects of high quality for which there will always be some demand. The potential export market is considerable, if high standards can be met and maintained.

Reactivating the academic function of the Qarawiyyin mosque and university by reintroducing the theological Islamic teaching there, combined with a new centre of Islamic studies is one example that I had in mind. In a way, with the effort of the King Mohamed V in 1957, he introduced Mathematics, physics, chemistry and foreign languages in order to reawaken the university since the French tried to limit the functions and the subjects of the university. Once the French general who led the French "civilising Mission" in Morocco as: "the Dark House", a comment which can only show the little respect he had for civilisation.

In addition, crafts connected with building (carpentry, tiles, stucco, metalwork) will be great demand as soon as the rehabilitation projects in the medina itself finally get underway.

Project Choice: Type

Project Choice


By Bus CTM is Morocco's best bus company and they have buses traveling to Fes from most major destinations in Morocco. If you're not on the train line, then a bus is a fine option and always cheaper than the train.

By train Morocco has an excellent railway line, the trains are comfortable and they run on time. Fez has one train station and you can catch a train from Tangier (5 hours), Marrakech (7 hours), Casablanca (4.5hours) and Rabat (3.5 hours). By airplane The Fes Airport is called Saiss Airport and is situated just 6 miles (10 km) from the new town center. Several European charter airlines fly in direct from Paris and London. Royal Air Moroc has a flight to Fes from Casablanca which departs twice a day.

By Car/Grand Taxi Fez is about 4 hours' drive by car from Casablanca. The stretch of toll highway from Rabat to Fez is in superb condition. Travelling by grand taxi (inter-city taxi), though more expensive than trains, is viable for tourists. Seats in a taxi are sold individually, in order to travel in relative comfort, you may need to purchase more than one seat. By Boat/ Ferry Several ferry companies operate between France or Spain and Morocco. There are several crossings a day between Algeciras in Spain and Ceuta by vehicle ferry (1hr 30 min), by fast ferry (40 min) or by catamaran (30 min). From there, passengers need to take a bus to the Moroccan border and arrange their own transport within Morocco.

How to get to Fez?

How to get to Fez?


Site Location

Site Location

Fès-Boulemane Region

Morocco

The Medina of Fez


There are three locations along the Fez river or the Oued Bukhareb in the Fez el-Bali. This locations has an extremely high population density and little to no green space. Two of the locations are vacant and currently used illegally for parking and taxi stand, and the third is occupied by tanneries. Which are slated in my proposal for removal or reformation since it is the major source of pollutions for the river because of the toxins they produce.

Site Location: Choice

Site Location: Choice


Site Location and Project Choice: The Agenda My initial idea is to revive the function of the Fez’s Al-Qarawiyyin University and returning it to the medina from its modern campus in the suburbs, and in the process uniting a group of neighbourhoods in transition. Regulated by fiercely insular building codes, the medina has changed little since Morocco gained independence from France in 1956. The new infrastructure of the university would double as public space for residents of the medina-adding basic amenities such as pedestrian pathways and public garden, as well as cultural facilities such as libraries and galleries. University research centres would encourage community involvement and provide planning solutions for the city. The three sites selected for these centres would act as anchors along the spine of the Fez River within a network of new and existing roadways and pedestrian streets.


On here I am showing the analysis and proposed interventions on three different sites. In general what I am trying to do is to make the medina as a ‘university town’ as it used to be before. Go back to the history, Fez was built around the university, which is the oldest in the world. In 1956, after the independence of Morocco, it was closed and moved outside of the city to a ‘westernised’ campus and what left was the theological school or the medresa in the medina. This deprived people of a huge facility and lots of public space. The community saw it as someone stole it from them. Hence, in my point of view it is natural that it should brought back.

Site Location: Choice

Site Location and Project Choice: Theoretical Agenda


Historical Analysis

Historical Analysis


Fez was founded at the turn of the ninth century A.D. in a shallow valley chosen not only as crossroads of existing trade routes but more importantly as the fertile receptor of natural watercourses. These were soon developed into as sophisticated man-made complex of waterworks, fountains and waste water systems. From the beginning, the Bukhareb wadi formed the boudary between two cellular centres, the Andalusian right bank and Qarawiyyin left bank. The left bank, which includes the Qarawayyin mosque and its associated university and market, eventually developed as a centre for the city as whole. The planning and building that defined the madina (primarily from the eleventh through the fourteenth centuries A.D) occurred in a more evenly distributed fashion with a unifying vocabulary of recurring elements.

In the medina, gates reinforce the sense of unity of the compact walled city and also serve as market centres. District centres include all the elements of the unified religious-social-commercial public realm: the mosque, the medrasa, and the market. Commercial districts comprised of markets, workshops and funduqs (warehouses) revolve around particular products of crafts.

Houses though differing scale, are consistently built around multi-use-courtyards with entrances secluded from main streets and squares. Streets limited to pedestrian and animal traffic. Never become formal or monumental. As the largest cell in a cellular city that includes an old palace quarter, newer European quarters (Villa Nouvelle) and unplanned housing resulting from rural migration, the medina’s message is poignant. Surrounded by competing alternatives, it must struggle to survive either through preservation or transformation. In this regard the city of Fez, as projected by my new Master Plan, addresses the need for an architectural discourse that speaks to the modern Islamic world.

Historical Analysis

Introduction


Historical Analysis

Fez Timeline


Idrissid Fez

Idrissid Fez

Fez was founded by Moulay Idris II. He established the city at the west bank of the Wadi Bukhareb in 789 AD.

In 818, El Andoua district established by Muslims refugees from the Andalusia and in 825, the Qarawiyyin district established by refugees from Qarawiyyin in Tunisia. In 857, the Qarawiyyin Mosque and University established by a woman, Fatima al-Fihri.

Historical Analysis

Morphological Evolution of the Medina


Umayyad Fez

Almoravid Fez

Umayyad captured Fez in 985 AD. During this time, Fez was ruled by Hisham II, the third caliph of Cordova and by 986, Fez was divided by two cities each with their own city wall. One on left and the other on the west bank of the river.

1069, Yusuf Ibn Tashufin captured Fez and stard joining the two separate cities with one wall.

Historical Analysis

Morphological Evolution of the Medina


Almohad Fez Almohads was actually a religious order with the goal of restoring purity in Islam. 1130, Abdul al-Mu’min became the leader of the movement captured Fez, he forged it into a powerful military force and under him the Almohads swept down from the mountains destroying the power of the faltering Almoravid dynasty by 1147. In 1170, he moved his capital to Seville in Spain. However, From 1170 to 1180, Fez was believed as the largest city in the world.

Historical Analysis

Morphological Evolution of the Medina


Marinids Fez 1169, the Marinids began their pursuit of taking Morocco from the Alhomahads. Under the command of Abu Yahya ibn Abd al Haqq, they took Fez in 1248. In 1276, they build Fes-Jdid as the district for the new palace. It was the capital and marked the beginning of the Marinids dynasty. The greatest period of Fez started, when many buildings and many great buildings and monuments erected during the following centuries.

Historical Analysis

Morphological Evolution of the Medina


Fez during French Protectorate until now. 30 March 1912, Moulay Hafiz the Sultan during that time signing a treaty with French, making the country a protectorate. In 1916, the French built Ville Nouvelle (new city) outside the ancient city walls. Nowadays the Ville Nouvelle act more like suburban to the Fez Medina. In 1956, a large emigration from the Jewish quarter begins. Following the independence of Morocco and the fact that there is now state of Israel.

Historical Analysis

Morphological Evolution of the Medina


Aerial Views of the Current Medina.

Mosque and tomb of Moulay Idriss II. Qarawiyyin Mosque

The view of the medina from Burj Nord.


Lynch Study Physical analysis: Spines, axis, nodes landmarks, edges, thresholds.


Lynch Study: Fes el-Bali.

Landmarks The obvious landmarks in the Fez el-Bali are the Qarawiyyin Mosque and Moulay Idriss Zawiya. These are two specific visual landmarks that can be identified from distance and used as radial references. However, whilst you are in the medina, it is difficult to distinguish these landmark since the medina’s layout was full with small labyrinths and alleyways.

Edges The major edge of the medina is obviously the city wall. The other edges that split the medina into two main district; the Qarawiyyin and the Andalous, is the Fez river or known as Oued Bukhareb.

Districts Fez el-Bali can easily be split into two main districts according to the river. However, the sub districts within the medina can be distinguished by the characteristics of the area such as the tannerine district, spice district, pottery district, Qarawiyyin District and Moulay Idriss District. This characteristics is hardly distinguishable unless by someone who is reall familiarise with the layout. These can be done by exploring and experiencing the Medina by visuals and smells


Lynch Study: Fes el-Bali.

Nodes Inside the walls, there are several major nodes located in the heart of the medina at the junctions of the major paths. The three most important nodes lies along the Oued Bukhareb; Mokhfiya, Rcif Square and the carpark area near the Chouarra Tanneries. The numerous bars gates along the wall also act as major nodes as they are the junctions of the wall and ground where the traveller can navigate to and from. Apart from that, as an medieval Islamic City, several mosques and zawiyahs are apart of the major nodes where most locals can navigate to and from.

Paths As mentioned before, the medina consists of many labyrinths and alleyways. Therefore it is difficult to determine the prime route since most labyrinths and alleyways are used by the locals. However, the paths shown on the map is the prime route where most businesses take place. Apart from that, it is the main paths that is recommended for tourists to explore shown in most guide books.


Lynch Study: Oued Bukhareb

Landmarks Most important landmarks of the Medina lies around the Oued Bukhareb. Most of this landmarks can be used as point of reference to navigate this area. These are the two most prominent mosque, Qarawiyying Mosque and University and Al-Andalus Mossque, the Rcif Mosque, Moulay Idriss II Zawiyah, Sidi Ahmad Tijani Mosque and Chouara Tanneries.

Nodes As mentioned earlier, most of the mosques are the nodes where the travellers can navigate to and from. Apart from the mosques, several vacant lots by the riverbank are the junctions of the primary paths.

Edges The only distinguishable edges is the Oued Bukhareb river. It seperated between Qarawiyyin and Andalus District.

Paths The major paths are shown on the map.


Aspect and Prospect: photographic study to and from site, architectural promenade sequence.


Physical analysis: prime spine to the site.

Fez during French Protectorate until now. 30 March 1912, Moulay Hafiz the Sultan during that time signing a treaty with French, making the country a protectorate. In 1916, the French built Ville Nouvelle (new city) outside the ancient city walls. Nowadays the Ville Nouvelle act more like suburban to the Fez Medina. In 1956, a large emigration from the Jewish quarter begins. Following the independence of Morocco and the fact that there is now state of Israel.


Land Use and Building Types

Land Use and Building Types


Land Use and Building Types

Building Types


Precedents

Precedents


The Institute of the Arab World, Jean Nouvel Designed in 1987 by noted French architect Jean Nouvel, The Institute of the Arab World is a modern jewel beside the bank of the Seine river in the heart of Paris, a short walk over the bridge from Notre Dame Cathedral and the nearby Centre Pompidou. The Institute complex includes a museum, library, auditorium, restaurant, offices, and parking. Glass and steel stairs and elevator provide an elegant internal orienting feature. Its unique courtyard-facing south facade is ornamented by the regular patterns of hundreds of solar-activated mechanical diaphragms. The collective effect of these high-tech stainless steel irises is a rich optical brocade, strongly but abstractly evoking the beautiful patterns of traditional Arabian weaving. This metal sunscreen integral to the curtain wall provides active sun screening. As one of the Grand Projets for Paris championed by former French President Francois Mitterrand, the Arab Institute commission was won by competition.

Precedents

Precedents


Proposal for the Strasbourgh Mosque and Community Centre, Zaha Hadid Design concept Emphasis has been put in the treatment of the overall design to ensure the reflective quality of enclosure, which the cultural and spiritual nature of this brief and project demands. The distinct seclusion of the main prayer halls - the focus of the project, creates a distinguished space removed from the clamour of public interaction. The use of the courtyard space articulates the visual separation enhancing the privacy between the men and the woman’s prayer spaces while providing for additional prayer space if required. The metaphor of Islamic calligraphy is apparent in the flowing lines of the structure and the sections of the building. Calligraphy as a layer appears as a part of the internal skin of the prayer halls in particular. The journey or ascent to the mosque is organised by the narrative of light and sound. The base of the building slopes down to meet the river and the ground level entry area. Slits on the floor of the raised mosque enable light and sound to fill the area below – dematerialising the volume above. The idea of Islamic geometry was taken to generate a fractal space. The fractal promotes the reinforced concrete arches as primary structure. This in turn supports a secondary layer of interspersed concrete panelling, glass and ceramics. The effect is to generate a mosaic or fragmented skin, which provides an unexpected composition of light and sound. The coloration of the building is achieved by black and white pigmented concrete, hints of turquoise ceramics and translucent glazing elements.

Precedents

Precedents


The International Library of Children's Literature Tokyo, Tadao Ando The main building, designated as a historic building by theTokyo Metropolitan Government, was constructed in 1906 and expanded in 1929. In Tadao Ando's design and structure of the new addition to the Library, the interior and exterior of the valuable architectural heritage has been preserved as much as possible. The steel frame, reinforced concrete and glass extention by Tadao Ando adds approximately 5,433 square meters to the historic brick building.

Precedents

Precedents


New Baris Village, Hassan Fathy "Baris was an interesting problem in which I was to create all the parts of a community, to bring together in the best manner possible people whom I did not know. All that I had at my disposal were demographic, geographic and climatic surveys. I had to provide the aesthetics, the sense of man in a space constructed by man". Without a visible clientele to design for, Fathy concentrated on a thorough study of both the traditional architecture and climate of the region. In addition to examining the fourth century AD mudbrick ruins of the necropolis of Bagawat nearby, he also closely observed the existing village of Kharga, where the material used, as well as the width and orientation of the streets and introverted forms of the houses effectively offset summer temperatures as high as 50C degrees that could potentially cause serious physiological problems for the people living there. Fathy provided by the thermal mass of materials used and the manipulation of natural air movement. He had used previously by adding baffles, incrementally reduced airshafts and secondary towers to accelerate circulation, temperature reductions of up to 15C degrees were achieved. His success in overcoming potentially insurmountable obstacles with previously untested natural methods, as well as the undeniable visual power of the resulting forms, make Baris a tectonic lesson for all architects today. The souk there is the best advocate yet for the architect's contention that true modernity comes from solving physiological and psychological needs well and not from the application of mere style.

Precedents

Precedents


Class rooms/ lecture 24 hour

Class/ lecture

Arrival from the bus interchange

Entry

Desk circulation

Open Stacks

Reading

periodicals

Access + Movement

Catalogues reference

staff

Closed stacks

support Lab for manuscript conservation

Brief: Planning Diagram

Brief: Planning Diagram


Lobby and Entrance Foyer (including exhibition centre) One central counter

60m2

Bus Stop and Car park ( need to be calculated) Entrance Main entrance Public out of hour entrance Staff/service Learning Centre Entrance Enquiry Desk Lavatories Delivery Area

38m2 (total) 16m2

Secure storage area (for old manuscripts, exhibits, etc) Reserve Stacks

100m2

Sorting Office

60m2

System room (for computer equipment for library circulation and other information systems.)

40m2

Training room

57m2

Brief: Schedule of Accommodation

Brief: Schedule of Accommodation


Administration: Administrator Technical (IT) Manager Centre Manager Secretaries (3) Photocopy /print room

55m2 (roughly)

Librarian’s office Library Manager’s Office

20m2 13m2

Securities room

18m2

Subject Departments: Business Community Humanities Literature and language History and Local studies Geography Science, Technology and Computer

184m2 300m2 500m2 300m2 230m2 240m2 400m2

Subject staff workroom

152m2

Manuscript Research and Conservation

200m2

Staff room (approximately max of 50 staffs)

115m2

Staff Lavatories

25m2

Discussion Room ( need quite a few in each departments)

25m2

Brief: Schedule of Accommodation

Brief: Schedule of Accommodation


Conference / Lecture Room (150 people)

240m2

Classrooms for adult learning

60m2

Canteen/ Coffeshop Electricity Substation Electrical Intake and Distribution Room Emergency Generator Plant room

50m2 30m2 30m2 25m2 75m2

Brief: Schedule of Accommodation

Brief: Schedule of Accommodation


Intersection line of the old axis of the medina and the new river axis.

Brief: Concept

Brief:Concept


Brief: Concept

Brief:Concept


Fez - Analysis of the Medina.