World Applied Sciences Journal 18 (6): 754-761, 2012 ISSN 1818-4952 © IDOSI Publications, 2012 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2012.18.06.1181
Viewpoint of Students of National University of Malaysia on Generic Skill Courses Nazri Muslim, Jamsari Alias, Ahmad Zamri Mansor, Ahmad Rafizi Salleh and Aminuddin Basir Centre for General Studies, National University of Malaysia Abstract: General education courses in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) are managed by the Centre for General Studies. The courses were offered as a response to the need to develop graduates who are equipped with communication and thinking skills and other knowledge necessary in order to survive in the modern society. The emphasis on the general education is in line with the UKM’s vision and mission, which is to produce graduates who are broad minded and have balanced perspectives. The objectives of the study were to (a) identify the background and generic skill courses undertaken by UKM students, (b) identify the viewpoint of UKM students on generic skill courses and (c) measure the students’ improvement in generic skills through the generic skill courses taken. The respondents were 240 third year students of various faculties in UKM. SPSS program was used to analise the data. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean, cross tabulation and correlation of coefficient were used to analyse the data. The findings show most of the students surveyed have positive view about generic courses offered. Several recommendations were made to improve generic skill courses as required by the job market. Key words: Higher Education Institution % Generic Skills % National University of Malaysia % Students INTRODUCTION
development or profesional development. So, it is not surprising when Oblinger and Verville  wrote that many employers reported that graduates are weak in skills such as writing, verbal communication, team work and lifetime learning. This proves that employers are seeking graduates with high capability or skills in solving problems, working in team, communication and leadership. In Malaysia, graduates’ inability in getting jobs are due to their lack of generic skills required by the employers. A study by Haslinda, Muhammad Nubli and Zarina  discovered that in terms of marketability, each graduate who seeks employment is evaluated in various aspects. The employers, however tend to look for employees who already have the skills as they to pr do not have to provide on-the-job training. A study by Centre of Academic Development (CADE) of UPM discovered that issues relating to generic skills are at tenth level during interview session compared to academic related issues which is at eighteenth level (Mohamad Shatar and Azali Mohamad) . This indicates that matters regarding development of student’s generic skills need to be given serious attention especially at higher learning institutions in Malaysia. The importance of human resource development in a country has long been recognised. According to Rahmah , several neighbouring countries are able to attain high economic growth through meticulous development of
General education courses in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) are managed by the Centre for General Studies. The centre has been offering the general education courses since the inception of UKM in 1970. The need for general education courses demands the development of courses such as communication and thinking skills and courses that brodens the thinking horizons of the students. The development of the courses is in line with the mission and mission of UKM which aims at producing graduates with broad and balanced mind. The importance of general education courses is further enhanced by one of the objectives of the Ninth Malaysia Plan which is to develop human capital. There has been a concern about the increasing number of unemployed graduates and many attribute this to the lack or absence of generic skill courses which constitute the general education courses in higher learning institutions. Generic skills are important skills needed by employers and it is important to equip the students with the skills in order to fulfill the demand of the job market. Past Studies: The study carried out by Lazerson, Wagener and Shumanis  showed that only one third of 1400 higher learning institutions in USA evaluate their students on higher-order learning skills, affective
Corresponding Author: Nazri Muslim, Centre for General Studies, National University of Malaysia.
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human resources even with a minimum physical capital. On the contrary, there are countries which are high in terms of physical capital but unable to achieve high economic growth due to the weaknesses in their human resource development. This is supported by Kamal and Meiâ€™s  study which found that that human resource development functions are an asset builder that solve problems creatively to ensure the success of capable and interested employees. Chan Yuen  emphasizes that successful organizations do not require a large number of workforce, but rather highly knowledgeable and skilful human resources. The highly knowledgeable and skilful employees will be a prequisite for the survival of an organization in this era of competitiveness. Mohd Faizal  enlisted characteristics of highly knowledgeable and skilful workers as having various skills, versatile, creative, able to cope with continuous technological changes and willing to learn as part of lifelong learning process. It may be concluded that the importance of generic skills mastery among employees is already acknowledged by organization. Higher learning institutions need to take initiatives in preparing students who fulfil requirements of the job market. Apart from that, according to The Conference Board of Canada , employers also require employees who are able to communicate effectively, think critically, give commitment in continuous learning process, present appropriate personality and behaviour, demosntrate sense of responsibility, adapt wisely with situations and work efrfectively in teams. According to Lukman , higher learning institutions with quality should not only be able to produce graduates who can excel in academic, but also in other skills such as leadership, communication, noble values and so on. According to Sharifah Hapsah , the purpose of quality assurance in the Malaysian higher learning institutions is to ensure graduates possess technical as well as practical skills, professional, management proficiency of technical mind, communication and information management skill and also lifetime learning. The Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education (Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi)  set the requirement that all government-funded higher education institutions in Malaysia must incorporate the teaching and learning of generic skills courses which comprise of (i) skill of thinking, taking action, adapting, solving problems and making decision, (ii) interpersonal and communication skills, (iii) information technology, multimedia and information management, (iv) leadership skill and (v) entrepreneur proficiency.
Thus, generic skills are necessary to be equipped in every student. These skills do not focus only on things that they learn in their field of study (Lizzio and Wilson) , but also beyond that. The skills include communication, team work and problem solving. In order to produce students with such skills, higher learning institutions need to provide conducive environment that encourage development of these skills within each student through teaching and learning process. Generic Skills (GS): Generic skills are necessary in each individual to function effectively. Although there is no standard definition of what constitutes generic skills (GS), but aspects such as leadership, team work, communication and continuous learning are generally viewed as critical. Therefore, IPT graduates must have the required GS in order to fullfill the requirement of work market. The Ministry of Higher Education Listed Seven Skills That Need to Be Mastered by Students: C C C C C C C
Communication Skill Critical Mind and Problem Solving Skill Team Work Skill Continuous Learning and Information Management Entrepreneurship Skill Professional Ethic and Moral Leadership Skill
Espinoza  lists down generic skills such as ability to adapt, analytical, communication, initiative, interpersonal, leadership, self-confidence and team work as needed by employers. Pumphery , on the other hand defines generic skills as skills that enhance an employeeâ€™s productivity. What constitues generic skills also depend on where the person is working in, but the related skills are communication, information technology, management, mathematical, teamwork and problem solving skills. Some countries use different terms in desribing generic skills concept, but the meaning remains the same. According to National Centre for Vocational Education Research , in United Kingdom, generic skills are known as core skills and additional skills. Employers, meanwhile, often use the term employability skills to mean generic skills. Some of the core skills listed are communication, mathematical and information technology. The concept of generic skills was first introduced by Canadian researchers in 1970. They divided general skills divided into two categories, namely basic skills which 755
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comprise of communication, information management, numbering application and problem solving and personnel management skills which include positive thinking, responsible, flexible, always intend to learn and work in safe condition (The Conference Board of Canada) . The Conference Board of Canada (2000)  meanwhile list three categories of employability skills, namely: C C C
which is seen as critical in generating human capital besides capable of competing in global level. In a study done by Green F , the importance of generic skills (soft skills) is due to its ability to produce workers with various skills (overall employability), transferable from other sectors, prepared to cope with changes in order to enhance autonomy of workers who are optimistic, eager to continuously learn and handle cultural changes at work place. After all, employers nowadays are focusing more on adaptation, cost reduction, increase in productivity as well as new markets, goods and services. Every worker needs to give collaboration in team, capable to resolve problems and able to deal with non-routine situation. Also, a worker must be able to make decision, be responsible and communicate effectively. Being efficient and having generic skills (soft skills) have been the main requirement for modern workers, these days (Australian National Training Authority) . The study conducted by Yahya  discovered that several significant soft skills agreed by industrial employers are described into a form of new model. The new model contains three aspects of skills based on mean priority that is referred to the interest and requirement of industrial employers on soft skills elements. The skills are summarized as follows:
Basic skill (communication, information managing, problem solving and mathematical skills) Self management skill (positive attitude, responsible and adaptability) Team work skill (ability to work with others).
In the United States, the concept of generic skills was introduced in 1990. The generic skills in the US are more popularly known as terms such as basic skills, necessary skills, or workplace know-how. Generic skills are categorized into four elements, namely core skills such as communication and numbering application, high level thinking skills, for example, able to manage changes, problem solving, creative, decision making, able to learn new knowledge and skills relating to trait, such as honesty, setting goal in each task and always positive with self-ability (National Centre for Vocational Education Research) . By mastering generic skills, one is able to excel in everyday life. Generic skills also prepare an individual to cope with the rapid and continuous technology (Sharifah Noor Anita) . Therefore, graduates need to possess the skills demanded by employers as well as the job market. It is the duty and responsibility of higher learning institutions to produce graduates with balanced and comprehensive skills. Mohd Safarin dan Mohd Zolkifliâ€™s  study concludes competition in current global employment market requires the graduates to possess both, the generic skills as well as being excellent in academic. Apart from that, Reigeluth  states that generic skills are applicable in areas. This means, by mastering generic skills, an individual is able to adapt to any changes that occur. Workers with generic skills are flexible and dynamic in performing duties. Hassan Said in the Module of Generic Skill Development for Higher Learning Institutions  stated that Higher Learning Institution should emphasize the importance of generic skills or soft skills requirement
C C C
Academic skills that emphasize on solving problems, thinking critically, communicating and mathematics. Self management skills which are soft skill elements include responsible, positive attitude and adaptation. Teamwork skills that cover elements of soft skills namely ability to work with others and ability to be involved in a project.
Yahya  also stated that the resulted model show similarity in the aspect of soft skill elements as in study model done by The Conference Board of Canada , which had listed the necessary skills in employment as follows: C C C C C C
Good communication skill. Able to self learn. Able to work in team. Capable to adapt with changing situation. Thinking skill such as critically resolve problems, think logically and numerical skill. Knowledge navigation meaning know how to search for and process information.
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Based on this discussion, it is clear that elements of generic skills are different according to countries. Even the terms used are different among the countries. Yet, objective of the generic skill is the same, which is to ensure students learn and master each of the generic skills.
IPTA. According to Wiersma  this method is among the best if the study is to measure or evaluate attitude, perception and achievement of a programme. Descriptive form is also used in line with study requirement that is to observe an occurring phenomenon (Mohd Majid) . Thus, a set of questionnaires was prepared by the researcher in order to attain the objectives of the study. According to Tuckman , questionnaire seems to be an effective way for gathering information from respondents.
Statements of Problem: Institutions of education play important roles in developing community especially in the context of making Malaysia to be a knowledge-based developed country. Institutions of education are not only involved in expanding and cultivating knowledge but also responsible to fulfil the aspiration and expectation of the people and country in generating students who are smart, capable of thinking rationally, critically, creatively, innovative, disciplined and of modest character (Abdul Hadi) . According to Hasliza , one of the factors that cause graduates to be unfit in employment market is not having soft skills or generic skills. This is due to the employers-to-be are not confident with the graduates especially from the aspect of personality, appearance, self confidence, lack of communication skill, limited ability in making decision and unable to work in a team. Lately however, there are grievances questioning students’ capability, as a result from current deteriorating education especially in the aspect of leadership and identity even after becoming graduates with recognized intellectuality. According to the results of research by Ministry of Higher Learning and Ministry of Human Resources (Kementerian Sumber Manusia) , there were 59,315 graduates who unsuccessful to get employment. Eleven causes were identified and out of these, seven are related to the graduates’ weakness of generic skills.
Respondents of the Study: Population of this study is all the third year students in UKM. This is very significant and realistic for students’ perception because they are more matured with the campus surroundings. Sample selection was done by grouped sampling method. Grouped sampling may be used by determining number of groups according to, for example, state, district or territorial division. This method of selection is suitable if the population is big and distributed all over. It may save time and reduce many problems because the researcher puts together all samples in a group before random selection is carried out. Thus, for determining the number of respondents, Table of Sampling Size of Krejcie dan Morgan  was used and the sample size for this study is 240. According to Sidek Mohd Noah , the bigger the sample size is, the smaller the sampling error. Instruments of the Study: Instruments used in collecting data for this study is a set of questionnaires. According to Oppenheim  and Tuckman , questionnaires and interview are two forms of effective instruments besides observation, for obtaining information from respondents. All questions are in positive form and respondents are required to state their perceptions according to Likert \scale. The questionnaires comprise of two parts namely Part A and Part B. The Part A is relating to demography of respondents. The Part B is regarding students’ viewpoint on generic skill courses in UKM.
Objectives of the Study: The objectives of the study are to: C C C
Identify the background and generic skill courses undertaken by UKM students. Identify the viewpoint of UKM students on generic skill courses. Measure the students’ improvement in generic skills through the generic skill courses taken.
Pilot Study: Pilot survey was done with the intention to identify weakness and strength of the prepared questionnaires. Therefore, 50 students were selected to answer the questionnaires before the questionnaires were distributed. Results show that the 50 students had no problem in understanding the questions. Then, by using SPSS programme, the researcher calculated the reliability value and value of Alpha Cronbach. It was found that the value of Alpha Cronbach for all items is above 0.6. Thus, the questionnaires are appropriate for this study.
Methodology Design of the Study: The format of this study is a descriptive study regarding perceptions of students in
World Appl. Sci. J., 18 (6): 754-761, 2012 Table 1: Profile of Respondents
Validity and Reliability of Instruments of the Study: In this study, validity of the questionnaires is determined by experts. Reliability refers to stability and consistency of instruments in measuring a concept. The popular test which is frequently used in measuring consistency in a concept is Alpha Cronbach. The value of Alpha Cronbach reliability is between 0.0 to 1.0. According to Mohd Majid , Alpha Cronbach value of above 0.60 is often used as reliability index in a research. Thus, in this study, the researcher has fixed Alpha Cronbach value of above 0.60 as reliability value for each part of the questionnaires.
n = 240
The Discipline of Data Analysis: The data obtain is analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) programme, version 16 through the mean, standard deviation, Chi square as well as crosstabulation. The descriptive statistics like the frequency, percentage, score average or mean, crosstabulation and correlation coefficient have been used to explain the respondents’ background and assess the views of the UKM students towards the Generic Skill Coursess.
Table 2: Respondents’ Academic Background n = 240
Data Analysis and Study Findings Respondents’ Background: 240 students have been chosen to answer the survey. The background of respondents is asked in the Section A of the survey. The discussion of the respondents’ background will be divided into two sections namely the academic profile and background. Table 1 displays information on the respondents involved in this study. The whole of the respondents involved in this study are totaled 240 students. From this figure, 70.8 percent are female respondents whereas 29.2 percent are male respondents. From 240 respondents involved, 87.1 percent are of the Malay race. The Chinese are 5.8 percent, Indians make up 3.3 percent and others are 3.8 percent, 88.8 percent of respondents comprise of Muslim followers. In the meantime 4.2 percent are respondents who embrace Christianity. This is followed by Buddhists 3.8 percent, Hindus 2.9 percent and others 0.4 percent. The majority of respondents are represented by respondents aged 19-21 years which is 67.5 percent. This is followed by respondents aged 22-24 years which is 28.8 and 25-26 years old (3.7 percent). Table 2 shows information regarding the background of the respondents associated with the stream of education. This study has involved respondents comprising from the Faculty of Science Social (FSSK) (37.5 percent), Faculty of Islamic Studies (FPI)
University Passing Entrance Matriculation
Table 3: Generic Skill Courses n = 240
ZZZT2143 Self- Healthcare
ZZZT2213 Writing Forms
ZZZT2223 Human Relations
ZZZT2233 Design Thinking
ZZZT2243 Writing Skills
ZZZT2253 Emotional Management
ZZZT2263 Decision-Making Skills
ZZZT2273 Information Technology Appreciation
ZZZT2313 Fundamentals of Quality Management
ZZZT2393 Time Management
ZZZT2413 Interpersonal Leadership and Skills
ZZZT2423 Thinking Skills
ZZZT2433 Asset Management Skills
ZZZT2443 Communication Etiquette Skills
ZZZT2453 Parenting Skills
ZZZT2463 Problem-Solving and Creativity
ZZZT3213 Scientific Thinking
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(12.9 percent), Faculty Science and Technology (FST) (29.2 percent), Faculty of Law (FUU) (1.7 percent), Faculty of Economy (FEP) (12.9 percent) and Faculty of Education (FPEND) (5.8 percent). Most respondents comprise of students with STPM qualification which is 50 percent. This is followed by matriculation students which is 37.1 percent and diploma students as many as 12.9 percent.
The Measurable Characteristic Domain of “Confidence” C Having good knowledge in the field of study, C Skilful in their respective field of study, C Can use and adapt the knowledge they have in multiple settings/situations, levels and cultures (being innovative and creative), C Skilled in using the international or global working language (English).
Generic Skill Courses Enrolled by UKM Students: From Table 3, as much as 29 percent from the respondents involved have registered for the Human Relations course. This is followed by 17.9 percent of respondents signing up for Emotional Management, 13.3 percent with the Thinking Skills course, 11.2 percent with Time Management, 7.9 percent following the Self-Health course, 7.1 percent following the Decision-Making Skills Course. Apart from that, 5 percent have registered for the Writing Forms course, 3.3 percent registering for Design Thinking, 2.9 percent following the Fundamentals of Quality Management also the Interpersonal Leadership and Skills course and 2.5 percent are registered under the Communication Etiquette Skills. The remaining, 1.7 percent of respondents have chosen Scientific Thinking, 1.2 percent with the Problem-Solving and Creativity Course. Meanwhile, 0.8 percent of respondents have signed up for the Writing Skills, Asset Management and Parenting Skills courses and only 0.4 percent respondents have selected the Information Technology Appreciation course.
The Measurable Characteristic Domain of “Leadership” C Can communicate and interact in a team, C Have a leadership and direction in the context of function and role of the community C Can make a decision and smart move based on ethics and universal values (justice, fairness, sustainable and have integrity ) Measurable Characteristics Domain of “National Sense of Worth” C Highly ethical and moralised. C Skilled and comfortable in the interactions between culture and religion C Proud and fluent in using the mother language, C Have the awareness to defend the country’s sovereignty. This is also at par with the concept and aim of the general study that is wished to be instilled by the General Study Center, namely the general study’s concept that is always mixed with the concepts of liberal education, core knowledge, basic knowledge, or elective programme courses. In the context of the general study in the UKM, this indicates that the undergraduate education programme which seeks to provide the students with the preparatory knowledge to live in the modern community. The knowledge covers the understanding on good moral values, history and responsibilities in the community; skills on the quantitative analysis and communication technique; the emphasis on arts and cultural elements and the capacity to use the pastime productively. This generality is distinguished from the education for more specific skills and knowledge and which concentrates on specific fields. Meanwhile, the objective of the General Study is that an educated person requires several intellectual personality which enables him or her to take part effectively in the community. General studies have the aim of preparing students with such personality, among which covers:
The Views of UKM Students Towards Generic Skill Courses: Table 4 shows the views held by the UKM students towards the Generic Skill Courses that they register. The data analysis shows that the majority of the UKM students are in the opinion that these courses are very essential to them as an added value to the programme that they follow, that they are important in generating and shaping more holistic students and that the courses are significant to fulfil the MQF requirement and also as a preparation before the students step into the working world. This also shows that the UKM students agree that the Generic Skill Courses are substantial and are very much useful to themselves. Such an opinion is at par with the goals set by the UKM education which is producing more confident scholars, those who have the credible leadership and national sense of worth in the international realm. The Measurable Characteristics in the Goals of Education are as follows:
World Appl. Sci. J., 18 (6): 754-761, 2012 Table 4: The Views of UKM Students Towards Generic Skill Courses Item Strongly disagree The Generic Skills (KG) courses are very important as an added value to a particular study programme 0.8 The Generic Skills (KG) courses are very important in producing holistic students 0.8 The Generic Skills (KG) courses are very important to fulfill the requirement of MQF 1.2 The Generic Skill Courses are important as the preparation for students to enter the working world 2.1 The Generic Skill Courses are only required as the prerequisite for graduation. 0.8 The Generic Skills are burdensome 1.2 Table 5: The Improvement of Studentsâ€™ Generic Skills Through Generic Skill Courses Item Strongly Disagree Disagree Good Moral values 5.01 24.2 Positive attitude 1.2 5.8 Professionalism 0.8 7.1 Communication ability 2.1 6.2 Leadership skills 2.1 5.8 The ability to work in a team 2.5 3.8 The ability to solve problem 1.2 5.4 The lifelong learning skills 1.2 5.4 Scientific skills 1.7 7.1 Social skills 4.2 27.1 Social responsibilities 1.7 5.0 Entrepreneurial Skills 3.3 11.7
The emphasis on the philosophy of education that is guided by good moral values and history, the ability to think and communicate creatively and critically using the quantitative skills; Broadened knowledge in various fields, the skills of using the Malay and English Language; Other than gaining exposure to intellectual personality characteristics, the general study courses also complement all other courses available in the studentsâ€™ specialization courses.
less Agree 30.4 18.3 20.4 19.6 22.1 15.0 18.3 21.7 31.2 31.7 20.8 35.8
Agree 23.3 57.5 60.4 62.1 59.6 65.0 62.9 64.6 52.9 22.1 63.3 44.2
Strongly Agree 17.1 17.1 11.2 10.0 10.4 13.8 12.1 7.1 7.1 15.0 9.2 5.0
communication ability, leadership ability, teamwork ability, lifelong learning and social responsibilities. However, according to the students, there are also those who lack the capability to improve their generic skills (less than 70 percent) like scientific skills, social responsibilities and entrepreneurial skills. This is at par with the study done by Mohd Faizal  and Zamri Mohamad, Anisah Alias dan Nur Ehsan Mohd Said  which highlights worker characteristics that are knowledgeable and highly skilled in a way that they have various skills, versatility, creativity and are capable of confronting the continuing changes of technology and following the process of lifelong learning, also these workers need to familiarize themselves with the latest technology to prevent from any problems and complications occurring in the globalised era. Simultaneously, UKM needs to pay attention to the scientific skills, social responsibilities and entrepreneurial skills that are still scarce among the UKM students.
However, at the same time the general perception on the Generic Skill Courses only serves as additional courses, the fact that they are burdensome and only become the prerequisite for graduating. Table 4 also demonstrates that the majority of students still see the KG as required as the condition for graduating and that it is a burden. The Improvement of Studentsâ€™ Generic Skills Through Generic Skill Courses: From Table 5, it indicates the opinion of the UKM students with regards to the improvement of the generic skills through the Generic Skill Courses. The majority of the UKM students (which is more than 70 percent) agree that their generic skills have been improved after their enrollment in the relevant courses like instilling positive attitude, professionalism,
Suggestion and Conclusion: The generic skills need to be given emphasis in producing human capital that can fulfil the needs of the country. Therefore, UKM students who are pursuing their studies need to be instilled with generic skills among themselves. Assessment and reward must also be given to them who have mastered these generic skills elements. 760
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The authors have proposed that the UKM should revise the curriculum that is being used so that generic skills can be inculcated better. An emphasis also needs to be placed on three generic skills that are seen as still scarce among the students like scientific skills, social responsibilities and entrepreneurial skills by providing new courses like Entrepreneurship. What is clear-cut is the fact that the study outcome shows that the students highly regard these particular courses and the courses have facilitated them in improving their generic skills. The majority of the UKM students have also clearly had the view that the courses are essential as an addedvalue to the study programme, essential in producing and forming holistic students, that they are important to fulfil the requirements of the MQF and as students’ preparation before they start a career. This further shows that the UKM students agree that the generic skills are substantial and are very much useful to them. The majority of the students also agree that the generic skills that they have, have improved after their enrolment in the Generic Skill Courses like inculcating positive attitude, professionalism, the ability to communicate, the skills of leadership, teamwork, solving problems, life-long learning and the skills of social responsibilities. However, there are also the generic skills according to students who lack the capacity to improve their generic skills such as the scientific skills, social responsibilities and entrepreneurial skills.
Note: This study is fully-funded by the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM-PTS-2011-125) 13. REFERENCE 1. 2.
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