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RHET 201 Portfolio Ayten Al Qersh 900093530


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Table of contents Portfolio cover letter ………………………………………………………… pg. 3 Writing tasks …………………………………………………………………. pg.4 pg.8 Hopes and fears ………………………………………………………. Pg.4 Strike reflection ………………………………………………………. Pg. 6 Peer review……………………………………………………………. pg. 8 First draft annotated bibliography (with the old sources)…………………….. pg.9 pg. 12 First draft critical analysis (with peer review comments)…………………….. pg.13 pg. 17 Second draft critical analysis …………………………………………………. pg. 18 pg. 25 First draft research paper……………………………………………………… pg. 24 pg. 33 Final research paper …………………………………………………………... pg. 34 pg. 53 Introduction …………………………………………………………… pg. 34 Final draft critical analysis ……………………………………………. pg. 35 pg. 38 Primary research ………………………………………………………. pg. 39 pg. 43 Conclusion……………………………………………………………... pg. 44 pg. 45 Survey questions………………………………………………………. pg. 45 pg. 48 Work cited……………………………………………………………… pg. 49 Final draft annotated bibliography ……………………………………. pg. 50 pg. 53


Al-Qersh 3 Portfolio cover letter Dear Mr. Gibson, RHET-201 course was one of the courses that I was really afraid to take. As I was entering this course and saying to myself “research paper!! How can I write a research paper� and I freaked even more when I knew that the research Paper should be 20 pages. However, when going step by step and doing the work that I was suppose to do in class and submitting my papers in time, I found the research paper is easily being constructed. The class was always active and we were always engaging in discussions. I liked that we could choose any subject that is interesting to us, this helped in making the research process more interesting, as I was eager to know more about the topic I choose. I organized the portfolio in a way where I put first the short writing tasks starting the first writing tasks and ending with the last one, and then I had the first draft of the annotated bibliography. Later when I wrote the critical analysis I changed the sources; however I decided to put it, as it was a piece of writing that I did in the semester. After the annotated bibliography I had the drafts of the critical analysis also sorted from the first to the last. Then I had the first draft of the research paper, and at the end the final research paper where the final critical analysis and final annotated bibliography are included within it. I choose to put the portfolio in this order from the first to the last as it shows the progress in my writing through out the semester and it also shows how I improved each draft based on the comments from the peer reviews and comments from the Dr. Regards, Ayten Al Qersh


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Al-Qersh 8 Peer review On the research paper about feminism in Egypt All in all I found the research paper really good, however there were some parts that needed to be clearer. First I think that you should talk more about the religion part. For example, you mentioned that people will follow the opinion of the religious authorities because they are uneducated, even if the religious authorities are saying things that doesn’t belong to Islam, in this part I think you should have talked more about that, and ask questions as are the religious people really saying things that has nothing to do with Islam or they misinterpret what Islam says. Also the point concerning females and there professional careers, and how the employers think of them as temporary workers, I think more analysis should be done about that because this problem isn’t in Egypt only. Women in the entire world are suffering from that. Especially that there is a law which is part of the women right that when a women is giving birth she should take a vacation while still receiving her salary. This law encourages people all around the world from employing women because if they got pregnant when they have birth the employer have to pay them salary even though they aren’t working. Also, in the conclusion you said that officials who have power should make some laws that can give women their rights, however most of the laws suggested are already made, so the problem maybe more of implementing those laws rather than creating them.


Al-Qersh 9 Ayten Al-Qersh 900093530 RHET-201 First Draft Dr. Michael Gibson Annotated Bibliography

Rogan, Eugene L. "Introduction." Introduction. The Arabs a History. New York: Basic, 2009. 1-12. Print. Roger is a professor in Oxford University. He taught a lot of courses concerning the history of the modern Middle East, and his research interest is in the Arab history from the eighteenth century to the twentieth century. In the fist half of this chapter, Roger talked about Samir Kassir, his assassination, and his description about the Arabs the “Arab malaise”. Then he continued what Samir Kassir Said, about how the Arabs where not always powerless and mentions two periods where the Arabs were powerful, from the seventh to the twelfth century and the cultural renaissance of the nineteenth century and how we need to retain our Islamic values to return to our golden age. This will help my research as it will compare the past periods were the Arabs were optimistic about the future and feeling that there will be a change with the 2011 Arab spring. However, the chapter doesn’t provide explanation to why the Arab malaise eventually came back after each of these past periods. Further sources are going to be used to overcome this limitation.


Al-Qersh 10 Cavatorta, Francesco. "E-IR » The EU and the Arab World: Living up to the EU’s Normative Expectations." E-IR. 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. <http://www.e-ir.info/?p=7139>. Dr. Francesco Cavatorta is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Law and Government at Dublin City University. In this article Dr. Francesco talked about the EU and its attitude towards the Arabs, he mentioned how the EU failed to impose democracy and stability on the Arab regimes, as they were not collaborating with the opposing movement. He then concludes that the EU attitude with the Arabs should change and how they should call for democracy and act towards their beliefs. This will help me with my research as it will show how the EU for decades supported the corrupted dictatrixes regimes in the middle east, and it will also show to what extent are the Arabs dependent on the westerns. There are some limitations to this article, Dr. Francesco didn’t talk about the politically reasons behind the EU’s attitude for the past decades, because depending on the reasons we can tell whether in the future we can be independent from them and take what happened in the past as incentive to prevent further dependence on the westerns in the future.

Skupin, Lucas. "To What Extent Did the Arab Spring Trigger a Transformation of Dominant Paradigms

in

French

Foreign

Policy?"

20

June

2011.

Web.

<http://www.iehei.org/bibliotheque/memoires2011/LSKUPIN.pdf>. Lucas Skupin in his article talked about the connections between France and the Middle East especially Tunisia, the political and economical policies between the two. However, it talks about how the French government and some of its elite were collaborating with the regime and Ben Ali’s family and how they took advantage of the economic policies with France, and how this helped their stability. This will help my research, as it will show to what extent were the Arabs dependent on the west and whether this dependence was the reason for the malaise.


Al-Qersh 11 Also, it opens discussion to whether the policies made between Arabs and westerns help in the development of the dictatorial governments. In addition to what extent did the western leaders back up the corrupted regimes?

Cheterian, Vicken. "The Arab Revolt: Roots and Perspectives." Www.gcsp.ch. Feb. 2011.Web. <Http://www.humansecuritygateway.com/documents/GCSP_%20ArabRevoltsRootsandPros pects.pdf> Vicken Cheterian is a director of CIMERA; a Geneva-based institution specialized in political governance. His research interests are contemporary political evolutions of Arab World and post-Soviet space, including armed conflicts, environment and security, media and democratization. In this article Cheterian talks about the 2011 Arab spring and the socio economic reasons that led to these revolutions, he also talks about the western leaders, their attitude before these revolutions, and how their approach should change. This is beneficial to my research, as it will provide reasons to why should the Middle East be independent from the west, as it talks about the reversed effects of the economic policies imposed by the European union. Still the article doesn’t give reasons to explain why these policies didn’t work. Kuran, Timur. "Institutional Causes of Economic Underdevelopment in the Middle East: a Historical Perspective." Economic Underdevelopment in the Middle East. 64-75. Print. Timur Kuran is a professor of economics, political science, and Islamic studies at Duke University. In this chapter Kuran addresses the institutional reasons that lead to economics decline in the Middle East. These reasons are composed of a serious of laws imposed by the government, religious authorities, and some are in the Qur’an. This will help with the research paper as it


Al-Qersh 12 opens the argument, whether we need to retain our Islamic values and rules after these revolutions and elect a religious regime, or is it actually a step that will cause further decline in the economy. Also, we shall discuss whether Islamic laws are really the true reason of decline, or is it the peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attitude. Gavlak, Dale. "BBC NEWS | Middle East | Arab Education 'falling Behind'" BBC News - Home. Web. 02 Oct. 2011. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7227610.stm>. Gaylak in this article talks about the education in the Middle East and how is it declining. He claim that the reason for unemployment is due to low levels of education, and that countries have to focus more on the education, especially that the middle east is a youthful region, therefore they should benefit from the youth, their new ideas, and their energy. This will benefit me in my research as it provide reasons to explain the level of unemployment in the middle east, in addition it will help in concluding how the middle east should solve the unemployment problems. However, this article addresses the decline in education as the main and only reason for unemployment, but this as will be discussed in the paper isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t entirely correct.


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Ayten Al-Qersh 900093530 RHET-201 Dr. Michael Gibson Second draft Critical Analysis Arabs were at their golden age in two periods. The first was at the beginning of Islam starting the seventh century and ending in the twelfth century. The second was in the nineteenth century during the cultural renaissance of the nineteenth century (Eugene). There is a new third period that is being written in history by this generation, it’s the 2010/2011 Arab spring and Arab revolutions. It started in Tunisia then it moved to Egypt, Libya, Syria, and Yemen. Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya already succeeded to abolish the old dictator system and corrupt institutions while Syria and El Yemen haven’t succeeded yet. The former countries are now in the period of forming new democratic and modern institutions, and there are different paths that could be taken, each need to be evaluated. But before evaluating the new paths to be taken, we need to go to the past and see what went wrong to prevent it from happening again. Through the past decade, the Middle East suffered from what is called the “Arab malaise” (Eugene). Samir Kassir, a Lebanese professor of history at saint-joseph university and a journalist described this Arab malaise by saying “The Arab people are haunted by a sense of powerlessness…powerlessness to suppress the feeling that you are no more than a


Al-Qersh 19 lowly pawn on the global chessboard even as the game is being played in your backyard.” (Eugene). With special focus on Egypt we will try to know the reasons that led the Arabs to this feeling of malaise. The root of the problem is the bad educational system that mainly focuses on memorizing the curriculum (Dessouki). They don’t encourage any thinking, they basically teach the students what to think, not how to think. Another main problem is the bureaucratic traditions in Egypt this tradition discourage innovation and encourage submissiveness, blind loyalty to superiors, and inflexibility (Dessouki). These two reasons combined together are primary reasons for the Egyptian malaise, as they led to increase in the unemployment rate, people weren’t qualified for the jobs, and those who were qualified couldn’t find job opportunities suitable for them. Life felt as if it’s a routine they didn’t have any hopes for a good future, they couldn’t see the change and the alternatives. The governmental institutions didn’t fix this problem. One theory explains that the reason behind such conditions is that the government seemed un willing to solve the problem and was only interested in maintaining a bureaucratic system, that of Mubarak, which they were able to maintain for the last 30 years. In order to do this Mubarak had to ensure that people wouldn’t revolt against him. He did that by increasing the probability of being tortured if the revolution fails, so he set several examples for the citizens for people who were against him and ended in jail like Ayman Nour. Another thing is to decrease the number of candidates who can replace him, that’s why he decreased the level of education, discouraged innovation; he made the citizens unable to think of alternatives for him, so they had no point in revolting. Despite his techniques, before the Tunisian revolution, some oppositional political figures started to appear like Mohamed ElBaradaay for example. Then following the success of the Tunisian revolution, the Egyptians were able to visualize a better country, and they were willing to take the risk of failure and


Al-Qersh 20 getting tortured as the conditions for them were already very bad it couldn’t get any worse. So the Egyptians revolted and they succeeded and abolished Mubarak and the whole regime. The important question now is what is going to happen next. All the Egyptians agree that we don’t want dictatorship. What does Egypt needs the most? Is it economic growth or freedom? And can we really achieve one without the other? Douglass C. North in his article “The Paradox Of The West” argues that freedom and economic growth should occur together, they are complementary processes of societal development. Dessouki also supports North’s theory by saying “ democracy seems to suffer in periods of economic stagnation… stable democracies on the other hand are associated with developing and expanding economies, especially if expansion is accompanied by proper education and equitable income distribution.” However, there are some exceptions for this theory like China that was able to achieve economic growth, yet the nation didn’t achieve the actual definition of democracy. Now at a point where everyone one is asking whether Egypt is ready for democracy, what we really need to be asking ourselves, is the ruling elite ready for the people presentation (Dessouki) or what we could only do is to turn into another china? North explains that in order for a change to happen, the next ruling institution must be able to enhance what the people need, and what they are fighting for. In order to achieve economic growth and development, people and companies need to invest in the country, and for them to invest and trade in the country we need a credible commitment from the next government that it wont confiscate and it will respect the property rights of the citizens. This credible commitment between the government and the citizens can be achieved by having an independent judiciary court that can depose the president if he broke the institution. However, in Egypt to do so we need to change the constitution first, because the present constitution give a lot of privileges to the president, these privileges could easily turn him to a doctrine. So we need to change the institution to ensure equality, and then have an independent judiciary court that can depose


Al-Qersh 21 the president and the government if it broke the constitution. By doing that we limit the government power, ensure equality and freedom. Finally we might have an actual chance to achieve economic growth. The economic growth can be achieved through a credible commitment from the government that would decrease the uncertainty in Egypt and thus encourage investors and companies to invest in Egypt. Aside from Douglass and Dessouki theory, there is another solution that some people think that it’s the best for Egypt and that is to revive our Islamic values. Kassir argues that Arabs were greatest when they were close to their Islamic laws and faith (Eugene), also Joseph Mayton, an American journalist who is currently a staff reporter at Al-Masry AlYoum and editor of Bikya Masr, agree to some extent with Kassir as he says “ Islam is the solution”. On the other hand, Timur Kuran, professor of economics and political science at Duke University argues that the religious laws imposed by the government or by Islam itself were the reason for the Middle East to decline in the first place. He explains how the nature of Islam is stagnant, and being stagnant in a world that is changing every day is Decline. If we are to evaluate the Islamic laws we wont find what opposes economic growth or development of countries. However, the misinterpretation of Islam sometimes is what makes it stagnant. So it’s the people interpretation of Islam causes either development or decline. The Muslim Brotherhood is a good example that can be used to compare Douglass and Dessouki theory against Kassir, Mayton and Kuran perspective of an Islamic institution, taking into consideration the Muslim brotherhood behavior since the revolution. They were the only party voting yes in the referendum about whether to settle with the changes in the constitution or to cancel the old constitution and form a new one. The old constitution gave the president a lot of privileges, and the changes that were made in it weren’t enough, also these changes caused some terms in the constitution to be contradictory to each other. But voting yes and agreeing to these changes will speed up the time of the election. The Muslim


Al-Qersh 22 brotherhood voted yes because they were the only party ready for elections. So it’s clear that they were in search for power rather than for democracy and freedom. Also, the Muslim brotherhood attract people by religion, they base their campaign on religion rather than on education, constitution and credible commitment. They make the people vote for them because of the religion, so the people fail to see the alternatives of the other parties. Also by using religion they eliminate the competition with other parties, which may lead to one regime in power same as during Mubarak era. When evaluating the perspective of the Islamic brotherhood it seems clear to us that the real problem is that the people need to stop falling for the conspiracies under the name of religion. Though the Islamic brotherhood represents Islam, yet they fail to represent the real meaning of Islam, not only in terms of what kassir interprets but also represent another era of Arab malaise. Such systems might enhance the economic state of a country but will never be able to solve the socioeconomic problems that the people revolted to abolish. The future of Egypt is uncertain, as there is a controversy on whether to have a secular system or no. This secular system will be based on building a modern state with better focus on education, credible commitment and economic growth and it will be independent from religion. Most liberals want a secular state, while the Muslim brotherhood and Islamic powers refuse a secular state. As when Erdogan the prime minister of turkey said that he hoped that Egypt would adopt a secular state, the Muslim brotherhood considered it interference in Egypt’s internal affairs, and replied

that the experiences of other countries (in reference to Turkey) shouldn’t be copied (“Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood criticizes Erdogan’s call for a secular state”).


Al-Qersh 23 Works Cited Arabiya, Al. "Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood Criticizes Erdogan’s Call for a Secular State." Alarabiya.net | Home Page. 14 Sept. 2011. Web. 30 Oct. 2011. <http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/09/14/166814.html>. Dessouki, Ali E. Hillal. Democracy in Egypt: Problems and Prospects. [Cairo]: American University in Cairo, 1978. Print. Eugene, Rogan. Introduction. New York: Basic, 2009. 1-21. Web. <http://site.ebrary.com.library.aucegypt.edu:2048/lib/aucairo/docDetail.action?docID=103 42180>. Kuran, Timur. "Islam and Underdevelopment: An Old Puzzle Revisited." Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE) 153 (1997). Print. Mayton, Joseph. "Egypt’s Liberals Need Islam - Bikya Masr: Bikya Masr." Bikya Masr Independent News for the World : Bikya Masr. 14 Sept. 2011. Web. 30 Oct. 2011. <http://bikyamasr.com/42211/egypts-liberals-need-islam/>. North, Douglass C. "Douglass C. North; The Paradox of the West." The Origins of Modern Freedom in the West (1995): 1-34. Web.


Al-Qersh 24 Ayten Al-Qersh 900093530 RHET-201 Dr. Michael Gibson First draft research paper Egypt: What will happen next. Introduction: Arabs were at their golden age in two periods. The first was at the beginning of Islam starting the seventh century and ending in the twelfth century. The second was in the nineteenth century during the cultural renaissance of the nineteenth century (Eugene). There is a new third period that is being written in history by this generation, it’s the 2010/2011 Arab spring and Arab revolutions. It started in Tunisia then it moved to Egypt, Libya, Syria, and Yemen. Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya although still finding their ways out of the revolutions, they partially succeeded to abolish the old dictator system and corrupt institutions while Syria and El Yemen haven’t succeeded yet. The former countries are now in the period of forming new democratic and modern institutions. With special focus on Egypt the research paper will address the question of what will happen next in Egypt? Based on scholar theories, surveys done and personal interpretations, the survey will explore the different paths; can Egypt become a secular state? What is the people’s opinion? And to what extent are Egyptians affected by religion and by religious group? But before we need to go to the past and see what went wrong to prevent it from happening again.


Al-Qersh 25 Critical analysis: Through the past decade, the Middle East suffered from what is called the “Arab malaise” (Eugene). Samir Kassir, a Lebanese professor of history at saint-joseph university and a journalist described this Arab malaise by saying “The Arab people are haunted by a sense of powerlessness…powerlessness to suppress the feeling that you are no more than a lowly pawn on the global chessboard even as the game is being played in your backyard.” (Eugene). The root of the Arab malaise problem is the bad educational system that mainly focuses on memorizing the curriculum (Dessouki). They don’t encourage any thinking, they basically teach the students what to think, not how to think. Another main problem is the bureaucratic traditions in Egypt this tradition discourage innovation and encourage submissiveness, blind loyalty to superiors, and inflexibility (Dessouki). These two reasons combined together are primary reasons for the Egyptian malaise, as they led to increase in the unemployment rate, people weren’t qualified for the jobs, and those who were qualified couldn’t find job opportunities suitable for them. Life felt as if it’s a routine they didn’t have any hopes for a good future, they couldn’t see the change and the alternatives. The governmental institutions didn’t fix this problem. One theory explains that the reason behind such conditions is that the government seemed un willing to solve the problem and was only interested in maintaining a bureaucratic system, that of Mubarak, which they were able to maintain for the last 30 years. In order to do this Mubarak had to ensure that people wouldn’t revolt against him. He did that by increasing the probability of being tortured if the revolution fails, so he set several examples for the citizens for people who were against him and ended in jail like Ayman Nour. Another thing is to decrease the number of candidates who can replace him, that’s why he decreased the level of education, discouraged innovation; he made the citizens unable to think of alternatives for him, so they had no point in revolting. Despite his techniques, before the


Al-Qersh 26 Tunisian revolution, some oppositional political figures started to appear like Mohamed ElBaradaay for example. Then following the success of the Tunisian revolution, the Egyptians were able to visualize a better country, and they were willing to take the risk of failure and getting tortured as the conditions for them were already very bad it couldn’t get any worse. So the Egyptians revolted and they succeeded and abolished Mubarak and the whole regime. The important question now is what is going to happen next. All the Egyptians agree that we don’t want dictatorship. What does Egypt needs the most? Is it economic growth or freedom? And can we really achieve one without the other? Douglass C. North in his article “The Paradox Of The West” argues that freedom and economic growth should occur together, they are complementary processes of societal development. Dessouki also supports North’s theory by saying “ democracy seems to suffer in periods of economic stagnation… stable democracies on the other hand are associated with developing and expanding economies, especially if expansion is accompanied by proper education and equitable income distribution.” However, there are some exceptions for this theory like China that was able to achieve economic growth, yet the nation didn’t achieve the actual definition of democracy. Now at a point where everyone one is asking whether Egypt is ready for democracy, what we really need to be asking ourselves, is the ruling elite ready for the people presentation (Dessouki) or what we could only do is to turn into another china? North explains that in order for a change to happen, the next ruling institution must be able to enhance what the people need, and what they are fighting for. In order to achieve economic growth and development, people and companies need to invest in the country, and for them to invest and trade in the country we need a credible commitment from the next government that it wont confiscate and it will respect the property rights of the citizens. This credible commitment between the government and the citizens can be achieved by having an independent judiciary court that can depose the president if he broke the institution. However, in Egypt to do so we


Al-Qersh 27 need to change the constitution first, because the present constitution give a lot of privileges to the president, these privileges could easily turn him to a doctrine. So we need to change the institution to ensure equality, and then have an independent judiciary court that can depose the president and the government if it broke the constitution. By doing that we limit the government power, ensure equality and freedom. Finally we might have an actual chance to achieve economic growth. The economic growth can be achieved through a credible commitment from the government that would decrease the uncertainty in Egypt and thus encourage investors and companies to invest in Egypt. Aside from Douglass and Dessouki theory, there is another solution that some people think that it’s the best for Egypt and that is to revive our Islamic values. Kassir argues that Arabs were greatest when they were close to their Islamic laws and faith (Eugene), also Joseph Mayton, an American journalist who is currently a staff reporter at Al-Masry AlYoum and editor of Bikya Masr, agree to some extent with Kassir as he says “ Islam is the solution”. On the other hand, Timur Kuran, professor of economics and political science at Duke University argues that the religious laws imposed by the government or by Islam itself were the reason for the Middle East to decline in the first place. He explains how the nature of Islam is stagnant, and being stagnant in a world that is changing every day is Decline. If we are to evaluate the Islamic laws we wont find what opposes economic growth or development of countries. However, the misinterpretation of Islam sometimes is what makes it stagnant. So it’s the people interpretation of Islam causes either development or decline. The Muslim Brotherhood is a good example that can be used to compare Douglass and Dessouki theory against Kassir, Mayton and Kuran perspective of an Islamic institution, taking into consideration the Muslim brotherhood behavior since the revolution. They were the only party voting yes in the referendum about whether to settle with the changes in the constitution or to cancel the old constitution and form a new one. The old constitution gave


Al-Qersh 28 the president a lot of privileges, and the changes that were made in it weren’t enough, also these changes caused some terms in the constitution to be contradictory to each other. But voting yes and agreeing to these changes will speed up the time of the election. The Muslim brotherhood voted yes because they were the only party ready for elections. So it’s clear that they were in search for power rather than for democracy and freedom. Also, the Muslim brotherhood attract people by religion, they base their campaign on religion rather than on education, constitution and credible commitment. They make the people vote for them because of the religion, so the people fail to see the alternatives of the other parties. Also by using religion they eliminate the competition with other parties, which may lead to one regime in power same as during Mubarak era. When evaluating the perspective of the Islamic brotherhood it seems clear to us that the real problem is that the people need to stop falling for the conspiracies under the name of religion. Though the Islamic brotherhood represents Islam, yet they fail to represent the real meaning of Islam, not only in terms of what kassir interprets but also represent another era of Arab malaise. Such systems might enhance the economic state of a country but will never be able to solve the socioeconomic problems that the people revolted to abolish. The future of Egypt is uncertain, as there is a controversy on whether to have a secular system or no. This secular system will be based on building a modern state with better focus on education, credible commitment and economic growth and it will be independent from religion. Most liberals want a secular state, while the Muslim brotherhood and Islamic powers refuse a secular state. As when Erdogan the prime minister of turkey said that he hoped that Egypt would adopt a secular state, the Muslim brotherhood considered it interference in Egypt’s internal affairs, and replied that the experiences of other countries (in reference to Turkey) shouldn’t be copied (“Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood criticizes Erdogan’s call for a


Al-Qersh 29 secular state”). So now after the revolution the people are the ones who are going to choose what will happen next in Egypt? Primary research: A Survey was distributed among 55 people to know what they want to happen in Egypt in the next period. The survey was distributed among different people. However most of them were undergraduate students. Before representing the primary research results, it is essential to remark the fact that this survey was done at a period were Egypt wasn’t stable, the military started to use violence and a lot of rumors were going around, so this maybe a factor of bias in the research. Most of the people were supportive to the revolution, however the degree at which they supported the revolution varied.

revolution 11%

5% 44%

40%

strongly supportive supportive neutral not supportive strongly not supportive

The factor of bias played an important role in the statistics of the answers, as the 3% of the 5% who said that they were neutral justified there answers as things started to get out of control. While 2% of those who answered that they were neutral were at the age category between 40-50, one of them said “I Have Never Thought That It's going to be a revolution” an explanation for that takes us to Dessouki’s theory that people above 40 had already lived most of their life under Egypt’s past bureaucratic institution and system of life, to the extent


Al-Qersh 30 that they failed to see any change or alternative as the system discourages innovation. The 11% who were not supportive were all due to the factor of bias. Now after knowing how most of the people felt about the revolution. The main question that the paper is discussing is what Egypt needs next. economic equality 18% political freedom 6% both 76%

The survey result was that 76.4% thought that Egypt needs both political freedom and economic equality, but first of all to avoid confusion keep in mind that by economic equality we mean that people should have their basic needs satisfied, which means that citizens should be able to have good education, and youth adults should be able to find jobs in order to have a living and start a family. Those 76.4% support Douglass and Dessouki theories that for development economic equality and political freedom should happen together and that one cant happen without the other. However, still 18.2% thought that Egypt needs only economic equality and one of the answers was that “by fixing the economy everything will be fine.” This brings us to an important question how to fix the economy, well in an interview that was done with Dr. Al-Ississ an economic professor he said that “that Egypt’s economy has been growing at a rate higher than that of the US, however it wasn’t an inclusive growth.” This means that Egypt’s economy was actually growing however this growth didn’t reach the citizens, the only people who were enjoying this growth were the elite, Mubarak, his family and his friends. So the main economic problem that needs to be fixed is the economic


Al-Qersh 31 distribution, the lower social classes should enjoy the economic growth. This situation can be compared with the period at which Gamal Abdel Nasser was ruling Egypt, when he became the ruler he redistributed the country’s wealth between the people, we can even say that he took from the rich people and gave to the poor, that made most of the Egyptians satisfied to the extent that when Egypt lost the war in the year 1967 and Abdel Nasser stepped down, the Egyptians actually revolted against his decision. The economic equality that Abdel Nasser provided made the people supportive to the president and the ruling regime regardless the political conditions. After the revolution, different possible institutional forms started to appear, the main two are either to have a secular state or an Islamic state.

do you agree that Egypt becomes a secular state? neutral 15%

disagree 34%

agree 51%

Although 51.3% agree with Egypt becoming a secular state, it’s surprising that the difference between those who agree and those who don’t isn’t that big. It is surprising because after a revolution occur we expect to move forward not backward, and although being a secular state doesn’t guarantee that we are going to move a step forward, not being a secular state could


Al-Qersh 32 possibly make us go steps backward. The main reason behind these percentages is the Muslim brotherhood. More than 80% believe that the Muslim brotherhood is a political group with a religious background, and we should keep in mind that most people are biased to their religion. So when analyzing the statistics we find that the other 20% who think of the Muslim brotherhood as a religious group not qualified to rule a country are the ones who agreed with Egypt being a secular state and only 30% of the 80% who think that the Muslim brotherhood are a political group with a religious background said that they agree with Egypt being a secular state. 90 80 70

50

60 50 40

disagree with secular state

30

agree with secular state

20 10

30 20%

0 Muslim brotherhood religious group

Muslim brotherhood political group with religious background

The above statistics show that Egyptians are easily deceived by religion. The high illiteracy rates in Egypt provide may provide an explanation for this phenomenon. Also, most of the political parties that arose after the revolution are new, people know a little about them, therefore they would rather vote to parties they know (Islamic parties) rather than others they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know. However still the majority thinks that Egypt needs to be a secular state.


Al-Qersh 33 Conclusion: The research done leaves us with a lot of question; did things really change after the revolution? Can we really achieve democracy? And what exactly do we mean by democracy? Well First of all we found that there are different points of view regarding democracy and what Egypt needs in the coming period some think it’s economic equality others think that its political freedom, some want a religious country and others want a secular state, so it’s not certain what will happen in Egypt in the next period. We can’t for sure guarantee that Egypt will become a secular state with a secular institution nor we can say that it’s going to be an Islamic country. However, those different opinions are the reason behind democracy, after revolution the citizens know that they have the right to vote and speak up there opinion and that their vote counts, by that the majority will win and that satisfies one of the essential aspects of democracy. But since the country has been ruled for 30 years a corrupted system providing bad education to the people, in that case can we say that the majority will be right? Actually no the majority is not always right, and that is the reason why some people that Egypt need to focus on the economic problem rather than the political freedom, however as Douglass and Dessouki said we cant achieve one without the other, political freedom is required to achieve economic equality. It is normal as the country is still in the reform period, that the majority maybe wrong. However as long as the people are committed to the democratic process, then they could speak up if they found that their choice was wrong, and vote for another institutional form for the next period.


Al-Qersh 34 Ayten Al-Qersh 900093530 19/12/2011 RHET-201 Dr. Michael Gibson Final research paper Egypt: What will happen next. Introduction: Arabs were at their golden age in two periods. The first was at the beginning of Islam starting in the seventh century and ending in the twelfth century. The second was in the nineteenth century during the cultural renaissance of the nineteenth century (Eugene). There is a new third period that is being written in history by this generation, it’s the 2010/2011 Arab springs. It started in Tunisia then it moved to Egypt, Libya, Syria, and Yemen. Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya succeeded to abolish the old dictatorships and corrupt institutions while Syria and El Yemen haven’t succeeded yet. The former countries are now in the period of forming new democratic and modern institutions. With special focus on Egypt the research paper will address the question of what will happen next in Egypt? Based on scholar theories, surveys done and personal interpretations, we will explore the different paths; can Egypt become a secular state? What is the people’s opinion? And to what extent are Egyptians affected by religion and by religious group? However before we can answer these questions, we need to go to the past and see what went wrong to prevent it from happening again.


Al-Qersh 35 Critical analysis: Through the past decade, the Middle East suffered from what is called the “Arab malaise” (Eugene). Samir Kassir, a Lebanese professor of history at Saint-Joseph University and a journalist described this Arab malaise by saying “The Arab people are haunted by a sense of powerlessness…powerlessness to suppress the feeling that you are no more than a lowly pawn on the global chessboard even as the game is being played in your backyard.” (Eugene). The root of the Arab malaise problem is the bad educational system that mainly focuses on memorizing the curriculum (Dessouki). They don’t encourage any thinking, they basically teach the students what to think, not how to think. Another main problem is the bureaucratic traditions in Egypt; these traditions discourage innovation and encourage submissiveness, blind loyalty to superiors, and inflexibility (Dessouki). These two reasons combined together are primary reasons for the Egyptian malaise, as they led to increase in the unemployment rate. People weren’t qualified for the jobs, and those who were qualified couldn’t find job opportunities suitable for them. Life felt as if it’s a routine, they didn’t have any hopes for a good future and they couldn’t see the change and the alternatives. The governmental institutions didn’t fix this problem. One theory explains that the reason behind such conditions is that the government seemed unwilling to solve the problem and was only interested in maintaining a bureaucratic system, that of Mubarak, which they were able to maintain for the last 30 years. In order to do this Mubarak had to ensure that people wouldn’t revolt against him. He did that by increasing the probability of being tortured if the revolution fails, so he set several examples for the citizens for people who were against him and ended in jail like Ayman Nour. Another thing is to decrease the number of candidates who can replace him, that’s why he decreased the level of education and discouraged innovation; by that he made the citizens unable to think of alternatives for him, so they had no point in revolting. Despite his techniques, before


Al-Qersh 36 the Tunisian revolution, some oppositional political figures started to appear like Mohamed El-Baradaay. Then following the success of the Tunisian revolution, the Egyptians were able to visualize a better country, and they were willing to take the risk of failure and getting tortured as the conditions for them were already very bad, it couldn’t get any worse. So the Egyptians revolted and they succeeded and abolished Mubarak and the whole regime. The important question now is what is going to happen next. All the Egyptians agree that we don’t want dictatorship. What does Egypt need the most? Is it economic equality or political freedom? And can we really achieve one without the other? Douglass C. North in his article “The Paradox Of The West” argues that freedom and economic growth should occur together. They are complementary processes of societal development. Dessouki also supports North’s theory by saying “ democracy seems to suffer in periods of economic stagnation… stable democracies on the other hand are associated with developing and expanding economies, especially if expansion is accompanied by proper education and equitable income distribution.” However, there are some exceptions for this theory like China that was able to achieve economic growth, yet the nation didn’t achieve the actual definition of democracy. Now at a point where everyone one is asking whether Egypt is ready for democracy, what we really need to be asking ourselves, is the government ready for the people presentation and democracy (Dessouki) or is Egypt’s best case scenario to turn into another China? North explains that in order for a change to happen, the next ruling government must be able to enhance what the people need, and what they are fighting for. In order to achieve economic growth and development, people and companies need to invest in the country, and for them to invest and trade in the country we need a credible commitment from the next government that it won’t confiscate and it will respect the property rights of the citizens. This credible commitment between the government and the citizens can be achieved by having an independent judiciary court that can depose the president if he broke the constitution.


Al-Qersh 37 However, in Egypt to do so we need to change the constitution first, because the present constitution gives a lot of privileges to the president, these privileges could easily turn him to a dictator. So we need to change the constitution to ensure equality, and then have an independent judiciary court that can dispose of the president and the government if it broke the constitution. By doing that we limit the government’s power, ensure equality and freedom. Finally, once this is done, we might have an actual chance to achieve economic growth. The economic growth can be achieved through a credible commitment from the government that would decrease the uncertainty in Egypt and thus encourage investors and companies to invest in Egypt. Aside from Douglass and Dessouki’s theory, there is another solution that some people think that it’s the best for Egypt and that is to revive our Islamic values. Kassir argues that Arabs were more advanced (in reference to the period from the seventh to the twelfth century) when they were close to their Islamic laws and faith (Eugene). Also Joseph Mayton, an American journalist who is currently a staff reporter at Al-Masry Al-Youm and editor of Bikya Masr, agree to some extent with Kassir as he says “ Islam is the solution” as Islam in itself is egalitarian, it also encourages hard work and enrichment. On the other hand, Timur Kuran, professor of economics and political science at Duke University argues that some religious laws as the ban of interest and Islamic inheritance law were the reason for the Middle East to decline in the first place. He explains how the nature of Islam is stagnant, and being stagnant in a world that is changing every day is decline. In fact, if we are to evaluate the Islamic laws we won’t find what opposes economic growth or development of countries. However, the misinterpretation of Islam sometimes is what makes it stagnant. So it’s the people’s interpretation of Islam that causes either development or decline. The Muslim Brotherhood is a good example that can be used to compare Douglass and Dessouki theory against Kassir, Mayton and Kuran perspective of an Islamic institution,


Al-Qersh 38 taking into consideration the Muslim Brotherhood behavior since the revolution. They were the only party voting yes in the referendum about whether to settle with the changes in the constitution or to cancel the old constitution and form a new one. The old constitution gave the president a lot of privileges, and the changes that were made in it werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t enough, also some of these changes contradicted each other. But voting yes and agreeing to these changes will speed up the time of the election. The Muslim brotherhood voted yes because they were the only party ready for elections. So itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s clear that they were in search for power rather than democracy and freedom. Also, the Muslim brotherhood attracts people by religion; they base their campaign on religion rather than on education, constitution and credible commitment. They make the people vote for them because of the religion, so the people fail to see the alternatives of the other parties. Also by using religion they eliminate the competition with other parties, which may lead to one regime in power same as during Mubarak era. When evaluating the perspective of the Muslim brotherhood it seems clear to us that the real problem is that the people need to stop falling for the conspiracies under the name of religion. Though the Islamic brotherhood represents Islam, yet they fail to represent the real meaning of Islam, not only in terms of what Kassir interprets but also represent another era of Arab malaise. Such systems might enhance the economic state of a country but will never be able to solve the socioeconomic problems that the people revolted to abolish. The future of Egypt is uncertain, as there is a controversy on whether to have a secular system or not. This secular system will be based on building a modern state with better focus on education, credible commitment and economic growth and it will be independent from religion. Most liberals want a secular state, while the Muslim brotherhood and Islamic powers refuse a secular state. As when Erdogan the Prime Minister of Turkey said that he hoped that Egypt would adopt a secular state, the Muslim brotherhood considered it interference in Egyptâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s internal affairs, and replied that the experiences of other countries


Al-Qersh 39 (in reference to Turkey) shouldn’t be copied (“Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood criticizes Erdogan’s call for a secular state”). Discussed above are scholars opinions, however those opinions are kind of outdate and they are based on theories and assumption. So what are the Egyptians opinions? People who are engaged in this transition that is actually happening in their own country, what do they want to see in Egypt in the next period? Primary research: A Survey was done were a questionnaire was distributed on 55 people to get their insight to how they would like to see Egypt in the coming period. The survey was distributed over different people, most of which were undergraduate students. Before representing the primary research results, it is essential to remark the fact that this survey was done at a period were Egypt wasn’t stable. As the military started to use violence and a lot of rumors were going around concerning the military and Egypt’s stability. So this maybe a factor of bias in the research. Most of the people were supportive of the revolution, however the degree at which they supported the revolution varied.

Revolution 11%

5% 44%

40%

strongly supportive supportive neutral not supportive strongly not supportive


Al-Qersh 40 The factor of bias played an important role in the statistics of the answers, as the 3% of the 5% who said that they were neutral justified there answers as things started to get out of control. While 2% of those who answered that they were neutral were at the age category between 40-50, one of them said “I have never thought that it's going to be a revolution” an explanation for that takes us to Dessouki’s theory that people above 40 had already lived most of their life under Egypt’s past bureaucratic institution and system of life, to the extent that they failed to see any change or alternative as the system discourages innovation. The 11% who were not supportive were all due to the factor of bias. Now after knowing how most of the people felt about the revolution. The main question that the paper is discussing is what Egypt needs next. economic equality 18% political freedom 6% both 76%

The survey result was that 76.4% thought that Egypt needs both political freedom and economic equality, but first of all to avoid confusion keep in mind that by economic equality we mean that people should have their basic needs satisfied, which means that citizens should be able to have good education, and youth adults should be able to find jobs in order to have a living and start a family. Those 76.4% support Douglass and Dessouki theories that for development economic equality and political freedom should happen together and that one cant happen without the other. However, still 18.2% thought that Egypt needs only economic equality and one of the answers was that “by fixing the economy everything will be fine.”


Al-Qersh 41 This brings us to an important question how to fix the economy, well in an interview that was done with Dr. Al-Ississ an economic professor he said that “that Egypt’s economy has been growing at a rate higher than that of the US, however it wasn’t an inclusive growth.” This means that Egypt’s economy was actually growing however this growth didn’t reach the citizens, the only people who were enjoying this growth were the elite, Mubarak, his family and his friends. The main economic problem that needs to be fixed is the economic distribution; the lower social classes should enjoy the economic growth. This situation can be compared with the period at which Gamal Abdel Nasser was ruling Egypt, when he became the ruler he redistributed the country’s wealth between the people, we can even say that he took from the rich people and gave to the poor, that made most of the Egyptians satisfied to the extent that when Egypt lost the war in the year 1967 and Abdel Nasser stepped down, the Egyptians actually protested against his decision. The economic equality that Abdel Nasser provided made the people supportive of the president and the ruling regime regardless the political conditions. After the revolution, different possible institutional forms started to appear, the main two are either to have a secular state or an Islamic state.


Al-Qersh 42

Do you agree that Egypt becomes a secular state? neutral 15%

disagree 34%

agree 51%

Although 51.3% agree with Egypt becoming a secular state, it’s surprising that the difference between those who agree and those who don’t isn’t that big. It is surprising because after a revolution occurs, we expect to move forward not backward, and although being a secular state doesn’t guarantee that we are going to move a step forward, not being a secular state could possibly make us go steps backward. The main reason behind these percentages is the Muslim Brotherhood. More than 80% believe that the Muslim Brotherhood is a political group with a religious background, and we should keep in mind that most people are biased to their religion. So when analyzing the statistics we find that the other 20% who think of the Muslim Brotherhood as a religious group not qualified to rule a country are the ones who agreed with Egypt being a secular state and only 30% of the 80% who think that the Muslim brotherhood are a political group with a religious background said that they agree with Egypt being a secular state.


Al-Qersh 43 90 80 70

50

60 50 40

disagree with secular state

30

agree with secular state

20 10

30 20%

0 Muslim brotherhood religious group

Muslim brotherhood political group with religious background

The above statistics show that Egyptians are easily deceived by religion. The high illiteracy rates in Egypt may provide an explanation for this phenomenon. Also, more than 40% of the Egyptians are suffering from poverty, those 40% have no power to guarantee that the political party that’s going to rule Egypt in the next period will give them their rights and help them improve their living conditions. Especially that most of the political parties that arose after the revolution are new, little is known about them. Therefore those people will vote to the Islamic parties as they think that’s better to vote to a party that we know (Islamic party) rather than another party that we know little about. Also they think that Islamic parties are going to be egalitarian and they are not going to be unjust to them as they are going to govern using the Islamic laws and values. However that is not true because a lot of political parties can use religion just to make people vote for them but that doesn’t mean that they are going to govern Egypt based on the Islamic rules, also even if they were actually honest and they are going to govern using Islamic and religious laws, its not necessary that this kind of institution is the best for Egypt. Although the above statistics show that the religious groups have a great effect on people, the percentage of people who agree with Egypt becoming a secular state (51.3%) are more than those who don’t agree (47.3%). A reason for that is that these percentages apply only to this survey in which the questionnaires were mainly


Al-Qersh 44 distributed on undergraduate students who are attaining high levels of education, so they are on an intellectual level that allow them to think critically about Egypt’s future, and not easily deceived by religious parties. Also most of the people who answered the questionnaires were from the upper middle class. Conclusion: The research done leaves us with a lot of question; did things really change after the revolution? Can we really achieve democracy? And what exactly do we mean by democracy? Well First of all we found that there are different points of view regarding democracy and what Egypt needs in the coming period some think it’s economic equality others think that its political freedom, some want a religious country and others want a secular state, so it’s not certain what will happen in Egypt in the next period. We can’t for sure guarantee that Egypt will become a secular state with a secular institution nor can we say that it’s going to be an Islamic country. However, those different opinions are the reason behind democracy, after the revolution the citizens know that they have the right to vote and speak up there opinion and that their vote counts, by that the majority will win and that satisfies one of the essential aspects of democracy. But since the country has been ruled for 30 years under a corrupted system providing bad education to the people, in that case can we say that the majority will be right? Actually no the majority is not always right, because this bad education made people not on high enough intellectual level to ensure that their opinion is the best for the country, also because as mentioned above they can easily be deceived by religion. And because the majority isn’t always right some people think that Egypt needs to focus on the economic problems rather than the political freedom, however as Douglass and Dessouki said we cant achieve one without the other, political freedom is required to achieve economic equality.


Al-Qersh 45 It is normal as the country is still in the reform period, that the majority maybe wrong. However as long as the people are committed to the democratic process, then they could speak up if they found that their choice was wrong, and vote for another institutional form for the next period. So based on the research done Egypt should focus on the political and the economic reforms simultaneously. First, focus on the political reforms to remove the uncertainty; Egypt must have a permanent institution and a permanent government this should be done within a democratic process, to ensure that the new constitution and government wont have a lot of privileges, it will also ensure a civil society in which there is an independent judiciary and independent federal system, that in turn will prevent the formation of a new dictatorship. When the uncertainty is removed investors will start investing in the country, which will provide employment opportunities, which will then solve the economic equality problem and the problem of inclusive growth.


Al-Qersh 46 Survey 1. What is your age? -

Less than 20

-

20-30

-

30-40

-

40-50

-

50 or above

2. What is your educational level? -

High school student

-

Undergraduate student

-

Attained bachelor degree

-

Attained MA/PhD degree

3. What is your gender? -

Male

-

Female

4. To what extent where you supportive to the 2011 Egyptian revolution? -

Strongly supportive

-

Supportive

-

Neutral

-

Not supportive

-

Strongly not supportive

-

Kindly give explanation for your answer:


Al-Qersh 47

5. In your opinion what does Egypt need to be on the right track? -

Economic equality

-

Political freedom

-

Both

-

Kindly give explanation for your answer

6. What do you think of the Muslim brotherhood? -

Political group

-

Religious group

-

Other (please specify)

7. Do you understand the meaning of â&#x20AC;&#x153;secular stateâ&#x20AC;?? -

Yes

-

No

8. If yes, do you agree with Egypt becoming a secular state? -

Strongly agree

-

Agree

-

Neutral

-

Disagree

-

Strongly disagree

-

Kindly give explanation for your answer


Al-Qersh 48 9. Based on your answers, what is the best political institution form that will help Egypt achieve what it needs? -

Islamic

-

Civil

-

Military

-

Kindly give explanation for your answer

10. So far, do you think Egypt is on the right path towards achieving the revolutionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s goal? -

Yes

-

No

-

Kindly give explanation to your answer


Al-Qersh 49 Works cited Arabiya, Al. "Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood Criticizes Erdogan’s Call for a Secular State." Alarabiya.net | Home Page. 14 Sept. 2011. Web. 30 Oct. 2011. <http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/09/14/166814.html>. Dessouki, Ali E. Hillal. Democracy in Egypt: Problems and Prospects. [Cairo]: American University in Cairo, 1978. Print. Eugene, Rogan. Introduction. New York: Basic, 2009. 1-21. Web. <http://site.ebrary.com.library.aucegypt.edu:2048/lib/aucairo/docDetail.action?docID=103 42180>. Kuran, Timur. "Islam and Underdevelopment: An Old Puzzle Revisited." Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE) 153 (1997). Print. Mayton, Joseph. "Egypt’s Liberals Need Islam - Bikya Masr: Bikya Masr." Bikya Masr Independent News for the World : Bikya Masr. 14 Sept. 2011. Web. 30 Oct. 2011. <http://bikyamasr.com/42211/egypts-liberals-need-islam/>. North, Douglass C. "Douglass C. North; The Paradox of the West." The Origins of Modern Freedom in the West (1995): 1-34. Web.


Al-Qersh 50 Annotated bibliography Rogan, Eugene L. "Introduction." Introduction. The Arabs a History. New York: Basic, 2009. 1-12. Print. Roger is a professor in Oxford University. He taught a lot of courses concerning the history of the modern Middle East, and his research interest is in the Arab history from the eighteenth century to the twentieth century. In the fist half of this chapter, Roger talked about Samir Kassir, his assassination, and his description about the Arabs the “Arab malaise”. Then he continued what Samir Kassir Said, about how the Arabs where not always powerless and mentions two periods where the Arabs were powerful, from the seventh to the twelfth century and the cultural renaissance of the nineteenth century and how we need to retain our Islamic values to return to our golden age. This will help my research as it will compare the past periods were the Arabs were optimistic about the future and feeling that there will be a change with the 2011 Arab spring. However, the chapter doesn’t provide explanation to why the Arab malaise eventually came back after each of these past periods. Further sources are going to be used to overcome this limitation. Kuran, Timur. "Institutional Causes of Economic Underdevelopment in the Middle East: a Historical Perspective." Economic Underdevelopment in the Middle East. 64-75. Print. Timur Kuran is a professor of economics, political science, and Islamic studies at Duke University. In this chapter Kuran addresses the institutional reasons that lead to economics decline in the Middle East. These reasons are composed of a serious of laws imposed by the government, religious authorities, and some are in the Qur’an. This will help with the research paper as it opens the argument, whether we need to retain our Islamic values and rules after these revolutions and elect a religious regime, or is it actually a step that will cause further decline


Al-Qersh 51 in the economy. Also, we shall discuss whether Islamic laws are really the true reason of decline, or is it the people’s attitude. North, Douglass C. "Douglass C. North; The Paradox of the West." The Origins of Modern Freedom in the West (1995): 1-34. Web. Douglass C. North is an American economist known for his work in economic history. He is the co-recipient (with Robert William Fogel) of the 1993 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. In his article “paradox of the west” North talks about how Europe became nowadays economically more advanced than the rest of the world. He claims that the industrial revolution couldn’t happen in Europe without the institutional reforms that the French revolution made. He also introduces the term credible commitment that the government (institution) should give to the investors and the citizens that they wont confiscate their property rights. This will help with the research paper as North claims that economic and political reforms can’t be done one without the other, and that political and institutional reforms are necessary for the economic reform. We will apply this case to Egypt and we will discuss how can the Egyptian government credibly commit not to confiscate the investors property rights. However, the article don’t mention to what extent are institutional reforms behind economic development and development. Dessouki, Ali E. Hillal. Democracy in Egypt: Problems and Prospects. [Cairo]: American University in Cairo, 1978. Print. Ali Dessouki is a political science professor at Cairo University. In His book “democracy in Egypt: problems and prospects” he talks about the democratic experience in Egypt and its problems. He mentioned how the education system in Egypt prevents the people from being able to think critically. Also, he talks about the bureaucratic system in Egypt, which discourages innovation. This book is useful for the research paper as it gives reasons for


Al-Qersh 52 the Arab malaise. So we can know where the problem was to work on it in the future. In addition it introduces the argument of whether we should focus on the peoples’ readiness for democracy or the government readiness for democracy. Arabiya, Al. "Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood Criticizes Erdogan’s Call for a Secular State." Alarabiya.net

|

Home

Page.

14

Sept.

2011.

Web.

30

Oct.

2011.

<http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/09/14/166814.html>. This is an article representing the news of the Muslim brotherhood criticizing Erdogan the prime minister of Turkey when he said that Egyptians shouldn’t worry about becoming a secular state and that he actually hoped that Egypt would become a secular state. That is useful for the research paper as it is used to compare between that two main paths that Egypt could take, becoming a secular or Islamic state. It is used to show how the Muslim brotherhood aren’t willing for Egypt to become a secular state and how if they won the elections they wont govern using a secular constitution. Mayton, Joseph. "Egypt’s Liberals Need Islam - Bikya Masr: Bikya Masr." Bikya Masr Independent News for the World: Bikya Masr. 14 Sept. 2011. Web. 30 Oct. 2011. <http://bikyamasr.com/42211/egypts-liberals-need-islam/>. Joseph Mayton, an American journalist who is currently a staff reporter at Al-Masry Al-Youm and editor of Bikya Masr. In this article Mayton talks about how people are attracted to religion and how the religious groups are the ones who are more likely to win the election. He said that Islam is the solution and he also said that for the liberals to be accepted by the people they have to use religion too. This is useful to the research paper as it shows how Islam affects people, and how the people want Islam in Egypt as the best governmental form. And that contradicts some other theories that say that Islam is going to lead the Arab world to further decline. However, the article has limitations as it doesn’t mention whether


Al-Qersh 53 the liberal parties should actually still have Islamic values or he means that they just need to fake to people that they are going to govern to a certain extent with Islamic laws.


Research Rhet