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FEMINISM

BY

CORREA

STURGIS

MOYLAN

"" WALTON

COMPANY

1917

WALSH


1^y//rf^

OOPTEIGHT,

By

Set

STURGIS

and up

1917,

ft

electrotyped.

COMPANY

WALTON

Published,

October,

1917,


PREFATORY

Here in

be

may

the

work The

form

Climax to

explains

with

in

to

those

the

the

Yet

and

are

The

merely

of

present

teachings

socialism

which

advocated

its

are

without

of

of

others.

ism, Social-

on

the

tendencies feministic

the

feminism whole

the

it

introductory

of

That

the

through

that

all

tively. respec-

the

the

knowledge

without

which

to

grasp

consummation.

socialism

without

full

itself,

with

least

complementary a

ii.

running

argument at

is

have

can

of

bearings

the

back

references

by

this

alluded

i. and

either

reading

consultation book

to

work

a

without

the vols.

arating sep-

of

especially frequently

and

as

Preface for

reason

and

also

is

pages,

constitutes

by

and

The

the

and

the

three,

Socialism,

volume.

Part,

three the

following

volume

student

no

the

Civilisation.

of

third

said

the

others,

Climax

this, is the

said

was

ously Simultane-

two

introductory

marked

improved

volume. as

the

comprehension

be

The

of

on

understand

his

Still, would

of

this

can

entitled

of

volume

course

published

the

what

Socialism.

on

are

connection

volumes

reader

is

connection

The

volume

which

of

series,

the

them.

to

one

Civilisation

of

volume

and

a

the

to

words

altered

slightly

volume

present

Socialism,

three

it

Note

the

on

in

repeated

Prefatory with

NOTE

be

may

of

which

it

"

is the

a

part, rest

and

feminism,

is feminism criticised two a

not

in

is

is

on

standing

in

supported

in

advocated

by

suffrage

woman

complete

an

be

itself.

itself. may

also

the

the

fact

human

alone, Within be

without

similarly of

illustration

ingredient

sometimes

work

a

only

necessary

a

simply

chapters treatise

suffrage

woman

"

of

it this

regarded

that mind.

sistency con-

As

here

may

volume as

be the

forming


CONTENTS

CHAPTER

I.

PAGE

The

Movement

Woman

and

History

its

3 ...

II.

Some

Assumptions

Fundamental

of

Feminism

20 .

III.

Error

of

Feminists'

the

First

36

Principle ...

IV.

Feminism

V.

Feminist

VI.

Views

VII.

Women

VIII.

Woman

Marriage

and

74

Demands

119

Feminists

Leading

of

and

149

Work

199

Suffrage

Arguments

the

234

for

"

.

IX.

Suffrage

Woman

X.

XI.

The

The

Situation

International

Outlook

Argument

the

"

in

the

United

.

.

against

and

294 .

.

.

.

Prospect

353

368

States ....


FEMINISM

CHAPTER

THE

The

WOMAN

MOVEMENT

socialist movement

what

I.

AND

always

is called

feminism

ITS

includes ^

the the

and

HISTORY

movement,

woman

almost are to-day ; unanimous in advocating one inism, of the necessary implicationsof femwoman suffrage.^ But feminism, by stopping short, does or

not

go

so

far

as

socialism, and

feminists

and

may

be

socialists

satisfied before

that

is attained,

ists, suffragistseven being anti-socialbranch offshoot or regardless of consistency. It is an that it be is itself. As contrasted twig such, growing by may ; with socialism, with which it has many points of analogy. for equalityof the poor with As socialism is a demand the rich, f with eminisim is demand for of so a women men. equality They seek have in common that they both excessive equality,with the reaches for complete equalityof propdifference that the one out erty, for complete equality of the sexes.^ the other They both some

many

"

"

violate

nature

; for

the

one

is

contrary

to

the

natural

constitution

The 1 Lily Braun-Gizycki : woman question is only a part of the social question, und Cf. Isabella O. Frauenfrage Socialdemokratie, Berlin, 1896, p. 3. Ford, Woman Labour and Socialism, London, (published by the Independent Party). 1904 Belfort socialist few Ernest Bax is the only prominent 2 There are exceptions. very ' the Monstrous who The is systematically suffrage: opposed to woman see on essays Some Fallacies Woman of Current of the Womanhood," Question," Regiment '* in his Essays Old Feminism in extremis," in Socialism and London, New, 1906, also The Fraud his The Gronof Feminism, 1908, and Legal Subjection of Men, 19 13. New lund Economy, suffrage at least in the present regime. The opposed woman 126-30, rather take the view transitional others of Hillquit, that it is a demand," 358; though Socialism in Theory While and needednow, Practice, cf. 141. in precisely most 102, the socialists for it, in Europe there is some as are now one holding back, country our In Gotha the in the Erfurt for opportunist reasons. Programme only by implication, demanded universal discrimination of directly was suffrage without Programme sex. of it has been abandoned times and the direct in places, beat But since then cause advocacy would further the cause, not of fear its adoption especially in Catholic countries, the influence of the priests would where be adverse. Yet the demand such Belgium, as Socialist re-inserted the International at at Congress Stuttgart in 1907. was is defined 3 Feminism by Teresa Billington-Greig movement as a seeking the reorganisation basis of sex-equality in all human of the world a relations; a movement upon would differentiation between individuals which reject every the of ground upon all sex-privileges and and abolish would strive sex-burdens, would to set the sex, up of woman and of the common the foundation humanity of law recognition man as and Feminism and Review, custom," Politics, Contemporary Nov., 191 1, p. 694. According " feminists L. George, to identify absolutely the QOOditions of the sexes, to W. propose f^eminist Intentions, Atlantic Moatblft Dec, 1913, p. 7a;, "

'

"

"

"

3


FEMINISM

4 of

and the other to the natural constitution of the human society, ing as it is termed,or the freebody. Theyboth aim at emancipation, from bondage, the one of working people,the other of all discriminations women,* these latter desiringto break down "

in the female sex ; " and while socialism and barriers that hem excites class-consciousness and stirs up class-antagonism, inism femexcites sex-consciousness and stirs up sex-antagonism, and Their reliance advocates have confused on a places sex-loyalty." " notion of justice, in whose name demand their and rights," they because of which they think their claims so self-evident that they the feminists, be achieved in this age of enlightenment, must speedily well as the socialistshaving at first had great expectaas tions.''

Moreover,

as

know, evils developin advanced

we

ations, civilis-

and homelessness,that such as lack of self-employment There is,therefore, giverise alike to socialism and to feminism. in the one, in each case, a real problem to restore to the of of in themselves the other, majority men the means employing ; labour at home in the midst of their children. to restore to women of weak with strong men is not the men Only as the equalisation solution of the labour problem,as we have seen, so, as proper shall see, the equalisation of women with men is not the proper we "

Annie

"We to set women mean free," The Political Status of Women between 1870 and 1880), p. 16. Lily Braun: "The Woman has set itself the aim to free all women movement from economic dependent slavery through inwork. Die Frauenfrage, Leipzig,190:, p. 193. Ethel (Mrs. P.) Snowden: Ihe chief of feminists is the achievement of freedom for womanhood purpose and Its equality of opportunity with manhood," The Feminist Movement, London, J913, Elizabeth S. Chesser: ''Women p. 13, cf. 246, 258. are striving for economic, legal, and sexual independence," Woman, Marriage and Motherhood, New York ed.. ion. p. 4

Besant:

(undated, apparently

...

257. 5

Uie

Maurice present

Parmelee:

basis of sex J he.Economic

extensive and for

"The movement

term

for

'feminism'

.

.

.

seems

to

be

used

as

a

name

removing discriminations against woman placing her entirely or as far as possible on an equality with Basts of Feminism, Annals of the Amer. Acad, of Polit. and

on

for the

man,"

Social Beatrice Forbes-Robertson Hale: Feminism 1914, p. 18. Mrs. is "a to bring about the removal of all artificial barriers to the physical,mental, moral, and economic development of the female half of the race," What Women Want, New Yet throughout this work York, 1914, P.. 3the authoress nowhere inquires what barriers artificial and are what natural. She think seems them to all artificial. She answered her title more might have quickly with the words of another, an inist: ultra, femIf the woman s movement means anything, it means that women demanding are everything, Floyd Dell (Miss Dora Marsden), Women World as Builders. Chicago, 1813, p. 51. Juvenals " nil non permittitmulier sibi,"VI. 457. 6 Feminism advocated is by women of every class who have instinct of sexan " loyalty, and women are now learning sex-loyalty,"says Mrs. Hale, op. cit. 3, 73. bhe adds that they must be woman-conscious, and class-unconscious," 00 Ttis last into conflict with socialism,which requirement bringrsfeminism ness. enjoins class-consciousThis opposition is not much felt in England and America, where feminism is the stronger of the two, but is pronounced in Germany, where socialism is the stronger and there of the upper and of the lower women classes have separate organisations But the ultimate goal is harmonious, the one aiming at the suppression of classes,and the other at the obliteration of the sexes, while meanwhile both class-antagonism and sexbe employed as means. antagonism may " 7 We " fully believed," said the Rev. Mrs. Antoinette Brown Blackwell, so soon as that woman's we saw suffrage was right, every would one the same soon see thing and that in a year or two, at furthest,it would be granted," quoted by Mrs nam PutMary Sense" Jacobi," Common Question, New York, 1894, afplied to the Woman o. p. """" "" Cf. Ida H. Harper, The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony, i. 129.

Science, struggle

Nov.

.

.

.

Cf. '


ITS

HISTORY

5

solution of the sex problem,the latter suggestion ticable beingas impracthe former, and even as and the of more advocates so; these solutions resemble each other in their lack of seriousness in to ends and of foresight adaptingmeans as to consequences, like children playingwith fire and both expect, with equal lighthearted optimism,to reduce work to play in a happy world of calm and concord, with equalityof enjoyment." Indeed, the remedies offered in both cases are exactlythe oppositeof what they ought to be, having the tendencyto increase the evils they intended to cure. The social conditions profferedas such are remedies have, in fact,both existed in primitive munism times,as com"

"

and the so-called matriarchate ; but those times were long-drawn-outand almost stationary periodsof savagery

barbarism, prior to

superseded,the

one

the and

which civilisation, began after they were by privateproperty, the other by male supremacy,

and

which will probablyend if they be brought back. Both have likewise in historical times been imperfectly tried, and both have failed lamentably.Attempts at both have always attended the decline of civilisations. Feminism is not new, any more than socialism. The modem is a productof the peace movement, with its elaborated doctrine, and prosperity of the nineteenth century; but the movement, out withthe completedoctrine, had appeared long before. The literal of them out from under the or the taking emancipationof women, hand (themanus) of their husbands,took place, at firstby the aid in the cycleof its civilisation in Rome, as it rose of legalfictions, then enjoyed toward the pointwe have reached in ours. Women the freedom of owning the property bequeathedto them by their efforts or speculations.Their parents or acquiredby their own in effecting indirect influence on the repealof the legislation Oppian law againstluxury,by throngingthe streets and besieging the doors of the opposing tribunes,was but a flash in the pan. The Voconian law only forbade men to leave property to women outside their families. The serious and deleterious influence of noticeable toward have seen, became women on as we politics, the end of the republic, ciently, and continued under the empire. Anwhen a woman had appeared in the forum to plead her the oracle monstrous own so as to requ,ire case, the affair seemed In consulted.* the first admitted be b. c. to women were century to practise as lawyers,tillthe intemperateconduct of a certain In the Grecian secCaia Afrania caused them to be excluded." 8 9

Plutarch, Comparison of Numa Digest, III, i. I. " 5; Valerius

and

Lycurgus. Maximus, VIII.

States in one of our westtirn the bar to women of water in the face of the presidingjudge; but

an

xii. 2

"

Soon

enraged female

without

a

similar

after the openinj^ o." lawyer threw a g^tis? result.


FEMINISM

6

turers and publiclecof the last philosophers gusting the woman by diswas Hypatia,who dissuaded a wooer From the Christians murdered. then, him, and whom which the dark women were middle and through ages, during in the famUy, though not again reduced to a subordinate position it is a considerable jump in earlyantiquity, to the same extent as tion of the

empire one

the sixteenth

to

and

seventeenth

centuries,when

in

Italy,again

Erasmus whom admired,*^once degenerate, women, and and lectured in the universities, more disputedwith men the race of monarchs, verging toward decline of power, among women prominent as queens and regents, against again became some

learned

his First Blast Against the Monstrous wrote John Knox Regiment of Women.^" of the Roman It was the long civil wars at the end republic it the that gave their emancipationto the women, was though long peace of the empire that recognisedand consolidated their to come quasi independence. It is during revolutions that women

whom

the front,but in the clash of arms they are soon driven to the rear, Their after the restoration of peace. forward to only push again of their repression. have sometimes been the cause own excesses Thus in the Englishcivil war the women of London petitioned the House in 1641, 1643, and 1649,^t first humbly of Commons and tumuland were answered, and at last scoldingly politely told home and mind their own to go tuouslyand were rudely business.^^ In our revolution so much moderation and decorum observed that little room fere; offered for women to interwas were established the indefiniteness of whose were yet principles admitted of perversion, terms and as men refused obedience to the somehow British parliament,women for refound therein reason fusing their obedience to husbands, and the word obey was from the marriage service razed of some of the reformed From churches.^^ of manlearnt here of the equality principles "

"

Erasmus In his colloquy Abbatis et Erudites. But the feminist was by no means in his recent Vance New Thompson York, 1917, would make him book, Woman, been. He skit (the colloquy Senatulus) in whicll he represented wrote out a to have modern therein some women reviving Elagabalus's " little senate," and committing similar absurdities and ridiculous putting forth some pretensions; all which son Thompswallows he did teach seriously, that women serious, but ignores what as should suckle their children and be economical while their husbands at home worked for them abroad (see the colloquies Puerpera and Procis et PueUce). Catherine de' Medici 10 This was was published early in 1558, when Queen of Fralice, Marie de Lorraine of England, and Queen Queen of Scotland, and Mary Tudor Marie's daughter Mary (afterward Queen of Scots)and Mary^ sister Elizabeth ward (afterof importance. Knox denounced "the were Queen of England) personages monstnferous he also called it "phrenetic" as empire of women" repugnant to of good order and of all equity and justice. to God, and subversive nature, contumelious 11 Cobbett's So Parliamentary History, London, 1807-8, ii. 1073-6, iii.160-1, 1311. Etiocles tried to dismiss the troublesome in ./Sschylus's Theban Seven Against women, Thebes, 219 (or 230) S. 9a

that

"

12

This

fact was

"

A Kick for a Bite,p, s^, noticed by Cobbett in liispsiQpblet


ITS

HISTORY

7

kind Condorcet in France, in anticipation of the convocation of the estates of the realm,advocated the rightof women to vote and to be eligible to office, of deducing it also from this principle " the English,"that is legitimately one subjectto. pay only the "

which

"

least

^^ for, by a representative ; aristocrat that he was, he was confine in to willing participation the government, and even to landowners,^*among citizenship, he would draw line of distinction whom, then, no accordingto sex. So again in 1790, in the Journal of the Societyof 1789,he disapproved of keeping half of the human from takingpart race the and that in the formation of the rightsof laws, as argued fact that result the sensible from ceptible men solely they are beings,susof acquiring moral ideas and of reasoning these ideas," on have therefore qualities, women, having these same necessarly " in himself But he confined to later, office, equalrights." ticality, pracand in expounding the plan for a constitution in 1793, zenship while extending beyond landownership the principleof citihe restricted the latter to all adult and of the franchise, males ; ^* only to repeat, in his last work, his own opinion, the sexes had no other that the inequality of rightsbetween ^^ force." Women than the abuse of themselves,at source did take the outbreak of the French revolution, a prominent in violent and the most were wreaking part, among vengeance for past wrongs. To the men's declaration of rightsOlympe de Gouges (whose real name Marie was Gouze) opposed a declaration of the rightsof women, demanding full civil and eignty equality,on the principleof recognisingthe soverpolitical is the reunion of of the nation,which but men nothing The and women." for law," she said, ought to be the same has the rightto mount she the scaffold, as woman all,"and the the tribune." '"^ So great were should have the rightto mount the terrorists were disturbances raised by them, that even ordered the suppressionof their offended, and the Convention ^^ them from and clubs prohibited assemblingin public places.

taxes

has

one

voted,at

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

i"

Lettres

d'un

Bourgeois de htew

14

268, xiii. 35-6. xii. 16-17; cf. 233, and

15

Sur

16

(Euvres,

cf. also

Heaven,

1788, in (Euvres, Paris, 1804, xii. 20-1;

V.

also v. 225. Droit de Cite, No. 5 of that journal, July 3, 1790, des Femmes I'Admission au in (Euvres, Paris 1847, x. 121, 122; cf. the Fragment sur I'Atlantide,in (Euvres, Paris, 1804, viii,561; also xii. 20.

1804, xviii,227-32. Progr^s de I'Bsprithumain,

in (Euvres, 1804, viii. s.sg. Droit public, 29-30. Similarly Wendell is admitted have to the gallows, the jail,and the tax-list,we While woman Phillips: have the Right to Vote? dress Adno right to debar her from the ballot-box," Shall Women Equal Franchise Society of Pennsylvania, 1851, reprintedby The at Worcester, 17

Tableau

18

La Ostrogorskij

1912,

p.

des

Femme

au

point de

vue

du

14.

of their extravagant acts see Lady Grant Duff's article on For an account Revolution in The Nineteenth in tfieFrench Century and After, May, 1912, pp. 19

Women

1009-18.


FEMINISM

8

Mirabeau wrote, but death preRobespierrechampioned them. vented him from speaking, and women to the effect that as men play an entirelydifferent role in nature, they cannot play the role in the social state, and the eternal order of things same end makes them only by assigning co-operate for a common ^" different the Chanto them nel, places." Meanwhile, across had led who hard life a as a Mary WoUstonecraft, erness, govin her Vindication of the Rights of Woman, published in 1791, and strangely dedicated to Talleyrand, protestedagainst both in fact and in the theory of the place assigned to women male writers like Rousseau and others,denied the divine rightof ^^ the confounded desired distinction of to see sex husbands," in society" (71), recommended co-education of boys and girls both preparationof women for (171-9,cf.58), and demanded work and opportunity of work for women, that theymight earn their own and thereby be subsistence independentof men that women (97,149, 172),incidentally suggesting ought to have in in Even Germany, in representatives" parliament (154). the extreme east, Hippel,a magistrateat Konigsberg,who published all his works advocated liberal ment treatmore anonymously, and their admission to political in of women his Ueber rights die biirgerliche Verbesserungder Weiber, in 1792, and already in the successive editions of his Ueber die Ehe, first publishedin "

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

1774, had inserted passages to similar effect. Union In one State of the American the principle of indiscriminatio this time between the sexes into at was put operation in its of for a short while. New constitution Jersey, 1776,had all inhabitants of this colony of full opened the franchise to who worth are fifty pounds proclamationmoney." Whether age, this was expresslyintended to extend the right of voting to is not known; and it is not known that any women freeholders, made till 1797, when law of it was use a special suffrage definitely referred to persons being entitled to vote only in placeswhere resided."^ Thereupon a fitful use was he or she made of the in o ccasions the of on some localities, right special politicians one to the polls and party unexpectedlybringing women thereby "

"

"

Feminists often complain (.e.g., 20 Ostrogorski, op. cii.,30-1. Kaethe in Schirmacher C. C. Eckardt's her Modern Woman's Rights Movement, p. 178) that the translation,, took French of the old " rinits of women. revolutionary laws of freedom away many " instanced the land-owning noblewomen's these are right " to levy troops, raise Among their convents. justice, and the abbesses* unlimited over taxes, and administer power these, things as privileges.They were, Most in fact, among the people look upon did awa:^ with. abuses the revolution 21 P. 56 of the Humboldt Library ed.,references to which are inserted in the text. said in the British parliament,tliat 22 In this very year, by a curious coincidence. Fox "in all theories and projects of th" most absurd been speculation, it has never sue" be advisable the elective suffrage to the female to extend gested that it would aex," Woodfall's Retorts of Debates, iii. 327.


ITS

HISTORY

9

turningthe

election in their favour. This was done notablyin " that year at Elizabethtown by the adherents of a certain federal aristocrat " ; again in 1802 in Hunterdon County ; and lastlyin in in hot Essex contest a 1807 County, where, it is said,both white women and coloured peoplevied with white men in illegal voting. Thereupon the legislature passed a new suffragelaw, which confined the franchise to " white male citizens." As far this law repealedthe law of 1797, it was as legitimate ; but if the these constitution itselfauthorised female and coloured suffrage, exceeded their powers, as no legislature can legislators abrogatea conferred the constitution. But to have no right by protestseems been made any more than by negroes, not indeed till by women after the constitution of 1844 had confirmed the law, when, in 1858, Lucy Stone, a temporary resident from Massachusetts, of having no representation.^* refused to pay her tax on account That early incident passed almost without remark, and was few so nearly forgottenby history.In all probability very then had the property qualification them to vote, women entitling them seemed only like shutting that the law which disqualified for false swearing, the door to opportunities and other repeating, "

irregularities. The convulsed with wars in Europe and the times,moreover, in in of its not were America, ending possibility war actuality, for women's takingpart in the world's affairs tillafter propitious the peace set in, in 1815. Then began the periodof expansion led to the development and easement, which, as alreadydescribed, attracted to the free lands elsewhere, of democracy. Labourers were invited into the lower Women and wages were rose. abuses soon w here of called for of all sorts ranks factoryservice, in our restrictions. Highest of all were try, counlegislative wages school teachers,for and here need was felt for women as serviceable which positions there were not men at the rates enough that could be affordedwhen the publicschool system was rapidly in the west.^* For the purpose of being extended, especially with their families,our western settlers,especially attracting States began breakingdown the barriers of property rightsthat and opened the suffrage to were hedged around personalrights, all men States had to follow suit,in order to reeastern tain ; and our in their lower classes from emigrating;while Europe was reflection similar feebler the a movement, produced by though suffragebeingextended in England to lower and lower strata of

24

New

Suffrage: The Reform against Nature, New Bushnell, Woman York also an article in The New Evening Post, April 5, 1913. did pioneer work E. Beecher in sending young There Miss Catherine States. England to teach in Ohio and other western Cf. H.

23

pp.

1

York, 1869,

10-13;

women

from


FEMINISM

10

bound broadeningout The movement, of course, when once to all men. started,everywhere gatheredforce from the fact that each political party by Individual voters. favouringit would attach to itself the new

the male

and population,

in France

at

one

feared to antagonisepossiblefuture voters. the female carried over No to cover wonder, then, the tide was half of the populationalso. In the French Republic in 1848, raised when all Frenchmen became voters, a man's voice was for women, Victor Considerant unsuccessfully proposing in the National Assembly the extension of this right to all French In a America, in the same gathering women. year, there was

likewise politicians

of

at

women

another

at

Convention

Seneca

York, and in 1850,in the spring,

Falls,New

Salem, Ohio, and in the autumn, a Woman's Rights from attended at Worcester, Massachusetts, largely

leaders as Mrs. Lucretia Mott, Mrs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Miss Susan B. Anthony were coming to the front. Decided upon at the first of these ence meetings,they issued a parody of the Declaration of Independnine States

by

both

Then'

sexes.

such

Declaration of Sentiments,after laboriously delvingin number T law books for the requisite of grievances.^*^he meeting in England,where it called had a reverberation last mentioned forth an essay on The Enfranchisementof Women by the wife latter in collaboration with the of J. S. Mill, himself,who probably of it than he acknowledged,his radicalism ing havwrote more parting followingBentham's lead,but deearlytaken in this subject, of father.^' In his the from teaching England, too, in in

185 1,

a

of women, field, agreed to at a publicmeeting at Shefpetition claimingthe electoral franchise,was presentedto the House a

Lords

;

while

in

country, in that year,

founded was a the followed next Indiana, year by another in Ohio, after which, during several years, many then on, also, held. From Woman's Rights Conventions were of the conventions for revisingState down to the present, most frage sufconstitutions were confronted with the questionof woman for and eligibility to office, although many years they alof

our

SuffrageAssociation

Woman

in

24a It may be read in the Stanton-Anthony-Gage-Harper History of Woman Suffrage, i. 70-1. Mill's Autobiography, 104-3. 25 See Bentham, in his advocacy of parliamentary reform he could for excluding women in 1817 and thereafter, admitted no see reason for excluding them from from membership in the voting, although he did see a reason " the reciprocal seduction that would arising from sue," enlegislature mischievousness Yet he did not advise agitating Works, iii. ^63, 567An., ix. 108, cf. iv. 568B. ix. 1 09 A. Tames Mill found for their enfranchisement, shall see. His a as we reason, elicited from article on W. Thompson an government Appeal of One Half the Human cal, Race, Women, againstthe Pretensions of the Other Half, Men, to retain them in Politiand thence in Civil and Domestic^Slavery, 182^. Also S. Bailey advocated woman suffrage,with a higher property qualificationthan m the case of men, in his .Rationale of Political Representation, 1835, pp. 236-42. "


FEMINISM

12

In

merit.

formed, in 1867,the Manchester

England was

Societyfor

Woman's

Pankhurst.

The

in which extension of the

Suffrage,prominent

occasion

was

the

National

was

male

a

Dr. chise, fran-

then accomplished;at which time Mill yainly which was " in the person argued in Parliament for the substitution of " diately immein the electoral bill. But the claim was placeof man " " " " even raised that meant so, by virtue of man person Lord another law, known Brougham's,which prescribedthat as words importingthe masculine gender should be understood to include expresslydeclared. females, unless the contrary was Cases were brought before the courts, one appellantalso going lost ; but the decision back to the statute of 8 Henry VI., and were women's that some names came so late before the election of 1868 At v oted. few and left the women actually were on registers a of Mill's Subjection this time, and especially by the publication in 1869, such recruits were to women's as cause won of Women and Masson Sir Professors Charles Dilke, Cairnes, John Morley, turned the last and two Goldwin soon Smith, John Bright though of these,Jacob back to the oppositeside ; but the brother of one the remained women's Bright, parliamentarychampion; and Charles Kingsleyoccasionally took up the cudgelsin their defence, After for their scientificand medical education. more especially "

"

giventhem in 1869 by renewingto them, on equal terms with men, the municipal franchise,strictly confined to rate-payers; for this righthad from time immemorial belonged to women rate-payers, and had only been taken from them the by Municipal CorporationAct of 1835. This raised with the parliamentaryfranchise;only to be hope of success the shattered by of the proposalthe next year, although rejection 1868, a

their defeat in

in

that

school further

of

women

year

and franchise,

widened

permitted Already in

to

was

further admitted to the againin 1884, when the franchise was still

for males for

property ; and

were

women were yet againpropertied new county councils.

members of the in the Isle of Man women

vote

1881

sop

admitted to the franchise on a property qualification than the one for narrower of the upper classes. To men, givingpreponderanceto members this the House of effect, prevent Keys desired to extend the franchise to women the same terms with men on ; but the Council, to preserve it,resisted. So in Great Britain at large,the Conservative have shown a to extend the franchise to willingness of largeproperty,while the Radicals,even women those desiring woman suffrage(Lloyd George, for instance), determined are that it shall not be accorded unless to all classes of women responding corto the enfranchised men. ConThere, too, the same were


ITS

HISTORY

13

or were servatives, upper-classmen, gladto make use of the prestige of their ladies,^^ and with the Primrose Dames set the fashion of admitting into the arena of politics.^' women On the continent of Europe, as in England,there had existed old wide-spread to take part,either an rightof land-owningwomen or directly by proxy, in the local government of communes ; and in sometimes extended to this rightwas even representation up higherbodies,when such were formed. It was not an important few women there were so since,wherever it existed, right, fied qualifor in inherit land default the to for women custom was only ; of male heirs,and when an heiress married her property passed to her husband and her rightlapsed, to re-appear only in case of widowhood This rightstillexists in some without an adult son. of the backward countries,such as Russia (of late somewhat Galicia,Bohemia curtailed), (where only in 1906 propertied ceased to vote and even in for the imperial women parliament), rural districts of Germany. It existed in ancient France, some and was recognised by the Convention in 1793, but was abrogated the duced introby Republicof 1848,when universal male suffrage was without reference to property, and an attempt by Pierre Leroux to restore Universal it,in 1851,met with no success. male suffrage has become the principle also of the Third Republic. in tried have themselves registered some to There, women 1885, by to that which had been invoked in England,maina similar quibble taining that the term les Frangais in the electoral law included it as undoubtedlydoes in other laws ; but theycould make women, no impressionon the courts. Still, women engaged in business have since been giventhe rightto vote for judgesof the Tribunal of Commerce. Of course, the rightof suffrage in demanded now "

"

"

other countries is an individual, human and so many mand, debased on a claim to personal, in distinction from a property, is that suffrage a nd d ifferent from so once right, entirely widely and stillin those backward countries locally accorded to a few women exceptionally placed as property-owners or heads of families.^^ Similarly, to enter political too, the rightof all women "

our

hundred remarked that English ladies were Addison the greatest years ago He likewise observed in Europe," The Freeholder^ No. 23. that a gossip Also in The Spectator, Nos. 57 in politicsis a slattern in her family,''ibid. No. 26. them for their party-rage, and 81, he gentlyrebuked for instance, such a Tory as 28 Then, Lecky advocated a " female franchise on a incidental advantage of imposing a real the basis," as probably having great property and powerful obstacle to the further degradation of the suffrage ; as probably being conservative influence, very hostile to revolutionary and predatory change"; and as a in any overwhelming degree, to strengthen ecprobably tending somewhat, though not clesiastical influence, especiallyin questions relating to religious education," Democracy and Liberty, ii. 552, 555-6. The advocacy of such a restricted suffrage by Lecky, Caimes, and others of their kind, has no applicationto the advocacy of universal female Buffrage on top of universal male suffrage. difference is clearly recognised by the suffragistQara Zetkin 29 The in her Zur Frage des FrauetiviahWechts, Berlin, 1907, pp. 5-6, 68, 69. 27

"

Two

"

stateswomen

"

"

"

"


FEMINISM

14

is officegenerally, if theycan get themselves elected or appointed, gency very different from the occasional elevation to queenship or remale relatives. of women in default of male heirs or near Even side to that sort of propof the Atlantic, on our a claim erty heiress of Lord vert Calin made an was by 1647 representation of in Maryland ; but alreadythe principle personalrepresentation But in her claim disallowed.^" and too was was strong Massachusetts the records show that women property-owners did vote at times ; but this old rightwas graduallyabandoned without that imposed the old feudal property rights, a struggle.In America But here,as we have struck root. on never personalrights, the claim for the extension of the personalrightto vote seen, from men under women's to women, as inclusive rightsas parallel with men's broached in France f irst and England,'^was rights, first widely agitated in connection with all sorts of wild socialistic, other schemes,^^ and communistic, spiritualistic, prohibitionist, and made a practical issue. The cause was put to sleepduringthe Civil War, only to awake again with redoubled energy when the method of quibbling war was over. sorted rewas Here, too, the same the first section of the fourteenth amendment to, by interpreting the States to " abridgethe privileges as if,in forbidding or immunities of citizens of the United States,"it forbade them to of the franchise. Yet, had that been the case, all deprivewomen have had the rightto vote, and there would negroes would equally have been no need of the fifteenth amendment, which, by the way, sanctions the exclusion of women. Some by implication women, and were fined for so doing. Here, however, succeeded in voting, too, again,as has happened also in France and in England, some refused to pay taxes tilltheycould vote, and only suffered women in consequence. At a convention in 1871 a woman's rebellion but of it. guished lanThen the movement was urged,^^^ nothingcame for a while. When The American wrote CommonBryce 30 Ida Husted for Woman Suffrage in Harper in her Brief History of the Movement the United States, a campaign tract issued in 19:4, treats this as the first instance parently (ap" in the world) in which asked a representation," p. i. So far is this a woman from of the first inthe opposite ist true, and this is one stances being the case, that directly of such a rare demand being refused! 31 Abigail Adams's banter with her husband this subject can make on no pretension to serious consideration. 82 Well described in the late Mrs. Rossiter (Helen Kendrick) Johnson's Woman and the Republic, ch. iv. 32a Victoria C. Woodhull, who will have Especially insistent was proclaimed: "We We will try you our rights. We no longer by your leave. more. just once say If the very next all the legitimate results of citizenship, Congress refuses women then we deliberate notification of what will do. We give here and now shall we constitution and to create expressly to frame a new proceed to call another convention complete in all its parts, and to take measures new it as a government, to maintain do theirs. We effectuallyas men mean we mean treason; secession, and on a thousand times greater scale than was that of the South. We are plotting revolution." In Paulina W. Davis's History of the National Woman's Rights Movement, New York, .

.

.

.

.

.

"871, pp. 117-18.

.

.

.

.

.

.


ITS

HISTORY

IS

wealth in 1888,he was able to report that women's was suffragism " in England.^' Yet nearly bad form," and not so forward as frage Suftwenty years before (in1869) had been formed two Woman Associations the National and the American, the former for a federal amendment, the latter for winning over to work the States individually; and both societies, both names, and both in combined objectswere 1890.^* In that earlier year (1869), full the territorial franchise and jury also, (including eligibility in Wyoming, where at the time duty) had been grantedto women the populationamounted to a little over nine thousand souls, whom females of all fell short of two thousand, or among ages about one female to every fiftysquare miles of territory. The creditable to the cause, put through as it grant was by no means of one the wiles member of the legislature, was principally by who played off the two partiesagainsteach other ^^ and was because of its service in advertising the acquiescedin principally Two later the council tried to repeal community. legislative years retained it,but was preventedby the governor'sveto ; and it was became when the territory a State in 1889-90. In the territories of Utah and Washington,whose legislatures to gave the suffrage in 1870 and 1883 respectively, these grants were nullified, women in the former in 1887 by the federal Congress for fear of polygamy, and in the latter in 1887 and 1890 by the federal courts, with their customary which irritating high-handednessdenied "

legislature. Washington,on becoming a State but has recently done so. that in 1889,did not re-enact measure, to women, Colorado,in 1893,and Idaho,in 1896,gave full suffrage and in the latter year Utah did so immediatelyon becoming a State. In 1887,Kansas, which so earlyas 1861 had givenwomen admitted women to the municipal the school suffrage, partially competency

to the

States six or seven and since then several of our but cials, offinot for town have permittedthem to vote on town taxes, form and as many as thirtyhave opened to them in some it happens,vote the suffrageon school questions.Few women, if be the best educated but at these partial only they elections; that take the most interest in such matters, especially and the ones of the others is all the more of the schools,the stayingaway franchise

;

"

"

desirable. have female municipalsuffrage. Nine of the Canadian provinces in British South Africa. The have some Women votingprivileges

34

Miss Miss 85

of the president's

The Susan

Jane See

B. Anthony, Addams.

combined Mrs.

Bryce, op. cit.,ii. 44in.

Carrie

society have been Mrs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Howard Catt, Rev. Anna Shaw, and Chapman


i6

FEMINISM

the municipal Australasian British colonies granted to women land ZeaIn 1893 New franchise between the years 1867 and 1886. Before the full state franchise.^" 1902, when gave them States Australian federation was of the two effected, (as we should call them) South and West Australia,in 1895 and 1900 and in order not to had extended the full franchise to women, chise disfranchise them there,the federation opened the federal franto women everywhere,and the other four soon followed suit with their own Tcisfranchise New South Wales immediately, mania the next year, Queensland in 1905, and Victoria in 1908. "

"

"

The

British government,

added, over thirtyyears ago in where the women the women Burmah, tax-payers and the men and embroider, sew carry loads and work in the fields, in has inverting thingsas given the municipal Egypt of old. It franchise also to the tax-payingwomen of a coupleof cities in India,and in the town of Belize in British Honduras. In England, in 1889, was formed the Woman's Franchise which discontinued after few In was a League, years. 1903, Mrs. and her two Pankhurst Social daughtersfounded the Woman's and Political Union, with headquartersat Manchester. This the Votes for of hold to society adopted Women," began slogan unauthorised street meetingsand make other publicdemonstrations, in imitation of the workingmen whose riots in Manchester had recently been effectivein causingthe passage of the Unemployed Workmen's Bill,and also because of an admission by the Premier (Balfour)that the Scottish Churches Bill was passed in consequence of in that region.^'They gradually a crisis adopted the various tactics which have received the ridiculous of with their own appellation eternal militancy '' interrupting held for other questionmeetings (1905); paradingthe purposes without license and attemptingto invade Parliament and streets had declined to see them, raising to visit ministers who a rumpus in the women's gallery in Parliament, going for of the new one ministers said to be their enemy (Asquith)at the suggestionof it may

be

enfranchised

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Lloyd George,refusingto recognisethe authorityof courts that enforce laws made onlyby men, and choosingimprisonmentrather than pay fines,but at the same time claimingthe treatment given offenders (1906); formingso-called Women's to poHtical ments Parliato consider the King'sspeech, in imitation of the real Parse method little better than in Wyoming: by which it was carried there was see of it in The Fortnightly Review, Feb., 1804, The Suffragette,New 37 See E. Sylvia Pankhurst's York, 191 1, p. 18. "militant" 38 The term into use in 1905. applied to them came In 1906 the term invented for them "suffragette" was by The Daily Mail; see E. S. Pankhurst, op. cit The term "wild had been given to their upper-class predecessors long woman p. 6in. The before: cf. Mrs. Lynn Linton's WUd Social Insurgents, in The Women as Nin^ teenth Century, Oct., 1891. The

an

account

"


ITS

HISTORY

liament,advancingthe pleathat

17

if the

government did not giveto their undoubted women rightto vote,"the government would be f or the disorders that might ensue,^" taking part in responsible "

elections in favour

of any

candidate

who would pledgehimself to it by sandwich ling redoubsupport the cause, advertising women, their efforts to attract attention because the newspapers ceased to report their doings^"(1907); chainingthemselves to railings before Parliament building and the residences of ministers,ringing "

a

bell at

aft

"

election, holding monster

meetings (in answer

Herbert Gladstone's challengeto act like men, who franchise by assemblingby tens of thousands), and first in the houses

and offices, that

at last

should

women

to

the dows, breakingwinhad

won

of

opposing ministers,then in public advice to Haldane's indiscriminately (inanswer not

wage

war

with

bodkins, as

do

men

not

like

and parties pin-pricks), invadingprivatereceptions (1908); trying into Cabinet meetings,enteringdisguised to force their way or In halls where meetingswere to be held so as to hidingin advance windows make or or a disturbance, shoutingthrough skylights, mauling ministers at golfand elsewhere,refusingto eat in prison (hunger-striking), objectingto forced feeding,and refusingto tions submit to prisondiscipline, endeavouringtp destroyballots at elecwires (1909); after a brief truce (1910),snippingtelegraph Hobletters in and to mail-boxes, (in answer (1911); burning house's reminder that the Chartists had burnt down Nottingham such as sporton ing unoccupiedbuildings Castle)committingarson closed stations and even (1912), private railways pavilions, ing incommodand finally houses (sometimesof woman suffragists), Sunday worshipby loudlyprayingfor their imprisonedleaders in (1913) ; explodingbombs in empty churches,slashingpictures the destroyingnational monuments, and insulting publicgalleries, These his consort inoffensive King and (1914). unwilling tices, pracCat-and-mouse the so-called which were m et by finally "

"

to an abrupt end in the middle of 1914 Act of 1913, and which came silent et feminae),have probablyalienated more (for inter arma than they have gained; but their from the cause and women men attracted equallyobstreperousthough less destructive, beginnings,

subjecteverywhere throughout the world, and for the franchise. impetus to the movement undoubtedlygave a new attention

Even woman

39

E.

made

a

40

E.

to

the

independentcountries have adopted full national but as yet,with a single imperfectexception, only suffrage, some

op. cit., I43. again 275. S. Pankhurst, the Allies would similar claim, because S. Pankhurst, op. cit.,176.

The not

Germans,

give in

to

it may them.

be

noted, in

1915


FEMINISM

i8

confined to Scandinavia. Norway the first of these. There, where the influences of Fredrika was emancipationbegan in and of Ibsen was Bremer strong, women's the municipal 1854,and made such rapidheadway that by 1901 in and 1907 these franchise was grantedto tax-payingwomen, the on thrown open to all women which was received the

and they are small countries,

national,

in 1913, after the municipalhad been thus followed suit,opening Denmark in 19 10. thrown open to them m in 1908,and but recently, the municipalfranchise to women same

terms

1915, the

as

men

national.

There, it may

noted, George Brandes Semi-independentIceland,

be

Mill. helpedthe cause by translating the municipalfranchise likewise,havinggiven to women

in 1907,

Sweden that of the whole state. littlelater extended to them has not yet taken the full step,althoughshe began as earlyas 1862 and spinsters, to grant the municipalfranchise to tax-payingwidows The in married bouring, neighwomen and extended it to 1909. a

no

longer independentFinland,with the sanction of the

Czar, after the bloodless but successful revolution of 1905, in 1906 the parliamentarysuffrage, equallyas to men A few years ago Bosnia and Herzegovina along with eligibility. to vote of land-owningwomen by converted the ancient privilege the Chinese passed republic right. Recently proxy into a personal has that but the law vote to passed as republic women a giving ; nothingcame of it. In Japan, the strongestcountry of the away, take no part in politics. East, women after 1896,but after 1910 for a few In America a lull took place another in adoptingwoman States fell over one years the western in ing off that suffrage Washington leading year, California followIn 1913 in 191 1, and in 1912 Oregon, Kansas, and Arizona. it was ture adoptedin the Territoryof Alaska,and the Illinoislegislaall Montana the it officeswithin its to jurisdiction. granted and Nevada adopted it in 1914. Then, perhaps,the movement to an end for the present. In 1912 Michigan escaped woman came suffrageby a very narrow margin, but the next year gave a (Dhio likewise majorityagainstit of nearlya hundred thousand. increased an adverse majorityof eighty-seven thousand in 1912 hundred and in In the latter to a eighty-twothousand 1914. gave

to

women

"

also North

Nebraska voted it down with majorities rangingaround ten thousand each, and Missouri with a majorityof a hundred In 191 5 New and fortythousand. thousand, PennsylJerseyrejectedit by a majorityof fifty-one vania thousand, Massachusetts by a hundred and by fifty-three thousand, and New York by a hundred and ninetythirty-three four thousand. In 1916 it was rejected againin South Dakota by year

and

South

Dakota

and


CHAPTER

SOME

The

FUNDAMENTAL

ASSUMPTIONS

has

movement

woman

II.

(likeJill,tumbling after), and the advocates and of women have working men sought the ones

of

help

natural

as

allies.^

feminism

But

with

synchronous

almost

been

FEMINISM

OF

in

has

of

rights

the the

others'

details

some

cialism so-

won

socialism while istic socialhas not actuality,which yet attained ; and in the old and this woman theory began populous countries, became in in the the movement west new -especially, operative in thinly settled regions, where still fewer than men women were ; where in and to demand, consequently women so speak, were, inducements held out to attract were them, their work being As yet women have lightened and their privilegesextended. got in colonies the franchise so-called States, or our only provinces or in a couple of barren countries northern whose is or peace served preby the mutual jealousy of their mighty neighbours. No large state exposed to war, and supporting the balance of power, has yet admitted local suffrage ; and perto anything but women haps which no large country, except ours, for a special reason will permit women will be noticed direct its destinies to later, ever "

1

least

at

"

It

is,

in

fact,

According

to

millennium.

till the the

Bebel,

in

that

belief liis Die

Fran,

like the

something

allies, whom an oppressed

seek

must

women

millennium they

will

urally nat-

of men, from labourers the such, than help from men can can no more as expect 225 ; will be solved and middle the two Similarly Edward problems together, 5. classes, 117: that their cause is also the cause of the oppressed Women remember must Carpenter: remember islabourer whole and the labourer has that his the to cause earth, over find in for they

the

proletariat movement,

as

the

of

is

movement

class

**

New York A "twin in sex struggle," Coming of Age, ed., 191 1, p. 60. Mrs. Gilraan calls woman's and the labour movement the economics, ment,'* moveThe the labour Women and Economics, lem," prob138. sex problem is at bottom From The said Keir Serfdom to Hardie, Socialism, 63. solidarity of women," factor with it as the to sociological only according May Sinclair, has comparable a solidarities of the working-men she Femone," two solidarity adds, "these are ; and, "The the is dawning," and ini"sm, London, day of women working-class 191 1, 33-4. deals Mrs. Atherton of her novel Julia which with ism. feminFrance, on prophesies p. 266 is a class-war," The Militant There is a sex-war, Edna Kenton, just as there Women The For clear and Nov., ments stateWomen, Century Magazine, 1913, p. 13.

theirs," Love's and

"

in

"

"

**

"

"

"

about the

part

16,

421,

meet

females

of Death, on

due

parallelism, by

Chances "

says,

this

played

the

same

in

the

i. 226,

230-1,

ground

and

onlooker the socialist thoughtful fighting the same battle, however

of Freethought,

to

connection

its descent,

and much

251, turn

the

to

they 20

may

the of

of property ownership of Freethought, 377, Labour and he women,"

Ethic "

cf. 238.

advocate

415.

between

Pearson,

see

*

woman's

disguise

"

remedies,"

same

the

255. *

To

and 414-

here the

rights are essentially fact to themselves," Ethic


SOME

FUNDAMENTAL

ASSUMPTIONS

21

that has

of women's encouragedthe expectation and well as to all the admission to politics as statesmanship, The theoryof feminism, like that of socialism, occupationsof men. false in belief and the future is based on peace, prosperity, how say) of reason, and someplenty. This is an age (theage, some

alreadyat hand,

ing intellectis to keep the strong from attackfaith in has done. than God hitherto more effectually The is drawing towards a close,"said the presiage of war dentess of the Woman's Rights Convention at Worcester in 1850, of womanhood is and that of peace is dawning ; and the uprising ^ We its prophecy and foreshadow." are livingin a transition the at the same convention, when age," said another woman and wherefore of the minds of the community are askingthe why ^ is to be all things," an age, it may be added, in which the new welcomed because new, and the old rejectedbecause old.* But instead of its beingmerely a transition from the ascendingperiod to the culminating periodof the same cycleof civilisation, atory preparold to the decHne, it is taken to be the transition from an

reliance the weak

on

human

"

"

"

"

"

and

worn-out

to

a

new

and

up-springingcivilisation,yea, "

from

the civilisation of the past,semi-barbarous,now ending,to another and full civilisation that is to last for all time into the future.^ of the world's at the centre According to this view, we stand now the division and future between a t that are to a past history, a balance each other,forming two halves,the one of which is departing and the other approaching. And for the feminists, of course, is to be woman's the new era era,'to which the twentieth century,

Paulina W. Davis, Proceedings, p. 8. Cf. Wendell Phillips: " The age of and we is gone, want to put ballots into the hands of women," Suffrage "The And stinct's] 1861. only recently Mrs. Hale: days of its [the fighting inof Women, domination is past," What Women Want, p. 293. K. Hunt, ib. 45. 3 Harriet " of women novelty,'' 4 So G. W. Curtis spoke of " the general enfranchisement as a " " this ** ia true of every a and therefore," because stei) of politicalprogress," it is " York constitutional convention of 1867, reNew published : in the presumption in its favour of certain objections in his Orations and Addresses. New York, 1894, i. 182. And Sense" cisely "Prefeminist claims Mrs. to some Jacobi in her "Common says: it be suspected that they are these objections are very beginning because old, may out," 36-7: and of another, that it " is very funny, but very old. to be somewhat worn Such is the spiritin which of air of venerable It has, indeed, an senility,"105. many Mrs, confronted. serious problems are most Jacobi herself calls this age " an inour " achieve its own of lax and facile time," in which thought may realisation," ter-regnum 2

Mrs.

physicalpower

"

150. "All B Cf Emma [things] portend that a change is at hand, that a Hardinge: be born of the The butterfly must transition state in society is being passed through. is now which writhingin the effort to cast its shell," The Place and Mission of worm, An Women: Inspirational Discourse, Boston, 1859, p. 3. York Woman and Her a long work, published in New 6 In 1864 Eliza W. Farnham be that which is must she taught that "^the grandest Era of Humanity Era, in which " " " about to incoming era was dominated qualities,"ii. 430, which by the Feminine theory, based on the essenWorld, with its democratic tially rise to view first in the Western " of trust in human her sentiment nature," 450, and in which feminine woman, " of sovereigntv," 83. Leo to enter a career now upon long suffering ended," was explanatory title of Miller published at Buffalo in 1874 a pamphlet with the sufficiently and the Divine Republic; and under the pseudonym of Virginia Leblick; EmerWoman .


FEMINISM

22

since its advent, is heralded as the dawn/ Statements of this made sort have been rightup to the outbreak of the European in the middle of 1914.^ That they will be repeated, well war may be doubted.^ The

belief in the absoluteness of the transition confrontingus furthered was by the writingsof Maine and of Spencer,but it held even their distinctions between before they advanced was militarism and and between and industrialism. status contract believed not only that socialist, Mill, having become a moderate mankind into and the division of capitalists hired labourers would much be the rule of the world, but that alreadyin not longer and obedience (which the youthfulSpencer modern Hfe command

pronounced "radicallywrong") ^** are becoming exceptional facts,and equal association the generalrule.^^ But Mill knew

had

as

"

the the substitution of element in this transition, thing justice"for "the moralityof submission," or someis take to the former as now effect, likely near-resembling

that at least moralityof

one

taken place once before, in ancient civilisation, though he Not so others. One gave no heed to the results then obtained.^^ had

M. Lemouche published in 1910 (place not desi^ated) a book with the descriptive Woman's Civtitle: Th0 New Era Era, or Transformation from Barbaric to Humane ilisation. ** Woman's 7 The Vida D. Scudder, Woman and Socialism^ Century has dawned." " Yale Review, April, 1914, pp. 45s, 467. The twentieth is the age of Woman; century the golden age, the dawn be, it will be looked back upon day, it may some as some say civilisation ** Mrs. Walter M, Gallichan of feminine (C. Gasquoine Hartley) opens so her The Position in Primitive York the title of Woman Society (New ed., 1914, under of The Age of Mother-Power). " 8 Once at the of the war, Mrs. Hale: We standi at the beginning of the more eve end of the rule of force, and on the threshold of the rule of intelligence,"What Women She does not that intelligence, suca it was, has to understand seem as Want, p. 300. of guiding), and it has ruled through always ruled (in the sense force_(which performs), and otherwise. More always will, and cannot intelligence is being displayed in this war than in any previous one, and also more force. the last sentence Mrs. Florence Gucrtin Tuttle 9 Since written, however, has was *' Civilisation has left its dark period the old refrain: and entered boldly renewed the period of mental of social and spiritualdevelopment," The a new era: conquest New of Woman, Awakening York, 1915, p. 53, cf. 80-1, 114, 116. the youthful 10 Social Statics, Part II. ch. xvi. " 5, probably pettingthe idea from (Part III.) had written: Shelley, who in his Queen Mab " The man Of virtuous soul commands obeys." not, nor faculties did not deof women's tract state Spencer also at that time argued that the weaker their right to the full freedom of exercising them, II. xvi. " 2 ; nor from did he hesitate to apply the same reasoning to children, xvii. " i, concluding that neither should and both should have the suffrage. But in the case of women, be subordinate of as that society was not children, he conceded to recognise their yet civilised enough ward he afterrights,and therefore he did not advocate them, xvi. " 8, xvii. ^ 9. No wonder tetter justification retraction he had even retracted these views; for which than in about the case of his views the right of all (and the non-right of individuals) to own land. 11 The Enfranchisement of Women (Dissertations,iii. m, cf. 104), The Subjection of ence

"

.

.

.

"

_

Women,

79, he

cf. 81.

entering into an order of things in which justice will also on grounded as before on equal, but now sympathetic before the joint influence of association," the referring to late antiquity when civilisation and of Christianity obliterated [successfully?] these distinctions^"to Roman He did not wit, between class, or social position,"Subjection of Women, sex, p. 80. perceive that the obliteration of these distinctions,and the breaking down of command la For

added:

*'_We are

again be the primary virtue "

"

"

;

*'


SOME of

the

most

woman's

FUNDAMENTAL of

earnest

his contemporary Thomas Wentworth

rightsmovement,

littlebefore

ASSUMPTIONS

23 of

supporters

the

Higginson,wrote

civil war, in explanationof woman's social in inferiority the past,"that to all appearance, historywould have been impossible without it,justas it would have been impossible without an epoch of war and slavery. It is simplya matter of social progress, a part of the succession of civilisations. The a

"

our

"

"

past has been

of engrossing a period of ignorance, inevitably sical phybrute force, not of freedom, of philanthropy, and of culture. During that lower epoch, woman was inferior. The truth simplywas, that her time an necessarily had not come. Physicalstrengthmust rule for a time, and she the weaker. From this reignof force,woman was freed never herself by force. She could not fight, The reanot. or would son, of woman has been simplythat then, for the long subjection humanity was passingthrough its first epoch,and her full career to be reserved for the second. Woman's was appointedera but It omitted. is not was not delayed, merely true that the empire of the past has belongedto man, but that it has properly at belonged to him; for it was an empire of muscles, enlisting, but lower of the the There be best, can understanding. powers is that the of the no an question initiating empire present epoch of arts, affections, for that epoch higher reason aspirations ; and the geniusof woman Till the fulness of time has been reserved. woman was came, necessarily kept a slave to the spinning-wheel and the needle. Now higher work is ready; peace has brought invention to her aid,and the mechanical means for her emancipation also. the for blindest to How is it are ready possible help seeingthat a new era has begun,and that the time has come i. e., to take full part with ? for woman to learn the alphabet in the administration of the world.^' man Fifty years have the empire of the higherreason passed,and we are no nearer than was Higginson. He and his fellow northerners freed the freedom ever slaves of others,but have fast been losingtheir own is takingthe form since. Culture is being diluted ; philanthropy to charitable institutions; art is degeneratof leavingendowments ing

and of necessities,

"

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

"

"

"

"

"

hobble skirts " share in it into into cubism," and women's slouch and the ; while morals are becoming so lax that mothers with young men der unallow their daughtersto discuss prostitution the white of and, setting the euphuism example slavery," b reast in to breast, be hugged public, to promiscuously themselves, "

"

"

"

and

obedience,

were

causes

'fFomen to '"iTouefct

learn

of the decline the

Alphabetr

and

fall of

a

civilisation that has

reached

Atlantic Monthly, Feb., 1859, pp.

145-7.

its


FEMINISM

24

the pretext of dancing;and in some is leadingthem ready for women into factories and behind the desk and the counter stillmore Some of the professions. ranks of some and into the lower and freer to do what they please, have become

legsto legs,on bellyto belly, the countries higher work "

indeed, they pleaseseems

women,

what

"

to be

time, or be sporty. New

pin-money and least higherones,

to earn at

eras,

have do

a

good make

not

in this way.

their advent

scheme, the socialists with regard to their own into of women to believe that the entrance feminists actually seem the about new of the suffragewill bring life by means political of The entrance of the reign at all events peace. like the

And

epoch," or as

that

life by the grant of political takingplace everywhere at once.

into

women

women

ceive suffragethey conEven so, they forget

the

others since On that day," says Mrs. Schreiner, when began. in the governance and takes her placebeside the man of external affairs of her race, will also be the day have

been

inciters of

to wage

men

war

on

"

the world the

woman

"

arrangement that heralds

death

the

of

war

as

a

of

means

arranginghuman with pleasure lingers

Mrs. Schreiner Yet this same differences." footed bareof old,who, of the Germanic women the picture over and white-robed,"arranged the differences of their race with the Romans by leading their northern hosts on the long march to Italy," animated by the thought that they led their " But sunshine and richer fruitage." peopleto a land of warmer be introduced everywill feminism, than will socialism, no more where if If it comes at all, or at once. any such portionof it as the great nations of the earth,it will female suffrage comes among in two, long before others will dream of in one, or at most come of the enfeebled admittingit;which latter will enjoy the spectacle abandon their dream, in the and will influence of men former, ^=

"

"

"

" Give Rights Convention, Worcester, 1850: AbbjrH. Price, at the Woman's morning, will rights inalienable,and then a new era, glorious ag the millennial dawn earth, an advent only less radiant than that heralded on by angels on the plains And of Bethlehem," Proceedings, p. 35. she quoted Elliott's verses:

14

us

Mrs.

our

"

Wait, boastful

man

!

Though

worthy

are

thou are Thy deeds- when true. and holier far. Things worthier still, Our sisters yet will do." and Labour, "War will pass, when intellectual culture p.^ 176. Again: and activity have made_ possible to the female an equal share in the control and governance national life"; for "it is our of modern intention into the domain to enter and to labour there till in the course of war of generations we have extinguished it," ** intuitive and Snoad: influence of their [women's] The Cf, Mrs. Warner p. 184. Parliament will increase the tendency to arbitration between peace-loving nature upon ster nations and hasten the time when shall be no more," A Plea for Justice,Westminwar have women Review, July, 1892. She, however, does not forget that " before now led armies.* So to-day the women of Germany doubt 16 Pp. 149-50. and Austria are urging no their husbands and sons to the seizure of Belgium and Serbia, to give them and their on children a better *' place in the sun." 15

Woman


SOME if

they ever

FUNDAMENTAL

ASSUMPTIONS

25

far as to dream, of admittingit. The women in those feminised countries may be determined, like our late Secretaryof State,that no war shall take placeduringtheir rule ; but as it takes two to make a quarrel,it takes two to keep the anxious and be as to as ever they they may peace, preserve peace at any price, they will therebyonly invite insult and derision,or attack and invasion,and their own overthrow. For there is stillanother analogybetween feminism and socialism. We have seen that,althoughsocialistsspeak as if they were going to level the poor up to the rich,their system will have the the rich down to the poor. oppositeeffect of levelling Similarly in demanding the equalisation the feminists, of women with men, in the qualialways conceive of it as if they were to raise women, ties of to

got

so

and to support themselves, independence, ability

the level of

men

the

like,up

; but the result of their eiforts will more likely toward their level, to need, for instance, so as

be to reduce men to feminise men than support from the state, or in short,more The of evolution has been to masculinise women. to process of the animals,and goingvery far differentiate the sexes in many in the human producing,as we shall see, hundreds of species, in addition to the primary difference of sexual traits, secondary reproductivefunction which constitutes the sex differentiation. This process is contemporaneously illustratedboth by the fact that in backward of mankind there is barbarous and savage races "

and women than in the less differentiation between men ences and by the fact that in the young the differmore highlycivilised, much of the less marked than in the full-grown. Some are in differentiation is without doubt due to the influence of reason itself more the human developedin the civilised than in species, ing it is due, too, to education or trainthe uncivilised races ; and lastly But is that has the of under the guidance reason. one process in a be undone for myriads of years, and cannot been going on of the deepSo at least in the case much less period of time. of the mental and moral seated physiological differences,some and a later efflorescence at the differences being more superficial

somewhat

top ; and yet they,too, mostly are

due

to

sands discipline throughthou-

of years, which has bred them in and made them as natural other inherent characters;wherefore they are not effects are as of differences of up-bringingmerely of individuals, though they Modifiable modifiable less thereby.^^ by individual more or are IT as

assertion (commended of Sydney Smith's by Mill) that " as long the error Hence both prehoops together, they are about in the dirt,and trundle and girls run cisely and train them of these creatures, to a parcatch u_p one-halt If you alike. ticular and the other half to a perfectly opposite set, of and opinions^, of actions set the will other one of or sort differ, as ocunderstandings their

boys

course


26

FEMINISM

and entiations deeper differfrom of these sorts have gone on cycleto cycleof later the have advanced as civilisation, beyond the earlier;and within the cycles, differentiations proceed as more superficial the civilisation rises from its pristine condition toward nation.^* its culmiof But at the culmination the advanced tion civilisastage

the highestmoral qualities of men are training minor of their bodies. Somewhat configurations

tends, as and

we

have

and economically

women

were

obtained

sooner

to

subordination

a

plexusof to that

than

men

a

and

bringtogetherand mix up and, as it both leads socially,

for women, and even in the subjection

sex,

its effect is much

to make men the masculine

of

men men

comfortable circumstances which and reduces the totality of men

more

highlydevelopedsocietyand

of the other

women,

to

seen,

the easier,safer, and

to

and

women:

nexus

state, somewhat to

more

sternness

make

and

givesway

virtues recede before

the

com-

similar of women to

ness, mild-

feminine,since

it is easier to make the hard and strong soft and weak than it is the soft and weak hard and strong.^' If some to make women make for of cannot loss real mannishness, they ]the hood manape up the part of men, and the country in which this tendency on exposed as a prey to those in which goes the furthest is inevitably have remained men. men Now, the whole operationof modem feminism is consciously and purposelyto increase this tendency. know that For women they cannot become like real men, and so like women, they would firsthave men become as much as possible in order that they may then resemble and equal such men. And cupations occasion

has to

go

called this or into any deeper

that or

more

talent into action. abtruse reasoning,

There is in order to

surely_ explain

no so

Female Education, Edinburgh Review, Jan., l8io, vol. xv. would that some Dissertations, iii. lo6n.). He overlooked deeper reason for people catching up and training differentlytwo yet have to be sought for, to account otherwise undifferentiated. posed half-portions of children who would Whately disgrow up of this passage increases in after-life: neatly by referring to a difference which It did not He to him occur ingenious, but often rash and inaccurate. [Smith] was that when master, in nine cases they are all taught together to write, and by the same hand and which out of ten, people will rightly guess which is a man woman's," 9 a "To mind it would be one Miscellaneous not whit Remains, 187. Cf, Maudsley; my simple a very (Mill. p. 209

phenomenon,"

"

absurd to affirm that the antlers of the stag, the human beard, and the cock's comb effects of education; or that,by putting a girl to the same education are as a boy, the female generative organs into a male organ," Body and Mind, might be transformed matched the ^pther New York has been ed., 3". Perhaps, however. Smith's error on side by the American editor of A. Walker's who As long wrote (p. 377) : Woman, the little girl prefers her doll and the boy his top, it is useless to talk [as Mrs. as Childs did] of the 'same of the sexes"; which moral and intellectual condition* has attributes our side, recently by Mrs. Schreiner, who again been outdone, on his own opinionson the distinction of sex, not only to artificial training, but also to artificial difference of dress! Woman and Labour, 165-6, 187-91. *' 18 Cf, Finck; The and women men more history of civilisation has been to make Love and Personal unlike, physically and mentally," Romantic Beauty, 175, and so 290, more

"

541-

noted in Germany about fifty years Otto Ludwig that " the sex vices ago have now become those of men; culture is predominatingly romantic and our not of the woman, the woman to be feminine, educatingthe man to be the tender mate of the man," the strong, masculine companion (quoted from Rosa Mayreder'a Survey of the Woman Problem, Scheffauer's translation,pp. 90-1). 19

of

Even

women


28

FEMINISM

The

character of his

and

it would

to be sure, may qualities, go on improving and becoming more the size in his descendants, own capacious of their brains growing,but only in the slow process of evolution ward through the ages. Thus if a portion of a populationare backfrom lack of education and opportunity, the children of this portion might in one generationbe educated up to the highest level the capacityof that population is capableof attaining; but the next generationof children could not go appreciably further,

be

a

false induction

from

the

rapid progress of the tinuance peculiarcircumstances,to suppose the con-

in generation, of anythinglike the same Such is progress in the next. the phenomenon we have lately witnessed in the female portionof modern have society.^^Independent and well-educated women do what exhibited have advanced : they they can already beyond well-educated and not independent;but not who women were this advance in no wise prognosticates advance of independent an the and well-educated in future women over independentand one

well-educated

The

circumstances and conditions are changed. The progress actuallymade has been one of acquirements; the progress inferred and believed in is one of capacity of the former affords no reason : the occurrence pate to anticithe occurrence of the latter.^* There is one more fundamental assumptionmade by feminism. socialism wishes all classes to be melted down into one Just as class,so feminism wishes people at least to shut their eyes to difference of sex (except the primary) and to treat all every individuals dren (for the distinction between these and chilgrown-up will still of of as they allow) specimens only one kind tity enhuman as beings. We have seen this claim put into the women

at

present.

"

In

similar a feminarum

period of women's

" in antiquity, Seneca Non wrote: sed vita est, ' Epist During the same 93, " 20. modem waists have grown tight stays, women's period, by abandoning considerably in size in that similar freedom generation; but this does not mean one in the future will go on enlarging their waists. be cited the testimony of a scientist,who is himself 24 Here a may feminist,Forel: " When certain peoplemaintain that a few generations of activity sufhce to elevate the intellectual development of women, the results of education they confound with Education is a purely individual those of heredity and phylogeny. matter, and only generation to prodlice its results. But neither mnemic requires one engraphia, nor even three selection or can modify hereditary energies in two Tied generations. down the mental faculties of woman hitherto partly by servitude, will doubtless rise and flourish in all their natural as they are soon as power absolutely free to develop in societyequally with those of men, by the aid of equal rights. But what does not that is to say, in the energies of germs, inherited through exist in the hereditary mneme, be created millions of years, cannot in a few thousands or The generations. specific characters, and consequently the sexual characters, have quite another constancy than is believed by the superficialprattlers,who deafen us with their jargon on a. question There is no of which they only grasp the surface. at the present excuse day, for characters with hereditary correlative sexual the individual confounding results of latter are education. The acquired by habit, and can onljr be inherited as such by an infinitesimal engraphia, possibly after hundreds of generations," The Sexual Question. 68.

23

mutata

natura,

"progress"

"


SOME

FUNDAMENTAL

ASSUMPTIONS

29

mouth of an adulterous woman under the Roman empire; ^^ and its appearance it made movement. earlyin the modern woman " Is not a woman of the race," asked Mrs. Abby H. a member in 1850; and she Price at the Woman's Convention at Worcester " answered, Yes, for above these titlesof wife and mother, which depend upon circumstances and are accidental and transitory, ing there is for a woman a titleeternal, inalienable, precedingand risabove all, that of human being,co-existent with man." ^^ Even before that,Fanny Wright (later Madame Darusmont), the who firstbrought feminism to America, said in her Scotchwoman " is the purpose of What partingaddress at New York in 1830: human The equalisation of our souls? our conditions,the annihilation the the ple simof all arbitrary substitution of distinctions, character of human beings for that of all others." ^^ And a littlelater Higginsonquoted from Jean Paul Richter's Levana that " before and after being a (published1806) a statement is a human mother, a woman being."^* And Mill followed suit, " then consciousness a woman would the mere declaringthat human like have of other a being being [when emancipated] any ^" The would effect an immense expansion." e. like a man] [i. ^'' since. It is be idea has continued to a constant harped upon ever " We refrain in the writingsand lectures of Mrs. Oilman. "

"

in trying to make our case women," says Mrs. Pankhurst, and make of have to as our argument, clear,always part urge the fact that fact in a audience, our simple men very upon '^ human York, beings." Only recentlyat New are women feminists conducted six a publicsymposium February 20, 1914, Human into the Race," at which of the Breaking on subject the world m aintained that Marie Jenney Howe, who presided, want to be human, not merely emotional, is human, and women We're sick,"she cried, of being personal,feminine creatures. intend We simply to be ourselves,not just to sex. specialised "

"

"

"

"

Above, i. 99. Proceedings, 28. ^ddrew, in pamphlet form, p. II. 27 Parting "" , The Bevor nnd is: original the Alphabet? jp. I47to learn Women 28 Ought So G. W. " 87. Curtis, Mensch, possibly ist em man ist, eine Mutter man nachdem be"They [women] are not only parents, they are human in mind: with the same at New York, 1870, in Orations and Addresses, Address Fair Play for Women, ines 25

26

""

"

.

..

"

Still earlier,in 1792, Hippel be able to say If Why m die burgerhche Verbesserung der Weiher, Ueber should they not be persons?" human as beings, vi 119; they should, he replied,have the rank due to them Werke human being, we ought not to divide only one and woman are man as because, 2W be tolerated to-day! would which not an argument has united, God 143," what constitutional convention the Massachusetts During of Women, 155. 29 Subjection of woman's converted to the doctrine been to have seems Greene B W of iS^I are beings. Official people and human the fact that women upon rights by re'flecting Report of Debates, ii. 726 A, B, 731 A. 100. Sense. Jacobi's Common 30 E.g., in Mrs. Report, p. 6. at Hartford, Nov. 13, 1913. Verbatim

also has made i 2 '10 Ibsen question :" asked 'thestrange

his

Nora

talk this

NfVhy should

not

_^

31

Speech

way.

women

"

""


FEMINISM

30 little female

our

selves,but

our

selves."^^

whole, big, human

the Slovenes the leader of the women's movement, " the motto To see, to know, to Zof ka Kveder, has formulated : ^^ Woman is a human understand. being."

Even

among

In all this it is

both

and

men

ignoredthat Women

women.

human

is

cannot

only what become

is

like

to

common

by

men

coming be-

ent differthey are from men only by giving they be. They can become like men is tinctive disis distinctively womanly and adoptingwhat up what find shall a by becoming "virile,"as we manly Yet sometimes this is feminist sophism prominent urging. more frequently. openly made, and it probably is latent much the the fashion WoUstonecraft at Thus, setting outset, Mary wrote : Women, I allow, may have different duties to fulfil; but they are human she concluded duties ; whence that, as she t hat should the regulatethe sturdily maintained, principles ^* Then, at the Worcester dischargeof them must be the same." Maria L. Varney asserted that woman's Convention, rightsare the rightsof a human and deduced from therebeing," immediately all law should be made that without regard to sex, either ^" in the governor And the governed." or latelyMrs. Oilman, in of all social,economic, and political advocacy making activity the principle to both sexes," lays down that common human work is woman's well as man's." as Now, the argument here is the of all fallacies implied simplest pointedout in every work on logic,being the fallacyof undistributed middle; for, when fullyexpressed,it runs in this form : Man's work and rightsare human work and rights.Woman's work and rightsare human work and rights. Therefore woman's work and rightsare (or the same are as) man's work and rights. The error comes from supposingthat the denotation in the subjectis as complete as in the predicate. Mrs. Oilman's first principle is correct; but her and Mrs. Varney 's deduction therefrom is true only to the extent that woman's the rights(and work) are rights(and work) of human some of all human beings not necessarily beings,as wrongly implied. And Mary WoUstonecraft's inference is true to the extent that the broadest principles that regulatethe dis-

human,

human

because

already,however

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

^"

"

Reported

in

The

New York Times, Feb. 21, 1914. The meeting was probably under the same title in Hampton's Magazine, Sept., 1911 by " Childe " Rheta Dorr. There she characterised the whole as'" a woman movement " mighty effort to break into the human race (p. 13 of the reprint). She might better have described it as a futile attempt to break out of the female into the male sex 33 Schirmacher's Modern Woman's Rights Movement, 135-6. 34 Vindication, 65. She also says " the sexual should not acter, chardestroy the human it could do so, is not explained. 67, though how 32

inspired by

35

36

an

article

Proceedings. 74, 75. and Economics, IVomen

52, S3.


SOME

chargeof

FUNDAMENTAL

human

duties

ASSUMPTIONS

31

the

for men, for women but same as other of men's excluding regulative principles duties alone,and still others regulative ties. of women's peculiarduFor what is distinctively woman's tinctive work, and what are dis-

not

to

the extent

of

women's

held

in

rights,are

the

not

also,but that work

to men

common

are

with

common

And

men.

not are rights, distinctively,

human work and rights those rights which are not and men's work men's so and the rightsheld in common

and

the work

with women.'' It is

pitythat the languagesof the English and the French, the rightsof man," have peopleswho have most insisted on distinctive human for the terms no speciesas a whole and for its male division. If they had such terms, it would have helped them to perceivethat a largeproportion of the rightsof man talked about are the rightsof human but that some are beings, the rightsof men and that there are other some distinctively, distinctive rightsof women, when they are maids, wives, and as Yet whose the Germans, mothers. language has distinctive a

the

"

"

"

terms

saved

for the two of senses from this confusion

"

man," have

our

of

thought.

held

the

always

not

For

the

been

misogynist

his mother that, contrary to Schopenhauer human is the man genuine being (Mensch) tongue, (der not Mann) ; '^ and before him, Hippel was prevented by the clearness of his languagefrom takingthe trouble to assert that well human ing women are as beingsas are men," and from drawtherefrom the unauthorised conclusion that the same rights under belong to them," and, further, from complainingthat of (human beings)', peoplemean rightsof men onlyrights men almost all the which last is since not a fact, simply (proper)"; wherever insisted on, have been extended declared rights of man, Our language, however, like all others,contains by men to women.'" for the two in that distinctive terms for ours sexes, though is blurred by being extended to the whole the male sex species. human The term being,"we should remember, Mensch," or

spiritof

"

"

"

'

"

"

is

abstract,that is,it

more

words

"

"

"

or

man

woman."

connotes

We

fewer

than the attributes,

properlydeal

with

human

be-

result from not observing this distinction. For the same and she is [in consequence?] human as as man, with [all?] the same rights,privileges,and immunities by logically endowed of reasoning [except right reasoning, that by no it follows is man, process as nature, their exercise and enjoyment," she be denied can takes differences into account] which Suffrage, No. 3, Justice, not expediency, p. 9, Frank, A Plea for Woman Henry shall see this matched We feminists und Paraiipomena,ii, " 377. by some 38 Parerga claim for woman. the same making ,, " eben so dass die Weiber Menschen gut die are: sind, wie 39 Hippel's words meint gebiiren." " Man unter Menschenrechte und ihnen gleiche Rechte Manner, Ueber die Ehe, Reclam's ed., pp. 152, 165. als Mannerrechte." nichts anders 37

Dogmatism

instance: justly and

"As

and

woman

often illopcalness is

...

,

.


FEMINISM

32

ingsonlywhen animals,real

dealingwith imaginary; *" for

we

are

or

generalattributes

more

and But

are

we

men

are

we

and

in

have

women

mon, com-

(and no more) a singleterm is useful. cies, speengaged with a subjectwithin the human the very differences of its sexes, we ought to which

to cover

when

which

other dealingwith the

in distinctionfrom

them then

that involves

words the two we possess in avoid error their distinctive senses. We should especially try to the instead of o ut of, from, ambiguitylurkingin making capital also at times includes woman. the fact that the term man Mrs. Price and The above made from Fanny quotations certain another i nduced disclose terms, by Wright lurkingfallacy avoid

the

term

common

and

"

use

"

in the references to " accidental circumstances distinction of sex itself is distinctions." The

"

"

and

by

arbitrary

the feminists

just as is the distinction of arbitrarydistinction, classes by the socialists. Sex," wrote Margaret Fuller, like rank, wealth, beauty, or talent,is but an accident of birth." *^

treated

an

as

"

"

And

Mill called the aristocracy dental of sex " " a distinction as acci*^ that colour." The that the distinction of as supposition "

is the only thingthat distinguishes Africans from Europeans is as shallow (itis literally onlyskin-deep)and as naive the that and men women are as supposition distinguished onlyby characteristic. But their most still sex more worthy unprominent is of a philosopher it to speak of birth and all that it as a bringsas an accident. I ought then to be treated the same talented person, because it is an accident noble, rich,beautiful, capacita that I was born without these advantages. I ought not to be infrom votingin France, because it is an accident that I ought even I was born in America. for a to be able to vote it that I is accident because Roman born fifteen an was consul, consuls ceased after Roman be voted for. hundred to years Birth,indeed, is the most determinative thing in our existence. and not lions or dogs By it we are determined to be human beings, or spidersor nothing. By it we may be given the inheritance

of colour

40 "

We

So

the

must

feminist to

cease

Did, Tauchnitz 41 Memoirs,

Grant Allen be Calibans.

_ed., p.

once

We

made must

a

right

begin

to

use

be

of

words

human,"

when

The

he

Woman

wrote:

who

207.

ii. 145. iii. 99.

" *' of sex " the accident with the Similarlyhe couples that " to be born asserts of skin, Representative Government, 180, and accident a should than black not have influence " any more to be born girl instead of a boy instead of a nobleman," instead of white, or a commoner Subjection of Women, 33, Also in Political Economy, IV. vii. " 3, he repeats ** the accident of sex." cf. 149. constitutional In the woman-suffrage debate in the Massachusetts convention of 1853, " asked: Are not the differences of sex and colour accidental, merely, in W. B. Greene So G, W. Curtis classed sex with *' height human existence," OfficialReport, ii. 731 A. " i, 189. Others and and Addresses, weight " as purely arbitrary tests," Orations said the colour of the hair would be no We have that Mrs. test. have worse a seen Hale to development equally with men's at seems regard all barriers to women's artificial: above, p. 4n.

42

Dissertations,

"


SOME

FUNDAMENTAL

of the higher races,

ASSUMPTIONS

33

only of the lower. By it we may be or idiots, intelligent beings,or cripples,

or

brought forth

sound and How abortions. And is it itself indeterminate? does Mill or know? Because the sex of a child is not determined by the choice of its parents, is it undetermined? Neither the materialist the theist can affirm this. If sex is an accident,so is everynor thing

and are : so is our existence,our being human all which entities is metaphysicsgone at all; beings,our being ferred. ^skew, and is absurd,^^and from it nothingwhatever can be inSo, to add, as Mill does,** and it is the objective point of all the others, that the distinction of sex is as irrelevant the distinction of colour to all questionsof government as is a pure begging of the because they are both equallyaccidental, to be sure, question. Arbitrary distinctions, ought to be done with. The distinction of the is and not sexes arbitrary, away the distinction between whether the sexes in matters of government The questhe issue. is arbitrary or relevant,is questionat tion of colour, reallyof races, is another questionof a similar Each of these questions different elements. nature, but involving its should be settled on own merits,and it is possiblethey might receive oppositesolutions.*^ Modern or feminism, however, has, of course, a deeper cause mistaken of words or foolish talk about occasion than a mere use is. This would-be the accident of being born what one mascuin fact as well as in language,and contrary linisation of women, dustrial inat birth,is a result also of modern to nature's determination from which has taken women the home, where they where they work side by worked by themselves, into the factory, whence and side with men, they return to the home as moneywe

possess

"

"

"

"

"

earners

by

like

side with

men

; and

women,

side industrialism, by puttingmen likewise operativein the oppositedirec-

the is

"

same

is it for Mrs. Price woman's to speak of any being a wife in comparison with her accidental being a human being; for her being while her human her determination, own mother a depends on a Of course of her parents. the association of one's being depended on the determination there is no when causal conattribute may be regarded as accidental birth with some nection Christian in the case of one's being born hammedan, Mothe two, or between a as a tween beDemocrat or a Republican. But there is a direct causal connection a birth and inherited birth and also between our as our our qualities our sex, and temporal and spatial surroundings. our in the rest. in other words first quoted, and the passage 44 In of begging the question by Mill, or his wife, is the following, where 45 Another case " The real question," he says, " is, whether it is right It ought least of all to occur. should the of human race half through life in a state and pass expedient that one The real question half," Dissertations, iii. 113. the other subordination to of forced is forced it is forced extent or natural, or to what their subordination is, whether need Of if, or to the extent, it is natural, it may forcement; natural. legal enand course not " of forced." Mill would deserve the derogatory term not but this does " of children subordination to their parents, although there not speak of the " forced also of this. is legal enforcement 43

and

Especially absurd

mother and wife

as

bein^


FEMINISM

34

middle

of the lower

women

classes,whose

classes has

is

aspire to

women

spread up the

enter

his

seek

have

who fortune

own

left the old best he

as

can,

status

is

going over

familyas well as the state in physicalisolation,without atoms,

also ; and constituent

ward for-

look

vidualism indi-

the of birth,every to

is to break

the

*^

the

to

professions,

to

of men,

out-of-

The

the upper classes,whose women spreadingup and even to enteringpolitics diplomacy. Thus

and

to

their feminisation.*"

tendingtoward

tion upon men, home labour of

one

women

into its

up

chemical

any

So of stable substances. in the permanent molecules " would advised that educate soul not a as Margaret you " *^ be and do not to to be an a woman aristocrat, so ; Higginson combination

Fuller

La carriere oiiverte Soul before sex. aux for for himself, every woman herself,and Every man *^ This individualism the alphabet[i. e., education]for us all." this individualism which Ellen Key mad of the feminists run ^" has outcalls " the principleof the woman stripped movement," to individualism sociaHsm, which has come only through followed

suit

"

:

talens.

"

"

collectivism,while socialism

is

tryingto

are

jumped

feminism

tryingto extend

to

it

directly.And

while

get rid of the wage-system, the feminists Even it to all women.^^ the house-wife,

definite pay from her husband ceive (or resay, should demand his law definite of for her domestic a income) proportion by

some

and barbarism have EUis: C/. H'avelock "Savagery more usually than not been civilisation militant, that is to say masculine, in character, while modern in character, for the industries belonged is becoming industrial, that is to say feminine, and they tend to make like women. Even in quite recent men primitively to women, it is possible to see the workings of this feminisation. times man To-day a O. Mason would is a tender and T. have Woman, also us thing," Man 392-3. than of ages, of militancy and Share industrialism, Woman's speak rather of sexes, of industrialism, then, is predominantly An woman's in Primitive Culture^ 2. a age 46

predominantly

.

.

...

.

.

age.

Jacobi: "This spread to little,

47 Cf. Mrs. has, little by 48

Memoirs, a

man

Education, 49

Ought

ii. 143.

for

manhood,

How and

idea

[of individualism], Common also,"

at

"

wcmen

much a

truer woman

first suggested only for

Sense," "

is Clarke's for womanhood,

men,

143. "

"

physiological motto: both for humanity,"

cate Edu-

Sex

in

19.

Women Woman

to

learn

the

Alphabet?

145.

of it may be found in extravagant specimen The Solitude address other on of Self, in which, among Cady Stanton's "Her [as an individual, [woman's] rights, under such circumstances things, she says: of her own, all her to use Crusoe, the arbiter of her destiny], are in a world a female We ask for the complete developsafety and happiness," 3. faculties for her own ment benefit and happiness of every individual, first,for her [or his] own Again, In for the public good," 6. ask complete individual another address development we the principle: "In the settlement of every ply simshe had laid down must question we consider the highest good of the individual," reprinted in The History of Woman I go on the assumption throughCf. also Josephine P. Knowles: Suffrage, i. 717. out soul has a right to search for happiness (not amusement) that every their ["c] on Cage, London, 1912, lines," The Upholstered own p. xiii. this false tendency of feminism Karl Pearson has raised 51 Against a warning for voice. The equal opportunity he ascribes to tlie fact that the woman's cry started by superior Chances but for women of Death, i. 235; was movement women. for "freedom of contract" for labourers, in general it is as fallacious as is the cry well as according to this Fabian as need the socialist, 238; for women men, 233, " " of the state, 234, 238, 240, 246, 254. special protection The Elizabeth 50

Movement,

qj.

An

"

.

"

"

"

.

,


CHAPTER

ERROR

Common

equal

to

men

made

there

of

this

be

are

about

Full

male

obliterated

the

feminism

the

between

shall

to become aspiration of women to all the rights,privileges,powers, the other and enjoyed by possessed

haziness

some

equality.

all differences

species

that

is

PRINCIPLE

FIRST

is the

admitted

be

to

"

emoluments

Yet

FEMINISTS'

THE

all feminism

to

and sex.

OF

III.

the

female

one

big

the

be

to

use

that

demands

and

except

of

amount

practically

of

the

human

difference

of

getting be-

(of being fathers and mothers), species of living beings. In belongs physiological language, they recognise only the primary sexual would differentiae and ignore all the secondary.^ Just as full and

of

seeks

the

all but

to

socialism

children

bearing

which-

abolition

lowest

of

distinction

the

between

social,

nomic, eco-

desires that, sopoliticalclasses, so full feminism cially, shall economically, and politicallyat least, the two sexes Besides semi-socialism is this, just as a isfied satundistinguished. with equality of ownership of one kind of property only, so and

be

semi-feminism

a

the

goes that

requirement

rights of with The

when

votes

latter kind

forthwith, for

being

men,

their

and

content

feminism

effects

would

feminism

be

too,

it is

as

might

come

instead it would

of

1

144.

what

an

full

feminism several

with

introduced

broaden

away

any

further

with

could

the

sexes,

will

do

with

or

for

generations, without

whereas,

So

of

amount

its

as

the

its kind

socialism. must

to

If come

feminism

socialism.

is

be

and

Either

socialism

tendency since

itself

not

its extension.

competition,

competition ;

upon

political

possible to introduce completely perceived

be

ever feminism, it is true, come, But integral part of such socialism.

without

doing

the

they

should

between

sexes

be

insist

to

all

see

be

not

less than

concomitant

might

full socialism

and

it would

The in

accorded

them.

yet its effects would

a

than

present, be

wait

to

they get

of

at

shall

women

generation or two. brought into operation of

further,

no

If

would set

up

beginnings

so,

do, petition com-

of

cy-

not Higginson, of all animals, that only of the human species, but the two and do " in breathe, everything precisely the run, same cept exmanner, the Women as one solitary fact of parentage," Ought the to learn Alphabet/ thus in sheer ignorance of physiology. Higginson wrote move, to

36


ERRONEOUS

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

37

the sexes have cles of civilisationtilltheir culminatingperiods, lines of labour,with as littlecompetition had their own as possible Men have now invaded the upper ranks of wombetween them. en's have been invited into the lower ranks of work, and women This process, alreadybegun, the feminists wish to men's work. entiated. of men and women no longerbe differcarry on tillthe work and Competitionis to be free not only between men but also between and and men and between women women, men, and

women

between demand for

and

women

men.

with men completeequalityof women (with for includes the demand first deal) a now plete comwe may in the that of men sense women on one independence when is independentof any other particular he is selfman man, bour: lasupporting, livingeither on his own property or by his own economic an independence. It includes also a demand for of supwhich is effected only if the amount equalindependence, port, is obtain for themselves, equalon or income, which women The which

"

the average

which of perfecteconomic

for

to that

under

women

to

full

all without

equalitywith

discrimination

But

be attended

by

might

men

socialism,since this

and consequentlywithout it would

This

obtain for themselves.

men

between

attained

be

distributes

equal

strengthand

discrimination between

all the evils of full

dition con-

the

comes in-

ness, weaksexes.

socialism, already

such socialism reviewed, repeat. Without unnecessary full feminism simply runs againstnature; for it assumes, that if admitted to free competition with men, women were they would do, and gain economic equality, produce and earn as much as men efforts. The demand for equality rests on an sumption asby their own is the of equality.The firstprinciple of full feminism of men and women. And it is an erroneous ciple. prinsimpleequality and

For have

here nature the same

to

steps in and forbids its achievement. and

strengthas men, function earning capacity.Their child-bearing not

not consequently

Then the feminists say: this itself is way. be who bears must allowed for : the woman

stands

labour,and

Women the same in

the

must

be

But if she is to be paid by the state, here is quasi socialism ; or if she is paid of present conditions,with dependenc by the father,here is a remnant The is unworkable without male. scheme ism, socialthe on It would of course be unand it is unworkable as socialism. workable the race would then come without child-bearing, to as with the be minimum it would of end ; but even incompatible an the that would race going longenough to see keep child-bearing has the additionalhandicap, not only of the effects. For woman

paid.


FEMINISM

38 beinghampered by the

burden

but also of the cataof the breasts,

enhood her system. In the *' forming" age of maidto (for a few years after puberty)assiduous application to of kinds of industry,especially study or to any one many those requiringmuch standingon the feet,interferes with the of of that discharge, causing,if not a breakdown regularity for motherhoood. health,at least a weakening of the capacity This result was mencement shortlyafter the compointedout by physicians into the highereducation of women of the movement the and into industry and as soon as the effects could professions, little be studied on a wide scale.^ But to their representations has continued, and the birth-rate heed was paid. The movement of births began in New In our has sunk. country the falling-off first movement were England,where these features of the woman drain upon

menial

put into operation. Women or

strain.

in capacityfor self-support simply are not equal to men able stand the to and n ot stress same independence, being Women must work, and they do work, as much as, if not

be varied,intermittent, their work must inM an's be it work call or at any incessant, terruptible. may may moment for full exertion and always find him ready.^ He also in youth for any of many kinds can prepare himself assiduously of life-work,work at it throughoutmanhood without interrup-

than, men

more

; but

H. Clarke, Sex in Education. in Industry, 1873, and A. Ames, Sex Shattered Boston. health or the former undeveloped ovaries" alternative result of a strenuous school and lege colas a common education the notion that they could do what pursued by girls on boys do. It is possible also that enfeeble a persistent application in early youth may too or and it would that this happened 01 seem in the destroy the sex-vitality even men, of the much of J. S. Mill. But, because greater application required to produce case in the male. the same effect, this is much rarer characterises the female 3 Periodicity," says Clarke, organisation^ and develops characterises Persistence the male feminine force. organisation, and develops masculine He the healthy women force," op. cit., 120-1. more pointed out, too, how much period of Germany respected the menstrual than do the less healthy women of our recommends Hall G. Stanley four a monthly rest for young or country. women, four New weeks, Adolescence, i. 510-11, ii. Sundays together every York, 1904, The Laura is for specialised and genius of man," Fay-Smith, 639. centrated consays is for adapted effort and distributed effort, while that of woman energy," York New Times, April 25, 191 5. This is not recognised by tiie feminist, in The work with who will have women at the promiscuously same the work, with men, who often taken same persistency. Yet it is recognised by the lower are so races, the Zufiis, for instance, where is division for their models. of labour Among tween befrom the sexes, the well during mennot women are expected to fetch water struation: Zuni Mrs. so James Stevenson, The Indians^ in the 23d Report of the of American Bureau in Ethnology, Washington, 1894, pp. ;503-^. But even Germany function Lily Braun interfering with woman's pooh-poohs the idea of the menstrual such as unhealthy clothes and injurious work; ascribes the bad effects to other causes, that know they can nothing about the subject, as it is not a habits; and tells men In America of theirs, Die after Clarke's function soon Frauenfrage, 191-2. work Mrs. published The Question of Rest for Women during Menstruation, 1876, should there is no reason women in which she concluded why normal rest durin^^ that has made some period, pp. 26, 227; and recently Leta Stetter HoUingworth investiga* Functional Periodicity, New on York, 1914, in which tions, published in a monograph in four or five women disturbances she found during their menses no more perform* time in a couple of men three months, than at the same or ing certain tests for two she used as controls. WDom 2

So

especially Ed.

1875, both at pointed out (p. 39)

"

"

"

"

jacobi

"


ERRONEOUS

PRINCIPLE

FIRST

39

and in later age be able tion,alwaysadvancingin skill, direct others

and

in it. Such

guide

to

interferes in no wise with his function of fatherhood,nor his function of fatherhood with but it him better renders for fatherhood, and fatherhood it; in the case of women spurs him on to be better at it; whereas motherhood interferes with any kind of life-occupation except domestic labours,and any kind of life-occupation except domestic labours interferes with motherhood.^^ The distinction between man's labour and woman's labour is not merely due to custom, or economic conditions: it is physiological. to Women's women's ferent bodies,and in consequence minds, are diffrom men's. of the Nature," said the presidentess in Woman's Convention that men Rights 1850, does not teach and women but that are unan unequal, only they are unlike; likeness so naturally related and dependent that their respective their balance differences by their establish,instead of destroying, * The d ifferences to sum equality, equality." respective may up if you like,and if you can standthem by any common measure medans Mohamard." and women Before God men be the equal: may in at least since the but Christendom, that, nobody deny to do so." In the world Council of Macon, cares women may ^ in and worthiness this in : usefulness, consequently equal men is believed to be ruled by a is indisputable, as the world especially work

"

"

" A man, in the full tide of business or El. C. Stanton : pleasure, can be husband, father, and everything life iota; he can and his one change not marry Suffrage, gives up all," in The History of Woman beside; but in marriage, woman But she spoke complainingly,as if this difference ought not to be. i. 720. shall see, by This is extended, as we W. 4 Mrs. Paulina Davis, Proceedings, p. 9. in all species: they are, she says, " always B. Blackwell Antoinette to the sexes Mrs. throughout Nature, New true equals, but not identicals," The Sexes equivalents

Cf. Mrs.

3a

"

York,

1875, p.

II. ,.

"

.

",

.

this: her in Woman, statement as in his," Kaethe Schirmacher, The Modern man is the equal in the hand-labourer As well say Woman's Rights Movement, p. xiv. the hand-labourer that therefore his peculiar field of the capitalistin his, and conclude of the capital with the capitalist. an should be put on equal footing in the management Hardie's effusion in Keir dithyrambic Something of this sort is, in fact, maintained of I. Cor. XV. glorj; 41) to the effect that "if there be one (playing a variation upon domain, each of the equal within their own another and they are the moon, sun

meaning in peculiar sphere, is entirely the equal of There

5

is,

however,

no

such

a

to Socialism, Freedom 69. r ^ -itt , I. Cor. XI. 3, 7. Feminists quote Galat. III. 28, as a divine authority, but ignore The French feminist Gen. III. 16. Jules and 9, Ephes. v. 22, 23, 24, 33, Col. III. 18, " and the soul of man suffrage, etc., because Bois preaches feminism, with woman This is York Sun, April 15, 1915Evening is equal," as reported in the New woman different bodies, with different functions peculiar. God, nevertheless, has given them why should they not have different duties in the state? to perform in society. Then to world, would seem of their souls in the next is to be the treatment Whatever of Alexandria, Father, Clement The early Christian nothing to do with the matter. have in perfection,Stromata. IV. c. 19 and 20, share equally with men sard women He in in the church. recognised that rights the same them did not he assign but " nature he pressly exthe same have and ; but women men what pertains to humanity is not the same nature as man s, added that "so far as she is female," woman's

From

.

.

6

c.

8 7

of last chapter). " on early remonstrant, C. E. Beecher, an Miss are equal in value happiness and usefulness that woman's Profession. Hartford, 1871, p. 4. Woman Suffrage and Woman's

(cf. above, "We

near

wrote

principle,

of man,"

end

,

"

agree

"

the to

eral gen-

those


FEMINISM

40

God who is no respecterof persons, and who rewards merit for and men work performed accordingto ability; are as certainly for the welfare of much concerned for the welfare of women as should be more and there is no other men, reason why women But the existence of than in men. interested in other women that in some differences means are superior,and in respectsmen be superiorin Women some are superior. may respectswomen moral some or virtues,and in certain aptitudeswhere qualities tant: delicacyand nimbleness of thought,feeling,or touch are importhose who how she will superiorities possesses, many may stance, should be taken; for, for incare inquire. In the enumeration it would she is superiorin the raceto say be absurd man's contribution is likewise indispensa which to propagatingfunction, merely on account of her labouringharder than man in the work. of man's excellences On the contrary, it is one that here, too, he does his work more this be, easily.*However do much work that women cannot men do, and in much work that both can do it much work that is left to better and do, men ; cause women as work, is left to them not beproperly woman's they do it better (tending of children,of course, is an are exception),but because men fullyoccupied with other All this is due to the greater bodily more important work." strengthof men, and their greater stayingpower in continuous and monotonous to which is to be added their greater activity;

willingnessto

go

ahead,

their greater mental E. Ferri

"Cf.

"

One

run

aptitudefor

risks, and

experiment, and combining,^"organising,and

no longer deny the physiologjcal and psychological inferiority A being who creates another not the fleetingmoon being ment of a voluptuous contact, but by the organic and psychological sacrifices of pregnancy, child-birth,and giving suck for herself as cannot much preserve strength, whose physical and mental, as man, only function in the production of the species is infinitely less of a drain," Socialism and Modern Science, trans., Chicago, 3d ed., igog,

of

woman

to

:

man.

can

"

...

"

20-in.

pp.

Some feminists, beginning with Plato ^Republic, V. 45SA-456A) and including CChances of Death, i. 247-8) Mrs. Jacobi (" Common Pearson Sense," 100), and D. G. Ritchie (.Darwinism and Politics p. 30 of the Humboldt Library ed.) cf. also Spencer, quoted above, p. 22n., and Mill, Subjection of Women, cient seem to think it suffi93-4, if women in all the labours can that men engage perform, even though it be admitted that on the average do them well. they cannot But this gives away as their case do one entirely. Men can thing which cannot women possibly do, and women do another can thing which cannot men possibly do; in everything else they can both act but their natures somehow, such that many are do women men things which can do so poorly in comparison {e.g. fight,and all hard and stressful labour), that it is better for women to give up the attempt altogether, and, to make for these, men up leave to women occupations which do well many they can enough, besides the supreme which one is interfered they do better and which with by too many others. Hence there naturally springs up a of the activities of the two great diversification which, however, itself varies at times, with perfect naturalness, as new sexes; tions occupaare invented, tried out, and assigned. 10 "In have co-operation women weak. There always been few are duties that in common. Even they have beasts of burden as they seldom worked in pairs " Share Mason, Woman's in Primitive Culture, 160. Men's greater aptitude in this been respect has, of course, explained by the greater need for co-operation, from the 9

"

"

very

beginning, in fighting.


ERRONEOUS

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

41

is inequalityin a Here systematising.^^ couple of details, whatever be the equalityof the whole. And they are details essential to all the questionsinvolved in the woman ment. movefor In the very pointswhich women the movement need and for economic are they inaugurating, independence, political with men. they fail in possessing equality The bodies of men differ not only in essential and and women that them, but (as has alreadybeen primary orgatis distinguish be followed up) in innumerable other noticed,and may now of considerable importancedown to respects ranging from some minutiae human that The seem trifling utterlyinsignificant.^^ male and female differ in numbers of life, at birth and in tenacity in the periodsof growth,in proportions in the of the limbs,even in their relative lengthof the fingers and the shapesof the ears, in the in their and the their teeth, bones, especially pelvis skull, of fat,in the voice,in the odor they emit,in their hair,in amount in the instinctive direction of the of pulse and respiration, rate of their hands movement (whereforetheir clothes are buttoned oppositely in the

compositionof the blood, in

resistance to diseases

in such facts as that males are more frequently and liable to deafof keener more color-blind, sense, yet are mutism and to the habit of stammering,but women more exposed of the thyroidgland. The differences in the sizes of to swelling smallerWomen bodies and their shapes are marked. their are Their tallness is found to than men. chested and larger-hipped be on the average about seven teen per cent, less,their weightsevenabout less cent, Their ten per brain averages per cent. less. their brain is smaller relatively to in size and weight. Hence ence This differto body-weight.^^ largerrelatively stature, but slightly birth of wherefore the in the embryo, a boy is appears even and

to

and poisons,

that if man invades the so-called woman's Ellen Key admits of dressmaking), it is most the art of cooking or frequently Movement, and attains great success I" discoveries makes new The_ Woman be who business since time immemorial, The l8in. preparation of food has, in fact, been women's who developed the art and science of yet it is not they, but men, Even in such peculiarly woman s Cut und Base, " 234. cf. Nietzsche, Jenseits von than helped by work obstetrics,improvement, it is said, has been rather hindered as des Weibes, 9th ed. Ueber den physiologischen Schwachsinn P. J. Mobius, Even

11

spheres

the

**

feminist

(for example

cooking:

women,

i9o8,_p. 12 an

For

cf. 146-7.

12,

Ellis's Man and Woman^ London, 1894, following, see Havelock earlier opinions A. Walker's Beauty and in this subject. For of See also the opening pages (1-26) of the first volume be consulted. L Thomas's Sex W. and Society, work Das Weib, Leipzig, 1885, and

most

of the

authoritative work

Woman may Floss's H.

Chicago. 1907, 13 Topinard

pp,

3-51. to

,

,

,

.

.

,

relation to tallness as more important, for he says L'Anthropologie Paris, 3d ed. 1879, is really lighter in woman," brain therefore "the But Ellis argues that the Similarly Mobius, op. cit., pp. vi., 4, cf. 39-42. p. 123. hanced relation to weight is more important,and that (here following Manouvrier) it is enof account; the other hand he points on excessive fat be left out if woman's the larger the body, the smaller the relative sizfe of the out that as a rule in animals of this, epileptics generally having relativelylarge heads, brain, and the advantage

op. cit.,95-101,

seems

cf. "gn.

take

the


FEMINISM

42

difficultthan that of a girl.^*It is found in savages is relatively well as in the higher races.^* The cerebellum as than in men, as also the frontal lobes, the last largerin women in apes too.^" The spinalchord has a twofold difference, being The than in men.^' smaller above and largerbelow in women " the highest absolutely greater size of man's brain Bebel called " and the he himself of antithe found feminists, trump-card brain triumphantjoker in the relatively greater size of woman's of measurement, in the latter mode overlookingthe other.^^ about two-thirds the have in civilised lands Women to-day strengthof men, althoughin this respect they fall less short of in primitive men peoples. Their athletic records are always poor in comparison with those of men. and women The minds of men also differ. No, says the feminist " leader,Mrs. Oilman, there is no female mind ; the brain is not ^' This is a an organ of sex : as well speak of a female liver." mistake, as male and female distinctions run through organs that of sex, and even the liver is different in men and not organs are tained indeed, the Danish zoologistSteenstruphas mainwomen,^" that sexual characters are present in every part of the and women so body. The brain,in which there are between men and which, differences of size and internal conformation,^^ many the the the that of contains seat nerve-centres nervous as system,

usuallymore

"

"

control the sex-organs,

has

sex

as

woman

than

Mrs.

even

more

14 15

"

hardlybe an exception. The mind The piowell as the body,"rightly neer says Mr. Finck.^^ E lizabeth better informed Blackwell,was physician, Sex in the human she Oilman. is being," wrote, ^' And the a mental passionthan a physicalinstinct."

Sexual Forel, The Id. ib. 190-1.

can

"

"

Question,

59.

Forel he still maintains to the first,66, but the as III; 92, 28; likewise view that these lobes, the seat of intelligence,are larger in men, 66-7. 17 Ch. L. Dana, in The New York Times, June 27, 191 5. IS Die Mill's reply had been that woman's brain might be FraUj 188, 191-2, 194. of iiner quality, having the advantage in activity of cerebral circulation," hence joying engreater quickness, but sooner subject to fatigue. Subjection of IVomen, 120-2. W. I. Thomas also attaches little importance to absolute brain size, Sex and Society, 16

Ellis"

older

'*

255-6. and 19 Women Pier Economics, 149, cf. 159. that asserts Accordingly Florida there is not the masculine the feminine and a jot of difference between minds," The Masculine and the Feminine Mind, Harper's Weekly, Sept. 24, 1910, p. 21. Long D. Mansfield, in his Legal Rights of Women, Salem, 1845, p. 97, asbefore, Edward serted sex." But mind has no he based his opinion religious grounds, and on avouched it in the sense that soul has no which is another about matter, sex, which know nothing. we 20 According to Pearson the liver is more variable in weight in women than in men, much that he treats this difference of variation as a secondary sexual 30 so character, The Chances of Death, i. 318. those already noticed, see Mobius's abstract of Rudinger's investigations, 21 Besides in the former's op. cit., 4-5, cf. 41. 22 Primitive Love and Love Stories, 64. 28 The Human Element tn Sex, New York, 1894, p. 7, cf. 18. She here, however, words with feminine instinct. uses an inexactitude, as sex can be neither a passion nor "

"

*'


FEMINISM

44

more men utilitarian, again,are more better little in men things,^^ practical

aesthetic;^^ women more in the largerconcerns managers

to parof life. Hence, also,women's thoughtsrun more ticulars, with wholes, as with generals, deal more while men or " These are equivalent faculties," Lotze maintained.^^ says Paul woman's mind is more crete, conLafitte, but they are not the same: said Buckle, "are abstract."^* "Women," man's more "

and men inductive"; more deductive in their reasoning, has ficial been beneinfluence of women whence he concluded that the to be merely the too great tendency of men in counteracting Mill considered women empiricalin their scientificenquiries.^^ their with of ideas,which men greater application more suggestive tive, intuia llowed to be more Women are elaborate.^^ universally more

to conclusions, that they jump more which means instantly instinct.^^ It almost an is,says Lester and this habit has become " " F. Ward, being a highlyspecialised part of the maternal instinct," had of mind which of as its originally a faculty development ^" and offspring." In of the mother the protection sole purpose of being " unof the quality erring"; this confined sphereit has somewhat the possessor of an instinct which " is lost the moment Ellis points out that among was generally begun primitive peoples ornamentation op. cit.,6, 316. men, are/' says 32 Women practical and careful of details than men are certainly more excel While excel in judgment, women Mrs. men Gallichan, op. cit., i33n., cf. 209. K. Brooks, The Law in common W. of Heredity, 258. Similarly Mill, sense, says 31

by the "

Subjection of Women, "^f-136. 105-7, 33 Mikrokosmos, ii. 386. Sie [die Weiber] 34 Quoted and by Ellis, Man 189. Already Hippel: Woman, besitzen eine praktische,wir [Manner] eine theoretische Vernunft, Ueber die Ehe, 157. 35 Miscellaneous Posthumous and by themselves, Works, i. 7-8, 16-17. Women "

rather, in their

Buckle also said: occupations, have rarely risen above empiricism. of inferiority:physical and mental,383. For a similar opin-' reported by Xenophon, see above^i. 99n. tells ZQ Subjection of^Women, In his Autobiography he humbly cf. 105-10. 131-2, this position toward he assumed the woman who became his wife, 189, 242, 243, us In particular, her his visionariness, 248, and practicalness, he says, repressed 247. " Les his work some thereby gained in practicality,igo. grandes inspiratrices own

*'

have two Women ion of Socrates, as

Frenchman

sorts

'*

called women. de Stael: Les femmes n'ont Cf. Madame point veritablement superieurs; mais elles n'en ont pas moins eminement de la litterature par la foule de pensees servi les progres hommes qu'ont inspirees aux consideree les relations eGtretenues avec etres mobiles et delicats,"De la Litterature ces les Institutions sociales,London, 1812, i. 198. Also Mrs. chan Gallidans ses Rapports avec of a law of tion is convinced absorption by the male of female ideas," The Posiin Primitive Society, 86. of Woman '' instinctive than Gallichan. that women will deny," says Mrs. 37 Few are more Truth about Woman, inist, intuitive than cerebral," The early fem296. An logical,more this. In its intellectual aspect," she wrote, " the built upon Eliza W. Farnham, Feminine Era will be characterised pects, asby a sacred respect for Truth in her broadest which it is the office of the intuitive, but especiallyfor those self-evident Truths " and which but slowly accepted by and trust deductive to see, are power supremely," her Era, ii. 447. For instance: Woman and I mind," "Fortunately the masculine C. Stanton, to that class endowed with mere intuitions,a belong," said Elizabeth In presenting to you, feel out right and wrong. we kind of moral instinct, by which will of course the weight only of the of divorce, you give them views therefore, my that is all God fit to give us, it is evident intuitions. But inasmuch as saw woman's be as reliable as what do perceive of truth must Hence, we need we nothing more. of reason, authority, and speculation," in what grinds out by the larger process man Suffrage, i. 722. History of Women 88 Cf. The Psychic Factors of Civilisation,175.

'compose

has

d'ouvrages

"

"

^

'*

"

"

"


ERRONEOUS

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

45

is removed to a different environment from that in contact with which the instinctwas and then the slower reasoning developed," is requiredfor the forming of sound process employed by men has judgments.^* Advance, therefore,out into the unknown been made but mostly by men, with many aberrations at first, with somewhat of approachtoward the one rightway.*" Women,

furthermore,are

"

emotional,irritable, or

more

more affectable,"

hypnotic,more subjectto hysteria,*^ ecstasy,and suggestibility; also more more and therefore, more vindictive,*^ impulsive, forgiving, in the magnifying spectacles of men, well diabolic more as *' in as more more as Lecky angelic ; general, subjectto fanaticism, admits.**

As

steadfast in and more in attack and attack.*"* counteradversity, they Less self-controlled, less too, are they,and consequently self-reliant,more conservative,*' therefore,their conservatism in exhibited their even bodies,which, it has been maintained, being

perhaps,as

courageous,

less brave

are

and

men,

bold

"

adds: Ward Woman's and Intuition, The Forum, June, 1890, pp. 401-3. instantaneous' admitted that the habit of forming judgments is carried by of registered expethere is no store into departments of life in which riences women many such be correctly constructed, and, as a consequence, whereon judgments can ference Mason gives a slightly different explanation " of this difthey are usually erroneous.*' few Very which between and position: men supplements Ward's women, are doing what their fathers did, so their opinions have to be .made up by study men in civilisation, are doing whether in savagery or and precedents. Nearly all women, born therefore m did, and their opinions are and what their mothers grandmothers ject therefore When woman them into them. a or expresses an opinion upon. a suba shown, covers and this, as has been she is entitled to speak at all whereupon this is called her instinct. and wisdom of ages, wide field the accumulated she utters With reference or an to a gun object out of this long concatenation, she would Culture, Share in Primitive and say it is a horrid thing," Woman's be only bewildered W. K. Brooks, Law of Heredity, 257-8, and in the Popular Science S9

"

Genius

It must

be

.

.

.

"

"

Cf. already 1879, pp.'i54-s,

275.

Monthly,

348.

40

Gallichan admits sex," op. cit.,292, cf. 293-4.

41

The

42

C^ Juvenal,

Even

term

from itself comes XIII. 191-2: Nemo

43

So

that

Mrs.

Tennyson:

the

"

man

Greek

.

constitutes

word

,

.

"

,.

"

ing, changing, the experiment-

,

the

for womb.

"

magis

Vindicta femina.

guadet, quam

"

.. and Earth, differ as Heaven and Hell. and best, as Heaven Merlin .

"

For men But women,

at most worst

,-

.

and

Vivten.

of his abbot of the twelfth century, in one GofiEridus,a French old opinion. Thus An " melior; sed ubi ille ubi bonus, nuUus Sexus letters {IV. ep. 43) says of women: xxi. 48. Akin, V eterum Patrum, Bibliotheca Bigne's Maxima malus, nullus est peior,'" saying, that nothing is so good for a with this is the ancient but not quite the same, and Works good wife, and nothing so bad for him as a bad one: man as a and 11 14. Flortlegtum, LXIX. Euripides and Sophocles in Stobaeus's Davs 702-1. the whole more on there also says they are and Liberty, ii. 556- He or an undisciplined induced gratify to easily more emotional than and men; impulsive of interests permanent misplaced compassion, to the neglect of the larger and more distant results__ = the proximate than the more ""^= apt to dwell upon society; more ^' of legislation, .,557-8, the curative powers to overrate says, apt too, he elsewhere also much than men.' conscientious 555, and "more hand, other the but, on 521influences, sacerdotal 54i. be governed by to likely more o".rfi,_^",.,, ," 69-70, Question, ";" will-power. The Sexual holds that they have stronger 46 Forel even

^Hesiod,

/"ibemo^acy

'"e

calls it "an F. Ward Lester the male and is the conservative Sociology, 295. 194, cf. Pure

obvious

fact, patent to all observers, that the female Cmhsatwn, Factors tn sex," PsychK

the inventive


FEMINISM

46 remain

nearer

to the

and whose type of the species/^

anatomy in

tween intermediate bealso their behaviour,witness the child's and man's ; as *^ for their pouting, weeping; and in their pathology, exclaiming, diseases as children.^** subjectthan men to the same they are more Men show in their minds, as in their bodies,a greater tendencyto and to abnormalities both of geniusand of idiocy race-variation,^^ ;

respects is closer

many

to

that of the child,or *^

47

Cf. the

Paracelsus;

fantastic to

notion

that

is

woman

328, cf.

to

to

Even the feminist Society, 4. leader, Ward, Victor Hugo's approvingly as follows from

22,

the world, according to still according nature,

to

nearer

Michelet;

earth, according to

about Woman, Gallichan, Truth Mobius, oP. cit,,8, and nearer

Mrs,

to

old nearer

to

nearer

267,

"

or

plants,according in

his

Pure

Quatrevi/ngt

nearer

to

to animals, according Sex and Thomas,

Sociology, 414"15, quotes " What Treize : makes a instinct is divinely animal.

sublime is that she is a sort of beast. The maternal mother is no she is simply female.*' longer a woman, 48 Darwin, Descent of Man, 557 (following A. Ecker and H. Welcker) ; Topinard, cp. cit., 148; Letourneau, La Biologic, 71, 75; Ellis, op. cit.,60, Sgn., cf. 387; Ferri, this Mobius, both bodily and mentally, op. cit.,4, cf. 14. Of course op. cit., 22\ been disproved. opinion is rejected by most feminists; but it has never 49 A. Walker: "Woman remains tion, almost always a child in regard to her organisawhich yields easily to every 138. Schopenhauer called them impulse,"Woman, "large children," Parerga und Parahpomena, ii. " 377, cf. " 379; and Comte spoke of them state of continued as de Philosophie Positive, existing in a childhood," Cours iv. 405. Of old, the collocation was said that women's made by Seneca, who as anger, As for the than also that of children, is sharper,but less severe, men's, De Ira, II, lo. of women resemblance to children in form, that was noticed by Aristotle,De Anitnalium Generatione, I. xx, V. lii., 16, 24, 34, 62. cf. Problemata, IV. 4, X. 4, 37, XL tion: distinc50 Ellis, op. cit., 38^-^0. Mrs. Antoinette B. Blackwell would introduce a "The differentiation between and child is much woman greater in kind than between and child; the difference in quantity remains with the man,*' The Sexes man and throughout Nature, 123, cf. 124, 128, 134; but she hardly bears it out, cf. 131-2 mother

The

*'

132-3-

and Plants under Darwin, Descent of Man, 566, Animals Domestication, 2d ed., li. H. Campbell, Differences in the Nervous and Woman, don, LonOrganisation of Man 1891, p. 133; Ellis,op. cit.,358-71, 3B7, citing J. Hunter an as early holder of this view. Ellis himself holds the strange doctrine, entirely opposed to Haeckel's biogenetic theory, that the child is nearest of the species, to the ideal (future) type then the woman, and lastly the man, K. F. Burdach and J. F. Meckel 21-5, 390-2. 51

457;

nearly

hundred

held

the most variable. Pearson has and medical statistics do not show than in women, Variations in Man greater variations in men and in the first Woman, volume of Chances of Death. Every teacher or examiner," says he in his Ethic of who has had to deal with women Preethought, 425-6, students, will admit their capacity the same to grasp intellectual training as men." But in the same not way, to according Forel, who, from his experience of mixed classes, affirms that the show women a The more equal level than the men. most intelligentmen reproduce better, and the most than the corresponding female stupid men reproduce worse, tremes," exThe Sexual L. Thorndyke, Question, 68. Similarly Edward Sex in Education, " The Bookman, New York, April, 1906, p. 212. A woman is never so stupid as a man can be," says Otto Weininger, Sex and Character, English trans., p. 253, cf. 316, who denies all genius to women, 113, 189. On this subject we may note, that the two sexes might be equally variable (potentially),or the female even more so, but if the male used his variations he would exhibit greater variableness more, (actually). show variableness Also, if men than women, more this,of course, is not a virtus formawith other secondary sexual tiva,but its occurrence, as of differences,is in consequence the primary^sexual difference. If some rise superior to any men in certain women illustration of their greater variableness, not qualities, this is only an a consequence of it; and it is counterbalanced if other men sink lower than any women, if many or and men sink very only few women low. The doctrine of the greater variableness of or man variability (or of the male in general) is, therefore, wrongly used as an difference from explanation of man's in woman, by W. K. Brooks as, for instance his Law of Heredity, as will be noted presently. Whether the physiological greater variability of man be proved or not, is of little importance; but the evidence can on a largescale for his greater variation is so demonstrative, that to seek for proof, and especially for disproof, in a few measurements and tests seems superfluous. While feminists does not include Pearson) our minor (which term are tiradingagainst this doctrine (as seeming to show inferiority in woman), and the latest, Vance son, Thompsimply asserts the opposite (" Women differ more widely than men do They a

years

ago

urged against Ellis that anatomical

that

women

were

measurements

"

"

"

"


ERRONEOUS

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

47

" for " genius," common men by virtue says Ellis, is more among is of the same which generaltendency by idiocy more common, ^^ is with men." the Genius, intuitive, too, incompatible among deductive,particularistic tendencyof woman's mind.^^ Thus, on is reposeful, the whole, while woman sive, submispassive,yielding,

is active,aggressive, sedent,man wild, erratic, receptive, is his he seeks : expansion leadership divergent, ; extravagant ; and of rapidityof motion and transportation, of characteristic so he has always been the inventor, and the improverof civilisation, all else."*

The

existence of secondarydifferences between the sexes is,of the human In confined animals not to species. describing course, do but half his job,unless he portrayed the a naturalist would Some particular female as well as the male. differences extend, the animal apparently, throughoutall,or nearlyall, kingdom, and into the vegetable.These are, in some some even cases, so plain for instance, that they attracted attention in antiquity, Aristotle, of them."^ often alluding But they have not been speto many further from reflect that Ward to io6), it is curious type,"^Women, it his whole (the more gynaecocentric theory about the superiorityof woman is accepted' by the feminist leaders: his Pure stable female), which see Sociology, Virgil's varium 322-3, 325, 335, 481, cf. 300, Psychic Factors " of Civilisation,178-90. the precise reverse is he says, rautabile semper of the truth," Pure femma," et Which himself says, to depend, as Ward opinion one Sociology, 33 sn. adopts,seems " differences in the constitution of individual minds," 332, or, more on particularly,on is progressive or the one conservative, and admires whether the other quality or one in women, hardly a solid basis for science to rest on. He here also remarks that the statement 52 Op, cit.,z^^about the greater quency freof genius among has sometimes been men regarded by women slur as a their sex; they have sought to explain it by lack of opportunity, education, etc. upon that women have been equally anxious It does not appear to find fallacies in the statement men." that idiocy is more But recently Leta Stetter Hollingworth common among has taken pleasurein poiritingout a (possible)fallacy in this statement, it is based as the statistics of public institutions, but to these, she asserts, it is more on usual to send defective males than defective females, more maining boys being sent than girls,and of the reold ones, than men. more women in Variability as related to Sex Differences American The Achievement, Journal of Sociology,Jan., 1914, p. 515. She finds the of the greater variation (not variability, cause at least not inherent or variability) of toward eminence, in the different sex-life of men and women men (which of course is the right explanation), 523-4, 528, 529; but she thinks it desirable that women may find a way to vary do, and yet perform their function of procreating, and as men in another prophesies that this problem will be solved century," 529. fancied 53 " The woman's intuition and manifestations of analogy between the in the article first cited, "is an exact reversal of the true genius," says Ward tions relabetween these two Women of real genius have things. .^ little intuitive very the true power. They are usually rather indifferent to the affairs of the household and focus of that faculty," 404, 406. Hence the absurdity of the pretension held locus advanced to-day, and voiced in the following by Adeline women by many E. York in The New Women "know Times, Feb. 20, 19:6: that placed and Browning their intelligencematches circumstances well with man's, brought up under the same and clear-sightedness are much while their intuitiveness greater." animals "As do the same always from time immemorial 5iCf, Mobius: things, so would have remained the human in its pristine species, had there been only women, from derives All progress book, with all its feministic state. man, of. cit.,8. Hasan's with this. Other feminists will also be found virtually agrees praise of woman, acknowledging the same. practically Animalibus 55 De Historia, II. xix. 4, III. xix. (or xiv. or xiii.)4, IV. xi. 5-7, V. xxx. (or xxix.) 2, IX. i. 2-4, viii. I, 2, xiv. 3-7, VI. xviii,11, VII. i. 3, iii. 5, VIII. Generatione, IV. i.,vi., V. iii.;De (ii.) II, vii. (or viii.)5, X. vi. I; De Animalium II. ii.,ix.. III. i.; Problemata, IV. 25, 28, X. 8, 36; Problemata Partibus Animalium, end. His only mistake of fact was Inedita, II. 148; Physio gnomonica, v., and vi. near break rests

away

on

"

"

"

"

'

"

.

.

"

"

"

'


FEMINISM-

48

studied tillrecent times,since the developmentof comparacially tive of the number such ences differphysiologyor biology.Naturally to all animals

common

which

be

in any

largeas the

so

number

of those

in the genus especially species, And there is numerous. as they are superlatively in the within any one there is irregularity irregularity species, whole series : we not are dealingwith universal laws, but with less more or generalrules,always admittingexceptions.A fairly complete list of the most importantdijfferencesthat prevailseems mobile and active,females to be the following: Males are more a nd more inclined, therefore,to paraquiescent passive more sitism, and more males illustrate while better the tinctive disvegetative, in the search for food. animal qualityof agility For malfes are less nutritive, what take consume more in, quickly they can

found

is not one

homo, where

"

hungriertherefore

better nourished on the ; while females are it same supply,storing up more, and therefore are more easily satisfied. For, again,in the internal metabolism of the tissues, which consists of the two processes of anabolism in buildingup are

and

in

and

of katabolism in tearingdown and in latter process predominatesin males, the former in females. This difference shows itself further in males, in their havinga highertemperature, in females in their having a lower temperature. females longer Males, too, are shorter-lived, lived,because the males use themselves up quicker. Males are accoutred with better weapons of attack,or more brighter-vested, than the whose is generally adorned, females, uselessly appearance variable than females,and in the sober. Males are more more and females follow.^^ Males males lead developmentof species are generatedunder less favourable conditions,females under of these differences are also favourable conditions. Some more exhibited in the male and female germs, the spermatozoon of the of the other more one being more agileand hungrier,the ovum affluent and inert ; the male element also seeks the female element, which is likewise an almost universal distinction between the male ^' female whole and the and as a organism organism; they univer-

storing energy, expending energy, the

De Animal. in sayingfthat males generally live longer than femaleSj Hist., IX. vii. (or he gives foolish reasons, viii.) 5, cf. xlvi. (or xxxiii.), for which Problefnata, X. 48, and De Longitudine et Brevitate Vitae^ v.; of opinion,that the male is the better, Animal. ProbUmata, XXIX. Gen., II. 1., Politico,I. ii. (or iii) 12, v. (or 11, cf. De stunted xii.) I and 2, the female being considered or male, De Animal. Gen. a maimed of the difference between II. iii.,IV. vi. His account and women in De men Animal. be considered Hist., IX. i. 4, might have been written to-day; but it would misogynisin the Physiognomonica. tic, and especiallyso the account 66 Note method for disprovinggreater variabilityin women that Pearson's has no of variation," says Brooks, The which amount application here. organism has any in two be learned lately undergone, may by a comparison of allied species, ways and by a comparison of the adult with the young^" The Law of Heredity^ 253. tistics Staaside from the question. of measurements and laboratory tests are Sexual 07 Cf. Forel, The Question, 49, 155, 192-3; hence the stronger sexual appetite in the male, 77. "

"

"

"

*


ERRONEOUS

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

49

male germ being much smaller than the female. Also in the lower speciesmale animals are usuallysmaller than the female, and sometimes in the higher,as in birds of prey ; but in the higherspeciesmales generally in females this But this is the a more respect. surpass and here, too, the female apparently than usuallyvariable quality, dency and where the tento the original keeps more type of the species, is to degeneration the males lead the way, degenerating more, and even, where the tendencyis to parasitism, becoming,in some dency females; and where the teninstances,parasiticupon their own the is toward advance and increase in size,they become more individualistic, larger. Males are more self-sustaining, females more more more tive, reproducspecies-maintaining, egoistic; absence of this distinction, altruistic with exceptional more however. reversal of it,in several species, or even hit of these differences Some investigators have one upon some Thus and others upon others. the fundamental W. K. as one,

sallypossess

one

the pronounceddifference,

more

.

"

Brooks,

of Heredity^(Baltimore,1883),lays most of the males.^* But this greater greater variability

in his Law

the rather than a cause, of of the males must be an effect, variability grier the other secondary differences. W. H. Rolph rests on the hunmale seek the wellcondition of the as cells, urgingthem to female thus nourished cells, explaininglove by hunger.^' P. work The Evolution Geddes and J.A. Thomson, from whose on of Sex facts have been taken, these of (London, 1889) most " " recognise the fundamental difference between male and female in the contrast between the greater predominanceof katabolism in and in the other."" This theoryhas the merit of anabolism the one behind the primary sexual difference, of going even as it explains of energy, can why the female, because of her accumulation the while male scattered has his energy expend it on reproduction, all along his path,and has less left for expenditure in reproduction. The male, however, in expendinghis energy less on reproduction, has more to spend in other ways, and other parts of him Thus in birds this greater developmentof the may developmore. of more brilliant plumage, more tuneful males takes the form form the In it takes of and bodies man voices, etc. stronger stress

on

medium is the material through which the law of heredity manifests is the vehicle by which variations are element added. tlae male The new element the progressive or and the male variable factor is the conservative ovum of the race, as well as in the reproduction of the indiof evolution vidual, in the process is an The male organism specialised for the productionof the 250-1, and the female an organism specialisedfor in the reproductiveprocess, variable element It is Brooks element," 252. whom Ward follows on the production of the conservative above this point: see p. 46n. nutrition and Leipzig, 1884. The close relationshipbetween 69 Biologische Probleme, recognised by BufFon, Des Animaux, ch. ii. end. generation was 60 Ch. II. 5, cf. VII. 4, X. 2, XVI. 558

'*

The

ovum

itself,while

'*

"


FEMINISM

so

sexual selection of males may and far Darwin this tendency enhance was so right. Also natural selection of sober-vested females, who escape capture by this differenhances ence less their enemies conspicuousness, through ment from the other side,in the case of birds,while greater retirealso far Wallace and so effect in women, has the same

capaciousbrains.^^

more

Female

"

"

right. But

was

There

be

must

Darwin

neither

somethingto

nor

start

Wallace

the

tendencies,which

selection

fundamental

something

only increase. This emphasisedby seems itself the explanation of the primary or but itself unexplainable.^^ difference, of

kind

either

can

to be the difference

It

deep enough.

went

and

Geddes most

is,then,futile to say that the differences which and

men

have

women

been

imposed

women

upon

Thomson,

distinctive

sex-

exist between

by

the

way

far

treated them. as to Mill,it is well known, went so nently emicalled the of is is nature what women an that assert now in some the result of forced repression artificialthing directions,unnatural stimulation in others ; and he denied that so knows, or can know, the nature of the two sexes any one did another it their relation to one lasts, although long as present him that they are from not confidently maintaining prevent the firstto say this,^* and he has had many equal.^^Mill was not have

men

"

"

"

"

"

61

free

Elizabeth

CA a

vast

store

Blackwell: of nervous

"The healthy limitation of sexual secretion in man force for employment in intellectual pursuits," The

sets

man Hu-

in Sex, 29. Element and Thomson I. Thomas in his Sex and Society follows Geddes in distinguishW. ing katabolic and anabolic and women more men respectively, and emphasises that as " katabolic and in general are more animals anabolic, wherefore woman plants more than man," 4; and as the animal the plant process is more variable to stands nearer " the female, 13. He summarises follows: Man than the plant, so the malethan as is conservative of it. The structural more woman more rapidly; consumes energy variational is mainly toward motion; woman's ward tendency is not tovariabilityof man is fitted for feats of strength and bursts motion, but toward reproduction. Man has more remains stability and endurance,^While woman of energy; woman nearer to The variational the infantile type, man to the senile. dency tenextreme approaches more itself in a larger percentage of genius, insanity, and of man idiocy; expresses distinction remains between the tendency ward tonearly normal," 51.^ The more woman stationariness in woman and toward motion in man he treats as fundamentally pursuits, SS-6, 67" 8, important, deriving from it their respective life-habits and economic G2

134-40, 149, 160, 196, 228, 291-2, 293-4. Subjection of Women, 38-9, also 104-5, 125, cf. 98-9. For a good criticism of Mill on this point see J. S. Stuart Glennie*s The Proposed Subjection of Man, in The Fortnightly Review, April, 1889, pp. 571-2. have 64 Thus only privileges and not rights, Hippel had said that so long as women fulfil their true their rights, and we vocation; but give them shall see they will never what die bilrgerliche Verbesserung der Weiber, Werke, vi. be, Ueber they are and can So also Condorcet had thought more 167, 186, 224, 226, 241-2. mentation experi42, cf. 151-2,

87* 92-3. 63

1 he

was

sexes,

Fragment

needed sur

before

one

could

pronounce

the

natural inequality of the And Wendell Phillips had before it could experiment be in the intellects of the sexes," just before, Emily Davies had know cannot anything certainly

upon

I'Atlantide,CEuvres, 1804, viii. 562-9.

take twenty centuries of the new it would is some distinctive that " there peculiarity Women have the Right^to Vote? Shall 12. Only " Until artificial appliances are written: we removed, Education about the native distinctions,* The Higher of Wom,en, London, 1866, p. 167; Gail Hamilton (in a slightly different application): and shall never "Certainly we woman's natural what know sphere is, till she has an absolutely unrestricted power of choice," Woman's Wrongs, 85, cf. 162. claimed

proved


FEMINISM

52

sumably speciesof fishes,where the male is larger(and prethe of be there no where can question but stronger), be Also it cannot male. general of the female to the subjection and females the are stronger than larger because in some species of without any subjection other fishes, the males, as againin some that Also this theory supposes subduing the male to the female. the that for primitive is necessary procreation of the mate certain

to

"

avoided the sexual act; which is contrary to all Furthermore, if largeand strong the natural instinct of animals. why did this not mated men only with small and weak women, spring, produce only an intermediate size and strengthin all their offmaximum would be while the kept male and female alike, and both of fortuitous large strong parents,and matings up by the the minimum by those of both small and weak parents? This

strong

women

to be the natural result,if as is sought to be proved, would seem natural sex-differentiae. Here, to be not size and strengthwere pointin the science of biologyand the theoryof sure, is a moot of the parents are inherited only, evolution,as to what qualities of the same sex. Heredity has no or by the offspring chiefly, Salic law," Mrs. Oilman repeats; and she recognisesthat girls But inherit from their fathers and boys from their mothers.^* "

"

heredity as merely preserving such as has taken placein from too our a sexes divergence, great the gypsy moth and among bees,"*althoughit has not preserved be them! Whatever our ignorance on this subject,it would nevertheless seem a majorityof probablethat if,in any species, tic, take after their mothers in a certain characterisfemale offspring take after their fathers in and a majorityof male offspring the oppositecharacteristic, these characteristics are tions sex-distinchowever belongingto, proper to, natural to, that species, be in the difference size and to they originated.Such seems male in the female between and the the strength higheranimals, and in the human the mammalia for the species especially among in the others. Of the most reason same as probablereasons yet obtainable an inklinghas alreadybeen given.'"An explanation, she treats

this

"

blessed power

of

"

IVomen and Economics, 6^-70, 334; cf. 46. 69/6. cf. Darwin, Descent of Man, 565. 134; 70-72; Ellis explains the larger size of men due to the fact that the species has 70 Thus as been increasing in size, and this variation has taken in men in accordance place,more with the general tendency of males and to greater variation, Man Woman, 368. This, have not however, seen we to be altogether satisfactory. The general difference in of the higher animals, and in some of the flower too, J. T. Cunningham would plain exmany " the males gained their superior size and strength by fighting for by saying that the female and throughout their subsequent evolution the males with one have another,^ led the more active,energetic, and pugnacious existence," Sexuai Dimorphism in the freedom Their from the gestation of their offAnimal spring, Kingdom, London, 1900, ij.46, have permits their greater development in. other respects. As for the we seen, females, already Geades and Thomson production of the gentler qualitiesin the human 68


ERRONEOUS

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

53

does not alter a fact. Even if it be admitted that the difference in size and strength between men and women has been at least enhanced by men's sexual selection actingin the way this sexual selection on the part of men has been natural, described, and its effect therefore is natural. Bellamy spoke of it as " a rather mean here from using device on Nature's part,"shrinking the name of God. Whether God or Nature adopted the device,it and it is advice that we should not kick against was adopted, good the pricks. If men have, on Nature's dictation, preferredsmaller and weaker in the past, they probablywill in the future. mates And if they should change in their treatment of women, women's and stature would not so lightly nature change with them. By if not expressly the feminists the conclusion is always implied, is that when the old of treatment women stated, by men and women of men changed,the difference in the size and strength will soon are alreadyin the disappear.Bellamy thinks women Mrs. with their pristine men. equality process of reconquering " has been checked, woman Gilman, though she asserts that " the male human starved, aborted in her growth,"and being is in of the female economic status," thousands of years in advance " few aborted that far of not are a so generations yet says women ^^ It is overlooked, freedom will not set them abreast of the age." that be it said once more it),'''' (for we have alreadycome upon have in of thousands of years must been employed tens as ducing proit at to undo and fixingsuch a result by sexual selection, least thousands of years of a reverse process would be required. " of To obliterate such differences," say Geddes and Thomson " be have all the of it would allied results evolution, necessary to '* basis." evolution over on new a again and What has been said of the singledifference between man broad the other and in size and also to woman strength, applies For the feminists extend to all differences between them. deep mistakes justpointedout. of them the same two They ascribe in character wherein it of women the inferiority or quality, every itself in the past, and stilldoes so at present, so has manifested and suppression plainlythat they cannot deny it,to the repression

moreover,

with The spasmodic bursts of activity characteristic of males contrast written: continuous sion patienceof the females, which we [the authors] take to be an expresas some would have us believe, a mere of constitutional contrast, and by no means, of Sex, ch. xix. " 4. Cf. Brooks : "The bullying," The Evolution product of masculine sex is not due to the subjection of one by the other, but is the means difference of Heredity, 259. by which the progress of the race is to be accomplished," The haw Similarly Higginson treated woman "a s as and Economics, Women 71 75; 9: 134. is steadily diminishing," Common Sense about merely liistorical inferiority, which fast " equalisHe even thought our public schools were iv. 90. ing in Works, Women, and women, 319. the brains of men "

had the

...

"

72

Above,

7S

The

p.

25.

Evolution

of Sex, ch. XIX.

i 4.


FEMINISM

54

as a rule,denounce as by men, which theyadditionally, selfish and unjust. And they assert, with utter dogmatism,their all this will be ended by a more belief that soon just and less if selfish treatment of women take the by men, especially women in their own hands and see that they get equaltreatment. matter it is often amusing to note the shifts the feminists As for the first, have are put to in their explanations.They assert that women in been always repressed,kept ignorance,never given a chance,

of

women

deal ; '* and express astonishment that under the circumstances they have done as well as they have.'" But, as a shall times women did take the lead fact,as we see, in primitive in many have the lead ; they were now occupationsin which men the retailers of knowledge and the repositories of wisdom; they chance: then competed with them; were men certainly given a then surpassedthem ; and afterward their relegation men to certain in which they did better or well enough,was firmed conoccupations and by law. by custom Why did men get ahead of them? This the feminists, with their belief in the equality of the sexes, cannot explain. Instead they comfort themselves with the idea that because women showed themselves men's equals,peronce haps their therefore sometime come even superiors, againthey may beinitial successes their equals." But after some to be beaten in innumerable for believing races hardlyprovidesgood reason "If in future retrievement. held sway and lost it," women once " well remarks Mr. that is more John Martin, damaging to very " their claim than if they had never possessed it." Moreover, in which there are occupationsand amusements is intelligence have been in which drawn upon, and women never repressed,yet in which they have always fallen short. Chess is a good example, which has rarelybeen forbidden to women; yet their inferiority weakness of body plays no part, is with respect to it,wherein Some of the arts supplya stillbetter ; for instead of remarkable. been being repressedin these, girlshave, in some countries, never

a

square

"Women have never yet had a fair chance of showing their capacities definite as* have really no sufficiently right to make we largescale," wherefore sertions on the subject," loc. cit, Mrs. Hale: "It has been the fashion her to vote has to given freedom [woman] never impotent, she [sic] who yet been try her IVhat Women strength! Want, 236. 75 So Eliza B. Gamble, The Evolution Frauenof Women, 72-3 ; LilyBraun, Die frage, 205; and Ward, though he knew what follows in the text. Pure Sociology, 371, cf, Sociology, ii. 616; also Thomas, Sex and Society, 312. 372, Dynamic 76 Thus, account of woman's time physical equality^ and mental on one superiority, " Pearson denies that there is any rigid natural law of feminine and, exinferiority," plaining ** their present of as inferiority in the familiar way largely the outcome woman s physique and intellect being little trained at present and not severely selected " in the immediate sex-equality will be really possible in the past,"believes that Ward future," Ethic of Freethought, 425, cf. Chances 96. And of Death, ii, 49-50, thinks " all signs are hopeful. Pure Sociology, 377, 373. 77 Feminism, New York, 1916, p. 19. 74

on

Ritchie:

"

a

"


FIRST

ERRONEOUS

PRINCIPLE

55

longer than boys in music, in drawing, and in for these painting,without producingequal capacityin women nishes arts to what is exhibited by men.'^^ however, furStatesmanship, the feminists with their strongest hand; for here the sohas been removed and women elevated called repression actually attained it of queens and regents (for none to the position ever and several have behaved acceptably.Thus by her own efforts), toria Isabella,Elizabeth, Christina,Catherine, Maria Theresa, Vicare cited;while Mary of England, Marie de' Medici, and others are looked upon askance,Anne is overlooked, the many of the Countess Matilda, who was u nder the the thumb entirely priestHildebrand (Gregory VII.), is ignored,and Pheretima, whose is forgotten.It is a wrong describes, crueltyHerodotus inculcated of a country notion, by monarchists,that the prosperity A coupleof the is due to the person sitting the throne. on the rest- were nary ordigood queens were extraordinary women, profited ones, who by the prompting of the statesmen about them.'* When have prompted kings,very different rewomen sults have generally have been due to appeared. No great policies In invention in general, rulers. have been wanting, women women it took since the primitive when of years them thousands times, to developthe elements of the arts, tillmen and took them over Their deficiency in invention in perfectedthem scientifically. be referred to their every department,"says Whately, cannot not having been trained in that particular department;for it is trained much

"

"

"

"

remarkable that inventions have seldom trained. The stockingframe was invented Thus,

with

regard day, whose

music,

Ellis:

come

from

by

Oxford

an

"

those

so

scholar,

include two Unless three women we or enhanced by the fact that they are it is diflicult to find the names of women in the list of third-rate comeven posers," women, Man and Woman, He G. P. Upton's explanation, that women quotes 319. The latter knew too emotional, and enough. are Rubinstein's, that they lack courage of no cradle song, and he considered the increase of the even, composed by a woman; feminine execution and in composition as of the signs contingent in instrumental one of decadence." Already failure in musical composition Hippel had ascribed women's Ueber die biirgerliche Verbesserung der Weiber, Werke, vi. 166. to lack of courage, On this subject Mill was Women," he says, quite reckless. are taught music, but of composing, only of executing it: and accordingly it is only as not for the purpose that men, in music, are superior to women," Subjection of Women, composers, 134. Two facts are here distorted: men off music, also as executors are superior to women Charlotte and composition is not taught to them alone. Bremer, for instance, says in the Life of her sister Fredrika, quite currently, but speaking of Sweden, not of England: " We studied and to skill at comnow were thorough-bass, try our we position," York Did ed,, 186S). it never to Mill, that if wometn occur p. 38 (New it might be not as are men taught the science of musical compositionso much are, of abundant because experience of the futilityof doing so? 79 examination of the various Goldwin For see an usually brought forward queens female A who of th Day, 2d ed., 220-3. remonstrant Smith, Essays Questions on " did Alexander P., well asked: lean, or Caesar, Upon whom signed herself J. W. Who tutored Peter the Great, or Charles the Charlemagne, Frederick, or Napoleon? maintained the Silent, to keep who a Twelfth; or perpetualstruggle with William with the greathim true to the national policy, like that of Burleigh and Waisingham est View A Remonstrant of modern of Woman Suffrage,Cambridge, Mass., queens? 78

of

our

own

to

says

reputation has perhaps been

*'

*'

^

.

"

1884, p. 25.

.

.

"


FEMINISM

56

man." spinningjenny by a barber,and the power-loomby a clergy*" invented by was add, And the sewing-machine, we may his wife the drudgery of stitching. wished who to save a man have in fact, not been kept down of genius, Men by the repression Neither want fatal to women. and the lack of opportunity so crushed the geniusof Homer, Shakespeare, of higher education Franklin to of opportunity condemned and Burns ; nor want adverse did and the multitude of self-made men ; nor obscurity, Citing publicopinion silence Luther and the host of reformers.

the

"

"

"

"

"

"

these cases,

indicates

a

female

remonstrant

than

deeper reason

some

once

want

wrote

of

"

:

We

do think it

training, opportunity,

not only as often yieldprecedence, *^ the few dressmakers." But even cooks, but as laundresses and known to historyhave not been kept down by the alleged women

or

custom, that

cause.

The

our

sex

must

so

only great poetess England

Browning, lived

at a

time when

women

are

has

produced, Mrs. supposedto have been

were suppressed. Sappho flourished in Greece, where women ever less free than at Rome, which produced no female poetess whatdifferences beyond an uncertain Sulpicia.If, then, some mals, and inherent between women men are (some generalto all ani-

however peculiarto our species, yet inherent now, the conceit of the feminists that they can by a they originated), in idea, though reallybeyond little change of treatment (little and of men alter the natures their power to effectuate universally) to be content of women or (for they seem principally women, men's level with men's) and bring them to (theexpressionis up is an idle dream a Utopian fantasy. theirs), ject. Altogethertoo much levityhas been indulgedin on this subThe Professor John Dewey has been reportedas saying: brain are woman's brain and the man's both capableof equal the for tween beThe only reason achievement. apparent discrepancy erately the work each has so far performed,is that one has deliband conopportunities handicappedthe other with narrow some

"

"

Misceiianeoits Remains, 189-90. that at least two to be noted, however, inists, femJ. W. P., Op. cit.,26. It deserves and the deep-seatedand by us ineradicable scientist,have admitted woman a a Thus of our Ellen Key, in consequence of *' the hundifference in the nature sexes. dred have thousand practised the maternal years at least," that, as she holds, women " and the children creating the homes, believes in functions, rearing a pronounced and masculine the feminine difference between soul," The Woman Movement, 5S-9, 46, And "No doubt cf. 186-7, 218-19. Forel: these [of more phenomena 28-9, 222; and arrested development later of more development on the part of the girl, premature the woman] but this explaare nation partlydue to the defective mental education of women; Here is insufficient. again we must distinguish the phylogenetic disposition of the effects of education during her ontogenetic development," The Sexual from woman " This from Ward; There has been no important orQuestion, 204. ganic may be added differences which during the historic period. The triflingphysical change in man of environment attribute to differences during a century or two, acting on man we ' would have here he no diagnostic value in biology," Pure Sociology^ 17. By " man But have he this and women. seems to forgotten later, means men 372. so

81


ERRONEOUS

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

57

restrained ventionally

outlook. If you take two equallyhealthy babies and tie the arms of one of them tillboth of them grow up, of course have a weaker physical you'll developmentin the case of the one who has been bound. For centuries men have been tying women's and the result is a weaker mental development. brains, That will ail be remedied when the bandagesare removed." ^^ What proof has this professorthat the reason assignedis " the only reason" for the existingdiscrepancy(for what everywhere

generallyappears, is),even if it be a reason at all and has he any proof of this ? Certainlythe one profferedabout the two babies is not worthy of a man who professes to be a scientist. If he means to account for the discrepancy between living and men the in women their he takes only by own discrepancy upbringing,^^ in which he will find littlesupport.^* But this is hardly a position his meaning, as is indicated by his reference to centuries of men's tying of women's brains. Here, however, the analogy no longerholds. For the babies referred to are two independent beings,and as such they can be compared only with two separate "

"

"

In The So already, but with less absoluteness, Press, New York, Nov. lo, 1909. Antoinette B. Blackwell: "When tie up your weak and it will become you arm, tie up woman, she will become weak and feeble; and when you helpless," quoted in The History of IVoman Suffrage, i. 729. 83 As was see carelessly done by Sydney Smith: above, pp. 2S-6n, 84 This in a position different from, and surpassing, Mill's. Mill claimed that the of male ment superiority is due to past as well as to present difference of treatappearance of the sexes; but this opinion is that this appearance is in every generation produced in individuals velopment through development of their faculties in the males and non-deof them Of this position there are in the females. still some adherents. Christine Ladd It is not true that men's minds and women's minds Thus Franklin: of working," or that the Creator has made two kinds have different ways separate of mind and for women," but it is true that society has set them to work for men differentlyand in separate fields,causing them to acquire different development of their similar faculties,Intuition and the Reason, The Monist, Jan., 1893. This overlooks difference in size and conformation of the brain in the two which bly possicannot sexes, wise Likebe produced in individuals merely by their different training and situations. "Little girls are certainly not on the ignoring this, Ritchie attempts argument: show to have] men [.i.e., seem stupider than little boys; and, if on the average average in which the two this must, be due to the way intellectual abilitythan women, more eminence respectively treated in the interval"; and so "the greater average sexes are in intellectual pursuits," he thinks we than of women fairly (in the past) of men may be mostly due) to the effect of institution is entirely due (as on any theory it must suspect, and customs and ideas operating within the lifetime of the individual, and not to differences physically inherited, loc. cit. But the fact of equal intelligenceof the intelligencein is no better attested than the fact of their unequal in childhood sexes offered for the supposition that the change there is no the adult stage; and reason He the sexes have undergone in the interval. be due to the different treatment must equally beardless, therefore the that because boys and girls are might as well argue the two must in men than in women be due to the way of beardedness greater show above, p. 26n.). For we iCf. Maudsley respectivelytreated in the interval! sexes are know no why sexual differences should not develop after birth as well as before reason discovered weight development that the maximum birth. In fact, anthropologists have in males between between the years in females 15 and of the brain is reached 20, and d'Anthropologie ginerale, 517-25, Topinard, Elements and or the years 20 35: 30 nection biogenetic law (which is used in a similar conAlso according to Haeckel's 557-8. of Death, ii. 96-7)* equalityin intelligence of the two by Pearson, Chances if the two sexes ever female superiority,is to be expected in children,^ or even sexes, primitive condition {cf. also superior)in intelligencein some were equal (or women day Forel, above, p. 56n.). All, therefore, that the equality of intelligencein children toand once were women equal in intelligence (in the is that men to prove goes " mother-age ^),not that they must be so still. 82

Mrs.

'*

"

"


FEMINISM

58 races.

If, to

be

sure,

(for here

we

agree) you bound up sands races duringmany thou-

all

of the members of one of two of this race would undoubtedly of years, the present members the the other. But two be weaker th^n those of sexes are would the and their crosses distribute not independent, probably been proved, unless has never weakness at least the opposite howsoever it be a natural sex-distinction alreadyexisting, duced. prothe Even as an illustration, does not moreover, example described we lead to the conclusion desired. In the case should have good reason of the race held in to believe that the weakness would for be inherent and of thousands subjection by now years natural,and the removal of the bandages would not remedy it have experience We not for several hundred to the years more. the whites for the have become since not point; equalto negroes the removal be reof their bandages. But the negroes, it may plied, weak and base in the beginning, which is the reason were in their bound the first for enslavement was why theywere place; and baseness, but these of their weakness not the original cause what permittedthe whites to enslave them, and slaveryhas were an only enhanced already existingdifference. Preciselythis from baseness,which is not in questionbetween the sexes) (apart have been the case with the difference between and men may should Otherwise have tied up the brains women. men ever why of women ? And if women to were equal men, why did they ever permit it? This is not accounted for by the feminists ; for the sole explanationoffered by Bellamy we have seen to be a failure ; but is accounted for by the supposition it,so far as it has taken place, of a natural divergence.And this natural divergenceis not far It was which tied up the brains of women, to seek. nature and their bodies too, by tying them to their children. And it was which left men free. nature The idea that men have bred certain qualities qualities which desired into breed them and out again, they,men, women, may that they have become less selfish, of now has, course, gained weight from men's successful breedingof animals and cultivation of plants. But analogydoes not bear out the idea. For we can breed or cultivate certain desired qualities in animals and plants It may of sex. be that a only in varieties of them, regardless certain desired qualityis produced only,or more in luxuriantly, but this chance far is the of matter breeder one sex a pure as as ; is concerned,and the very fact that it occurs merely shows that he lightedupon And when such a fact does a sex-distinction. breeder should the who to breed deliberately occur, go to work the of the same in the other amount or same it, quality, sex, would the

arms

"

"

"

"

"


FEMINISM

6o

tious." " As a wise man is lacking, has told us, when reason there sticks itself in an epithet. has been maintained applies What where the disto the cases crepancy human between the is general,being witnessed sexes and testified and accounted to everywhereto-day, by all history, for by anatomical differences in the bodies,in spiteof occasional exceptions.Yet, of course, it cannot be denied that want of opportunit "

training, encouragement,

or

do suppression,

have

ence influ-

the matured characters of both men and women. A different method of rearingboys and girls, of them a preparation for different work, a different demand and women made upon men in the conduct of life, the differences alreadyexaccentuate isting may in the two sexes, and a long continuance of such different treatment even through tens or hundreds of generations, may and minor differences of some character, produce superficial which seem natural,and may be, but yet are not thoroughlyfixed and become irrevocable. In fact,unless the different treatment is kept up, these differences are likelyto disappearof themselves, for it is well known that recentlyacquired qualities, such as certain excellences bred into plantsand animals under domestication, revert to their (for the analogyhere is applicable) quickly natural indifference, be continually unless the same bestowed care in them. Such the human for a one species, instance,seems upon which is hardlya sexual distinction, to be refinement, trace as no of such a difference is found in other animals and hardlyeven in in human civilised countries are primitive beings;yet women refined than This seems to be a as more men. usuallyregarded to which they have been subjected result of the special treatment ; this and a consequence be abandoned, treatment is,that if special upon

in this respect will vanish. It is,indeed,a common superiority is unrefine than easier is to to that it it women experience refine men.'" have been of Also woman's superiorchastity may man's imposition of the feminists' least shall is one this,as we see, (at complaints, notwithstandingthat the instruction to this effect is generally ence givenby the mother) ; wherefore,if all differ-

their

between

the moral

standards

for

men

and

for

women

be

instances For see above, p. 2in. " Since the world Ward he said: gan, beHence the error of Henry Beecher, when woman's function. She is God's earth to refine society has been vicegerent on reiinement You has caused to the household, for this work. be sure that she who may interest except governto the church, to social life,to literature,to art, to every ment, and will also carry it to legislation, the whole of civil and publicprocedure,if it is to be carried there at all," Address Woman's Influence Politics, Boston, *n on have refined than man since the world not began. We i860, p. 9. Woman was more when became in the not Biblical authority for such an so even opinion. But woman and strifes. She raised her above his cares has of civilisation man upward course with the sorrefined every she has been protected from contamination interest wherein did and there only. affairs of the world 88

89

"


ERRONEOUS

removed,

women

than chastity,

expect

to

men

FIRST

6i

will be much more rise to woman's

improve

women

they should remember men, in other respects. " The has placedwoman which man pointof view, tends produce them; yet

not

PRINCIPLE

the

to revert to man's unlikely If feminists the chastity.*" in some them like respects by treating that they may lower them distinctly social dependence,"says Forel, in both from the legaland the educational "^ increase her to failings," increase, "

"

same

treatment

have

may

tended

to

This last the feminists are apt to overlook, or theycontemptuouslydisparagesuch virtues as hot-house products, in not all virtues of cultivation. as were if, truth, products variable Moreover, if the doctrine be true that the male is more than the female, which means that male acquirements are ures departfrom the type, it follows that it will be easier, by a similar of the two sexes, to make like women, treatment than men more like it will be to make We women men. have, in fact,all along found that such is the result of ultra-civilisation, and that the condition of peoplesin the declining state is effeminate. Some and last-developed modification,then,of the most superficial differences between our be allowed as possible must sexes Thus it has happened that of them. under an altered treatment in the last fifty ters changes are noticeable in the characyears some and of men for of women that matter. We have too, " advance," as it is considered, alreadyseen, however, that this sudden does not trulyprognosticate though it has suggested, further continuance, the pressedspringhaving already its own of the process, as we its length."^Continuance have just sprung much is make the further modifications more observed, likelyto downwards in men than upwards in women. The reverse ation, opersuch as, for instance,to produce a new political aptitude and power in women equalto that which exists in men, may not be but for it longtime would be required and a impossible, absolutely " In procedurethat is rarelycontemplated.Listen to Darwin : should reach the standard that she order same woman as man, increase

her virtues.

"

than one It has been pointed out by more moralist," says W. R. Inge, "that in vicious even than the are of national corruption the women generally more For one under the Casars, i8i, cf. 62. such moralist see the men," Society in Rome " Mirum ad omnia negotium I mulieres delictae,ad pseudo-Cyprian, who exclaimed : viris," De Disciplina et Bono sunt sarcinas fortiqres Pudicitiae^c. 12. vitiorum 91 The Sexual Question, 138. Gallichan in one 92 See speaks of a certain quality as above, pp. 27-8. Mrs. passage *' " in woman's will not character, and as being such that women deeply rooted very The Truth Then about other mverted from its acteristics chardisplay, Woman, be 303. easily less deeply rooted, and some perhaps ineradicablyrooted. be more or may One mig^t think that the recognition of a fact of so much suggestiveness would lead But far from it: investigation into this feature of various sex-differences. to an on believe this quality (it is coquetry) to be very does not even Gallichan Mrs. deeply others still less so after all, and most nature at least the reprerooted in woman's hensible for the good characteristics of women are always taken to be innate, ones; inherent, and as strong as adamant. 90

"

times

"

"


62

FEMINISM

be trained to energy and perseverance, and to have her reason and imaginationexercised to the highest point; and then she would probably transmit these

ought,when

nearlyadult, to

qualitieschieflyto could

who

not

be

thus

however, daughters. All women, raised,unless during many generationsthose her

adult

excelled in the above

robust

virtues

offspringin

were

than

other

married, and women."

"^

duced pro-

This

largernumbers to take place. The most highly likely trained women, those whose education has been pursued especially with most the very at the age of becoming adult,are intensity last is

is never

exactlywhat

who bear the fewest children. Darwin's views about the heredityof acquiredcharacters are not views results in now accepted. But the teachingof Weismann's the same S. conclusion. H. Halford, is not Education, says hereditary only the capacityto be educated (a high mentality). thus endowed be highlyeducated (and they Now, if the women the ones most to be selected for highereducation), are they likely and child-bearing taken out of the marriageable a nd their are list, natural endowment is not transmitted further,while the duty of sisters."* procreationis delegatedto their less highly endowed Such is the conduct of these advanced shall we see as women, more Perhapsifmen and women fullylater on. only would bend all their energiesto produce the equal standard desired : if they should forbid the weak and the less intelligent to prowomen create, and if the strong and the intelligent should take women this duty upon themselves,then in the course of ages the object be and it be if only the hastened attained, might might possibly weak and the less intelligent men were permittedto be the fathers. But women do not act in this way, althoughthere seems to be of is and there likelihood some that men no danger doing so; will. The very feminists themselves do not advise women ever them On the contrary, as we to act. shall see, feminists so recommend small families,and at even none all; and of if any women to take their advice,it will be their own course are and strong-mindedfollowers. And then these will strong-bodied ones

who

are

least apt to marry

and

"

"

"

"

disappear.'^ Descent of Man, 565. A Criticism of the Woman Movement^ London, pp. 7-8. And even those who have nature account of their own a child or a better tion. educaon two, do not transmit to them " Rather the contrary. There to believe," says are reasons' Mrs. tin, John Mar"that than if it be fully expressed; surely transmitted a suppressed talent is more for the very of developing it in itself sometimes in women process proves exhausting to it is therefore the whole to transmit organism, and the power impaired. If conserved, it may be handed intact," Feminism, on 2^0. 95 Mary Roberts Coolidge actually thinks " it will be several generations probably before the eiTects of domesticity upon the character and mentality of women will [by with domesticity] disappear," Why Women the doing away are So, 86. It would take 93 94


ERRONEOUS

No, this is

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

63

Nature artificialmatter. herself has had a hand past, and will continue to have in the future. In the past her operations had began long before men intelligence enough to interfere. The highermammalia bringforth but one offspring at a time,and not only the periodof ordinarily i s b ut the is less developedat birth and gestation longer, offspring stillneeds sucklingand tending. Hence, the higherthe development of the species, the greater the burden upon the female, and there is a long interval between the human speciesand the next : in women is alone the catamenial phenomenon, for instance, "" pronounced ; while the male is no more subjectto this burden in the human than in the lowest species, or even is less so, compared with the totality of his functions and activities. Thus the advance of the sexes has been the inverse of each other, the female becoming more burdened with the maternal function,and the male less burdened, physiologically speaking,with the paternal. continues Hence the man free to advance and to assume other functions, while the woman is held back by the child under her waist or at her bosom."'^ This difference appeared in the had human speciesbefore men's conscious and rational activity it has with and it and do must survived, survive,and ; anythingto in body and mind, has caused, and will cause, other differences, Men have often taken undue tage advanand women. between men of their superiorstrength.But they have also allowed for ently women's handicap,and assisted them, herein actingvery differof animals,and exceeding from all but a few other species h ave t hem all. acted near the men and excelling so Especially culmination of the ascendingperiods of civilisation. Indeed, has been appliedto the subject, when their reasoningfaculty men have vainlytried to relieve their mates, at firstin some cases only, and of other at the women servants, (slaves, last, nurses), help by with the of in all cases, of that and recently, help cows, by means not

an

in the affair in the

"

"

if the undomestic than is supposed, even continued to have women but as their progeny will be a continually decreasing other women; be accomplished. never quantity,we may be sure that the result supposed will_ menstruale mulier Pliny, Naturalis Historia, VII, 13 animal Solum est, wrote 96 abundant (or 15), wrongly. Aristotle had correctly stated that the discharge is_most ^istoriaj III. xix. of all (sanguine and viviparous) animals, De Animalibus^ in women Generatione, I. (or xiv. or xiii.) 4, VI. xviii. (or xvii.) 9, VII. ii. 4, De Animalium the larger animals it cf. III. i. He also says that among XX., II. iv., IV. vi., vii.,viii., II. viii., IV. in the first work cited VI. viii. (or vii.) 10, in the second in mares: is ieast of the year, and no than neuters during ten months Mares V. are, in fact, little more from their equality with stallions. be drawn inference can in the This necessary [greater]helplessness of children makes 97 Cf. Mobius: than in animals," op. cit., 13. It human species a greater differentiation of the sexes species with other animals,that, as is well be added, in comparing the human may of our certain we puts strains upon assume, the erect attitude which organs, known, direction given to gravity, are not sufficiently supported or which, because of the new this is the same in men and in women, but in some In many cases properly situated. harm in women. and does more This is another son readerangement more it makes cases than other female animals are in comparison with men in weaker are why women with their males. comparison

considerablylonger as

large progeny

as

'

**

"


FEMINISM

64 "

device,"a man's invention (perhapsthe worst),the labor-saving milk-bottle. baby'srubber-nippled Some modifications of the sexes as superficial being possible, have altered of treatment an we women by by men (at seen, women's a nd some ones suggestion), being ideallyposdeeper sible heroic conduct, which is not likely, and by a long-continued men's closer and women's natures being brought together,we cui bono? Are between the differences to not inquire may pause the sexes, as enhanced, better than would they exist,and even be their cancelling,especially the would more as cancelling likely "

be of the

under attributes of men, have had her, or Nature may

masculine

more

of women? in

two establishing

than we

sex

is

or

in

some

be three

may

or

world

better more

in

"

his,purpose

obviouslymore

are

sexes

God

than

ours,

terestin in-

for all

worlds, for instance,

of space ! To be sure, the dualism with the polarisation that runs out through-

dimensioned

more

only in

accordance

But, for all

nature.

been

and

one;

know, there

in four

sexes

: two

the reflex influence

arranged

we

know,

in

generalmight have quadrangular,scale."^ Or,

nature

or a triangular, commonplace space, the distinction of sexcells and of sex-organs tinction might have been maintained without disof sex-individuals. For we might all have been made l ike the of old,"^or, to use fabled hermaphrodites, androgynes a

again,and

actual

more

on

in

even

a

our

example, like snails,which

fecundate

one

another

ciprocally. re-

The

equalityof all snails seems, in fact,to be the ideal of the feminists (and the snail ought to be adopted as their of realisation, since symbol or totem); but without possibility nature

has

world, not

of

built

the same us on plan as the snails. In our of human b ut snails, beings,differently constructed,

not

have the function of doing most of the work of procreating the to its commonest preserving race, and of ministering labour for its advancement, and for imagining wants ; while men and satisfying dreamt wants of by other animals.^"" Nor never does woman for her part in the world's work, go without reward does she as which, standing half-waybetween child and man, she finds in the double joy of love both of her husband and of her children : she both is protectedand protects,she both clings and is women

and

98 Of our biologiststell us the service performed by the dichotomy of sex course, is the blending of strains and the production of variations,thereby providing the bility possiof improvement. But the question for us is whether other means some could not with better results. equally well have been employed, and even A blending of three might be still more parents, for instance, it would effective. seem, 89 Pliny, Nat. Hist., VII. 2, Augustine, De CivUate Dei, XVI. 8; after Plato, Sjimposium, i8g E. " the woman 100 In other words, on chiefly falls the burden of population, on the man chiefly that of civilization,"so P. T. Forsyth, Marriage Its Ethic and Religion "

London,

'

p.

91.


ERRONEOUS

FIRST

clungto ; while man, standingat an the fleeting and passionfor woman

PRINCIPLE

65

than extreme, has littlemore of exultation passing, suregoistic if he can, or in what he can, his rivals (and most often he must his work being to support and to provideand, as fail), " others Pleasure is as invade, to ward off and defend. long If this be true, and if it anaboHc, pain is catabolic," says Ward.^ be true that woman lows is more and anabolic it folman more catabolic, that

must

women

have

more

the

more pleasurein life,and men much pleasureefleminises. To

It shows, too, why too these distinct duties of up and confound either by abandoningthem and devotingthe

pain.^ mix

and of women, energiesof both

men

to

indulgencein pleasure,or by attemptingto assignto women (or take all the duties by women alreadyperformed over) assumingto the of have effect women's can by men, only impairing ance performof their own take their place; cannot duties,in which men and therefore it is to endangerthe perpetuity of the race and of human it carries. Our civilisation which species is not but into three, divided into two sections,of adults and children, and children. It of men, not seem so difficultto get women, may and women, it would be to rid of the distinction between men as get rid of the distinction between adults and children : the last is, of in fact,too difficulteven to attempt ; but the alluring possibility doingthe former, when inducingthe attempt to effectuate it,only leads to disastrous results to children and the coming generations. the distinction between the feminists' effort to minimise The ^ The sexes is sometimes performed for them by nature. sexes sexless protoplasm. The consequence primordial are a developmentfrom is differentiation the is that perhaps never complete. the

1

Pure

Sociology,

131.

it is naturalljrmade, is a better that " the world, as he concludes with A. Walker, who Man and Woman, than for men," world for women 394, agrees member rehas the best of life,"Woman, 67; (and we may suspected that "after all,woman the opinion of Jupiter and Tiresias. according that something of the sort was has a sexual 1X1. 320-1, 333)- According to Ward, woman to Ovid, Metamorphoses and so is endowed with a source of feeling in giving suck, Pure Sociology, 413-14, Love is the history of de Stael's saying Madame man. pleasure denied to normal love is of man's life woman's life; it is an episode in man's," and Byron's "Man's existence," though intended, and in this sense whole a thing apart, 'tis woman's condition, really extol it. Cf. R. v. Krafftfrequently quoted, to disparage woman's it is the joy of life," Psychopathia Sexualis, love is life,to man "To woman Ebing: Similarly Elizabeth Blackwell: York, 1906, pp. 14-15, cf. 204. Eebman's trans.. New than of the form more important part of the woman's a All the relations of sex that the sexual Element in Sex, 17, cf. 18; and she maintains man's life," The Human ence than in man, 45-52, 56. This differpassion [not appetite] is profounder in woman for by, Forel's theory of the different seat rather accounts for, than is accounted and in woman. of love in the brain in man Mabel Powers at a by Miss statement public a attaining its limit m 3 Perhaps is 49 per cent, feminine; the best woman best man "The she said: where meeting York Either New Times, April 13, 1914. masculine," reported in The per cent, 4Q for the class of beings to be described presently, admiration exclusive this expresses and to suppose men women Of course, too, it is wrong it is entirely erroneous. or mon, and feminine qualitiessolely. They have a ^reat deal in comcomposed of masculine whwU jnascuhne and feminine, and then some are differences, is human, which mixtures. varying and admitting of many 2

Ellis, when

"

"

,,,.,,.,"


66

FEMINISM

and in every Darwin held that in every female male characters, male female characters, exist in a latent state, because of the inheritan through each sex of characters of the other sex.* But these oppositecharacters often come to the surface,and appear, exist in fact. It seems to be true that always in the male or even feminine attributes, and in the female some line mascusome appear it has been ones. Indeed, maintained,by Weininger,that the absolute male and the absolute female do not occur but separately, there are only intermediate them.^ The mixture stages between is not only of the oppositeprimary sex-organs, as occasionally in but the of or happens hermaphrodites, usually primary,more less fully of the secondaryof of the one sex, with some developed, the other. There may be all shades running between the extremes. Yet most individuals are predominantlyof the one sex the other,with few noticeable characteristics of the opposite or A small percentage,however, contain enough of the opposite sex. attention. Thus to draw there have been women who sex proach apin resemblance to men, and have generallyabandoned women's who function; and there have been men approach in resemblance to women, and have generallyslighted men's work. named Uranians,*'these have been fancifully Urnings,"or by " and an earlyAustrian investigator ; by others they have been intermediate sex," ^ and variouslycalled the "third sex,"'' the the alternate sex." " been described They have not infrequently the and the of the mind, soul,or one sex as persons body having brain of the other.^** A peculiarity of persons so endowed is their "

"

"

'*

Animals and Plants under Domestication,ii. 26, 27. Sex and Cfiaracter,7. 6 K. H. Ulrichs, himself who, in several publications in the sixties of the last one, them this name, after Numantius," under the nom-de-plume of " Numa century, gave allusions in Plato's Symposxum, 180D-181C, because of his admiration, like Plato's, for such A little before, the Prussian men. J. L. Casper had written about them, and still earlier the Swiss works H. Hossli. Since then many have ject, appeared on the subwhich be singled out Krafft-Ebing's Psyckopathia Sexualis, pp. 333-461. among may 7 By E. V. Wolzogen in a novel under thifi title. He to workers compared them and bees, which workers ants beings systematicallyproduced among are, in fact, such in those species, and among bees, as Mrs. Gallichan notes (.The Truth about Woman, 63), the female ovipositor,instead of laying ova, contains the sting (which is only a of rotten mass or mess eggs) 8 By Edward Carpenter, Love's Coming of Age, 120-40. H^ indulges in a revery *' " about like the feminine of ants new sex neuters being possibly on the make, a and bees, not adapted for child-bearing,but with a marvellous and perfectinstinct of social service, indispensable for the maintenance But of the common he life," 7Znothing about the development of a perfertilequeen, or anything of the sort, to says for their maternal make deficiency. up 9 By C. G. Leland in a work under this title,London, 1904, in which he advanced the visionary theory that the subliminal self is the alternate sex in us, asserting itself female in man and as male in woman, as p. 38. *' soul '* is so used by Carpenter,op. cit, 123, 131 and by Krafft-Ebing, 10 The term muliebris in corpore Ulrich is quoted as employing the formula: anima op. cit., 399. for speaking of " a female virili inclusa." Krafft-Ebing ridicules Gley and Magnan " in a man's himself maintains brain He it is " only a feminine body, op. cit., 342-3. vice masculine brain, versa,'^ in and centre a 348n.; and he perpsycho-sexual mits *' Kiernan to speak of a feminily functionating brain '^ in a male body, and vice 4 5

"

.


FEMINISM

68

undoubtedlyvaries place,being larger, probably,where nervous

hundred time

up to

and

one

in twenty-two.

It has

both

movement, to

The

suspectedthat

been

this class

itself

movement

of the leaders of the feminist longed and their male abettors,have be-

naturallywithin

"

diseases

many

women

among

in

much

peopleare healthyand sound.^^

where

abound, and smaller

It

them

reallytakes

a

wide range of variety.^" for its model, and is an

But they are adapt civilised societyto their needs. attempt would be its and to adapt a society to its exceptions exceptional, undoing,save for the fact that in this case the exceptionswill soon All that is requiredby justice and philaneliminate themselves. thropy be left in the social scheme for these unforis that room tunates, less likely their kind, if to multiply as they are especially to

constrained

interfered with and

not

such

have

women

conduct

freedom

to act like normal

if

to be men,

people.

they choose

Let

the tional excepdo littleharm to the

of

:

creatures can exceptional And such freedom often have. things. they now generalrun Rosa Helene Weber, an agriculturist, Bonheur, a painter,and been humoured have even with perMary Walker, a physician, mission

of

masculine habiliments. These were matched, in queraded by the Chevalier d'Eon de Beaumont, who masanticipation, and whose sex was in female attire, long in doubt. For to wear

ordinary pursuitsthere

be

enrolled

in armies

as

soldiers ; whose

dressed in

that serve petticoats and decency moralitydo

Where

to

be But 18

like men,

act

; and

women

men

sexes

is not

while

these

of the

Mobius,

no

themselves,like the disguise

to

women

should

as

far

as

amidst not

necessity compellingsuch found occasionally

women

counterparts women

as

forbid,women

they can,

and

the

are

men

etc. waitresses,

might be stillbe known

mitted perto

Of course, the equality might do the reverse. the of these inverts. accomplishments provedby should be treated too not epicene creatures

op. cit.,i6, 44-5. to Weininger,

" it is not the true who clamours for emancipawoman tion, masculine of woman," cit., 72, cf. 56, 64, also type op. only Mobius, Finck believed the would movement op. cit. 70. collapse if this were Love and Love known, Primitive But Carpenter is complacent over Stories, 756n. the " the women of the new movement thought that from naturally largely drawn are those in whom_ the maternal instinct is not especiallystrong; also from those in whom the sexual instinct is not preponderant. Such do not altogether represent women their rather mannish in temperament; some are that is, inclined homogenic' some sex; are to attachments rather than to their own, to the opposite, sex; ising ultra-rationalsome are and brain-cultured; to many, children less a bore; to others, man's more are or sex-passion is a mere impertinence, which they do not understand, and whose place they consequently do to say misjudge. It would not that the majority of the new movement thus out of line, but there is no doubt that are and large number a are, the of their progress will be correspondingly curvilinear," Love's course Coming of Age, 72. Similarly Mrs. Atherton, in her novel Julia France, already cited, spealcs of the women in the suffrage movement desexed as a new again sex^ p. 340, of them, she says, "look sexless, if you and like," 375, cf, 300; she 349; many makes of them ''We want We one women want things beside love. say: many it: enough wants comfortable and to make Yet love, but as a man us happy," 111. in Tennyson's Medley, the heroine at the end, like the Princess gives in.

19

_

According but

the

J

*

*'

...

.

.

.


ERRONEOUS

harshly,no

FIRST

69

PRINCIPLE

should be given to promote their extension.^" be should and not set as models, Especiallythey up their confused mode To do so of life be treated as normal.^^ ruin the race at large, cannot cannot be permanently as the practice established. But it may wreck a nation that experimentswith such disregard of the normal course of nature. tinction Except in the case of Timings,then,there is a well-marked disand their differences, between men and women; except, in in the of two attributes, are senses natural, again, superficial

encouragement

having been naturallyproduced and being naturallyinfixed,or, the belief that humanly speaking,permanent. Nothing warrants they may be broken down and abrogatedby an alteration in the of women An alteration in the treatment treatment by men. of women of the superficial acteristic charby men modify some may of other

but effects,

of

and

women,

men,

too, and

may

have

many

physically equal making women ure, because doomed to failproduce equality,

the effect of

not

The effort to will be a waste and loss of energy, and in addition will have a deleterious influence on the march of cilivilisation. Against this conceptionan inductive argument is urged of a It is maintained that the march of civilisation very fallacious sort. has been a progress in the approximationof the condition of women toward equalitywith men, and that this elevation of succeedingtheir debasement, may be taken as a test and women, of the advance made by civilisationup from barbarism ; measure whence it is inferred, as a strong presumption,that the further cerned, goes the assimilation of the sexes, the better it will be for all conuntil perfection be reached in completeequality.There is an ambiguity in the term condition,"which may refer to a and mind of state of the body or to the treatment women women, In the former the is to. statement the exact are subjected sense, and women of the fact ; for the fact is that men are reverse more in the more highlycivilised peoplesthan they highlydifferentiated barbarous. This in the more are ployment ought to give pause to the emYet the social of the argument in the other sense. the position condition of women they are relegatedto by the of of burden, or of collabakin that beasts to orators, whether more men, companions,equals has often been set up as a test or and sometimes been looked upon as one criterion of civilisation, to

men.

"

"

"

20

Cf. Mobius,

op. cii.,63, 70 ; Weininger,

''^Uranism

of. cit.,70.

be suspected in females ing wearof men. who dress in the fashion the sports and or hair short, or pursue But since these op. cit., 398. things have pastimes of their male acquaintances," who are not Umings imitate those who are, fashionable, and women actually become this test no longer holds. 21

Krafft-Ebing

their

wrote:

may

nearly always


FEMINISM

70

of the surest and best.^^ And of course not confined to the past, but it is launched

this test or criterion is forward into the future, that the highest and is used not only to prophesy,in the form civilisations will be those in which erally libtreated most women are but to prescribe the by men and most nearlyas their equals, of conduct for attaininghigher civilisation, course necessary freedom them and treating to women namely, by givinggreater and

more

more

like

men.

This

shown itselfinfallibl test,however, in the past has by no means It is generallyacknowledged that the civilisation of Athens was higherthan that of Sparta,and yet the condition of less restrained in the latter state ; also that the civilisation women was of Greece at largewas higher than the Roman, and yet Rome.^' had freedom The correct test would at women greater much rather seem to be the inverse : the stage of civilisationis the of the and women. In criterion between men proper relationship other words, that condition of women in society and before the law which exists in the higher civilisationsis better than that which exists in the lower civilisations; and, furthermore, that which exists in the ascendingperiodsof civilisationsis better than that which exists in their descendingperiods. The reason version for the inshould be plain;for it is easier to recognisewhat is a than to know what is the best condition high stage of civilisation, But even of women. as it stands,the ordinarytest does not bear out the feministic conclusion. Civilisations have, indeed,advanced toward the approximationof the condition of women to that of men advanced cline, dealso toward their own ; but they have which has always been synchronous with an excessive of that approximation.We have seen amount this in Egypt, Yet it is true, the commencement of that Greece, and Rome. approximationalways took place in the ascendingperiods of and contributed to the ascent. The trouble with the civilisations, feminists' argument is that is runs far too on beyond the golden mean.^^'' The induction that an increment of factor always producesan increment of function,is wrong; the function often "

Martineau, Society in America, 2d ed., London, 1839, iii. 105: Van at the Woman's at Worcester,1850, ProceedAmringe Rights Convention Constitutional Convention, in the Massachusetts 1853, Official '"g^, 37; D. S. Whitney, Mill, Subjection of Report, ii. 737; G. W. Curtis, Orattoits and Addresses, i. 212; Women, 37-8; Spencer, Principles of Sociology, "324 (in a moderate form)j Bebel, Die la condiiton Frau, 86; Letourneau, La Sociologie, 160; Louis Frank, Essai sur politique Evolution T. de la Femme, Paris, 1892, p. xxii; Eliza B. Gamble, of Woman, 75: V'eblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class, 353; Ward, Pure Sociology, 366. 23 It is recognised that at least as far as the earlier stages of by Westermarck Position of culture are concerned, the so-called test is not supported by facts. The Women in Early Civilisation, SociologicalPapers of the London Sociological Society,

E.g., by Harriet

22

H.

H.

1904, 23a

had

p.

158.

Cf. Spencer, Principles of Sociology, "340. He recognised that the already gone to an extreme, and expected a recoil; which has not yet

movement come.


ERRONEOUS reaches

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

71

maximum when a certain mean condition of the factor is reached,and beyond that it descends. tration To take a homely illus: if on a cold day you approacha fire, you feel a pleasanter and pleasanter warmth sensation of up to a certain point,after which between the heat from the fiire and the (the equilibrium heat of the body being reached) if you appraoch still proper and more more pleasant, unnearer, your sensation of heat will become and a too close approach may lead you to disaster,like the stupidmoths around the flame of a candle. So, undoubtedly, treated somewhat from a stage of barbarism in which women are like slaves,there is improvement of civilisation as the condition of women in the direction toward freedom and equality moves with men. But it may well happen that after a certain pointis is that reached (where the amount of freedom given to women which is their due, and the amount of equality with men accorded them is the amount with men of equality theynaturally possess), freedom further and w ill have increment of trary a conequality any effect. Undoubtedly,also, the perfectcivilisation will be in which the condition of women both is the best possible, one for themselves and for everybodyelse ; and this best condition of civilisation. But is a necessary prerequisite of the perfect women of women what the best condition or treatment the is,is precisely in is w hich issue between the feminists and at problem sociology others. The feminists adopt the cheap and lazy-man'ssolution of approximationof women of saying that the process to men and the best condition of women shall go on indefinitely, is where them and men. between distinction is made no This, however, like men to be treated more that women than they are means of the between the of treatment meanequilibration reallyare, and the facts of their nature women beingpassed;wherefore it and the rightsolution is stillto seek. be the rightsolution, cannot The inference,then, rightly inducible from history, is not the drawn. pleasantand promisingone so commonly and so lightly History also supplieswarning details of the process of decline. What happens is that as civilisations reach the culmination of have become their cycleswomen freer,have been allowed out of the home, have been emancipatedfrom their husbands by receiving their and have been admitted to earn fathers, property from This last is their own a thought great gain,doing away living. either not working or working at home of women with the waste divided and inefficient. But the result has always been the same : have rebelled but their not women only againstmen, own against independentthey have become, nature, and the freer and more to marry the less willingboth they and men and have chilare a


FEMINISM

72

dren, this been not

that the class

so

the state died out,

or

the

that encourages

race

much when or reduced, has tendency,has always this overthrown or conqueredby others,in whom process has takes what far. There Ward, as a place begun or gone so for the

name

new

of

or

the

wayward." succumbs

women,

side of the far from

^*

The from

wanders

and

beyond

survival

mean

to

and

of

calls fittest,

the

wayward the

class

or

"

the elimination that passes state

of the proper

mean

people or peoples that are approachingtoward it or have a

treatment

of

the

safe

on

not

strayedso

it.

in our civilisation menced comalreadycommenced ventions effect of circumstances,of inan naturally, unconsciously, of woman's desire. But it is the ness busiof man's greed, of what it is doing,and to look of reason to become aware ahead in the direction it is going. Instead of calmly examining to their precedents,analysingrelations,and leadingout causes enthusiasm effects,sections of societyare now agitatedby a new but warp the judgand idealism, which fire the imagination, ment. intend their efforts Men to are own by expectant of, or with the ideal of riches well establish,the new Jerusalem, Jewish distributed for blessedness. Women not willing to wait : they are work side side with too are to act, they are to men by (how their leave to to poor chests swell at the thought!), they are no longer them and civilisation, the burden of supporting men they are going from do their share, no to take part and longer distinguishable little is mixed in: men's share. And have no women so pride often been told they are better than men, that they have come all the pointson which claim to believe it.^^ They contest men and all those which concede to men them, with superiority, accept This

process

has

"

Pare Sociology, 132, cf. 335. the practical working people, and you in this form: We Even women are men the sentimental Mrs. are talking part of humanity," Pankhurst, at the Madison Square York New New Times of the next York, Oct. 21, (reported in The Garden, 1913 she appears in this form followed Vance (And to be day). by a man, Thompson, " is but scatters who that woman and methodic," man impulse says spray and According to Mary Fels (wife "sputters," Woman, 10, cf. 122, 170, 171, 175, 205.) successful and active of a is the soap-manufacturer philanthropist) woman patient and hard laborer and man is, as always, the fighting, dominating protector, while disinclined His work," New to drone," inherently Joseph Fels, Life-Work, York, The limit has been reached M. Lemouche, by Emerence who, in 1916, pp. 209, 210, 213. ** Woman's Era the noble creature Era, speaks of woman her The New whom Nature as wherein created is to be found the justice in a superior to him [man]," p. 14; asking would further Superior being ruled by an Inferior?" 10; arguing that "what prove Man from is, that she was the Superiority of Woman over not, like him, created clay," lowest and prostitute is yet better than the best of men," asserting that "the 101; "The Harrison, who wrote: reading Frederic once most 65. Perhaps she had been is in this [devotion to her offspring] superior to the most degraded woman heroic he entered two modi(abnormal cases apart)," Realities and Ideals, 72, wherein man But the pseudo-scientificbasis for these views which she omits. about the ficationSj shall later see supplied by another sex we man superiority of the female (Lester F. 24

"

25

"

"

'*

"

"

Ward).


ERRONEOUS

the

incHne

in

to

better

are

which

this

present,

The

world

world

far

it

also

that

adopt

But

reserve.

a

aims

!

not

not

pleasant

a

be

to

a

saviours.^' the

Only

so.

in

others

holds

those

for

one

alone.

is

its

Nature

than

men

it

:

be

Yet

fall.

better

be

by

to

lower

civilisation,

to

world

are

all

at

will

is

remedy

her

"

the

future

going

nists Femi-

that

conducted

women

world

a

these

is

part,

man-made

women;

be

to

The

been "

only

by

cease

may

nations

is

equal

an

them.^"

hold

classes.

hitherto

73

with

He

must

socialists

as

upper

take has

which

made

Alas,

the

will

so

just

behef,

than

women

the

PRINCIPLE

superiority

that

result

apparent

classes

FIRST

who

succumb.

26

For

And

is

cited

that

27

that

function

of

Speech

men

at

to

we

and

Hartford, have

must save

it.

it

life: must

it

Conn., learnt

without

Nov.

13,

this

saved 1913,

time

care

to

the

Verbatim

that

to-day.

her

for

Report, own

race,

the

and

in

34.

Great

of Mrs.

we

the are

The

race.

emancipation p.

is

that

beings, of

the

because

Well,

human

saving the

through

tics, Poli-

and

failures,

self-confessed

to

delay

be

only

by

business

our

Women

reprint).

appalling

absolutely

this

think,

I

difference,

women,"

than

47n.

p.

gallantry,

excessive

important

feminists'

stand

[men] are

come can

the

above,

Browning, to

only

conceited of

16

They

is

"the

more

(p.

civilisation in

saved,

however,

"

Pankhurst:

that be

must

and

1869,

E. due

statements, intellect

in

:

duller

perplex women

determined

one-sided

Kingsley

Magazine, Mrs.

Thus

Ch,

Adeline

from

quotation

men's

generally

are

Macmillan's

problems

of

from

men

the

see

instance

an

be

may

instance

an

for

race

women."

Pankhurst,

Britain,

needs


CHAPTER

IV.

FEMINISM

civilised

The

world

MARRIAGE

AND

"

is

a

"

man-made

world

for

:

this

American

authority of ought to be on her guard lest women There is some exaggeration in the statement, considerable in making share a society what have

we

the

foremost

the

feminist,^ who it. had

has

alone

man

has

made

and

government,

civilisation his

for

man possible. And but for advantage solely,

own

With

child.

this

the

which

few

feminists is

statement

have

Men could

not

only

for

they

had

other

made make

it for

themselves

and

men,

of

both

good

civilised

much

as

by

the

put

the

succeeding

less the

not

and

of

the

women.

of

sakes

their

children

and

their

is for every good man in his sons, and any woman daughters as is not in her daughters than in her sons well

male;

as

uncivilised

The

degradation, is, and

Mrs.

is

"a

the

to

differences

in Women Gilman. " All this 8; man's world," 96;

masculine,"

2

Schreiner

Mrs. "

that

so

both the

same

says

attain

it

make

men

mostly

leading

as

that

always, they make

borne men

the

new

for

the

children, female in

interested

who

is

good

a

the

to

the

but

sakes,

of

as

is well

as

much

as

and

barbarism

as

his

interested

more

woman.^

through

savagery,

have See 164. almost .

cf.

best,"

to

woman

and to

man.

74

few

and

had The a

a

New

of

her 226.

74;

this

part in World, Similarly man," Survey of the

Coolidge:

Roberts

whether

Labour,

exclusively

men/' insignificant

Man-made

York,

ondary sec-

little marked.

by

most

product

the

is almost

progress

accomplished

Mary

So,

are

Woman

impartiality belongs

her

and

94;

Women

it is indiiTerent their

also

entirely

.

51,

Economic

"

has been hitherto

progress

.

brute, in which

comparatively

Economics;

and

the

of

nature are

human "Women

their have the world made," sons " Civilisation Rosa Mayreder: Woman tr.) Problem, (English world," Why essentially a man's

excel,

that

primitive times, through non-differentiation,

of

nearer

was,

sexual 1

and

of

world

form:

concrete

assertion

children's

to

contrary

could

of

history

in

form

remember

marriage. To-day, make who laws are men: mostly married of for their own regulations marriage not out

not

woman

seem

children

This

dered ren-

and

it is apparent at once the good of women

of

good

has

abstract

truer

and

solely,but desire

to

it is; but

civilisation

the

world;

woman

as

of

it does

in

generations, and reason

men

it

make un-

benefit

In

agree.

not

created

the

generally put,

But

self-seeking.

natural

has

do

alone

government

ment state-

female

1912, sons

But

p. or

she

"This

is

238. her seems

daughters to

look over-


FEMINISM

'jd

almost continuous state of dependence, such as it was.^ Also the prolongation of infancy,which means birth at an incompletestage of development,permitted freer and it increased maternal fuller development of the child, while affection ; and the subsequent helplessness of childhood, in the in the ways also of men, of boys, who would need training case the of the to and mate so mother, helped appealed to prolongthe family life. A tendency in this directionis seen among apes. Among men it in time divided anythinglike a primitive promiscuous horde the clan system. into family groups,"starting males, like the males of some Although the earliest human have helped other animal birds, may species,notably among their ailing the earliest human have been females must mates, yet would

in

keep women

thrown

much

needed

things,and

She

needed

some

cave

on

their

an

own

resources.

Woman,

more

doubly so, both for herself and finer diet. She therefore shelter,clothing, or den, which she swept and garnished,and

than her

man,

babe.

retired to to do so,

she thatched togetherbranches, Afterward invented the broom. and constructed a rude hut. She stitched togetherskins of animals, for and her her hairless infant's to make a own covering for fruits and for roots, and learnt the body. She sought more medicinal properties of plants. Seeds which she dropped near the offal from her abode, sproutedmore and so invited luxuriantly, cultivation and suggested and led to the selection agriculture, and

improvement of vegetablesand cereals. The cat, and possibly the dog, she tamed, also some the and with and fowls, goat, the milk of the latter discovered the making of cheese, and the of intoxicating fruit. Also she tried distilling liquorsfrom rotting order in the littlecommunity which to establish some gathered about her. Before this,fire had been brought under control ' whether first by man is unknown used or by woman ; but woman and her child's food, and she guarded it zealit to cook her own ously the hearth,because of the difficulty of rekindling on it. She boil water learnt,too, to by heated stones. Clay,smeared over the inside of a gourd to make it withstand the heat of the stone, was and hardened, and as the gourd fell away, held the water by itself, able withstand the fire to covered. diswas directly.Thus pottery was of Baskets were rushes and or mats plaited osiers, "

woven

of straw, and

finer

ones

of hair,and

in time cloth of wool,

Of Civil Government, " 80. Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy, Boston, i8?5, ii. 342-5* 360-3, 369; in Darwinism, Studies by Spencer, Principlesof Sociology, gay/n. 43-8: followed ascribed of fire to men 7 The ancients the discovery^ to Prometheus, in iJie wellI. xiii. 3. known According to this mjjth,or to Hephaestus, according to Diodorus,_ the first to give laws, xiv. 3-4, and to diswriter, Ists and Demeter (women) were cover G 6

Cf. Locke, Cf. Fiske,

"

medicinal

herbs,

xxv.

2.


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

yj m

of flax,and

of

Thus woman's ward ingenuitywas turned toproduction,and she became the first producer.* Man, meanwhile, remained the finder,the chooser, the approcotton.

priator:his ingenuitywas

turned

toward

He, too, acquisition. of attack and defence clubs, weapons the slings,the bow and arrow, spears, sharpened fiintstones, and the and and later date knife at shield, a sword, possiblythe hook for catchingfish,and various other snares." Thus armed, men were becoming the most predatoryand pugnaciousof all while became than the less combative animals, women even females of other carnivorous species, their greater occupation with children and the home holdingthem back from such pursuits. In spiteof their agriculture and their domestication of carried very far, they became more animals, which they never and more both for support of themselves and dependent on men their children,and for protection againstthe depredationsnot Their very productiveness only of wild animals but of other men. lowed attracted men's acquisitiveness. Naturallythe men had folthem to their lairs, and after the firstgeneration sons were off and went born and bred there. As the sons some up, grew tained deOthers were joined the hunting and marauding bands. and with their the of the comforts home, stayed by did the daughters.^"The latter set of men mothers, as of course the former with daughformed sexual unions with their sisters, ters either goingto their homes, where they were of other women, invented:

he

invented

"

their protection againstothers, or stealingthem so They got their wives to make portablehuts or tents,^^ away. about where was that they could move plentiful.They game until while the others settling, women, were depredatorsupon of from the beginningdefenders women. were and spreadingover the continents,new Populationincreasing hordes were formed, which, when they again met and could not another as another's language,looked upon one understand one and fit game. other species, Then, under the spur of great need, formed, leaders offered effected,ranks were organisationwas chosen from many were petitors, comor themselves and were recognised, and all the of this all beginning forming government, tribes ; and where The hordes thus became performed by men. welcome

for

"

in the attempts of the woman at places the origin of improvements and Ethic of Freechild-rearing," during the times of pregnancy self-preservation primitive industries see of Death, ii. 3, 48. On woman's thought, 384, cf. Chances and and Woman, work already cited, the first chapter of Ellis's Man also Mason's 8

So

Pearson

Sex and Society, 123-46. loc. cit. classes of primitive men these two 10 On of Death, ii. 103. 380, Chances owned the the women the Arabs XI Among I. Thomas's

W.

9

Cf. Pearson,

.

see

Pearson,

",.,_,,

Ethic

of Freethought, 388, ,

tents,

as

being made

,

,

by them.


FEMINISM

78 this

was

done, the hordes

not

were

destroyed. For the struggle indulgedin,until it was found

Cannibalism was and children of other tribes that, probably first,the women Men too. could be better used for slaves,and at last the men and with the women, labour then put to manual slaves were kind of that habit of the also in time acquired thereby men was

to

the death.

ger between tribes,the danwa'rfare became common within the tribe was perceived,and not only quarrelling taken to suppress them, but endeavours were punitivemeasures the causes. made to remove Woman-stealing from other were

work." of

When

tribes continued,but within the tribe it was

discountenanced, and

for the to be substituted; purchase,in kind or by service,came The tribes for their labour. valuable at home daughterswere those did which which adoptedsuch measures not, prospered,and dwelt in retired unless to or suffered and were they destroyed, of the In the tribes that prosperedthe women secluded nooks. tribe were far from being treated like the slaves ; for the women had of the home, and to them at all events everything head the were the men off on militaryexpeditions. to be entrusted when were be underfed.^' The women, too, did the cooking,and could not easily Where the would too men suffer, maltreated, they were barous and barand that tribe would go to the wall.^* This was a rude ^" life hard for both men and women. was age, in which If the women in the did more work, more drudgery,while the men intervals of their the women's nature

were pied, unoccuhuntingand militaryexpeditions work was or self-imposed,^^ imposed more by

The

than by men.^'

first division

of labour

was

that be-

He Pure thus traces back the foundation of industrialis Sociology, 270-2. militarism. Woman's Share in Fritnitive Culture^ 236. 13 Cf. Mason, 14 Cf. Mason, op. cit.,6-7, 275, 276. '* life was Their look back 16 But : hard, as we at it, not cf. Thomas as they could not themselves with the future, and looked at it. They comparisons comjjare doubtless in their favour," Sex and Society, 128. with the past were 16 Cf. Mason, op. cit.,284, cf. 8. "The has not been Goldwin Smith: lot of woman determined 17 So by the will of lot both of the man in any considerable The and the woman at least not degree. man, determined from to age which the will of neither has been over by circumstances age neither could be blamed for accepting or failing of them had much control, and which The hunter would have been domestic to reverse. spoiled by heavy Giddings: ** Savage life labour," Essays on Questions of the Day, 2d ed., 224, 228. be ready to meet the community must at all times is a series of petty wars; its foes. are by child-bearing unfitted for fighting and During the best years of life, women be undertaken the women do iSie by the men, must hunting. As these activities must they attend to domestic drudgery, as far as their strength permits. Not only must articles duties, keep the fire, do the cooking, and provide such simple manufactured and also actively assist in procuring any mats food as fishing-nets;but they must the march become of burden, their reach, and beasts that is within on they must versal lugging, beside their babies, the utensils and supplies. This latter practice is uniand the necessity of it is so selves themsavages, among obvious^that the women instant defend it. The be free to fight at any must men or to meet any with any than their weapons other burdens might be to surprise. To ^loadthemselves sacrifice the lives pf all. It therefore that women to conclude in seems quite wrong life are their tyrannical masters. always slaves, and men Certaihly their consavage 12

Cf. Ward, to

.

.

.

.

.

...


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

79

man's and woman's, in which, to be sure, the woman took the largershare.^* But this,if anything,increased her importance.^' ' If you care to do Probably the man's attitude was : all these things, I if not, can get along without them you may; better than you can.' Yet he liked her products,and encouraged her in her work, and in return assisted her with his. Also those tribes prospered most, wherein the men and more aided the more the of children. i n training Conjugal and especially women, that have been augparentalaffections are useful dispositions mented through the natural selection and survival of those who ages developedthem.^" The persistence to-dayof a few degradedsavin out-of-the-way the of semi-civilised on as globe, spots peopleselsewhere, does not disprovethis. On the contrary, it proves it. They have been able to survive only because of their the struggle.They are removal from remnants, not beginnings.^^ tween

In

the beginning, when some animal, developingintelligence, knew he and no woman that became no man was a father, man, This knowledge no animals posknew why she was a mother.^^ sess. There is requiredmuch ratiocination by generalisation, elimination of negativecases, explanation of incongruities, fore bethis knowledge can be acquired ; and at firstit would appear then as a belief, then as a generaldoctrine, only as a suggestion, but stilladmittingexceptions, and only in a high stage of mental development and of civilisation has the universal necessityof fecundation in the higheranimals been recognised.For at first, and. women had sexual intercourse by instinct or for when all men when and only women occasionally brought forth pleasure, connection between these facts was no apparent; and the young, seemed mysterious. It enpeculiarbehaviour of the women "

"

it is made dition is wretched, but at the outset more by social conditions than by so will and The masculine power," Principles of Sociology^ 266-7. Thomas: tive primidictated the sexes an not in any sense division of labour among was arrangement and women both men but a habit into which fell,to begin with, through their by men, The real master of both man and difference of organisation," Sex and Society, 140. Much Ado Edward S. Martin, about Atlantic is Necessity," says Women, woman Cf. also Spencer, Principles of Sociology, " 326 (quoting Monthly, Jan., 1914, p. 11. "

"

Dobrizhoffer) was drudgery, that of man 18 According to T. Veblen, the primitive lot of woman exploit. The Theory of the Leisure Class, 13. of fact, the strong differentiation of work, however "As a matter 19 Westermarck: .

of rights. It gives her authority within is itself a source burdensome to the woman, In the house she is very commonly an autocrat," is exclusively hers. the circle which in Early Civilisation, SociologicalPapers, 1914, pp. 150-1. Position of Woman The Marriage, 20-1. History of Human 20 Cf. Westermarck, that their imperfect in remote regions really proves existence continued 21 Their the original social relations (especiallytheir lax sexual morality) were and weakening mostly destroyed by the tribes that improved their morality; was condition, which have whereas, had the better condition been first prevalent, the degraded tribes would extended the world to the extent that archsology over to chance have once had no done: cf. Bagehot, Physics and Politics,J22-4. them to have shows Pure Sociology, 200, 340, 341-2. 376. 22 Cf. Ward,


FEMINISM

8o

with an awe-inspiring and led on to the power; of magic and the like,which to them of other powers, ascription in good stead as a defence againstthe physically stood them of the earth, It was likened to the fertility stronger men.^^ larly at first appeared,in a simiwhich brought forth vegetation, as of The mysteriouspowers productionof haphazard way. into female therefore made nature were divinities,and these to have been the earliest of the beingsworshippedby mankind. seem after the need of seeds for When at length, plantshad them. It must have been noticed, the truth dawned upon greatly appeareda wonderful discovery,and it in all probability the minds of both and it was exercised men women. Very likely instituted ; which lasted tillthe wonthen that phallic-worship der was off. It must have greatlyelevated the importanceof wore in and in the eyes of women, their and it gave them men own eyes claim to the children. who It is believed that then the men a in child-birth by that curious claimed to be fathers imitated women called the of couvade, pretendingto be sick when the wife custom, bore a child. Yet for a long time continued the belief in a possible human of some at the instigation parthenogenesis now other cause, as by something unusual eaten or touched, or even breath of air (or spirit), a as a sudden by thingsless substantial, in shadow, a phantom whether seen awake or a dream, startling often t he unusual other or any suggesting presence of occurrence, Of these there are indications in the myths and legends a god. of many peoples.^*Even when this belief was nearly extinct, in high positionwere advantage was taken of it ; for, as men who from the common men rose proud of their ancestry, new herd to high estate, and perhaps had no knowledge of their real to some father,found it convenient to ascribe their paternity god, them done for unless they could be or this was by their flatterers, linked to some line with an earlyhero or deityfor its founder.^'' But in this we are anticipating. For at first the new discoverycould not have' had much eflfect dowed

them

"

"

23

For

them by this fear which the service rendered they inspired,cf. Mason, op. cit., op. cit.,in Sociological Papers, 159-60. S. Hartland evidence has collected much this subject in his Primitive ternity, Paon

256, Westermarck, 24

E.

London,

1909.

to both these methods, Jesus being elevated to be of God and in the male line from David. to be descended Alexander the Great, as is well known, was Caesar tempted to look upon himself as the son of Zeus. made such pretension; but for Augustus it was made no by the poets, in the form descended from that his line was the idea that a goddess could be a goddess. This and bring forth a human fecundated child, which is ridiculed in the fable of by a man Ixion was a wholly poeticaland later opinion, when the original belief was longer no Achilles as goddess-born. At the border-line Homer could understood. Even treat hit upon: to find something between scheme was myth and written history, another in their early bringing-up, as that they were miraculous foundlings and cared for by the elements, as by a river (Sargon, Moses), or by animals (Cyrus, Bow-tseih, 25

the

Even

Christianity conformed

son

"

"

Romulus).


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

of the

which promiscuity, practical

social conditions,because

on

it difficultfor

made

children,while

a

however

man,

8i

temperate,

to

his

know

own

much however indulging, always knew had be reckoned which to therefore, Relationship, begun stillfor a long of the practiceof cohabitation, account on was while traced through the mother only. The only surelyknowable and child, mother uterine brothers still those of relationships were woman,

a

hers.

and

cousins sisters,

uncle

family and

sororal

and

aunt

or

the children of such

among

the clan

nephew or formed, and

were

niece.

sisters,maternal On

this basis

the descent of

the

positionand

owned was regulated. A woman's For a man's to her children. property property naturallywent If his sisters' children. he known heirs but were no a were it was a chieftain,and this positionhad become quasi-hereditary, sister's son who would be chosen. Names, too, went in the same that of their mother. Of name adding to their own way, men of the

few

articles that

were

primitivepeoples in this state there is frequent mention in the writingsof the ancients,^*and of earlymodern explorers; ^^ and there are such peoples still existingto-day.^^There are some of it also left in the customs, myths, tales,and languagesof traces The of this matancient and of modem first investigator ter races. the Swiss

Bachof en, who

to it

the

of

"

motherand discovered described right." by J. F. Karl Pearson, who McLennan.^" has done good work in digging " " of it fossils retained by the Germans, prefersto call it out the the " mother-age." Others have called it the " matriarchate,"or was

^^

name

Independentlyit was

well-known of the Lycians account by Herodotus, I. 173, supported by in MuUer's Historicorum DamasFragmenta Graecorum, II. 217, Nicolaus ib. III. 461 (similarly of the Ethiopians, 463), and (of the Xanthians Nymphis cenus, The in particular) ib. 15. connection with Lycians, according to Herodotus, had some the Spartans also got Crete, whose motherland," and where people spoke of their of their ideas of government; which doubt some no a more helped to maintain ijromithem. Plato likewise drew from that source. nent Again acpart for women cording among I. 216, the cannibalistic in to Herodotus, had wives, but used them Massagetes of the Tyrrhenians Athenasus that the women (or Etruscans) were common. says and the children brought up without regard to their fathers. Deipnosophistae, common, XII. cf, Heraclides, loc, cit. Somewhat similarly of the Libyrnii, Nicolaus, in 14: Muller's III. 458, cf. 460. Strabo kind describes of a Fragmenta, gynsecocracy," the Cantabrians in Spain the women he calls it, among working in the fields, as trouble and bed to (the cowuade)t taking giving birth without putting their husbands inheriting, and portioning oif their brothers. III. p. 165. part in war, Islands. 27 E.g., about the Guanches the Canary on the Nairs of India, the Menangkabau of Sumatra, and best specimens are 28 The Africa. of North the Tuaregs rested Das 1861 (2d ed. 1897). He his work 29 In Mutterrecht, especially upon of the contest between Poseidon Varro*s and ^Athena at account three old legends of the Beotians' ment treatAthens presently), Ephorus's narrative (which will be noticed and their trial before a jury composed half of women of the prophetess of Dodona myth and half of men (his pursuit by (given by Strabo, IX. p. 402), and the Orestes and the Erinnyes acquittal by Apollo) as related by .^schylus (and to be noticed 26

So

gave

the

Heraclides,

"

"

"

"

later) : "" xxiii.,xxiv., In Studies 30

xxv.

his Primitive Marriage, Ancient xn History, 1876.

London, See

which was latter p. 41 in.

1865,

in the

included

in

his

later


82

FEMINISM

the the

"

^* matronymic period." "

term

confined

their children ; but extended " the to mean patriarchy,"

idea

by suggestedespecially of is mother-rule, matriarchy," to the rule of mothers over strictly in with it is, parallelism as generally

matriarchate," or

unobjectionableif

The

"

rule

of

women

over

"

(more implication is men

"), the definitelyexpressed by gynaecocracy in Egypt, that there is not for even evidence,'^ no false; ruled

ever

anythingbut children.^^ There

over

breastless

of amazons,

or

controlled

their

affairs,got themselves

own

women

legends

some

acrobats),who fecundated by their children,and waged

female

(likeour

women

are

neighbours,reared only their female with men war thinguniform about all such legendsis ; but the one and their congregations that the women beaten were destroyed.^^* in their households over If in some tribes wives have been superior male

their

husbands, it

because

was

their uncles and while the husbands disputes, and

had

without

and

backing;

positionwhich

'*

they

were

among

their

own

men kins-

brothers to side with them

in their

from

kindred took the

were

away

their

but then the uncles and take elsewhere,

the husbands

brothers

there

was

andri-

periodnot so much of mother rightas of father indifference. Yet it is probablethat in those primitive were on a considerably greater equaldays women ity than they have been since. Men with men as yet practically had no fathers, they knew onlytheir mothers,were broughtup by for longattached to their mothers ; and the emancipation and were of sons from their mothers' rule must have been later performed, archy, if

if not

yet patriarchy.It

"

own

not

was

a

when fathers also had a hand in their was even training.Moreover, the women's productivity greater than the men's though it is difficultto compare the value of their often essential to their contribution,since that of the men was for the mixed safety. Also the communal gatheringswere poses, purand not only of settling disputes fixingthe common policy, less complete,than

" 31 There is no for using the form for writing than more reason metronymic '*^ metriarchate." Mater is the Greek word for mother, meter Attic being only an metronomics." variation. is too Tlie proper form suggestive of Metronymic Matnlineal and in his Studies in Ancient used by McLennan History, p. 289. was " matriherital further that have been used in this connection. are terms does not bear out the term he employed. 32 Except Strabo's; but his account Mrs. 33 This is why Pearson of Death, II. 2. But prefers mother-age," Chances " Truth concedes about this, still uses matriarchy,'*_The Gallichan, though she Also W. I. Thomas follows L. von ception conWoman, Dargun in rejecting Bachofen*s 143. It is rejected also by and Society, 70, cf. 93. of it as a political system. Sex Vance Thompson, Woman, 25-7. of women have 33a Some communities actually existed, who tried to maintain may themselves. The regions compelling obtaining in some explanation is the condition of the year in quest of food or employment, the men to go at a certain season away at to home things: and then if the men happened to be leaving the women manage be left permanently alone and might set up some would cut military oif, the women in Antiquity and Modern defense. See G. C. Rothery's The Amasons Times, London, "

'*

'*

"

"

"

"

'*

igro,

178-81,

210-11.

pp. l"^/. Giddings,

op.

cit.,268.

"

"


FEMINISM

84

of their could not be sure children,and so the old condition was allowed to continue.*^ and more the old conditions became irksome; for a more for Still,

end.

an

a

time, men

own

But man

in the tribe to his sister's had to leave his property and his position he coof the woman habited son, though he might suspect that the son of property and position his own. with was Every man he claimed the woman then began to keep stillcloser guard over

wife, and

for

children

so

increased

his children.

were

should devices were

that their inheritance

obviate this,two to

man

his confidence

Men, then,

in the belief that her were

no

longer willing

To go to their nephews and nieces. for a The one at first tried. was

father or his uterine sister (whether by the same marry But that his nephews and nieces should be his children.

not),so discountenanced this practicewas Long before this, by nature. probablythrough an instinctive lack or erotic feelingcaused by dulged brother-and-sister marriageshad been littleinearlyfamiliarity, where it was indulgedin most, the race, in; moreover, decayed and perished,and only those tribes through inbreeding, the contrary in whom littlepractised, prospered where it was tionship fixed.** instinct became During matronymy, however, the relafather half-brother and half-sister by the same between either unknown or was unrecognised,and nothingpreventedsuch the purpose of the father unions; but now they did not serve with increasing mindful of his children,and therefore, knowledge of incest,even these marriages had to be of the injuriousness shunned, and equallyso the marriage of a brother with a sister the father or fathers. The for the father to make his property to his was over wife during his life-time,so that her, and his, children might But this had the inconvenience inherit it from her. of weakening in a nd him in the man's a position society, putting dangerous wife. A such his tribe which on a practice adopted dependence could not thrive in competition with tribes in which as a custom, their retained There own was men only one other property. be recognisedas such, his solution : the father's positionmust children must be his heirs,their name, be traced too, must own rather in the must from him, relationship male line. Of run the same other device from

mother, whoever

were

whose work above^referred to on Primitive Paternity of evidence about denies primitive ignorance of paternityj with uncertainty of paternity, i. 300-325, connected that mother-right was 11. 2, in cases is that in some where peoples mother-right continues 283, 287. His reason is observed in cases fatherhood is certain, and in others father-right (in the husband) He overlooks that the former to be the father. is known is a where another person (proving degeneracy) either of survival, and the latter a substitute, or else a matter indifference of cupidity, the children merely as property, like the being claimed or children of slave-women. Marriage, 319, 320-34; it Cf. Westermarck, History of Human 352, 545. 43

Rather

gives such

strangely, Hartland,

an

accumulation


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

85

the mother's property continued to go to her own children : then why did not the so-called matriarchygive way to a doubleheaded matro-patriarchy, instead of to the other-sided patriarchy which actually did follow ? This is because such a double-headed rule is impossible in the nature of things, no equilibriumbetween *^ two would-be and because, even equals being maintainable ; had been the ruler,and the onlychange now before,the man was that the man-rule father-rule became a ised andriarchywas specialinto patriarchy.There and economic also religious were course

"

reasons.

At

had no knowledge that they had have seen, men of children : women seemed anythingto do with the procreation to produce them like the earth producingplants. spontaneously, Then it was that for found the earth to produce plants, seeds had it to be sown. that transmission When, then, was a perceived from into a woman it was for a man was procreation, necessary with in confused the sowing of seed the ground. But the seed is what carries on the nature of the plant, and the ground onlynourishes it into growth. So now the belief became prevalent that it seed which transmitted human the man's was life,and women the where it could garden merely provided grow.*" This view also,of course, was ought to have been wrong, and its error plain,since in that case it would have been indifferent into what female the male planted his seed, provided the specieswere alike,and the hinny,for instance,would be a horse structurally Also there would be no reason for children, and the mule an ass. itance and especially even boys,resemblingtheir mothers ; inhergirls, could be only from the male ancestry,perhapsmodified,at most, for better or for worse, by a strong or by a feeble mother, as first,

we

The husband and common wife, though they have but one cern, condifferent different understandings, will unavoidably sometimes have that the last determination, i.e. the rule, should being necessary wills too; it therefore it naturally falls to the man's share, as the abler and the be placed somewhere, " 82, stronger," Of Civil Government^ emission "seed," was the belief of the Jews: the man's 46 Such was cf. Gen. the woman sown," XXXVIII. 16, 17, 18, 32; and impregnated was 19, Levit., XV. the earth The of Manti treat woman as Laws Numbers, V. 28, cf. Leznt., XII. 2. the earth the primeval womb," (inversely plants his seed, IX. 32-53 man in which In the Greek Similarly the Egyptians, according to Diodorus, I. 80, " 4. 37, cf. 44), to take together or gather in (suWaBecf, language the part assigned to the female was of the male. In conceive ") the seed (sperm) the Latin concipere, and our wlience tific) scienthe primal to this developed (and seemingly tradition the transition from Greek 628-31 (or 658see ^schylus, Eumenides, in the Orestes myth: belief is shown from The tillagewas frequently employed metaphor 61), Euripides, Orestes. 552-3. and by Plato (.Cratylus,406B, Laws, VIII. 838Eeven poets, and by the dramatists and other "physiologists," according to the doctrine of Anaxagoras Such was 839A). with the earth, Anim. Gen., IV. i, (who himself compared the womb Aristotle, De X. 9, and cf. Politics,VII. xiv. or xvi. g); and of Chrysippus, according Problemata, Latin The word for seed {semen) has De Stoicorum Repugnantms, 41. Plutarch to It was this belief which element. for the male permitted technical term become our had no soul. of Macon For ences referto hold that woman the minority at the Council barbarians, see Westermarck, History of Human concerning this belief among 45

Cf. Locke: yet having

**

"

"

Marriage, 106,


86

FEMINISM

plantsby

as

rich

of the Greek

some

opinion. Thus

we

soil. Observations

of this kind

led and amend to that philosophers physicians that Pythagoras,Epitold by Plutarch are curus,

or

poor

held that the female also emits sperm ; and and Democritus that the Stoics so believed on account he further specifies of the of children to their mothers, which resemblance they accounted

for thereby.*' That of his

school,held

Hippocrates,or at least some earlywriters this revised opinion,we from his (or know Thus the work De Genitura (cc.7-8) ascribes not onlybecause of the resemblance of women,

works. their)own a generativefluid to children to their mothers, but have only male children from

because

found to and only female children one man fluid being supposed the weaker in the

from

some

women

are

her another man, and the stronger in the other. one case Impregnation,then, this school regardedas the mixing of the two fluids,the male and the female ; ** and they accounted for the sex of the offspring, and its different intensities, several the of combinations possible by of wind-eggs laid by hens, and these fluids.** Observation of certain facts in connection with women, led Aristotle to modify this new doctrine in the direction of his own philosophy, by saying

that the female

whence, and the male the provided the matter Neither of life-giving agent whereby, the embryo is formed.^" far in the old these views reallywent view, the correcting very principalelement in the seed being stillderived from the male; view continued to hold sway, unaffected by the and the former the middle ages the doctrine of Hippocrates fact that throughout and the doctrine of Aristotle was held held by the physicians was dred by the philosophers.It was, indeed, only a littleover two hunit well and fiftyyears ago that within was discovered,and it that female that hundred was proved, a plant and every years animal produces spores or ova, and that, in the higher types, the homolog of the seed developedfrom an ovule fertilised by a grain Placitis Philosophorum, V. 11. 47 D^ 5 and Lucretius, IV. 1211, reasoning, is probable from

That

Epicurus

employed

the

same

1220.

Natura Mulierum, I. 24. Pueri, c. 1, De Morbis 6 ; De Diaeta, I. 28-9, already ref erri-d to, above, p. 67n. A be found in De further to the subject may reference Morbis, IV. i. discovered the difference between 50 Aristotle potentiality (connected with passivity) of employing with fond it activity or was and actuality (connected energy), and occasion offered. So here he represented the passive female as providing the whenever this or that, and the active male as which has the potentialityof becoming matter viding promakes this or that. it become The the soul-bearing energising principle which he therefore represented as the product of these two elements, and no longer embryo the male's single-handed product.^See his De Animal. either the female's Hist., or as Animal, Gen., I. ii,,xvii-xxii.,II. i., iii. near X. ii. I, V. I, 7, 9, vi. 2-3, and his De American Naudawessies Rather had curiously, the North a end, iv., v.j IV. i. end. indebted fathers for their* souls that offspring were and to their to similar notion, for their bodies: tlieir mothers Marriage, 105-6. Westermarck, History of Human 48

lb.

49

De

c.

5, also De

Genitura,

c.


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

of pollenis the embryo developed from

an

87 fertilised by

ovum

a

spermatozoon/^ That quasi-scientific the beginningof doctrine,originating near and the view at the time we civilisation, so long prevalent new are speaking of represents the swing of the pendulum from the one side of the truth to the other,and in placeof the mother being considered the creator of the child without any father,the father became, in the common opinion,the child's creator, with the mother's help,but with her actinga very indifferent part. "

"

Then

the father's action was likened also to that of rain,which the earth absorbs: he indeed acts, he covers, as the sky covers and fertilises the earth; and as woman had previouslybeen assimilated to the earth,and her internal powers, spontaneous and the under earth t o to goddesses hidden the uncontrolled, powers of darkness, assimilated to meteorological was so now man active phenomena, with powers aerial and spiritual, volitionally and regulatedby intelligence, and he, the first star-gazer,became "

"

ship. with whom he claimed kinworshipper of the gods of light, In fact,a totally into existence, came new mythology now and Zeus, with his dependent sister-wife, succeeded the nearly and Rhea, and Wodin supplantedFreya or Frau equal Kronos were males, whereas Gude, and the more prominent gods now of been more female goddesseshad previously a few important."* continued in honour whom (such as Vesta, or the fire on the minor goddessesof the air hearth),or were supersededby new Men at least the eminent the sea (such as Venus). men or now, in every country, came to be looked as themselves, to, gods, up had to be appeasedby worwhen dead, and their manes ship especially their continued existence and nourished by offerings, ing dependcould be rendered and the and offerings thereon; worship only by sons and their sons, brought up and trained thereto,at the familytomb on festal occasions,and on ordinaryoccasions at Hence of such station needed, for the familyhearth. every man of his happiness after death, the perpetuation the continuance line on earth ; and, to begin with, as also for his supof his own port who could in old age, he needed a recognisable son, only be a and recognisedand home-kept a legitimate legitimate son, from and in early Such a son, too, would perpetuate his name, wife.

the

"

contributes equally with the father to the though the mother 51 Still, however, but its nurse before after giving birth; formation of the embryo, she is otherwise as its own for instance it no blood, which for it develops itself, forming comes to its father. What the mother does from is to provide it its mother than from more it absorbs and and to bring to it nourishment, which warmth, similates. ashousing and 62

Cf. Pearson, Ethic

of Freethought,

393.


FEMINISM

88 lore

close connection

a

made

was

between

named, or its substance, in the case of man possessionof a never-endingline of descent

and

name

a

his

life;so a

was

only means, obtainingimmortalityof a sort.^^ confounded another line of thought; but it was of

As

a

life,and his

result of all this,the the

new

new

view

the

and

means,

This, indeed,is with

the preceding. of

consequentlytook

in

every man stricter regulation of

requireda offspring, had to be more about particular

own

thing

that the

the transmission

about

interest which

the

marriage.

The

the woman who was to be the mother of his children ; and because he wished to keep his children with him always,he had to keep his children's mother also. as he did not Previously, recognisehis children,he let them their mother mothers. And who with the woman, or always go knew her own with children,kept them, whether she remained man

their

father,or fathers,or

not

; and

she had

no

for

concern

riage mar-

regulations.Thus the so-called mother-age was an age of sexual irregularity and laxness and license.^* Man could stillpermit for pleasure;but for procreationhe the license to continue Real marriage,human regulatehis connection with woman. cohabitation for the sake of the children,dates marriage,life-long from this period. Chance-begottenand tinued hapless bastards connamed and be after their to received their posimother, tion from reference their without if to her, father; or any man interest in them, it would be their mother's took an brother. called "natural children,"to indicate their They commonly are must

birth in the natural state, outside the artificialinstitution made for purposed procreation. This institution is needed by man. lead.^^ take the for it man must And And were men taking the lead also for an economic reason. We have seen that in the pristine the first mother-agewomen were dressers of skins,agriculturists, docooks, architects,weavers, of the smaller animals, potters, physicians, invenmesticators tors "

peaceful arts. but they never civilisation, of

the

They entered

made

the

first steps toward civilisation itself. At best

IV. 721 B-C. of Freethought, 394, followed It is so recognised by Pearson, Ethic by Mrs. Chances Tr"t/t about Gallichan, Woman, of Death, ii. 96, 105, 244;" but unknown 143; who holds that when IB. Gamble, women to Eliza ruled, everything was modest, and The has developed since. Evolution of Woman, licentiousness of 301. great outbreak time took place in May, as will be noted later. Since license in the olden then May the month has been avoided^for regular marriage. is in no wise derogatory to woman. fact that marriage is man-made 55 The Woman her own of marriage to know need children; man has no his. This has, to know is It also supports the thesis that marriage is man's of the whole matter. the bottom than for man for woman to regulate, rather to regulate. affair, proper 53

54

Cf. Plato. Laws,


FEMINISM

they made

the advance

MARRIAGE

AND

89

The ther furbarbarism."* Men domesticated made by men. step into civiHsation was the largeranimals "^ the cow and ox, the horse,the camel, the if had firstdomesticated women elephant;or any of these,men the chargeof them as exceedingwomen's took over and strength, either themselves domesticated or assumed men charge of sheep in large flocks."^ Men and worked the minerals of copper up gold,and discovered the metallurgyof silver and iron, becoming in possession the firstsmiths ; "" and now of the knife,the shears, the axe, the spade,the hoe, and the saw, (for it is but a step from *" of improveto tools) they launched forth in a career ment. weapons They invented the plough,and appliedanimals, especially bandry, husand graduallytook over to haul it,"^ or agriculture, oxen, in distinction from kitchen-gardening, from the women. made roads, cut staves They cleared forests,filled in swamps, erected and stone and boards, built houses, hewed permanent then with and them with first s urrounded palisades buildings,

from

to

savagery

"

and

walls,constructed boats, using oars rivers and

the seas,

sails,and

coasting alongthe shore ; for

navigatedthe they did not yet

invented also the wheel, and afterward to machines for use in applyingit to land-carriage, all it be noted that and our higher material industry, may civilisation, restingas it does on machinery, is based on the in nature. The first industrial application wheel, which is not known to have been to pottery, in the shape of the of it seems from took over this women wheel,^''after which men potter's discovery,glassindustry,to which they added, as their own and the all these took over ornamented things, making. They have

keel

the

and

the compass.

They

"

women's not who treats as early inventions is not recognised by Pearson, 58 This civilisation," but a good part of the superstructure," Chances of only the basis of our GalliDeath, ii. 48, cf. 6, and Ethic of Freethought, 384. So also his follower, Mrs. But she.does not hesitate, on occasion, Truth about Woman, 21, 139-40. chan, The Elie Reclus, however, states of barbarism, 143. an as the mother-age age " of the primordial elements the creator he was woman says correctly when Folk, 58. civilisation." Primitive of Freethought, 391, following Lippert, D%e Geschichte 57 So Pearson, Ethic

the

treat

to

of

case

,

Familie,

41.

.

"

.

,.,.

,.

^

.,,..,

,

,

.,-

^

,

r"

der 1

simply, of animals, by Keclus, treated the first domesticators, as ' in domesticating the animals, and assisted him domesticated man, knew also who Sex and Society, 228, cf. 137. .AlreadyHippel, according to Thomas, der Weiber, Verbesserung die burgerhche started the industries, Ueber that women animals and set them to first to tame the held that were women vi Werke 55-9, in the idea of slavery, and were, to men he lamented, they first gave 58

loc

Women are cit. Woman

work,

whereby,

themselves

consequence, 69

"

Tubal

60

Cf. Thomas,

61

The

menides),

made

Cain, Hephaestus, ancients or

the

first slaves,

57.

etc.

Sex and Society, 145, 293. to ascribed this invention

Triptolemus, according

to

a

man

Pliny, Nat.

"

,tt

Buzyges

Hist., VII.

,

(Hercules 57

t-

"

or tpi(or 56), Suidas,

Xlcsvchius to Anarcharsis, of the potter's wheel Posidonius 62 wrongly ascribed the invention the same and Pliny committed error, loc. cit. But 30-1; according to Seneca, Ep. XC. it. Pliny, in the same who invented place, men of opinion is that it was the consensus assigns the use of the wheel in carriages to the Phrygians.


FEMINISM

90 arts

by

and Astronomy was the first science they cultivated, proper. and later in navigait theyguided their actions in agriculture, tion. of make science medicine, a They commenced, too, to

who took surgery.**The men to not always apply themselves for the manual directing, labour, but they used their ingenuity which labour in the male slaves was and employed beyond the industries of their original retained some Women strengthof women. relegatedto long undisturbed; in others they were them from taken others smaller parts; still entirely.** were who of free the remained and occupation men, looting Fighting vals they superintendedin the intertherebyprocured slaves,whom extinction of game ; and as these intervals augmented through substitute found of their neighbours, and subjugation a more they and more in the supervisionof industry. Property was now mostly men's property, being mostly accumulating,and it was in the shape of pots and pans had capital their products. Women in the alone acquiredcapital and other simpleimplements. Men largerforms, and produced so much as to have a surplus. They in the form of established exchange,therefore,which, especially

invented did the lead in all this movement,

practisedanatomy,

and

from its invention nations and over seas, was expeditionstook the place of wholly their affair. Commercial in from which, fact,they but slowly became distinmarauding, commerce

between

guished.*"* To prevent disputeswithin the tribes, laws of property had to be instituted, and they were made Thus marriageand by men. became the fields men's of two without legislation, property great which no civilisation could grow. The territory, which too, over roamed with their herds and flocks,or which men hunted, or cleared and a nd where tilled, they they established their abode, and buried their dead, was theirs;and it dug wells,built cities, who defended it from others, and among themselves was they had institute to firstfor and ing distributagrarianlaws, they sharing their common land, and then, after its division,for owning it separately.Peoplesoccupyingrich lands became the first confirmed and the soonest of agriculturists, adopted ways peace; "

68

Chiron,^sculapius,

etc.

when drew his imagination he wrote that the working-upof wool Lucretius upon of their superiority in every because first done ward was by men, art, and that tney afterRerum turned it over to women, De V. 1354-8; but he would have been Natura, it was to be much right, had he foreseen that if ever improved, it would, on this account, But have he said that to be done by men. Pliny was writing history when till late (about first baked B. C.) not women at Rome bread, and that it was 174 28. the Jews became still cooks that men and bakers, XVIII. Among women were I. Sam., VIII. bakers in the king's household, even 13. and 05 Nestor asked his visitors, Telemachus Mentor, whether they were chants meror pirates,Odyssey, III. 72-3) cf. Thucydides, 1. 5. 64


FEMINISM

92

wardness stillretained their ancient lead through the backsubdued or driven to the wall,in inaccessible of the men, were

whom

women

where regions, them.'^"

The

the others

transition

found

from

it not

matronymy

worth to

while

to pursue

patronymy

and

mostly slow and prolonged. So probablyit was in Greece, as Germany. But in Italy all of a sudden who Rome founded by unattached was adopted the patriarchal men, or system at one stroke,and in the midst of peoplesstillmore less controlled by women, they were easy victors,having to fight with hen-peckedhusbands. oughly Likewise the Jews had become thorwhen patriarchal they left Egypt (perhapsby antiperii n stasis, puttingoff the ways of the Egyptians),and there is evidence that the Caananites,who, though numericallysuperior, graduallyfell before them, were stillin the matronymic state,with all the licentiousness of the mother-age,wherefore they likewise supplieda warning.^" The regulation of marriageand the regulation of property were, in all probability, were now performed synchronously. Men in of their the owners estimation, own becoming both, principal the principal the life-stream,and, in reality, of property. owners for the purpose both of transmitting needed a son Every man him and his life of through transmitting through him his property. buried on his own land,and his future life (conwas nected Every man with his tomb) and his estate went together. The estate, in fact,belongedto the family in a "continuous line of descent ; and the individual was only a temporary occupant.''^Hence the the peoples,to alienate real estate primitive repugnance, among into in which generally inheritance of their fathers ; law passed the sale of land,'^and Greek states forbidding some form, many the Jews requiring its restoration after fiftyyears. What is here of the said refers to the men the harones) rulingclasses, (vires, only citizens of the state. To be a citizen the ownership of to have a share in the communal primitively necessary property was

patriarchywas

later in

"

'^

"

not

in the country. lands,later to have a lot of one's own who only this : to be a citizen one had to have ancestors

69 The Cluinces

superiority of

patriarchism

the

over

mother-age

is

admitted

by

But

had

Pearson,

of Death, ii. 4, 96, cf. i. 239n. For the few of traces 70 Leviticus, XVIII, XX, 23-4, cf. Ezra, IX, i. 24-30, in the Old Testament, principallyin Genesis, see H. Schaeffer, The Social matronymy On the Jews and the Romans the two as Legislation of the Primitive Semites, 1-3. "

pre-eminently patriarchalpeoples of antiquity, cf, Pearson, Chances

of Deaths II.

4n.,

95-6, 99. C-D. 741 and Naboth, I. Kings, XXI. 3. from Aristotle, La CitS antique, 73-4. references 73 Fustel de Coulanges cites many and his family, not foreclosed, the owner When being separable mortgaged land was with it into the possession of the creditor: so in Attica till Solon's refrom it, went form, Structure H. E. Seebohm, The of Greek Tribal Society, 127. XI. of Ahab

71

Cf. Plato, Laws,

72

Cf. the story

g23A, also V.


FEMINISM been

AND

MARRIAGE

93

And not was garded refurthermore, one unless he had a son to become a citizen as a dutiful citizen, A son became after him. a wife a necessity ; and to have a son '* in became addition the need of her take to also to a necessity of the household.'^ care Celibacywas everywhere,forbidden '" A that is, to citizens, not of course. enough. daughter was For, under the view of the transmission of life only by and could not carry on her through the seed of the male, a woman own family,but could only help her husband carry on his. As out regarded her own, she was an end of the family a twig withRoman said the law. She also bud : mulier est finis familiae, the kind of property in question have seen, own could not, as we real estate. A son needed to inherit both the estate and was the name died without a son, but of his fathers. If,then,a man left a widow and also a brother from his own family (on his the brother to raise up father's side),it was incumbent upon if he married her, the first a nd from her a son the to deceased,' born to him had to be treated as the son of the deceased,that son his name the living'^ and his might not be cut off from among be divided and merged into others. Another estate device,if he her off with the condition had a daughter,was for him to marry that he might adopt her eldest son.''* Or if he were without hope of any children, he might adopt a son outright, preferablyone of Fictions of this sort were kindred. his near an earlyinvention. In some due to the husband's peoples,if the childlessness was his his lifetime man, brother,or another kinsimpotence,even during If the impofor him from his wife.'" to beget a son was tence his wife's,she was to be divorced,and the husband was another. similar reason, for adultery had Divorce a marry because a wife so actingmight impose on her husband not a son

citizens before

him.

"

"

"

"

7*

Cf. Seebohm, Marriage was comfort, with

op. cit., 109.

be solelyfor child-rearing,but also VIII. (or xiii.) 7; the husband xt. (within), Polit.,II. ii. (or being the provider (from without), the wife the conserver I. iii. 4, cf. Fragmenta iv.) 10, Oeconom., (Didot's ed.) no. 218, and Plato, Meno, 71E, More at length Xenophon view). (giving the common Oeconomicus, s. 7, who 73 A the earner and the wife the spender, c. 3. also said that the husband was In India de Coulanges, op. cit.,51. is called putra 76 Fustel "because he a son delivers (trayete) his father from the hell called Put," Laws of Manu, IX. 138, cf. i5i. " consists who (of three persons There he only is a perfectman united), his wife, The Chinese also retain similar ideas somewhat himself, and his offspring,'*ib, 45. still. Laws 77 E.g., Deut., XXV. of Manu, IX. 59, cf. 146, 190; s, cf. Gen., XXXVIII: XVIII. Law, also Gautama, Institutes The of the Sacred principle was that -4-10. another of the field in which plants his seed, owns man the owner the resultant fruit: Laws of Manu, IX. 41-4, 48-55. The widow was regarded as still belonging to the husband till she released herself by performing this duty. deceased his daughter " an India the sonless father simply made 78 In appointed daughter " '* male child born The of her shall perform my funeral by saying to her husband iS. of Manu, IX. 127; cf. Gautama, XXVIII. rites. Laws 79 Fustel de Coulanges, op. cit.,53. 75

for

recognised by Aristotle

division

of

labour, Nich,

not

to

Eth.,


FEMINISM

94

device of

his own.*"

The

but in time

it came

adoptionwas

to be used

also when

sparinglyused only the wife was

at

first; sterile

and at last when not willing to put her away, and the husband was even or neither were, but when the wife did not desire the travail, fraudulent purpose, the when they already had a child,for some Like all of the institution being forgotten.^^ originalreason it came to be abused. like marriageitself, human institutions,

barbarism, in the long, early stages of this change from toward civilisation, the chief industrial factor, which women were for both ensuring the took the leadership, in which men women, perpetuationof male lines of descent, and for their domestic In

valuable to men became more supervision, cities were when walled while, with advancing civilisation, ing if of stone, by the labour of slaves,hfe becomfounded, especially

labours under

male

;

diminished. to women of individual men could be but in ; only by the as this practised Polygamy now came richest,and left the poorest unprovided for, wherever the spirit where forbidden, and elseof democracy at all asserted itself,it was of in. value The but casuallyindulged it was rising and parents became unwilling females attached also to daughters, the purchase of without compensation. Thus to part with them securer,

the The

the

parents, as

from

prevalent;for the

kindred.

their male it

value

or alreadyremarked, became more tolerate civilised too to now people were of them, and marriagewith aliens was generallyprostealing hibited, although aliens might still be stolen for concubinage. of daughtersfrom old stealing, it must be remembered, was

brides less

the

was

ever

of all

our

a

practiceamong

ancestors

drag them

and

It is absurd

off

at some

to suppose,

as

is often

done, that

and consequently primitivepeoples,

time, for

to their dens.

to knock

men

women

down

animals is there need to apply force to the female, their attraction being and the mutual, only fighting being between the male rivals. If stole women, men ever they did not steal them from themselves,*^ There are some but from other men. degenerateand brutal tribes of savages to-day(near the end, rather than at the beginning, of whom, women being scarce through among any line of descent), maltreatment, unprovidedbachelors or widowers, not beingmeanspirited enough to put up with polyandry,have sometimes thus But there is no ravished them from their parents or husbands.

Among

no

for the male

The

80

husband's

with another intercourse (unmarried) woman it should be complained existed why

reason corresponding_

no

not adultery, and of, provided he did

was

neglect his wife.

not

in the

81

As

82

Cf. Mrs.

Mary

Austin,

case

of Clodius: cf. Cicero, De Domo Position in The of Woman and the Soul Maker, p. 90.

Gallichan, Love

XIII-XIV. 34-7. Pritnitii/e Society, 72, 84-5, 98 ;

Sua,


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

evidence for believing the practiceever

95

have been prevalent. of like the early newly men, in peculiar Romans, or men like the defeated Bencircumstances, who lacked wives, raidingother tribes to appropriate jarnites,*' theirs,prove nothing. The stealingof wives must have been either a temporary stage between the original the or promiscuity, laxness of the mother-age, and the regularinstitution of Isolated instances of

formed

to

bands

marriage,

aberration from the latter, which it seems to presuppose, but in either case somewhat i n wide-spread, some ness, periodof lawlesssince traces of it are common in some of atrophied

or

an

ceremony

pretended seizure and resistance.^* It and the system of purchase have helpedthe comparison of women with chattels or with may slaves. But even where the whip is introduced among the paraphernalia of the marriageceremony, this may be the symbol,not much of mastership, of love, because of its use so as in sexual In all placesand in all ages a clear distinction has flagellation.*^ been drawn between wives and slaves,*^ and where slavery existed the wives

had

their

hand-maidens.'^ Roman wives were in ** the legalstatus of daughters; and Roman their sons, during father's lifetime,were in the same sort of subjection, all beingin the power of the house- fathers of the men who made Rome.'" own

"

Judges, XXI.

6-14 and 15-23. Hence Grant himself Allen, though a scientist, showed only a fiction-writer when, Woman Who in his novel The Did, he treated marriage as an ugly and harharic form *' of serfdom," based the primitive habit of felling the woman with upon a blow, stunning her by repeated strokes of the club or spear, and dragging her off by the hair of her head as a slave to her captor's hut or rock-shelter,"p. 211, He apparently toolc for gospel truth Lubbock's generalisation of Oldfield's and Collins's accounts of the of the most tribesmen degraded in Australia: Lubbock's doings of some Origin of Or he himself Civilisation, 73-4. generalised the quotations from Turnbull and Grey about the same Studies in Ancient Australians, in McLennan's History, 58-60. Even about these "As Australian is always McX.ennan betrothed after an woman says: birth to some of a different tribe or her own, man stolen or a family stock from captured wife is always stolen or taken from a prior husband," 60. Or had he (Allen) been in his Scienza Nuova reading Vico, who of the account generalised Homer's Cyclopes (Milan ed.,1853, pp. 253, 256, 259, 268, cf. 132) ? While he was about it,he the Ahitas, in the might have cited the terrible plight of reluctant youths among Philippines, where courting damsels are said to seize them by the hair and run away with them, according to J. W. Wheeler, Primitive Marriage, in Progress, 1885, p. 128. the Tartars 85 CA Krafft-Ebing, Psychopathis Sexuahs, 36, 197, 211. Among ping whipthemselves token to have been of love, cf. as a seems regarded by the women Atkinson's Recollections of the Tartar Steppes, p. 220. Mrs. 86 As Cf. Goldwin (or xii), i. Smith, Essays on e.g., by Aristotle, Polit. I. v. Questions of the Day, 226. and Hagar. 87 Cf. Sarah " The loves is always his own man 88 Cf. O. W. Holmes a woman daughter, far : law of life," children born to him by the common his daughter than the female more ch. XX., vol. ii. p. 65. Elsie Venner, at one time to Aryan term 89 The languages, seems to pater (father), common sexual of dominion. (See Fustel had no significance,but to have been a term have it with feeder and pastor, and de Coulanges, Cite antique, 97-8. Others have connected been the idea of filling,which its ultimate root to have accounts Pearson suggests Chances wife called his never was of Death, ii. 204-8.) A man's for both senses. called her father :_ she was merely in the same position to daughter, though he was his manus his slaves, or his daughters, that is, under dominion, as were him were as his children. A childless boy, at not the father, though they were he was of whom the family-father, because of his father, became he was then the familythe death master. S3 84

"

.


96

FEMINISM

The

of the patriarch his sons and over power over as places,nearlythe same was, in some exercise of it was everywhere different. He wife

as harshly as to whom relatives,

his

she

slaves,because

daughtersand

wives

his slaves ; but could not treat

had

his his

family of male

a

would occasion appeal,and who also in her avenge any injury.""They would interest themselves if she If obtained did. wife was a daughters by capture, she than a slave ; but she was littlemore into a wife, was a slave made instead of a wife made into a slave. The purchase of a wife the husband the same nominallygave rightover her her father diminished by the father's and his brothers' or had, but actually and law also protected sons' continuinginterest in her. Custom she could

her, givingher rightsover

on

againsthim,

and

often

the practically

rule in the household.'^ As for the sons, a punishment of a rebellious son was and then he sometimes to sellhim into slavery, became a slave indeed."^ and We ever appropriatedwomen see, then, that if men treated women's products,and oppressedthem, as in fact men of women, stood other men, yet, in the case also men up as the first the maternal defenders of their female relatives uncles and then t he the brothers, the fathers,and lastly husbands. Upon the husbands the rightsand duties ultimately devolved,the brothers wives to protect,and these being the only contemporaries having their own of the women the who could completelyexecute two movements an early charge. It may be said there were and a later one for men for men to appropriate to one women, Rather curiously, the time when look after their welfare. men "

"

hardest

were "

;

and

upon

women,

only under

Reversely,however, it

was

the

very

patriarchydid must

be

added,

men

" chal matriarage called become considerate.

women

were

in the

better able in the later.

earlyperiod,and less so less able in the later,because they were They were oustrippedin had started. the industrialism which they They remained so, weakened the men.^^* tillthe industrialism ultimately Then, too,

to

defend

themselves

Note the story of 90 In return woman might prefer her brother to her husband. a She said she might III. 119, band husget another Intaphernes' wife, told by Herodotus, (and other children too), but, her parents being dead, she could not get another brother. Cf. Sophocles, Antigone, 905-13. that in marrying have their they gave 91 In fact, men up frequentlycomplained liberty: e,g., in antiquity Anaxandrides, Alexis, and Hippothous, in Stobaeus, LXVIII.; cf. Menander, ib. LXX. 5. kill his rebellious the Jews the father could son not 92 Among himself, but could XXI. But for killing 18-21, cf. Exod. by the judges, Deut. XXI. 15. get him executed different from that for killing a free one's slave, if an alien, the punishment was and it was, in practice than XXI. and in so Exod. 20-1 probably, more 12; man, he disand inherited act also a father had to give reason, formally, when precept. Elsewhere a

i)2a

This

son:

cf. Plato, Laws,

weakening

and

XL

5128D-929D.

eiteminizing influence

cf industrialism

was

perceived by the


FEMINISM the ultimately,

AND

MARRIAGE

97

of the women, freeingthem the protectionof individual men, and making all individuals,

from

state

came

to the

rescue

nominallyat least,independent.It is difficult, however, to in this because out a general straighten matter, survey of the ages we are dealingwith an advance from cycleto cycle,and at the time with advance from period to period within a cycle. same From deal to now are only with the latter changeswithin on, we historic cycles. In these something like patriarchismalways exists in the ascendingperiodsand alwaysbeginsto break down in the culminatingperiods,to be followed by individualism and collectivism.

When,

in

primitive stage of

healthypeople,privateproperty of most out established, likely by the parcelling in the i t victors,"^ was sion succesconquered territory given among A very good and sufficientreason only to sons. why it was that it not givento daughters, was was originally appropriated by and stillneeded wherefore defended be to men women men,"* by ; that simplycould not own because they could not possess land Thus ancient of the question.^^ the out was altogether among inherited only by warArabs, for instance,land could be legally riors."* Moreover, the daughterswould and themselves marry a

a

in land became

"

mistresses of their husbands' households, and lieutenants in their absence; and therefore the daughtersdid not need real estate of their own. Religiousideas and the reformed clan-system become

added

further

joinedthe Greeks, and Cf. above,

was

p.

; for whereas

reasons

clan of his wife the

why

reason

or

remained

they disparaged it.

formerlythe outside,and See

Xenophon,

man

either

in either Oeconomicus,

case c.

4.

34n.

while of their own, the people around Prominent fighters would get domains Or the people would still in the communal give them such a cut-off were stage. for services 184) asi a reward piece of land IretievoSy cf. Iliad, VI. 194, IX. 578, XX. such land became and in expectation of protection; and hereditary (Iliad,XX. 391). their temples were which Just so, too, they gave plots in perpetuity to gods, on warriors built and of which and beneficiaries. The thus the priests were the trustees will be said in a endowed the kinglets (reguli, smaakonge), about whom more were be would the first to become They subsequent note. patriarchal,and the people them the freemen would only slowly follow suit, and never completely. There among such u^iited them: Fustel de kinglets in Attica before Theseus ,were innumerable Coulanges, op. cit.,146,^147, quoting Pausanias, I. 31. These the ancestors of were the afterward So also in eupatrids (or patricians')who congregated at Athens. Latium and at Rome, where certain families preserved the tradition in the surname of barons of mediaeval Regulus. The times were the cdrresponding phenomena in the modern So also the country on a larger scale, with more gradations of ranks. cycle,^ in their manors; and in some countries the yeomanry even gentry held their estates in the same of the older sort existed even Smaakonge way. son, recently in Norway: PearChances of Death, ii. 66. 94 E.g., when the Jews divided the land of Canaan, which they had conquered, they distributed it to the men (really to the families, but to the men at the head as of these) : Numbers, XXVI. s^ff-cf. I. 2. 95 That the wife was of the earlier custom merely the reverse skipped was when the husband went was skipped and the mother's to her children, and, in all property probability,principally to her daughters. In fact, the mother's acquisitions are most suitable for her daughters, and the father's for his sons. 98 None be heirs, who do not take part in battle, drive booty, and can protect property," Sura, IV. viii,26; quoted by Schaeffer,op. cit.,28. 93

them

"

"

"


FEMINISM

98

the wife was the children belongedto the clan of their mother, now taken into the husband's clan,or gens, and the children belonged tary to the father's clan and family. But the man's property, for miliin the clan had to remain well as for religious as reasons, who and in the family,and therefore it could not go to women, but only a daughter or there was When left them. no son, At first the had to be made. daughters,specialarrangements then the male of kin seized the property, against whom next consideration daughterhad onlythe rightsof a sister. Later more would of her one shown to the daughter, was providedshe marry own familyor clan, for then the whole property might go to her it from the clan. This made an excephusband without alienating tion and to the rule of marrying outside the clan,or exogamy, may have been a survival,or revival,of what was a more perhaps of endogamy or marrying within the clan,or, at all ancient custom when clanship went events, of what took placeunder matronymy, in the female

enjoined,for

even

be

line.

noted, went

not

however, exception,

This

so

much

to the

marriageof

such

an

and tolerated,

property, it

this specialpurpose."^ The

to her husband, or through her and her son, the father's grandson,who

The

was

must

daughter,as through her, and her husband as guardiansto

heiress with

his true successor.'^ of her father's kindred

became one

required; but

generally marriageinto another everywhere which the the deceased in of would property propertiedfamily, shunned. be merged and lost,was Many a young man, either an brother of humble or or a stranger, uninheriting origin, younger the wealth least of and (at disposal it) acquired high position, by of chieftain.'^ an a man or daughter prominent only marrying Historical and individual instances are best known, in the middle not

was

ages,

among

royaltyand

the

nobility, among

whom

the custom

XXXVI. 8-11. 6-9, cf. XXVII. A See Seebohm, op. cit., 23-7, using mostly the authority of Isaeus. daughter had to be divorced, to permit the marriage required. The married out of the clan even " not properly heiress, but eTriK\T}00s, one daughter was going witlu the estate." Pearson's seeks in 99 See his Luck, on interesting essay Ashiepattle:^ or Hans reviewed Chances The tales therein of Death, ii. 50-91. certainly lead back nursery the not to early conditions, but necessarily, all of them, to the mother-age. because brotherless. the yokels gain their fortunes, often princesses, by marrying whom are of a smaakonig, but with the ancient tale of a similar sort, about the succession For an VIII. left out, see the in Macedoiiia, told by Herodotus, marriage story of Perdiccas More of Gyges, who became historical is his account 137-8. king of Sardis, after I. 7-13 (cf. Hamlet's the king, upon the king's widow, the queen, murdering marrying married the king's daughter, I. 91, 107; cf, also uncle), and of Cyrus's father, who also among this practice occurred matronymic Yet, of course, peoples, as 120. 109, the Lycians, whose to Bellerophon his (the queen's) daughter in king gave among So gained the king's daughmarriage and half his kingdom, Iliad, VI. 192-3. ter founder The Greek of Marseilles chosen in marriage was 121. by at Argos, XIV. occupied the region, Justin, XLITI. the daughter of the king of the Sigobriges, who 3. Later Rome Ancus Marcus .^neas won the at the daughter of king Latinus. was Servius TuUius married the king's daughter, Livy, of a prior king's daughter, and son 97

E.g., Numbers.

98

"Tydeus

I. 32, 39,


FEMINISM

loo

All these institutions well

or

ill. Yet

the

be

to

are

could

women

whether

they work be left entirely out personalproperty,

judged by by

no

means

They

had their own that when the men were on away attacks the the on o r borders, military expeditions, repelling In some had to be left in control of the homesteads. women the could not be women so trusted,and places, throughpolygamy, of the economic

and

besides

the

duty had

to be confided

tribes

or

nations

the trust

husband's which

was

or

strongest where

were

only temporary,

and

could

women

under

be trusted.

supervisionupon

the

all events, it was only the civilisations in the real estate, that have grown up to their reachinga stage of securityin property-owners

At

return.

the males

male head-slaves or stewards. nation where it occurred. Those

to some

the tribe

only weakened

This But

scheme.

it still remained

inherited

maturity." Then, on guaranteed by the well-ordered state, and well the measured could possess and own by money-system, women themselves. land safely and to satisfactorily Thereupon they have generally it and thereafter the not soon long ; got very very civilisations have

themselves on the road to decline ; for the countries in which much of the property is given over into the hands of women weakened are universally thereby.''There are tribes in

found

Polynesiaand

the coast

of Malabar where the father's the infant to turned over even son immediatelyupon property birth,thereafter the father being only trustee of it for his son.* but only in a small Such an arrangement is perfectlyfeasible, in for if it introduced were a large nation,that nation society; on

is

would

soon

become

a

small

one.

There

societies,too, in

are

of his first child. But these are the father takes the name hidden in It is evident that the hills of India. tribes petty away which

told that in its jurisin its historical period,seems are an exception: for we prudence divided without all the children was equally between regard to age property the younger under extent But the daughters to some (and even sons) remained or sex. or) brothers, the patria potestas descending only to the tutelage of their (elder brother their property. Estates their actions was also over males. This over a power power married undivided. The off in the lifetime therefore often remained daughters who were received dower and the old religious ceremony, of their father,under a passed of the family of the father, and into the family of the husband and out at his death received further share in his family estate. (.Cf.Fustel de Coulanges, CitS antique, no married off by their brother, also could not were 78-81.) Probably the sisters who take anything but personalproperty with them, at least in early times. Perhaps among the practice. But it was the plebes equal division had always been only gradually that with their adoption of the plebeian the patricians, along it became the practice among law was fied, codiof marriage. form completed before the Roman Yet, as this process was code. in the Roman the rule of equal division shows it 7 If Egypt lasted long with a semi ihother-right system, suppressed and re;arisinB, But when distant nations, with fatherbecause of its isolation. have as we seen, was, and jection. enough to reach it, it fell almost at once, forever, into subright, grew strong 6

Rome,

8 It is supposed to have originated as a device to get around his fellow man's being divided, at his death, among property rington. The Melanesians, 63; W. Logan, Malabar, i. 154.

a

primitive

clansmen:

custom

R.

H.

of a Cod-


FEMINISM

peoplescould

no

amount

AND

MARRIAGE

to much

in which

loi

the

men

so

effaced

themselves.^ During the

vance, men guiding its adrisingperiodsof civilisation, of the ever as a increasingprominence of consequence industrial men-slaves in the domain, even becoming freemen continuingtheir industrial habits,and forming a growing

men

and

middle class,the value of women to men decreased, and men refined ideas also contributing to ceased to purchase them, more this result. Or still given,but was the purchase-money was demanded back in the form of a dower to the bride,or it was given to her directly by the groom, who gave it sometimes only ding after proof of her virginity, hence on the morning after the wed" ^" The of in German the name Morgengabe." ; whence women depreciation continuing, becoming less useful,and especially father the young the of the ones family, being a drag upon for the father himself to give the dower, the practice went over inducement to take his daughter off his to a young an man as hands. her in To place marriage was the one way of providing for her. At first the dower into the hands of went practically But as security the husband. became better,and the daughter could be protected also by the state, the father demanded that the benefit. The dower should at least be preservedfor his daughter's husband might have the usufruct of it,providedhe kept the capital intact. The wife virtually remained the owner garded re; or if he was she had a mortgage on it. Then at his death as the owner, it reverted to her, as also in case of divorce; and if she died without offspring, it reverted to her family. But the rest of the man's property was his own, to do with as he pleasedwithin the of his country allowed.^^ Throughout range the law or custom these periodsof developing, but not yet fullydeveloped, tion, civilisaunless the lot of woman hard she had an individual male was father while in middle age, a son husband a a protector young, when old. It was her father's duty,therefore, before he died,and his son's afterward,to provideher with a protector, in a husband, who would be preferable to any other kind of guardian. Thus, "

B

Sometimes,

father of a twice in the "

Immediately

106), "a

man

in patriarchal peoples a man would call himself the that he had established So Odysseus his line of descent. Iliad (II. 260, IV. 354) refers to himself as the father of Telemachus. after the birth of his first-bom of the Laws son," says one (IX. of Manu is [called] the father of a son, and is freed from the debt to the manes

son

however, to

even

indicate

[of his ancestors].'"

Deuteronomy^ XXII. 13-21. Generally his patrimonial estate had himself be acquired he probably, what Lauis of ManUt IX. 209. uie pass: 11

to

go

could

according to law; but in every dispose of at pleasure: so,

people, n)r

stance, in-


FEMINISM

I02

in addition to the economic of this growing recognition

the father's alreadynoticed, duty contributed to the change from his retaining his daughtersunless bought,to his providingthem and the law and custom with dowers. He still stipulated, quired, rereasons

should support and protect the wife, to the best of his ability, to the end of her days; for which, in return, and obedience were promised. In peoplesstruggling allegiance it would have gone hard lor their existence amidst other peoples, with any one people if it had permittedthe internal disorders which would have ensued if husbands and wives had been allowed and the consequent want of training to discard each other at will, children. and discipline of the the on Every peoplethat has part risen to any great prominence has, while rising, guarded the familyand the home, generallythrowing over them a religious sanction. Men married of the race, and put for the perpetuation sake. their shoulders for their country's a yoke upon Marriage was no : it had a more importantpurlongera matter of feeling pose than to givepleasure. It was the institution by which the It family (oiKta, domus) was held togetherand perpetuated.^^ became formal,and was well regulated by tribal custom, and later by state law. Registryof births was kept,and kinshipwas traced to the eighthdegree(or up and down through four generations), observed and for some descent was to the ninth even purposes At birth,sons, to be recognised, had to be ceremoniously generation.^' of acceptedby the father;and, on coming age, they their introduced fellow clansmen and to were ceremoniously tribesmen,and then became citizens, warriors,and heirs of the the family duties to marry, to familyproperty, and assumed and after their father's death to injuryto their fellows, avenge off their unmarried sisters.^* did not sons Illegitimate portion count, because their mother had not been received into the father's could the man be sure of their paternity.They took nor family,^^ the heritan no worship of the ancestors, and had no rightof inpart in to the mother for them motherThey belonged only: In continued. default of a right a legitimate son, if there was daughter,a kinsman, probablyone who did not inherit a hearth of his own, chosen as son-in-law, to take the son's place, tilla was reared In default of either a legitimate grandson was child, up. resorted to, or the familybecame the other devices were extinct, that the husband

"

"

"

de Coulanges, op. cit.,52. op. cit.,48-55, 67-70. could marry his half-sister by a different mother, so that both Athens 14 At a son Studies in Ancient might enjoy the father's estate fully: McLennan, History, 275-6, This Atticae. was from the Leges probably a survival from matronymy, when they not regarded as related. were IB Fustel de Coulanges, op, cit.,si-a. 12

Cf. Fustel

13

Seebohm,


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

103

and

its property went of the to collateral heirs, to the great grief last of the line.^* These were of the patriarchal the customs conqueringraces. The matronymicalconquered races allowed to continue their were old laxness.^' The lower classes could marry for pleasure : the had of classes to observe considerations chal duty. The patriarupper

system is,in fact,an the

mass

beyond

oligarchical one,

unworkable

throughout developed tural agriculFor it implies

of the people, has after society at all events the simplicity of the pastoral or earlycommunal

stage. In itselfit contains

an

in

the male

inherent flaw. that every father of a familyshall have one to continue his son inherit and his and name one estate, daughterto be married off to for a daughterreceived from a neigha neighbour's bour son, in return In marriageto the son. The are a superfluity.

all others

line,one

is

son

enough, duty,

is begottento fulfila

eldest them would soon divide the estate among Moreover, the it,and impair the power of defence. dissipate homestead, with the tombs of the ancestors, did not admit of division. the eldest son was For these reasons givenall the property, the familyseat. or at least all the authority ; and to him came that In fact,many ancient states were ordered on the principle of families,each with they were composed of a fixed number handed landed indivisibleand inalienable its own estate,which was from generation to generation.^' Consequently all other sons on and daughtersbut the eldest constituted a problem. Yet other is not kind enough and daughtersare a necessity sons ; for nature ter, to furnish every married couplewith justone son and one daughand if every couplecontented themselves with two children,

the rest for love.^*

To

is born, several daughtersmay die. Before a son it be safe to Nor would several sons. come ; before a daughter, employ infanticide and to stop at a first son and daughter,for the several are that one of them might die. For security reason same for if they But these,if they survive,are in the way; needed. ultimatelydwindle receive a share in the landed estate, this must to practically nothing,and if they do not, how are they to be In the risingperiod,if there are for? conquests of

one

might

provided

other countries,they may lots in the new receiving le

Cf. Iliad, V.

17

Note

152-8. southern to-day in our

and sent off to settle there, to territory.But when conquests come be married

"

,

States, how

negroes

and

.

negresses

are

i, allowed

j

x quently fre-

not bothering to enforce the formality of divorce, the whites without remarry the laws against bigamy. with regard to them IX. 107. of Manu, of the Laws 18 So said one ,. , uri.-j his ideal Plato wished to establish, in de Coulanges, Fustel 73in Greece, 19 So number which was inhabitants), citizens (not of propertied state, a fixed number V. 740 B, XI. to be augmented by division or diminished by ataalgamation, Laws, never cf. Republic, IV. 423 C and V, 460 A.

to

.

929

A,

,

,

"

,.

.


FEMINISM

104

end, they must, if they are

an

remain

to

remain married unpatricians, ; only for pleasure)

(and have intercourse with women to marry, or if they want theymust go into trade,and cease to be ples, peopatricians.Such difficultieshave confronted all patriarchal with but cess.^" never and have been variously completesucmet, sort the system must Without primogenitureof some o f to an end, and with primogeniture any sort the lot of the come and daughtersis put in invidious comparison with sons younger to sons that of the eldest. For a time the younger may be willing in number the time,as ; but put up with their subordinate position of them and their descendants grow large, sent, they will no longerconPatriarchal elders. their with and will demand equality if it of time comes in the to require, thus course always marriage other forms of marriageto accompany had not in the beginning, it,and it must ultimately give way to them ; for,as the younger of the eldest,the eldest be elevated to the position cannot sons ing mobile wealth is becomtheirs. be pulleddown to must By now as importantas the immobile, and also the eldest sons desire in it. Patriarchal marriageis aristocratic: the pluto participate tocrati periodhas alwaysdestroyedit. ing. And there is another reason why the eldest sons should be willhave seen, is rigorous, and its Patriarchal marriage,as we ever, For a time,howirksome. bellion. growing consciousness of reThe sentiment of a peopleat this stage of development voiced by Metellus,when, in tryingto pass a law, for backing was to marry (for he lived up a decayingcustom, to compel all men the end of Rome's near ascendingperiod,and was himself a bit " If we could exist without a wife, we he said: old-fashioned), inconvenience has so with this all would ; but as nature dispense to live comfortablywith one, and ordained that it is impossible consult the perpetualsafety without at all,we must not one ^^ So brief rather than our pleasure." alreadyin Greece Philemon

yoke

upon the upper classes becomes it would be continued, with a

of the elder brother's Hindoo eldest son, father to his younger (IX. as a to the economic the In England, where brothers. principle has come prevail over in the church and in the army, sons are placed or are religious, the younger else are married to rich heiresses, or frankly permitted to go into business themselves there is a mixture class. Among the Basques of patriarchism and sink into the middle the matronjrmic stage. For among from them the indi^nsible with a feature survived eldest son and inalienable estate goes to the eldest child of either sex, and an inheriting other family, and eldest daughter from some has to marry a an estate an younger from has to marry other a son some estate family. younger daughter inheriting an dies But all the other children are supposed to remain unmarried, unless an eldest one for them as labourers, or unless they emigrate. See childless, or unless there is room In fact, an outside region is necessary Civilisations, i. 213, 461. as Simcox, Primitive Truly patriarchal peoples have always a safety-valve for such well-knit arrangements. been the greatest colonisers. Gellius's Nodes Atticae, I. 6. 21 In Aulus 20

The

Tibetans

brothers become the surplus

let the younger

wife, and practised infanticide upon enjoined by Manu who inherited, was "

sub-husbands

daughters. io8)_to behave

"

The


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

105

Menander There had called marriage" a necessary evil."^^ would be hankeringafter the freedom and individualism of the lower classes. The duty of looking after the interests of the race would gradually kind of duty,taughtin a be supersededby a new and

not to impede the happia moralityof sentiment, morality, ness of others. If one stillthought it a duty to conduct his life in the old way, one might doubt his duty to prevent others from seekingtheir happinessin the new way ; and so one might let his not as they pleasedand whom sons or they selected;and marry father's affection for his daughterswould lead to the giving a to them of their share of his property outright, to do with as they in of that the the case pleased,just as they too might sons, so they selected ; for by now marry or not as theypleasedand whom the perfectionmentof the state gives sufficient protectionto and they no longerneed individual male protectors.^^'^ women, new

And wives

in time

take to themselves it comes about that the sons concubines or or not as their fathers had taken to themselves a nd comes for with little view which benot to procreation, pleasure, secondary and is often omitted altogether ters ; while the daughdisposeof themselves,and like their fathers' concubines have other lovers. Marriage reverts from a human institution toward animal state, or from a man's institution toward an a woman's and remarrying,with of institution. Marrying,divorcing, want almost into promiscuof free thrown the aid love in,degenerates ity. And rich men rich and rich to consort with, women seeking rich men, property accumulates; and through their having women it few children to divide frequentlyonly one, it is among, ism Individualconcentrated stillmore into fewer and fewer hands. with individualism with regard with regardto property runs to marriage. Both old families and old estates are disintegrated ; the before and of individuals the state becomes law, a mass equal of whom freed from custom, some amass fortunes,which pass and from women to men from men to women accordingto erotic attachments. emotional or of thingsin Greece, when the old order Such was the course to its close at the time of the repulseof the Persian invacame ideas graduallyfell sion.^^ Not only the old religious regulative of the philosophers, but the under the questioning into disrepute, theoryat their base, about the supremacy of the male physiological in the transmission of life, began to be doubted,and we have for so

"

LXVIII. 3, LXIX. 22 In Stobseus's FhrUegium, ib. LXIX. 2. 22a Cf. above, i. pp. 23-4. 23 The significanceof Callias's conduct, noted

10.

,

^

With

above,

Metellus, cf. also Sussario,

.

1.

p. nan.,

may

now

be

stood. under-


FEMINISM

io6

modified theories the philosophers' and the physicians' beginning who the subject. The old families dying out, the new men on little record of their ancestry,cared to the front,having no came for their line of descent,and left their property to their daughters The families well as to their sons, or, having none, to others. as ceased to be the units in the state, and individuals, indifferently male or female,took their place.^*Propertywent to individuals ; duties did not, which were replacedby humanitarian promptings, the course of the sentiment happened to suggest. In Rome as better prepared. There, as is well known, existed change was from of old three kinds of marriage: a venerable religious one, a mere purchase of the irrevocable, practisedby the patricians; Avife,easilyrescinded,though at a loss,practisedby the rich; cohabitation (probablya survival of the poor a mere and among the primitive which, when not broken within the promiscuity), marital the husband, but, when broken by the rightsto year, gave wife absenting herself for three nights,left both parties free. several hundred When it is said it was years after the founding of Rome divorced his wife,the first case being before any Roman this can properly that of SpuriusCarvilius Ruga about 231 b. c.,^" refer only to the patricians.Upon the extinction of the republic, the old ideas of duty and obligation out and the common beingworn of bed yoke (conjugium) repellent, only companionship and board was desired only voluntaryfriendshipbetween the a

"

"

parties;and

marriageemployed by the breakingof it was became

of the three became

the last-mentioned

almost so

superfluous. The

the father's side

only)

everybody but

common

old view

certain

the form

of

and priests,

that the formality of doing so of relationship by agnation(on

slowly abandoned, side as well)came

and

relationship to be recognised by cognation(on the mother's had also been the case in Greece.^' as Toward the prevalently, end of Rome's the Voconian had law been ascendingperiod, unknown passed to stem the growing practise, to the old custom, of men givingreal estate to women incompleteand was ; but it was circumvented. Then the husband and wife became depende ineasily of each pther, and if she had inherited property from her family,she retained full possessionof it (under a lenient was

Plato's attitude is significant. Witliin little over after Callias he would a century liked to revive some of the earlier customs which looked to the interest of the the state rather than to comfort and convenience of individuals: but on proposing them in his Laws he gave (in which the new communism of his Republic, and up verted reof the communes), to the old communism he had to be apologetic toward viduals, indiand temper the harshness of the old laws by providing means for discriminating in particular cases, XI, 923 B, 924 D, 925 D-926 D. 25 Aulus 21 GelHus, IV. 3, XVII. (44); Valerius Maximus, II. i. " 4. that Plato admitted the wife's relatives,and females as well as males, into 26 Note the family council. Laws, XI. 929 B-C. 24

have


io8

FEMINISM

remained,^^and upon the fuller revival of those laws in the twelfth and succeedingcenturies, wives there early,and almost acquiredthe rightof owning property independent prematurely, have seen, of their husbands, and in some countries,as we allowed to vote vicariously were through their husbands or other n^ale relatives whom theydesignated.Yet even so, it was mostly the brotherless merely through daughterthat the property went, her first to her husband, and then to her son, althoughgenerally father's position, at least if a high one, would go through her only Still to-day such are the conditions obtainingin to her son/^ the families of royalty, and in graduallylessening degree down riage throughthe successive ranks of the nobility.Among these,marof pleasure; and is stillsomething else besides a matter if not incidentally attained in it,has to be sought outside. pleasure, In Germany, in many the of better class parts,even ants peashad their familyand their property organisedon the primogenitur scent; plan,which preservedcontinuityin a singleline of delaws

"

ideas since the revolution,and under the extension of industrialism, have been making inroads in the old customs,"* while the burgher class is fast abandoning the old traditions. In England the civil law penetratedleast, and in her law the old Germanic common (and Jewish) traditions were tained rethe longest, while her statute law permitting entail has preserved of estates in families. Nowhere the continuity else has and the daughtersbeen so well the problem of the younger sons in England; but there,too, the as managed by the aristocracy indissoluble marriage tie of the patriarchal paterfamilias system somewhat has had to give way to the bourgeoisdemand of the for a laxer system. The Roman civil laws penetrated plutocrats at small to extent least, even there, a though mostlyin the earlier form and spirit.Thus even there,and by transmission to us in but

French

the old patria potestas was where decayed, the Christians had no rience expesubmission of a woman to some Parental of the continual man. authoritythey adult woman, to confined children, and left the unmarried especially if her young her in the late Roman father were dead, as free as they knew jurisprudence, while extent dominion. This re-subjected her, when married, to her husband's they to some to men (one which the Christians produced a discrepancy in the relations of women could finally (when of their preference for celibacy) which because did not mind that out into the woman preference died out) be got rid of only by bringing the^married In the north, especially in Scandinavia, this disfreedom with the unmarried. crepancy same of the survival there of the pristine condition), did not exist (probably because and there all women remained in a perpetual minority in Sweden till within few a decades ago. 32 Thus Albert did not become king of England, but received only the honorary title Consort. of Prince i Die Familie 33 W. H. Riehl in his work (pp. 231-^ ofl the 12th ed.), describingthis and obtained of family unity state continuity, by primogeniture, as it still existed in treated it as typically" German," and contrasted Northwestern Germany, it with the French conditions in Westphalia, where divided was property new among eq^ually the family broken all the children, and The only individuals being considered. up, is the old and general one between less advanced distinction, of course, and a more a social condition. (often too) advanced 81

There,

"

'*

"


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

109

accorded to the America, some were compensating privileges for certain acts, and wives, such as exemption from responsibility after possessionof a claim upon the husband for support, even Some ties, absurdiin the of if his divorce, for fault, shape alimony. occurred however, ciples. through misunderstandingthe old prinThus we have seen that the property passedthrough the

daughterand also through her different grandson from the

husband

to the

grandson,and to a band's the daughter'shusband husThe daughter's

whom property, if he had any, descended. did not own it outright: he could not, for instance,sell it. in the modern cyclesuch limited ownership was discarded. daughter'sfather's property (save real estate, or unless an

But

The

one

to

ship ante-nuptial agreedupon) passedin full ownerarrangement was to his son-in-law,who could sell it and thus disinherit the

grandson,therebydefeatingthe

regulation ;

the whole preserved it,he combined his heir. if the propthe did to not marry, Also, daughter erty remained hers ; but in the ancient system the daughterhad

if he

or

of the purpose and it with his own,

whole

went

terest wife's and mother's inthe unmarried premium on pendent, the unmarried almost indestate for the woman, woman making her when married. It also gave the idea but subjecting and handed t aken from her that her property was over forcibly in the which did exist not to her husband originalsystem, in ; hers and which the property never was never was fullyher the modern has No husband's. wonder by the system gone boards more completelythan did the ancient. in all civilised countries the present age has reached the Now function is recognised.The true doctrine positionwhere woman's that the mother performs equallywith the father the transmission of life,is now firmly established.'* Relationshipby has ship definitively supplantedthe confinement of relationcognation the to that, physiologically, agnation. For it is known and transmits the inheritance of, qualities female inherits, as well does the male. countries,at as too, in most Economically,now herit, of the people,the female is permittedto inleast for the mass and to transmit the inheritance of, property. The family in agnaticsuccession be a singleline continuing on more can no from father to son : it is only a temporary state,like the natural, animal forebears, bifurcated above, and with indefinite of our division and cross-unions below. Patriarchyin its old extravato

34

in order that she might have marry in it. The m"odem system put a

Cf. Mrs.

omne

1677;

animal but it

" Sense " Common Suffrage, 33. Harvey's applied to Woman discovered spermatozoa dates only from in 1651, and Loewenhoeck established by Von Baer. really not till 1827 that the full theory was

Jacobi, ex

was

a

ovo


FEMINISM

no

gant form is dead did patriarchy

not

at least for the remainder

"

rest

onlyon

the old wrong

It rested that rested its extravagance. economic render the conditions that

on

of

cycle. Yet physiological theory: also on actual physiological our

different. be made Men and women more equal in the can no absolutely Yet this is be in any other state. married state, than they can when the feminist ideal,with inclination, not equilibriumcannow be maintained, in favour of the women. to Our modern regions, cyclehas gone so far as even, in some make that

conditions

already. The state has been so perfected tives protectedby it rather than by their male relathey no longerneed male guardians,apart from

this inclination women

are

; wherefore

for all but infants, has least,and this institution, been abolished.^^ Also they can now support themselves,with it has become less necessary the necessaries at least;wherefore their husbands

at

in the daughters. Consequently, have and lessen to even most begun to decline the dowering of their daughtersat marriage,though instead they generally bequeath them property equallywith their tions condiand whether sons they be married or not. Economic men can are becoming easier for men: concurrently port supmore a wife easily.Hence they are willingto take a wife for fathers

to

advanced

providefor

their

countries,fathers

if there be prospect of an inheritance. without dowry, content have been pioneers;for condiIn this change the Americans tions and to women, here were and favourable both to men so much less numerous, made which the latter were them, yet so in that the colonial more valuable, stage, men, needing very early, took wives without help-mates, gratuitously, thought of dowry of bequest,*'to share their fortunes with them, the need or for them being both for their work in the home and for their also needed.'^ productionof children,who were To-day, howbefore it was abolished for grown-up In every unmarried country women (this irksome it was done only recently in Sweden) an institution,restraining the But in denouncing it, agitators often comwoman's liberty,and serving no purpose. mitted of supposing it had always been a hardship instance the mistake of man's an intentional oppression of woman. Originally, however, it had been designed for the The in antiquity: for, although guardiansame course was run protection of women. ship before the end to be merely nominal. it came not of women was actually abcrlished, sometimes 36 They even bought them, from those who had been to the expense of importing indentured female servants. forefathers often say that our worked their wives feminists 37 Our now to death. New This idea is based the" fact that in some old gravestones England churchyards on that the deceased had two, three, or four wives. found which is recorded It is on are could have been common overlooked that that condition only if there were more women fewer it is known that there were whereas than men. It is overwomen than men, looked, and widows, might have married further, that the widowers that as many their husbands oft their gravestones, if they had recorded might have recorded women, it was the man, which do, because his they did not commonly commonly or as many; In those days few women remained long unmarried, estate, that provided the grave. if they could sruch as clergymen especially, who did any help themselves men nor the cocks of the walk. then were 35

was

"

"


FEMINISM ever,

even

AND

MARRIAGE

here,under the stress of is reverting, if not

attention living,

a

to

in

rapidlyrisingstandard the dowry, at least to

of the

prospective or

is effected accomplished inheritance,while economy in children. But the lawmakers, meanwhile, so anxious were not much for husbands for their daughters,as for so wives for their sons, that they extended the rightwhich wives their dowry (the rightwhich forbade the previouslyhad over husband to alienate it) even real estate, volunto the husband's tarily his it alienate to his without wife's restricting right sent, conalthoughthey put no such restriction upon the wife's power of alienating her own property; continued to give the wife a lien upon one-third of her husband's real property at his death, without putting any correspondinglien upon the wife's property ^* in the husband's behalf ; and freed her from all priorlegal and practically disallowed the duty of obedience,in disabilities, for support, except at her convenience. return is For a husband still under obligation to support his wife, even though the wife be richer than the husband, and his property can be seized to pay her debts,while hers must be left untouched to pay her own even debts,much less to pay his,even though she be rich and healthy and to man

he be poor and sickly, and if he be dying,she need his assistance. Even after divorce she may marry

than

her

former

husband,

from him, thus addition to what she may marriage,the husband

alimony

and

yet she retains

being supportedby

two

inherited from her cannot compel his wife

have

not

come

richer

a

her

annual in husbands ing father. Dur-

to

follow

him

sents if his business requires change of residence; and while she abher thus his from him against vow herself will, breaking of his he observe must vow of she made fidelity obedience, (if it) (even if he did not make one) or incur the risk of being divorced for neglectand charged with alimony. Here, too, in practise, than by the man, divorce is obtained more readilyby the woman divorces than by men, two and in fact is more soughtby women For breach husband. the being initiated by the wife to one by of promise,also,a woman get damages from a man, but it may and a woman to get damages from is impossiblefor a man find some On the other hand, dishonest men to. wants man no if trust such for can one a in these arrangements ; compensation "

"

make to her he may over (for our his wife as an accomplice, and his the Roman) thereby property, law is different from h as The extendbeen creditors. his practise escape all claims of 38

The

widower's right of curtesy of his life is contingent upon

wife's property his deceased during the the birth of a child and the wife's intestasy.

to

mainder re-


FEMINISM

112

and becoming more for the custody of stolen goods. England has laggedbehind somewhat in wives

ing,and

not

very

are

far,^"and

like

more

this

"

safety-vaults

though progress,"

in the denunciations indulgedin by the look impatientof a few instances of abuse, overrather

who, suffragettes, the recent changes. There the with to chastise his wife moderately,

still has the right husband Some other laws switch. a and customs, until modified of late,were unduly harsh, such as the givingsole ownership of the children to the husband, even

though he

their sole supporter,

not

were

or

even

their supporter

not

all. One, altered in 1870, though not always observed, of marriage. is especially inconsistent with the first principle his wife's control of This was the law givinga husband earnings. has he for which in The husband return a owes right support, But his wife's care of the children and of the home. to demand if he cannot support her, he has failed to do his share of the and if she is called upon to help him titled out, she is enbargain, at

that she does so. the extent In Burmah can a woman get a divorce if her husband does not her because he has properly. This is the true position, support failed to come justas up to his part in the marital relationship, to his

all

among

positionof mastershipto

let the

extent

his wife

of that.

correlative to

she

do

we

not

go

far, we

so

emancipated from plays the man's part;

his

from

If be

woman

that

be freed

the early stage of civilisation, the husband if she did not bear him a son ; which is the

peoples,in

could divorce

to obligation

the as

man's

also

his wife if she

ought the

does

rule

at

least

to

the

man

should

not

perform

the wife's part. She, therefore, has as good a rightto her earnings he has his in fact,a better,as hers are unpledged, to as while his are condition, also,but not pledged. It is a wrong the women confined to England to-day,when work in the mills "

and all day with the men the housework at home.*"

only if they do Our

country has

then

in addition have

Women

to

do

alone

all

should do the housework, unaided, not do as much, outside work.*^

do, or these defects,except the last (which is

not

not

a

of custom, not of law), at least,most of our States have abolished them. Here, on the contrary, women have the most In view of privileged positionthe world has ever seen. be this fact it can that maintained hardly seriously our marriage

matter

89

cited 40 41

For

"

the

above,

legal privilegesof Englishwomen, p,

As objected But for the

Martin, the wife

see

Bax*s

works, especiallythe second,

3n to

by Annie

E. S. Pankhurst's The Suffragette,22. this evil under conditions present see John The old preventive would be to keep 50-1. remedy is for the couple to board out or live in a

Kenney:

see

difficulty of remedying York, 1916, pp. Feminism, New

working at home. co-operative caravansary.

The

new


FEMINISM laws

made accusation is are

by not

AND for men's

men

true

whole, althoughit may

even

MARRIAGE

113

marriage laws

of

Such

selfishpurposes.

own

anywhere

details ; and

lie against some

yet even

oil

an

the

these,

ditions, adapted to one set of concases, are merely laws wh'ich, after the conditions have changed. For have remained the institution of marriage, made have seen, was as we originally found themselves for the benefit of the race, when men by men in the spiritual Then lead. selves and economic they organisedthemtheir daughters, as protectors of their children,including and of their wives, even of their mothers.*^ It may be that mistaken of the institution under a originally, theory generation, of marriagewas in favour of men bent too much ; but that is not a in favour of women it should be bent too much reason why now and economic facts of nabe unbent altogether. or ture Physiological stillremain, which requiremen to keep the leadership. not content, nor Yet even in America would the our women are Englishfeminists be with our laws. They complainthat in spite of laws respecting their equal rights, theystillare in a subordinate i n in position, subjection, dependence. Sentiment is involved:

in most

being owned, althoughownershiphas many degrees, and they in return either being the other's their husbands own *^ mine and the benefit such as husband's liability to even a ; for their if it still treat as trespasses, they put pay damages them on the level of The comparison his slaves or his cattle."** far-fetched ; yet it is frewith slaverywould quently to be too seem in.*^ From t he indulged subjection, they allege, only they

resent

"

"

"

"

"

" H, B. Stowe, because is helpless and weak, and It was/' says Mrs. woman 42 the law of marriage irrevocable," Christ was her great Protector, that he made because Stowe This is true of legislators in general. Mrs. White Pink and Tyranny, 320. to be the protectors of women," herself says born and organised by nature men were be described, from Smith, " may one point of view, 295. Marriage,"says Goldwin for the benefit of the woman," the passions of the man restraint imposed upon as a in all ages," says is an Mason, Matrimony, Essays on Questions of the Day, ig8. Share in Primitive to the child the authenticityof the father," Woman's eflfort to secure '* is of value because it supports Marriage," says Saleeby, Culture, 213, cf. 282. and Race 187. Similarly Thomas, motherhood by fatherhood," Parenthood Culture,^ with it [marriage]is to unroof Hence to tamper Sex and Society, 193, cf. 226-7. Its Ethic maternity has its shelter," P. T. Forsyth, Marriage the fabric in which and Religion, 92. what to do with the thing owned 43 To property (which is defined as a power own different are suitable limitations) and to own good name a very pleases, under one it is in the way is owned. To be evil in being owned, one things. If there is any friend, not;^to be owned wife (or as a a as as slave is bad; to be owned owned a as heard We have whether good or bad, depends on the facts in the case. husband), in 1871, " concerning the husband's Stowe Mrs. ownership much talk, of late," wrote than everj^ wife's ownerpronounced ship But, dear ladies, is that any more of tlie wife. be said ownership so intense and pervading, that it may ? an of her husband of womanhood," op cit.,66, cf. 209. to be the controlling nerve of his wife). feminists. Mill (probably at the suggestion 44 At least so the male 56, and Bebel, Die Frau, 212. Subjection of Women, at last beginning to realise that they are are thinkers, becoming 45 E.g. ; Women, condition; just as the working class is beginning slaves, and that it is not a necessary that wage-slaveryis not necessary," Jennie Ashley, in The Progressive Woman, to see' E. Beecher wrote: "Our good On the other hand, in 1871, Catherine April, 1913. often liken their agitation to that which ended suffrage cause friends of the woman doomed to unrequited toil for selfish,cruel masters. race the slavery of a whole "

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

_

_


FEMINISM

114 is

escape

If by equality.*' But

must.

men

that nature

does

nature

does

make

not

them

them equal, is equal, their perpetual make

refrain;althoughthe truth is,as we have seen, that as Yet it is on this has not made them cannot. nature equal,men take their stand: be men's equal not must women ground they but not only politically, only in the state, but in the home domestically not only as citizens,but as conjointsand as "

"

parents.

marriage laws and customs different from its neighbours', and it is impossible they should all be good, and unlikely them be that any of should ditions perfect. Conand and need laws themselves customs to adapt change, Every country

thereto. and

Reforms

women

reforms

as

be

in the

world

has

in the relations between necessary in the relations between and men. men are

as

suggestedfor

men

Many

in America.

us Fifty years ago stupidstate of thingsin this country of ours. Man had put woman and bowed down before her, on a pedestal, and tried to keep all toil and defilement from her. This was due to a scarcity-value in a new set upon women country. Such in the West : hence the coddling conditions stillsubsist somewhat of the women with the vote there the moment they asked for must it;but such conditions have ceased in the East. Women

there

was

can

a

most

But the married work is in a woman's well as men. as with which she can transition state, due to the facility accomplish " Our men," says Mrs. John what is left of domestic labours. " but have done too much for their women, Martin, materially " is much division too labour little." There of too spiritually and wife, and separation of the one between husband from the other. Mrs. Wharton, in her novel The Custom of the Country, of that custom the our rightly complains country is for the men little in their work too to interest the women (p. 206) : the wife has no part in her husband's business, where she might even assistance be of assistance, is shown the as by given to husbands wives in in France. She might have their by Europe,especially do not interest themselves enough in their added, that our men in the care of the children. Cerwives' work at home, especially tainly the boys after the age of puberty should be the concern of the father ; but in our country fathers stillleave the principally

work,

are When men so many of toil, it is difficult to S7-8, cf. 53.

toilingto keep daughters, wives, and mothers Woman the resemblance," Suffrage and

trace

"

from

Woman

land

any s

fession, Pro-

Women will be either the friend slave of man," or "Woman be a subject or an must Higginson: equal: there is no to learn the Alphabets 137-8, 148, Common Sense middle about ground," Ought Women is no in Works^ iv. 33S. This is like the Stoic doctrine that there middle Women, being a saint and a villain. ground between 47 Feminism, 301, 46

Mary

Vindication,

Wollstonecraft: so.


FEMINISM

ii6 in

publicand

should

to

be made

not

into crimes

by

that

Acts

segregate a nuisance.

not

are

What

is not crime in

law.

a

crimes

crime

in

not a crossinga crossing a county line,is certainly Act is the Mann to not only contrary State line ; and as principle, also an abuse of a constitutional permission to Congress,but it leads only to blackmail,and ought to be repealedimmediately. not Acts undoing a mistake, an accident,or a crime,certainly are the part of raped themselves criminal. Abortion, at all events on

deceived

or

should not

women,

be

as especially penalised,*'

it

can

blackmostly as the alternative of mail. punished only Perhaps the foolishest law we have in this matter is the federal here one forbidding contraception.Our government and our States directly violate the post-office, strains its power over free press, which the constitutional rightsof free speech and and fitfully,

be

rightof free science. To identifyit with obscenityis a subterfuge;for then obstetrics would have to be forbidden. Knowledge of contraceptionis only an extension of our knowledge of conception. Knowledge of conception,we from brutes. of the thingswhich distinguish have seen, is one men when reached that knowledge. distinct advance It was men a Some ancient moralists may, perhaps,have inveighedagainstits If so, they acted like some fusion of our moralists. Difintroduction. of the knowledge and means like diffusion of contraception, of the knowledge and means of preventingand curinginfection, naturallyinclude

the

facilitate immoral may be faced by moralists: from the moral Even recommend and

so

of

acts ; but

condition which their backs to turn

that is

a

must

it. on they ought not it has the advantage,often standpoint, for it,of permittingyoung early, people to marry for to patronise men prostitution removing a cause young

and

for young employment,also,is

women

to

suffer

restlessness. Its injunction upon all married nervous

moral positive defects. Moralists,moreover, not canhereditary shut the door on it altogether.In spiteof the law (which is abrogatedin almost every country except ours) such knowledge does extend throughoutour upper classes : *" the law keeps it now therefore,^o on only,from the lower classes. The lower classes, less lavishly, while the upper classes have curor tailed breedingmore Here is harm the their breeding. done by our law: it unbalances Malthusianism, permittingit above, and preventing of what is just the reverse should be. it below ; which The abolition of the law cannot, unfortunately, bring about the reversal but it least at of this sea-saw toward a levelling help ; may a

peopleafflictedwith

48 49

Cf. Forel, The Sexual Question, 402, 409, 416. The American Cf. Lydia K. Commander, Idea, New

York,

1907,

pp.

44, 90,

92.


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

117

the two

sides."* The supportersof the law are capitaUsts, who wish to keep up a crowded labour market, Catholic priests, who wish their sect to spreadand swallow up the rest, and that class of moralists who invoke the law to inculcate morality like the who would punish men stead prohibitionists, by law for drinking,inof merely punishingthem for the misdemeanours committed when they are drunk, or like the pacifists, who would keep arms hands for fear of the harm out of people's with. they might do therefeminists incline to be prohibitionists and Curiously,the time the that laws at all to same they are opposed pacifists, ing represswith the eugenists, that to contraception.They recognise, should be actually recommended. some persons contraception But it is not the purpose of this work to advocate positive of reform. of warning Its objectis the humbler one measures againstill-advised and dangerousreforms. Such are the reforms recommended specially by the feminists. None of those above

on

"

feministic. as much They interest men suggestedare specifically their interest and do need the women's for not vote as they women, adoption,most of them existingin many countries where men "

of our States the take another instance : in some age of consent is too low, being considerablyunder that at which tained girlsare firstallowed to disposeof their property. It has been redren chiltimes when from primitive marriagewas permittedto extended has been only too slightly on reachingpuberty,or

rule.

Or

"

in raising interested Fathers now are just as much mothers. Feminists, of it for their daughters'sakes, as are in such the monopoly of seeking reforms have not course, marital relations. For instance, the sexual and as important matters mendation. again,sterilisationof the unfit is another eugenistrecomBut eugenics(a man-made science)is one thing, In all these matters another. and feminism every country in the reforms. peculiar world needs reforms, and every country its own which need for we countries do not need the reforms And many nism. femiwithout have them that they already the simple reason

since.

"

"

"

be

tionally, soughteverywhererathe peculiarconditions of in manexist universally that conditions kind. the country, but of natural leged is peculiarto the feminists is the advocacy of alWhat the sexes beingequal. reforms that springfrom the idea of the that women recommended on ground Or if any reform is have seen is feministic. We are superiorto men, this a fortiori the in physiology primary sexonly that the feminists recognise admit difference of would no in differences. So sociologythey

Improvement in them ought to not with recognition only of

BO

So

W.

J. Robinson, The

Limitation

of Offspring, 52-5.


FEMINISM

ii8

function

assign

superiority

reforms

are

socialism,

or

the

Of

the

course

still

dependence gallantly

of

may of

the

as,

be

Bthic

and

as

it

we

of

Freethought,

be

this must

421.

kept

as,

socialism

end now

they turn

collective of

sight

"

by

contribution

to

possible,

direct

men

possibility

reference

our

members

unrecognised

this

without

even

the out

is

On

its

have

wives).

on

feminist

equal.

possible to

the

be

long

husbands, would

but

the

on

and

all ;

ungratefully

would

build;

recommendations

Fearson,

least

would

men

and

men,

women

defend men

under

artificially

sexes

individually

the

would

only

(independence

of

economically

think

feminists

"

Cf.

them

the

they

furthermore,

fathers

and

support work

on

the

two

of

on

who

men,

to

that

possible

dependence

the

women

far

the

independence

ability

at

of

status

to

and

by

As

some

Bl

the

be

independence

them

Such

women

their

their

in

feministic,

would

that

economic

principally

denied

socialism.

To

economic

state's

be

women.

and

equal

dependence

same

and

an

assimilate

would

would

the

matters

permit

would

and

these

the

and "

Especially

women.

in

Then

produced. state

to

^^

child-bearing

of

that

beyond

to

their

attention.

"

ism social-

efforts.


CHAPTER FEMINIST

The

demands

V. DEMANDS

of the feminists go againstthe very

essence

of

from mere marriage. For marriage,as distinguished pairingor like that of mating, performed by many species animals, having been instituted either by custom or by law, is,when once entered and as far as possible permanent association, upon, an obligatory with of forming the smallest society only two, prospect of more, and duties. The parties who are bound togetherby mutual rights who it lose certain rightsand gain others,as in the contract There of men case enteringcivil societyout of a state of nature. i n that civil all be to on seems a difference, entering society men b ut said to lose and gain the same on are rights, enteringmarriage and the woman lose and gain different rights:the man the man himself and gainsrights loses his rightto spend all his income on (now almost reduced, before the law, to nothing) over his wife loses certain rightsover self, herand his children,while the woman rather lost them, for now her property, and her children (or she loses,except her father's name), it is difficult to say what her husband and his property. Yet this difference and gainsrightsover is more apparent than real,since in forming the large of the state the strong and the weak reallylose and gain society formed there is immediatelya cleavage differently ; for in it when between the rulers and the ruled,who thus suffer or enjoy different losses and gains. In all association there is a differentiation and an inferior between between employersand ema superior ployes, teachers and scholars, between between priests and communicants, between directors and mere subscribers, etc.,etc. Only there in business partnerships be an approach to equality, and can in which succeed best senior richer a or a they generally party has the leadership. So in marriage the one party must preferablybe would and since otherwise it ture rarelybe lasting, as by nasuperior, in the relevant the he the man is, superior, respects, generally And ligion is almost everywhere so recognisedby law. usuallyby rein religion, which husband and wife too, as by our prevalent "

119


FEMINISM

120

said to be one flesh ^ or body/^ of which the husband is the head.^ Blackstone played into the hands of the Unfortunately, feminists here, by sayingthat accordingto the common law the husband and wife are one person,"and treating the husband as that one person, into whose beingthe legalexistence of the wife is " " The husband and wife together incorporated ; which is nonsense.^ form one w hich the feminists or legalbody corporation,* would leave headless,but which everybodyelse recognises ing as needhead which the husband head a is,so that the law ; naturally him must such. this condition of inequality natural as Against accept within the body marital, especially ment againstthe requireof obedience on the part of the wife, objectionsare now to whom being raised by our advanced women, marriage as a " " man-made institutionno longerappears worthy of respect,and to whose tianity contemplatedreforms, even if they be Christians,Chrisoffers little hindrance,and none of course if they be not are

"

"

since Christianity itself was man-made." Christians, is impossible for marriageto be otherwise,these women

^

But

it

as

their

and

male

abettors practically wish to make thing marriageover into somewhich is no longermarriage at all. The ideal is one of friendship or comradeship that marriage is to be a union of friends. Women wives to be, not as are the consorts of men for the perpetuation of the family and the but their for the pleasureof close or companions, hetairae^ race, association and sexual intercouse.^ It was Mary Wollstone"

II. 24, Matt. XIX. X. 8, Ephes. V. 31. Somewhat similarly The 5, Mark IX. 45. of Manu, la Lactantius, Dw. Instit.,VI. 23. 2/. Cor. XL Apostolic Constitutions^ I. 8, VI. 29, pseudo3, Ephes. V. 23; cf. The Castitatis, c. 5. Cyprian, De Disciplina et Bono i. 442. Of course the husband and wife may 3 Comtnentanes, form one in person of a corporation; but then the husband is incorporated into its being the legal sense the wife is, and not she into his. as just as much 4 Or it is rather the family that is the corporation, since the children also enter into law: see Maine, Ancient it. So in the Roman Law, 184. Howard 5 Thus the suffragist leader, the Rev. Miss Anna Shaw, is reported as saying this word to [obey] in the marriage use she thinks it positively wicked contract, (This word York in The New obey," once Times, June is, 1914. dropped from the time at the of the revolution sects in our country above, see marriage service by some Usually Paul is the butt. has recently been Thus dropped in Denmark.) pp. 6-7 1

Gen.

Laws

"

"

"

"

"

"

laid down the Christian ideal for women. St. Paul who had has ever more stultifying effect upon the character a Militant Women The and tury, and and of men," Women, The CenSt. Paul's grandmotherly old And Mrs. Gallichan Nov., 1913, p. 19. speaks of The Truth about 'man the head of the woman,'" Woman^ Tory dogma, making 257; Mrs. Matilda National Liberal Union, Syracuse, N. cf. 235, J. Gage in her Woman's she became because convinced Y,, 1890, says that that society (which she founded freedom that the teaching of the Church the great obstacle to woman's ") had for was to its purpose the way for woman the hold of the suffrage by weakening prepare Christian religion on the people. Christian virtues, of course, are rejected at the same time. "There is no writes- Mary more self-sacrifice,"' R. dangerous virtue than Women CooHdge, Why of it, are So, 178, although she will allow " a normal minimum from to keep women being spoiled, when (which will be soon) nothing will be too good" for them, 335. Cf. Mill, Subjection of Women, 77. 6 The is praised as superior relation of the Greeks to their hetairae, or courtesans, B. Gamble, The to their relation to their wives, for instance, by Eliza Evolution of Edna

Kenton: "It invented of morals of women

Nothing

was man

"

"

"

"


FEMINIST

DEMANDS

121

craft's idea, which

she seems to have and got from Hume Rousseau, that love is transient/and in happy marriageshould be succeeded by friendship.^She and her authorities misused terms ; for it is passionate love that is evanescent, and the permanent love it calms down into is not friendship, but affection. The to be, that the partiescontracting however, seems present intention, friends from the beginning."This marriage should be mere is well chosen, as it is only friendship term that exists between equals. Love, indeed,as also the affection in which it terminates, is a relation between unequals, is illustrated in its three typical as between and between men and women, tween bechildren, cases, parents ^^ and their aged parents ; to which persons grown-up may be added the actual cases of love (not friendship) between masters and servants, and the imaginarycase of love between human ings beand God/^ since no one with God.^^ can aspireto friendship and Therefore, the opinion of the feminists being that men it is for them to set women are equal, as right up friendship it contributed of Greek to the decline civilisation,does not have heard of Greek hetairism only in its sublimated with money could purchase They do not know, for instance,that any Greek man cases. hetaira (cf. Xenophon, who admires a one Oeconoinicus, c, i). Yet any Aspasia and her relation to society, should have the same de Lenclos and regard for Ninon the like. 7 Or in the florid words of Hippel, hard by the temple of Hymen lies the graveyard of Lovei" Ueber die Ehe, 169. 8 Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 46, 47, 64, 128. She 44, 45, 86, 113, 127; had written: Quotes Rousseau, loi, cf. 64x1. Hume prefers friendship, 45, 86, 114. The love, by long acquaintance, is consolidated happiest marriages are found where into friendship," Essays, I. xix. 9 E.g., G. B. Shaw maintains that "'healthy marriages are partnerships of companionable to Getting Married, 192. Princess and affectionate friends," Preface Troubetzkoy recommended idea, but something found (Amelie Rives) thinks this not a new by in his Song York Solomon Times, April 19, 1914), in of Songs, V. 16, (in The New addressed not to his (chief) wife, and that the Hebrew was ignorance that that song friend different meaning, term word translated has a very the same lated being transin Jeretniah, III. i, where the is plain. In lovers the Vulgate the sense arnica mea"" lover is made just as the French frequently to address his beloved as *' amie." The is not a new often call their mistresses mon however, of course idea,( since the distinction between wife and mistress always has broken down in degenerate one,

Woman,

That

317-18.

Of

matter.

our

course

women

_

"

"

**

*'

"

"

"

periods. All joy worth the name is in equal love between unequals," Coventry Patmore: the heresy Hence of the he.jcalls damnable Religio Poetae, London, 1907, p. 151. of the emotional and because it strikes at the root and equality of men women^ life of society in its spiritual prosperity and felicityof both, and vitiates the whole The Greeks did not bring this source," 153. Cf. Weininger, Sex and Character, 245. which of the ambiguity meant of their term both friendship account "j)CKLa. out clearly on and love. Aristotle in the Eth. Nich. treats first of c"tX/a between Thus equals and then of 4"CKLa between unequals, VIII. iii-vi, and vii. (or viii,),xi. (or xiii.),xu. Mor., II. xi. 51-2, (or xiv.), xiii. (or xv.); cf. Eth. Eudem., VII. iii.,iv.,x., Magna of Eth, Nich., VIII. ix.,_xv., xvi., xvii. Among and Andronicus's Paraphrase moderns, of the opinionthat the little friendship there is in the world is Bacon was however. unless he, too, used ** friendship superior and inferior, Essay XLVIII, mostly between not of love, which in his day. Otherwise was uncommon it is in the sense "

10

*'

"

*'

_

"

"

consistent with Essay XXVII. between God and man, In the infinite distance : theologiansfind the Patmore of the infinite felicity of divine love; and the incomparable happiness of love secret their inequality," op. cit.,156. is similarly founded the sexes upon between in XenoGreeks 12 The spoke of having (jyCKlawith their gods, as, e.g., Hermogenes of the ambiguity of their term, and also phon's Banquet, c. 4; but again on account of their gods. An exception, however, in modern of the smallness account times, on *' Schoene Seele." Goethe's is that wishy-washy creature,

hardly 11

"


FEMINISM

122

their ideal.^' Already the performance by the state of the individua man's function of protecting has effaced somehis woman what and to that extent justified the political the new inequality, the all But effacement be carried further: is desired to theory. be banished, and the present dependence on either side must conditions in which stillas a rule have an economic women tive mofor enteringmarriage is looked upon as base and impure.^* The love desired,then,is merelythe unaccountable attraction preferably of two souls (for these materialists are fond of speaking of the soul),althoughit would in practice be mostly of bodies, " which and after all the idea of interthey hardlydistinguish ; under a thin sexual friendship degeneratesinto simpleeroticism, We reminded of the of fine words to the contrary. are veneer decision gravelyrendered by the Provengal dames in one of their have Courts of Love, that love cannot place between married ^^ for they ; people,because its favours must be granted freely referred to marriageas it always has been, with the obligation of lovingservice on both sides.^' Agreeing with them, but carrying the idea more feminists are going to get out our logically, tary rid of such marriage,and substitute for its denial of pure volunfriends. Yet the love the pure love of free lovers or old conjugallove is reallythe highest, all love being ennobled by mutual service ; and on the man's part one of the services that not intensify only the wife's love of the husband but his love of protecting of her, is the big one and supportingher, for which in return she can render him littleservices innumerable the more, the better for herself as well as for him. Without an "

would be a hundred highest order of durable and happy attachments frequent than they are, if the affection which the two sexes sought another the genuine from were one friendship which only exists between equals in But of marfaculties," Subjection of Women, riage cf. his "ideal privilege and 123. union of of cultivated faculties,identical in opinions and two as a persons between whom there exists that best kind of equality, similarity of powers purposes, But if a masculine and man capacities,with reciprocal superiority in them," 177. 13

C(. Mill times

"The

:

more

*

"

feminine would be satisfied? Is it necessary not the condition woman, should be a sculptor and the other a painter, or the like, and both In admitting any side Mill has opened the door superiority on one money-makers? economic to superiority in earning-capacity superiority,also politicalsuperiority on side and on the other, dependence. the one *' will [in the new 14 No Ellen woman dispensation] give or receive love Key: benefit whatever," Woman The for any Mrs, Gilextraneous Movement, 213, cf, 149. with self-interest," Women and "Love went (She might never Economics, 97. man: of the most sensual added that this is truest love, which often have directly goes "The economic will for the independence of women against self-interest.) Pearson; it possible for the highest human first time render relationship to^become again [Jtc] a of pure matter affection,raised above every suspicion of constraint and every taint of " Yet he had said : Those commercialism," Ethic of Freethought, 422. marriages instinctive impulse are arise purely from which notoriouslythe least stable," 241. in her Women World Marsden) Builders says 15 as Thus Floyd Dell (Miss Dora " from the soul," 49, to be separated in the thought of women the body is no longer looks for the Magna Charta of feminism,'' and " in any it is to the bqdy that one case, should marry that the one

a

"

45. 18 17

De I'Amour, in full in Stendthal's be found It may 307. As re-enjoined, for instance,by Paul, I. Cor., VII. 3-5.

"


FEMINISM

124 their

instance,does

for

one,

The

disgraceof the ; other,except sentimentally

in that of others.

estimation and

own

affect the cast to the one not

the other. Not so in sire marriage,as it exists, and probably few female feminists deof her that the wife should not share in at least the honours with their share one goods husband. Friends,also,do not usually asserted who constantly another, pace the old Greek philosophers, else their do so regularly, or this;but husband and wife must shown

is honour

nor

over

"

be

marriage would

very

a

that if the husband to a

go

to

goes

is

a

cheaper one rule,the

to be the a

man

that

and woman

earns

twice

earns

and

fine restaurant

strange affair. It as

much

can as

hardly be

pected ex-

the wife, he will

while she pay a dollar for his dinner, Yet unless this cents. dines for fifty littlewill gain by marrythat earns ing all the

and

much;

fine-spundeclamation

be carried into can about independencevanishes. execution only if theyare to continue to live apart and merely visit less often, like each other and invite each other out, more or such a plan,as we male feminist has harboured friends. One few it ; but in all probability shall see, and another has practised incomes will ever entertain it.^* Else the socialistscheme of equal to be impracticable. be adopted; but that we have seen for all must The

are Friends, lastly,

not

full ideal

bothered, or blessed,by any such issue of

that marriages children. And we may be sure interfered with in this and women friends will not be much either. Marriage,the feminists tell us, is not for the sake way, of the children,but for the sake of the partners.^" Consequently the children that do occur will be relegated to others,preferably almost Such to the state. or childless,marriages childless, ^^ will be feasible for a time, pleasureunions, human matings

their of men

as friendship

"

"

but "

only for Feminists

a

"

time.

believe in

divorce,"says

one

of

them," ^^

Freedom

rich idlers in New York have married with the understanding 19 Yet already some around from to that they were the corner each other. keep separate establishments in all this. Juvenal described the Roman wife as There is, of course, nothing new '* her husband's neighbour," Sat., VI. 509. " I think the sex-relationshipof the future will not be regarded Pearson: 20 Thus for the birth of children^ in the first place a union but as the closest form of as and man Sex-friendship will mean woman. friendship between infinitely more for reproducing mankind," Ethic of Freethought, than a union 424. 21 Back in 1843 John A. Collins, an abolitionist, anarchist, communist, vegetarian, and at Skaneateles, N. Y., based woman suffragist,founded a community others, on, among " that marriage is designed for the happiness of the parties, and the tenet when such parties have outlived their affections and can no longer contribute to each other's the separation takes^ happiness, the sooner placethe better ; and such separation shall ^hen not be a barrier to the parties in again uniting with any one they consider their cialisms, Sohappiness can be promoted thereby," (from J. H. Noyes's History of American So of late Mrs. Elsie Clews Cf, above, ii. 42. 165-6. Parsons, in several pp. articles in The International Journal of Ethics, Oct., 1915, Jan. and July, 1916, ** " ** which standards for mating, among has tried to set up its own will permanence to be the final criterion of virtue," last article,p. 464. cease 22 Mrs. Women Want, 267-8. Hale, What .

.

.

.

.

.


FEMINIST

DEMANDS

125

of divorce is the cardinal principle of the new theoryof marriage. like seems Anything like an unconditional bindingtogethernow "

bondage or slavery. To me," says a leadingwoman-suffragist (so do they misuse religious terms), marriage is too sacred an institution to permit any allotted promise."^^ Marriage is to be entered into,only in case it can be got out of. Indeed, divorce is to become a new duty,as we have seen it taUghtby the socialist Bebel.^* Of course, in this new of equality, to have era men are mony, the same freedom as women, and so they will not have to pay alido not. since women The dangerous positionof a wife who has no property of her own, who has givenup her profession it,and who has (if she had one) too long to be able to resume for to lost her attractiveness another match, they do not seem consider.^** They look forward to the promised state in which shall be actually women as capable of takingcare of themselves "

as

men

are,

"

if not,

or

the

all events

at

'jtate shall take

of

care

Till then,probably, they expect alimony to continue to be And thinking who paidby the divorced husbands. onlyof women of liave property of their own or a profession or prospect alimony and even of of another match, they revel in the idea of women, or in an no uncongenialpartnership. longerhaving to remain men, from from free this Mankind be to are as any other constraint. " trial marriages ^' It will be but for a a step to if the short period,to see lowed to be folpartiesreallyare congenial, bill s uch renewal to or separation.Already a by legalise of our woman-suffrage marriages has been proposed in one States.^" Such marriagesare well known to sociologists. They have been practisedfor one and the Todas of day night among the Neilgherries, of our like the backward bundling in some for three nightsamong for a few days Arab tribes, some districts, for in Ceythe and the a fortnight Hurons, Wyandotts lon. among for three six months the or a s trials, Longer Jews among them.

"

"

"

"

Aeain

24

Above,

the Rev.

ii. 42.

An^a So

H. the

Shaw,

reported above. Jane Olcott, one-time Secretary of the New York York State Suffrage Association, as reported in The New Times, May 25, 1914: should be free to give love whenever it is natural. Love A is or woman man I believe it is unmoral it goes [the latest substitute for immoral] for volatile, and when 23

as

feminist

'*

for the sake of their children. to appear to live together, except and wife even each should be free to bestow love elsewhere In that case the by mutual agreement," her cecisbeo, as his mistress, and the wife husband have the degenerate to among Venetians! S. Chesser, protests, recognising that women however, Elizabeth 24a At least one, Motherhood and Marriage, 85-6. would be the chief sufferers. Woman, recommended Question, 387, 431-2; 25 They by Forel, The Sexual by the are in her book The novelist George Meredith; by Mrs. Elsie Clews Parsons Family, New York, 1906, p. 349 cf. p. xii.;and by so ^reat an authority as Sarah Bernhardt. in 1905 by Representative Townsend. to be allowed Marriages were Colorado 26 In and ten years with privilege six months of conversion between for terms by contract The but it is time into ordinary marriage. opposed by women; proposal was at any State. offered in a woman's significantthat it was man

"


FEMINISM

126

Morocco, for six months in Greenland, for a Creeks,and the Celtic handf asting for a year

of

"

"

to

whether

see

would

the union

allow

any

fruitful.

was

couple freedom

year and

among

the

day,were The thoroughgoingfeminist to contract marriage for a

by the Saracens.^^ All these abandoned the last,which was before the not excepting practices, in Saracens rose in the world, were indulged by small,primitive, period they please,as

any

done

was

could advance far in ; and it is plainthat none savage peoples civilisation with such customs. Among the Egyptians,however, or

there

marriagesfor a year, and easy divorce,at least in late periods;but the Egyptians lost their independencefor ever, as civilised. The traveller's tale used other peoplesbecame as soon were

told,since refuted

be

to

copies of and

wife

by

resident,that the barbarous

a

Islands

the Andaman

had

remainingtogethertillthe free to form

they were

other

the

child

custom

of the husband

weaned, after which

was

unions.^'"

Min-

Even

that is

more

than

now-a-days. And if marriage is only a private contract, what (by stillgreater freedom) is to prevent such the Hassaniyeh Arabs of Nubia, marriages as obtain among the married have free disposalof themwhom selves women among "^ Ever since every fourth day, or three days every week ? Mona ure Caird in 1888 started the question, Is marriage a fail? marriageseems to have been in the meltingpot. And here, of modern attention is paid medicine, more contrary to the spirit than of them, to cure to prevention. Feminists, accordingto one be necessary

would

"

"

"

incline rather to repairthe effects of bad their occurrence." ^"

than marriages,

to prevent

that it will marriagesand re-marriages be difficultto keep of a woman through the many changes is raised that women of her name. shall keep Already a demand their their own surname (that is, father's!) throughoutlife,as the man married and there is no law or as keeps his, single ; have adopted the women enforcingthe prevalentcustom, some There

will be

so

many track

Marcellinus XIV, 4. to Ammianus " " " Marie has advocated trial exsomewhat the same idea Mrs. Rose With a piration '* clause (which she calls " an American clause, since it would give freedom in marriage the oppressed ") to be inserted to contracts, permitting separation, if five years of married desired or to Enjoy life. How by either party, after four York, 1900, pp. 13, 29. etc. Matrimony^ New under article (written by a woman?) in The Dec, 28 In an Forum, 1915, anonymous riage, Marfrom of Our the curious title (misapplying something Westermarck) Incestuous^ " established in the like this is actually recommended An : system, something of statutory will guarantee social life,which to the wedlocked couple a certain amount the common and life, compulsory separations in public, home holidays from common self-exhibitions all open prohibitions upon performances of togetherness, conventional minus interior itself ring and other insignia of the conjugal state, and in the domestic " tion established all in imitaetiquette of taboos, and suspension of conjugal rights an of savages, that marriage shall be *' undertaken and borne and to the end as lightly and gracefully as a secret sin," p. 660. 29 W. L. George, Fcmimst Ititentions, The Atlantic Monthly, Dec, 1913, p. 727. 27

According

27a

"


FEMINIST idea.'"

new

name

titleof

"

More or

commonly

names,

Mrs."

This

instead

DEMANDS

127

the woman tismal bapkeeps her own of using her husband's, after the

is done

who have won by women especially fads of the various feminism; but notorietyby advocating the women whose husbands have gained some prominence,may be counted upon to stick to the old custom are adepts ; for women some

"

the game manded of Heads, I win ; tails, you lose." Also it is dethat the status of matrimony shall no more be indicated in the case of the woman, Miss by the change of her title from it is in the In to than the of Mrs.," case man. Germany, where there is another reason for it,an association has been formed for '^ the propaganda of this In our reform." country only idle sentiment is invoked: why, it is asked, are women to be treated ^^ ? if women the same from men And as are differently men, the question is unanswerable. It would however, able preferseem, for the men of the women, here to follow the practice and to the married from the as boys are distinguish distinguished single, from men son by the title of Master," there beinga good social reafor this,as society is interested in the marital status of all its will require them to members.^' As for the children,consistency ^* after the mother as well as after the father ; be named for why than the should the woman's cease man's, familyname any more for this being no longerallowed? the patriarchalreason Here, after the first generation that however, would arise a difficulty, the for the would go on doubling custom adopts hyphened names ; of the in infinitum. In Spain children take the paternal name of the mother, all maternal father and the paternalname names at

"

"

"

"

"

30

One

of

the

daughter received

first was Lucy Stone, the father's family name

marrying

on as

hers, and

B. Blackwell. the mother's family

Henry

But name

the

only

middle name. fiir den Einheits-Titel. In the German The Propaganda Bund language the term for "Miss" (Fraulein), as also in the Scandinavian languages (Froken), is a neuter be that diminutive. "There may women something derogatory in this, now grown-up for it had its origin at a time when remain unmarried; only girls were_ unmarried. and " Mrs." (mistress) still But in English there is nothing to object to in our terms; is appropriate, in most women. cases, only for married York in 1914 of the six feminists 32 In the symposium already referred to, at New " " name." Should the right of woman to keep her Fola La Follette spoke on own a " " absurd ? she asked, adding that the question was more no name man keep his own If a woman is to change her name which formed her subject. than the one simply as and has married not the that she loves a man him, why should acknowledgment an She urged also the abandonment her? " of the sacrifice be made by him toward same that if a to label spinster and title "Mrs.", matron; saying "it was unnecessary her concern and was one single or married, or had children or none, no was woman he was married first of all,whether and had children else's. Society didn't ask a man good for the goose." As reported in was good for the gander was not; and what or York The New Times, Feb. 21, 1914. " be quite as just absurd," and says * it would calls the prevalent custom 33 Forel ' ' ' ' celibate men mademoiselle to damoiseau non-married to as term to apply the Question, 378. Well, while one is advocating innovations, why not girls,' The Sexual one? recommend the right rather than the wrong " of their father and their mother, thus linking them combine the name 34 Let them be settled by each individual father and more closely to each other, or let that matter Also Vance Thompson, Woman, 224-5, mother," Fola La Follette,as above. as

a

31


FEMINISM

128

This of the immediate mother. For advance the feminists but a short way. would perfect equalityit might be established that the sons should take the father's paternal and the daughtersthe mother's maternal name, of children in the religion in Austria is determined as name, mixed marriages.; or ting they should combine the two, the boys putThe the the their father's last and girls mother's.^^ two side by side with the its own will then each run sexes course, vidualism, other, but separate. And in a democracy sunk into utter indiis again to be exalted why not ? '" unless the woman win's it not be stillsimplerto adopt Godabove the man.^^ Or would ^* ? Under socialism advice and abolish surnames altogether track of in there will be no sense family descent; and keeping here,too, feminism joinshands with socialism. It is impossible be the of both the families long: it must to keep track,in names, let the not neither. Then the other,or one or why familygo? of their b if feminists. And the suggestionse adopted, any say

beingthrown

out

except the

one

the familywill go. Somewhat analogousto this tempest in a tea-potis an objection nations for the woman's raised to the generalpracticeamong in cases to follow that of of international marriages, nationality, of who the husband. As the loss our women foreigners marry the of who the is made women our citizens, gain marry up by ings to be as broad as it is long. But it hurts the feelmatter seems treated of the new that theyare from men. women differently after their If men nationality marrying,so ought women, keep since

women

have

women

are a

their

less hold

is nothingbut

a

equals. Otherwise,

women

complain,

Of course, if marriage nationality.^" of t here would be no living together friends, on

35 Cf. Bellamy, Equality, 139. heredity, it might be better for

their

Or the

if there is any truth in Janice's.allegedlaw of (from his daughters to take the father's name (from her father). This is said to have been the the Hottentots at present. These are good precedents

and the sons the mother's ancient Egypt, and among for the feminists. 36 For in an aristocratic country^like England, an would lose her ordinary woman chance of becoming a lady, or rising to a higher rank, if she did not accept her husband's one also. band's There, in fact, as throughout Europe, a wife receives her husname rank and title,but not the husband his wife's. This is an inequality which ropean Eufeminists ought to take in hand. But which will they reform it? way 37 One feminist at least, a chivalrous matriarchism and Forel, would readopt man, of their mother, The Sexual have all the children take the name Question, 379, 379-Bo, would also have the wife and mother He the house, 523, though own he does 522-3. not do women explain how she is to get this proprietorship. In civilised communities He was build the dwellings. not usuallj^ probably influenced by Westermarck's account of the habits and habitations of certain low races, History of Human Marriage, 107-8. 38 Political Justice, VIII. viii. And by different sets of why distinguish the sexes christen your first names? not son Jane and your daughter John? This used Why in Europe, and still in France. Consistency is a jewel. to be done Katherine 39 They that they have no so Anthony in her Feminism country: say even in Germany and Scandinavia, 216, referring to a novel by Use Frapan entitled Die similar statement haben kein We have made Vaterland. Frauen seen a concerning with the difference,however, that to the feminists it is a workingmen by the socialists, complaint, with the socialists an injunction.

mother), custom

in

"

"


FEMINIST

DEMANDS

129

need

of either party going over untarily; to the other's nation,unless voland the children might belong where they were born or brought up, or the sons follow the father's and the daughters all have the choice. But while marthe mother's nationality, or riage is a closer union that that,the present practice will have

continue; for

to

else

a

a singleentity, family,would

The subjectcauses jurisdictions. since the event of woman suffrage, lose the rightto vote, on marrying a in America ; while a foreignwoman two

could

American

might

woman

ing foreigner, though stillresidmarried to an American

immediately upon arrivingin of only shows the total inconsistency

vote

trouble

under

trouble,however, in

some an

be

the

country.

This

as suffrage,

woman

part of feminism, with the present social as well as political who think also of those suffragists order, and the inconsistency a

"

without

they can

adopt their

perverse

system of the feminists.

These

are

Will

not, for "

So

measure

own

women

to the whole

be expected. pettier, may in dance ? Will they continue to be led the have to lead as often as be led? of equality,

trivial details.

the sake

leadingon

Another,

even

herself in need of some man's gentleher properlyout of a diningroom," wrote to conduct arm " Horace Greeleymany years ago, so long as she shall consider it dangerous or unbecoming to walk half a mile alone by.night,I how the Woman's cannot see Rights theory is ever to be anything Somewhat defensible abstraction." *" else than a logically if women be in every thingequal to more important is the right, well as to be wooed to woo of women as by men. men, men, claimed because of the the socialists have economic this, Already will for all.*^ But as the feminists t heir provide equality system

long

expect

women

as

lady shall

a

to earn

as

deem

much

themselves,they follow

as

men,

or

at least

enough to

suit,notwithstandingthat

a

port sup-

woman

always gain by marrying a man earningpower of the naturalising also advocate it Some who earns ones more. father female's selection the of the (or fathers) the woman's, for the improvement of the breed, and putting of her children in order to of women desire the economic independence this first, is But and in nature addition againstit, permit and foster it.*^ unlikeness into comes economic to physical play. It inequality, braces, is the male who seeks, the female who is sought;the male emthe male the female is embraced; imparts,the female rewith

will

small

"

"

this quotation is taken, admits here inconsistency Parsons, from whom Elsie Clews Feminism and Conventionality, Annals of the American suffragists, the part of many of Political and Social Science, Nov., 1914, p. 48. Academy Backward, 266-7. Long before it had Bellamy, Looking Frau, 342; 41 Bebel, Die Hippel,in his Ueber die Ehe, 69. been suggested by the eighteenth-century pre-teminist shall see in the next chapter. 42 As we 40

on


FEMINISM

130

ceives;in short,the male is active,the female passive. So is it, in varyingextent, throughoutboth the vegetable and animal kingdoms, with the fewest exceptionsamong the latter.*^ So is it likewise in the human also with but few exceptions from species,** backward of corners peoplesleft behind in out-of-the-way among the earth,*^ not to forget some worn-out peoples,degraded from their days of greatness.**Always is it such peoples, and in nature the exceptions, feminists set up as their models. our Among all great peoplesit is otherwise. They follow the dictates of nature. The man takes,the woman givesherself.*^ The key it is better for seeks the lock,not the lock the key. Wherefore this custom and for women to continue, to wait tillthey are asked. "

There

is

some

Beecher

truth in the old-fashioned of Stowe, when she wrote God made to be she, whom

feels when to seek." ** A stillmore

statement "

of Mrs.

riet Har-

the

disgustwhich man sought,degradesherself

ditions importantconsideration is it,that when these conit will be for the are about, brought hardly necessary for few are supposedto want who wants woman a child more in this way than one if she she at to marry can does, all;or rid of her husband that of be it would matter so a quicklyget indifference whether she went throughthe ceremony dren Chilor not. in natural be the as as they were primitivetimes, may and with as little when human to brutes, beingsapproximated need of artificiallegitimation the polygaas they were mous among *" for if man's children other a women are by Egyptians; with his the those those not are wife, on same women footing by as an Legitimacy,indeed, is hardly more good as his wives? feminists for the than for the of the socialists, objectof solicitude The of their to seems stigma illegitimacy thorough-goingtype. tender sensibilitiesan injustice to the innocent notoffspring.^" "

"

"

"

birds (the turnix, phaleropus, cassowary, the females, larger emeu) some Among said to pursue the males, fight with one another for than the males, are stronger them, and then leave to them the incubation, " of Alexandria, has been 44 said Clement assigned activity,to woman To man," the normal condition," according to Ward, Paedagogus, III. 3. This is passivity," Sociology, i. 609. Similarly W. I. Thomas, Sex and Society, 17, 28, 55, 229. Dynamic 45 of Assam, the Kasis of Bengal, the Kafirs of Natal, the Ainos Such the Garos as of northern Indians of New Mexico, the Moquls of Japan, the Tarrahumari Mexico, Islands and New Guinea. tribes in Oregon, the Paraguayans, and in the Torres some 46 Yet desired that our should reach the degree it is probably not women ever of immodesty attained by the Roman under the ejnpire,denounced women by Seneca: Dii illas deaeque male maribus Libidine nee quidem cedunt, pati natae. perdant! In the adeo perversum commentae impudicitiae, viros ineunt," Epist, 95 " 21. genus describes final seizure the courtship and of a degenerate days of Greece, Plutarch youth by a rich widow, Amatorius, cc. 2, 10. Allen's in the next Grant 47 Even heroine, to be described chapter, did so, The Who Woman Did, 56, 72, cf, 46. 48 Pink and White Tyranny, 269. See also Montesquieu, Esprit des Lois, XXIII, 49 Cf. Diodorus, I. 80, " 3. v. and polygamous peoples. vi.,about the absence of bastardy among 60 See, e.g., Carpenter, Lovf'^ Cornvng of Age, ii6. 43

and

"

"

"


FEMINISM

132

child without a husband and without a father for the child,thus infringing the child's rightto have a father, which would seem hood motheras strong.'^ The beautyof illegitimate has is so much wish been admired, that the expressedthat should go on increasing, in order to advance the time illegitimacy when it shall be legitimatised.^' In Germany this is an avowed of the feminists, and there has been founded demand (in 1904, by " Ruth fiir Bund Mutterherself Bre, an illegitimate child)a mothers. for the protectionof unmarried chutz," principally Norway, however, has gone furthest. There, March 7, 1916,was passed a law (promoted by the feminists)grantingstate aid to mothers anterior and subsequent unmarried duringthe periodsbriefly to

women

have

a

"

givingbirth,and to the children,where paternitycan the rightto the father's name and to inherit on established, equalitywith the legitimatechildren."^* An authorisation of consistent. But this has the polygamy would onlybe a littlemore when the mother does her that to recognise not care advantage child's father,she need not. Subservient to this allegedrightof unmarried mothers to suffer no disgrace, is the demand, already Miss and to give up the distinction between noticed,for women Mrs., and for all above a certain age to take the latter designation for additional tillthe the be lished, that, right fullyestab; purpose to

be

the And not

better

mother's

unmarried

status

if the custom still,

shall not

be introduced

children, takingthe onlyillegitimate

name

be

so

apparent.

of all children,and of their mother, as

of old ; for then the distinction will be still more all the laxness and indifference to paternityof

and obliterated, the

mother-age

be restored.^*

Spinstershaving this rightof matronhood, may it would seem that bachelors ought also be to preserve equality, allowed to enter to be fathers,and good societyaccompanied Meister in Goethe's romance. like Wilhelm their It bastards, by difficultfor men to know as will,on the whole, again become in primitive their children as it was times, and the matronymic Here be quoted Mrs. Florence Trade Union Wise, Secretary of the Woman's may of New York: I believe only in voluntary There motherhood, way. any who better off without children. well as women, are men as are Many many persons, unmarried children and there the other hand, want ought to be an on women, portunity opfor the expression of their innate York mother-love," quoted in The New Even of feminism, Mobius, has stumbled into this the opponent Times, May 25, 1914. welcomed to their ranks of the German pitfall: see his op. cit.,54; and he was by one feminists,ib. 156. 53 Quoted from many in Gersome one (approvingly?) by Katherine Anthony, Feminism 62

*'

League

and

Scandinavia, 137-8.

A law similar to this, known the Castberg law, has been as proposed in Illinois, It is advocated Woman, by Vance Thompson, 223. 54 Even the half-way practice in Spain of the children receiving also the mother's is considered it is coupled with the fact by Mrs. Gallichan significant" when name, that in no within her knowledge " does less social stigma fall on country child a its mother out of wedlock," or on tive (or father) either,The Position of iVoman t'nPrimi53a

*'

"

Society, 291.


FEMINIST

DEMANDS

133

back system, if it has not been introduced on purpose, will come of itself, will be able to have will be and the only heirs a man those of his uterine sisters, ward backstillis the case among some as will The women peoples,such as the Nairs of Malabar. then be owned by nobody,and will own their own children alone : how delightful!Yet by too much imitation of the primitives, ourselves. '^^ we may againbecome primitive These extravagant views are held as yet only by a few extremists. But alreadyan opinionequallywanton is becoming if it were self-evident. This widely advocated, and acceptedas is the demand for the same standard of moralityin sexual matters for both the sexes.^^ On this subjectthere has been much loose thought,even nists. the part of persons not otherwise femion For example,Malthus, though condoningthe difference of

morals,

wrote

"

:

That

a

should at present be almost commit nearlywith offence which men woman

for an society impunity,seems undoubtedlyto

driven

from

This is an error The fact is,that

committingan

which some

act

be

underlies are

women

which

no

man

a

'^^ of natural justice." of the talk of the sort.

breach

most

for almost driven from society commit that of bearinga can "

are recognisedfather ; while other women kept which beyond the palefor pursuinga profession(of prostitution)

child without

a

few comparatively he

men

pursue

still more

is condemned

and

which

Men fiercely.**"

when

and

a

man

pursues,

women

can

no

and In the perfect comradeship of the future/' says Miss Mabel inen Powers, to the Garden will return of Eden, which they left hand in hand," reported in York There is no Times, April 13, 1914. New authority but Milton's for their The for together seems having left Paradise hand in hand; and that which they are bound state of nature, without civilisation. to be only Rpusseau's times 56 We have this idea sprouting up in late antiquity. In modern the seen be found in Mary Wollstonecraft and her husband William beginnings of it may in her Vindication former Godwin. The after denying the of the Rights of Woman, of sexual existence virtues, not excepting modesty," are 65, affirmed that "till men " will be immodest, ' and maintained that more chaste, women modesty must be equally cultivated by both sexes, it will ever remain The or a sickly hot-house plant," 135. "When latter wrote: just notions upon this subject [of infidelity and divorce] shall the inconstancy of either sex be formed, be estimated at would precisely the same viii. In 1838 Sarah Moore Grimke "To value," Political Justice, VIII. wrote: me it is perfectly clear, that whatsoever is morally right for a man to do, it is morally to do," adding that women should not right for a woman only claim the same right-s, but should them "the recognise as devolving upon the same duties," Letters on Ten later the women assembled Equality of the Sexes, Boston, 1838, p. 122. years Falls objected to "the different code of morals for men at Seneca and women," which had given to the world, and " by which moral men delinquencies that exclude women of little account from in man," this being society are not only tolerated, but deemed of the grievances in their Declaration of Sentiments (The History of Woman one brought into prominence in England by Josephine E. Suffrage, i. 71). The idea was Work Culture in 1869. and Woman's She made Butler, who published her Woman's it aimed Act because against the Contagious Diseases a mostly at progreat outcry tecting (soldiers): see her pamphlet The New the health of men Era, Liverpool, 1872, followed in America She was by the Claflin sisters. pp. 7-9. 55

"

"

women

"

RT

Essay,

279.

58

There

is, of

" for the difference of treatment, Male reason tion," prostituto is certainly much more dangerous society than that of stain on the history of humanity," Psycopathia Sexualis, believe in the equalityof the sexes cannot admit this. Forel docs

593. not:

But see

those

above,

a

course,

KrafFt-Ebing, says it is the darkest females: who ii. 43n.

"


FEMINISM

134

and ramrod can When that new thingin the earth shall of to pass, come a woman encompassinga man,"" it will be time enough to talk of their actingalike in the matter wherein nature ence, Nature having made the differhas made them act differently. the notion that it violates "natural is rather strange tice jusfor doingdifferent and women to be treated differently for men and women and committingdifferent offences.*" Men acts this is the a nd when actions, case, the may perform corresponding A than on the man. world is usuallyless severe the woman on literateur was well-known not long ago ruined for engaging in mutatis are a practice which, mutandis,women permittedto enjoy with impunity. Habituallywomen indulgein sensual closeness another such as is not tolerated between of intercourse with one Which is desire to have men. it,then, that the egalitarians altered that women shall give up hugging and kissingone who shall take it up? So again a man another,or that men should say he loved another man would be shunned ; but nobody thinks anythingof it when in love with each two women are is the The other ."^ In which change to be made? again, way, feminist is the Greek who, in Plutarch's Amatorius true (c.21) it is is a matter of indifference in love as now says that sex said to be in politics.But it is precisely in sexual matters, which different in the two sexes, that a natural difference does,and are to men are common must, exist in their morality. Other matters and women and human with reference them to their as beings, It is the same crime for a woman for a as moralityis the same. murder. to lie, to cheat,to rob,to man however, it is Curiously, in these matters ideas that a so perverted are our modern distinction is not infrequently made: the man who murders his wife or sweetheart is hanged,the woman who band murders her hus-

perform the same perform the same act.

sexual act, than

more

a

gun

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

lover is

or

acquitted. of course, conditions,

Economic the sexual

*

are

bound intimately

conditions,beinga consequence

of them.

up with In the tal mari-

relation the

positionof the wife is not only physiologically, different from that of the husband. economically, iological Physand economic and duties are responsibilities differently

but also

in distributed, 69

/er., XXXI.

60

The

but same

the

class. And

Where

yet

the

Question, 252-4. 62 67. W. G. and

duties of

to

the

kept

of

kept by

man

counterbalance

way

each

other.*'' Conse-

22.

analog

true

society does 61

a

sex

a

there not

seem

latter Summer:

and

is to

no

is, of course,

woman

The

woman.

payee

payment,

place much

is apt to "Woman

be

the

the man who not keeps her, and the payer in the are, naturally, not and the woman does not bear a child,already difference between them. serious Forel, The more case: see Sexual

bears

an

unequal

reproductionjust as certainlyand

share

of

justlyas

the man

responsibilities bears

an

un-


FEMINIST

DEMANDS

135

the law ought to treat quentlytheir rightsalso being different, husband and wife differently in those respects. And divorce,the from differently breakingof marriage,likewise affects the woman the man, and its natural causes which should be are different; the the case. But and followed is law, as recognised by generally and women the economic condition of men when, as in socialism, is to be rendered the same, or when the feminists expect that even without socialism women nomically are going to prove themselves as ecoeffective as are men, and this is taken as if it already then at least one reason for treating and women were a fact, men in their sexual relations differently, For instance, is removed. because wives are no longerto be dependent on their husbands, either they will no longerbe so indulgentas in the past, or they themselves be indulged. " Only when the duty of support must the part of the man be on ceases,"says Ellen Key, " will woman and him able to demand the same from he as fidelity chastity demands from her."** become Rather, when women dent indepenand self-supporting, interest than they will have no more lack will have no in for the of which men a reputation chastity, effect upon their success in business.** The physiological fact, to continue to be interested are however, will remain that,if men in of their superiority because in their own children,women, children,have not such urgent need of knowledge of their own have on the part of their husbands, as their husbands on fidelity this demand their part. Never yet,therefore, have women made and now have men; the feminists are making it so as insistently for them only from a prudential pointof view, to safeguardtheir health.'^ to men, a reason as applicable leavingthem with the This difference beside. tween other reason stillunbalanced their on be so the sexes is a littlematter which nature will never obligingas to alter. Yet art and science are doing somethingto since the use obviate some other phases of the distinction, of of the make the wife on infidelity preventivemeasures part may from band's, littlea real concern as sentiment)as is the hus(apart when neither desire to have children ; while the especially for venereal diseases may go far to render newly invented cures such conduct equallyindifferent to both from the medical point "

duties of property, war, and and ways, politics,"Folkof the responsibilities 2d ed., 362. Movement, 148-g. Woman 63 The humble and our become so women so overbearing, that men 64 In time, too, our may small tribe in India, the is said to exist among which a be reached the condition may is not required in the wife, while infidelity on the whom constancy Kandhs, among which doubt feminists dishonourable; held no is highly married many of the man part which elsewhere the condition universally prevails. as think as reasonable would about Great in her Plain Facts Pankhurst a Evil,the sug65 So, e.g., Christabel gestion been given by Brieux in his Avaries. to have of which seems

equal share


136

FEMINISM Hitherto

of view.

chastityin they

take

men

have

always taken

the lead in

requiring

their wives and in the class of women from whom their wives; whereupon the reflex action of the

The helped to improve the morality also of men. resented."^ Men, it very statement, however, of this fact is now is exclaimed, moulded for their own women convenience,into what they did not themselves wish to be ! "^ At once resistance is women

has

aroused.

of their own Henceforth will be the makers women behave themselves. morality, And they will see to it that men But they will not go so far as men did: they will demand only for both the sexes, that all moralityshall be the same because human whether both are beings. It shall be the same they be married

or

single ; and

between

the

unmarried, whether

in

youth

middle

ferent or age, no difference is to be allowed, in spiteof the difneeds of the two and in spiteof which is denied,*' sexes, the difference in the possibleconsequences to them, although, these be obviated to It methods. are by contraceptional again, takes littleknowledge of the world to foresee which way the assimilation will be made.*" We have no intention of interfering with men," says a female feminist,in another connection it is do not put any fence here ; we true, but with equal application around them, but we insist they shall not put any fence around ^" either." And us, open advocacy of such fencelessness of the female sex will be reviewed in the next chapter. But the very the equalisation is generally stated shows the tendency. For way The Henrietta Rodman in York New example, Times, Jan. 24, I would heavier the girlwho no penalty put 191 5, says: upon I would the than blunders, on man. Societyhas no right to blunders more treat the girlwho That brutallythan the man." is of i s overlooked. nature, onlyfollowing society course, Nature, it is thought,has here made Women a mistake. to be like are and therefore their actions are to be like men's. If women men, "

"

"

of this in the next shall hear more chapter, from the leaders, especiallyMrs. 66 We Eliza B._Gamble had resented, not the implication, but Gallichan. Already, however, " denied absurd it is arrogant and it, calling it as as the assertion itself,and false," She apparently thought women created chaste were Evolution of WoJnan, 230-1. more is less, perhaps they were; in the beginning. As their sexual appetite than but men increase the difference, or rather the advance; for, to tlie other fact has contributed after all, the difference is not a deep one. Are R. Coolidge, IVhy Women So, 91, cf. 175, 179-80. 67 So Mary This authoress R. Coolidge, op. cit., 330. is one of those 68 E.g., by who Mary But know about hold that men know cannot 308, 312. apparently she can women, On about Pankhurst, op. cit., 126. men. Similarly Christabel 58-64 she makes pp. medical the point, and, being negative mostly not to quotations from men, many son, evidence, worthless against the positive testimony of other doctors J. Robine.g., W. Sexual Impotence, 3I4~IS( cf. 144-6. the single moralitywas in Bellamy's socialism of women 69 Even not to be that *' them the slave-code imposed upon by their necessities," Equality, 141-2. which she presided, as reported in 70 Marie at the symposium over Tenney Howe, York The New Times, Feb. 21, 1914. "

"


FEMINIST not

are

so

DEMANDS

already,stilltheir

actions Women's

137

be, and

be.

But into industrywill entrance will methods Contracepltional can

must

to be made are so. them make economicallyequal. make them physiologically equal.''^Consequentlytheir morality will be as free as men's ; wherein a great gain is found," notwithstandi the descent to man's level. The adoptionby women of men's and of having only one title for the married custom unmarried will,as we have seen, aid the assimilation.'* There is be to standard of morals as there is a singlestandard of a single and it is to be man's silver rather than woman's gold. money, And the baser it will be even on for, primitive worse, copper; of blessed equality, the rules account to be freed from men are of chivalrous conduct A which them. to are peculiar eugenic mandate of our has, in some States,been enacted into law, that the groom before marrying shall get a doctor's certificate of his health,inverselyas in several African tribes a jury of matrons called in to pass upon the virginity of the bride. The latwas is ter's virtue taken for granted,or is regarded as a matter now of small equally importance; but with perfect equalitythe law of health certification must be appliedto the female also. The of the socialists we have seen of indifference to be one spirit classes : if the lower classes can be elevated, to the welfare of the upper good ; if not, there is no reason why the others should So be allowed float them. the spirit of the feminists to over longer while avowedly aiming at bringingmen seems, up to the for women, to be one moral elevation theyprescribe of indifference be reached : at least therfeis no reason this aim cannot in case why level should continue above the men's.'* the women's Women, women

"

71 "

By

of *' prophylaxis of conception,'' writes of it: dreaded the most dulgence, immunity from sequel of illicit intend of both when it will undoubtedly to equalise the conduct sexes fronted conLimitation by temptation," quoted in Robinson's of Offspring, 243. Clara G. Stillman welcomes solute abThus the change. Undoubtedly," she says, Thus

Dr.

conferring

L.

Jacobi,

upon

the

an

advocate

woman

"

72

chastity in

"

will

'*

be reckoned in the past. high in the future as as rather than that of complete stinence. abThe ideal will be increasingly that of temperance But this change,_ which pend deis already beginning to be noticeable, will not [only] on the prevention of conception, but mainly on women's changed economic increased our understanding of sexual problems. Furthermore, a chastity status, and for its existence fear alone is hardly a valuable that depends on asset," quoted ib. woman's Similarly, in speaking of preventive arts that make indulgence almost 185-6. " safe as man's, Mrs. Hale The result is that in future shall have for as we says; enforced but a spontaneous fail to be of special not cannot women an morality, which Women Want, benefit to the race," What 271. Katherine is intimately bound The title custom," 73 Anthony, separate says up standard of morals," Feminism in Germany and with the double Scandinavia, no. be like like and their morals men's! Name women may men, The Elsie Clews 74 So on Family, 348-9, says we should have Parsons, in her book of women outside well as either with chastity of men marriage, or as monogamy in men. Of course she recommends promiscuity in women the former, allowable as as And Vance but in default of it is willing to put up with the latter. Thompson simply " declares that woman is not going to stand up there [qn the high, cold code of sex 198. longer," Woman, fidelity]alone any women

not

"


FEMINISM

138

of takingthe prescription

on

will

see

to

it that

no

more

their conduct into their own hands, be requiredof them than of men.''^

of comradeship, which we have seen demanded for spirit is extend all human Not relatioris. over marriage, to only in and women, but in play,men work, as we shall see presently, married or unmarried, are to be companions. What is proper for for women to do and enjoy. to do and enjoy,it is proper men The sexes to be admitted be to are are never separated:women everywhere men everywhere women are, and men are, except only where decencyforbids. And how will that hold out against perfectequality?Already it is proclaimedthat the sexes should unabashed.''^ Morality, it is bathe and together unclothed we afKrmed, will be promoted thereby.'^ When get the vote," is reportedto have said to a Congressional female suffragist a Committee, there will be no signsbefore placesof amusement in Washington, open only to men.' not Men, apparently, are themselves themselves: eternal be allowed the to to amuse by feminine is to be everywhere,oversee take part in everything, do things," to are see life,"and everything.Women justas attend do. and men prize-fights, witness the Already women Women have complained brutalities of nearly naked negroes. The

"

"

"

'

"

in certain

"

other

and

places of refection and recreation theyare unescorted,althoughthere for the sake of respectfor the regulation, is the best of reasons able the tables are beingturned, and in Now themselves. women York a year or two ago entrance afternoon tea New to places, that

restaurants not

allowed

to enter

"

where

there

"

\ras

was trotting,"

not

permittedto

"

a

man

unless

the feminists, however, Pearson Among sees danger in the choice of this side Christabel alternative. Ethic of Freethought, 378, Chances of Death, i. 239n. ascribes the recommendation Pankhurst, who of it to men, simply denies that women, under the lead of the suffragettes,will adopt it, op. cit.^ 133, cf. 125, 135. 76 This out and then, and here and there. now Thus, e.g., Miss Jessie crops every Ph be spared), a professoress of physiology in a State normal (her name s may children of both sexes, and and college, asserts that adults as well, should bathe 75

of

the

"

dress

together freely and

without prudish apology." She does tried over and of thing has been over again, and quimaux, has never cold-blooded anaemic worked, except among peoples, like the Esor whose Even the high development. passionlessness is not conducive to giving up this custom, and it certainly must Japanese are now ^o, along with the civilisation. Let the geishas, when they become thoroughly sophisticatedwith western read the Christian Fathers, who lady reformers had experience of such things among the heathen. Iri the Apostolic Constitutions it is well said that women should avoid himself still more many-eyed curiosityj" I. 9. Cyprian expresses vigorously : "You behold one no immodestly, but you yourself are gazed upon immodestly; you may not pollute your delight,but in delighting others, you yourmay eyes with disgraceful self are polluted," On the Dress of Virgins, c. 19. Precisely as just and guietpersons have to be inconvenienced by government (always exacting and interfering) because of the misdoings of uniust and turbulent the pure have to be so put to persons, inconvenience by the impure. 77 L. A. Hine, to the Worcester Convention in 1850: "I believe that much of the desolates socie^is due to the exclusion immorality that now of woman free from a and full companionship with man. Let it be impressed upon all, that she has a right wherever he may to man that the haunts rightfully go, and I apprehend accompany of vice and sustained sex,' would be broken sterner shame, now by the soon up," Proceedings, 57. not

seem

to

be

aware

frankly, openly, and

that

this

sort

"

*


FEMINISM

I40

What is not saucy in the gander, shall no more be in the There will dead level be at best of one saucy goose. of these feminists know, or mediocrity.For, of course, none men.**

as

"

know,

in women is worse than in men for dissipation the children to be born that is,for the next generation. The next generation,indeed, is poorly provided for. For, while man is freeinghimself from the primal curse of eatinghis bread in the sweat is also seekingdeliverof his brow, woman ance from her primalcurse of pain in travail not onlyby means of but by avoidingit altogether, or twilight sleep," reducingit With the looseningof the marriage tie,there to the minimum. is coming on an indifference to the possessionof children. A who may be abandoned man or woman any day by his or her be does to not care so burdened, not contemplatingwith mate, to the other, or pleasureeither to resignthe children altogether of the other parent, or to share them to keep them half-orphaned And if there not to be children, are alternately. why marry at of divorce all at least till perfectfacility be attained? So be because dren chiltoo, is becoming popular. Or it may celibacy, wanted in the first economic for selfish not are or other place, bond and that the is increasing. marriage breaking reasons, celibacy At all events, these thingshang together, associated with a shall that determination sensual pleasure be none the less. Whatever their appearance the cause, these thingsmake mination at the culfor a civilisation cannot of civilisation; long outlive have And in to them. the most they begun to-day, appear nations and where the advanced classes, marriage-rateand and where there is disinclination the birth-rate are falling, will to rehabilitate them women where, for instance,young the great social evil of prostitution, discuss with young men the great social good with old women but will not discuss even of maternity.*^Maternity,indeed, is becoming an object of business as indifference, compared with such importantmatters to

care

that

"

"

"

"

"

and athletics.^" 84 Yet, says Mrs. Martin: experience the slightestdesire

"

The do

to

woman

who

insists upon

things merely because

being herself

men

do

them,"

does

not

Feminism,

327. said the aged Mrs. discuss this vastly important theme," is dismayed by the York Times, July 12, 1914, " one mirably adin otherwise call it horror, too not frequently aroused disinclination, if we .may These mention of the subject. modern women by the mere womanly young to be to have given little thought, indeed pleasure-seekers are quicklyfound young for which Nature thought, to that phase of their existence unwilling to give any such discussion, with shfugs of them. openly resent has specificallyendowed Many disdain," " the fashionable the thing it became 86 About among a quarter of a century ago that it astride. But whisper from horse-back for women a to ride physicians, set the last few would impair their prospects of maternity, put a stop to it. Within the fashion women. of riding like men has again become among years this method warning; but it is no longer heeded. Probably the doctor* have given the same 85

Simon

"

If one Baruch

attempts in

The

to

New

.

"

.

.


FEMINIST

DEMANDS

141

Nor do the feminist reformers try to stem the evil tendencyof the times: on the contrary, they row with the current, in company with the sociaUsts. The most advanced ones even urge on the descent. teach the of They right ceHbacy. Marriage, for to be entered or left as one's them, is merely a privateafifair, If," pleasuredictates. The state has nothingto do with it. remain it be the choice of certain of them, peopleto says one with themselves." "^ affair which rests it is an unmarried, entirely "

"

here. be at a disadvantage They must be if along without marrying, they choose,just as well be in as enjoyablea position must The spinster as as men can. the bachelor,even if she has to be helped thereto by the state: the phrase now she is,indeed, to be a bachelor girl," as runs ; for old maid she sees no need of remaining. Spmsterhood is

And women able to get

must

not

"

"

"

pendence,* honor," and indethe higheststate, insuring and freeing the woman to serve humanity,"and, like *" have life full of joy and interest to a a making man, it A ! is their because largefamily bugaboo, deprivesthe money mother of the higherthingsof life, those in which men ested interare for a nd ties her down the to sery nur(" seeing" it, instance), and domesticity.Small families may be tolerated,as not wholly excludingfrom those other things. And the smaller,the A British militant, better. who has adoptedpolitics her lifeas child is enough,"since a woman work, declares that one ought of course this cannot be done to helpfillthe familypurse,"and who has an abundance of children." *" One child,in by a woman set up

even

by

some

as

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

of a " Bachelor She adds Girl " in The New York Times, Sept. 14, 1913. " sentiment : It is far better to look out for those who already exist than that cannot be cared to bring others into existence for," according to the ever of living.Cf. Gladys Jones; for "It is more advancing standard profitableto care of one's living sister than to sacrifice her soul [!] to a grandchild who the welfare may it is a safer speculation," The view, ReRights of the hiving, Westminster never appear; is taken for one's soul! June, 1905, p. 650. Even material comfort now and 88 So Mrs. Celia Burleigh, in Brooklyn, said: "I the single women, honour will be they, rather than the married predict that the time is not distant when women, the distinguished and honoured," quoted by J, M, Buckley, The Wrong and Peril of So the French Woman York, 1909, p. no. Suffrage, New "integral" feminist. Mile. " the pseudonym of Arria Ly, proclaims perpetual spinsterGoudon, who writes over desirable for most state hood," "virtuous" withal, to be "the dignified and most and the only one that will assure them true independence," as reported in women, York Sun, March the New 16, _i9i3. 89 Christabel reason a new Pankhurst, op. cit.,135. This suffragette has discovered for the recommendation of celibacy. She to be chary about women marrying urges from of the liability account to infection husbands, 103-5, cf. 55. on 90 York Thrice-a-week Mrs. Lancaster, as reported in the New Dorothy Maloney She says she was the tenth in a family of sixteen. Dec. From World, one 9, 1912. Also Ch. V. Drysdale, in his The^Small Family System, London, to the other. extreme does not to "the to object even single child system." W. J. Robinson, seem 1913, " We because have advocated the one never child however, takes credit to himself We have [of children] system. always stated that in our opinion the proper number" is two or three," The Limitation a workingman," of Offspring, 84. So in general, but than two should children in other children," " too many more he also says, not have " " families well-to-do crime," because then a they cannot than live well and being This subject has been investigatedby Lydia K. Commander, who comfortably, 33-s. 87

3

Letter

common


FEMINISM

142

fact,converts

a

into

woman

a

mother, and

But it does function. physiological which is the physiological purpose,

(nor

not to

so

her satisfy two) satisfy

to

seems

would

perpetuate the

race.

To

the supremest indifference. The rate birthfeminists show of one's own class,may fall stilllower, country, of one's own has children is a not Whether and they care not.^^ one or ^^ There is in matter." no it, longer any duty purely personal do to demand of the no anybody duty making thing anyupon except If the reproductionof the he or she does not want to do.

this the

"

valuable part of it, be dangerously reduced it can duty, then only be through observance of this great new able." repliedthat such reduction would be proved therebyto be desirof

or

race,

any

"

"3

but brazenlyin advocacy, of small families is really, the qualityof offered the plea that thereby,instead of quantity, mony be improved.^* This idea is in harthe future generations may From tendencies of a luxurious age. with the ease-loving it has been taken up by many the thoughtless well-meaningpersons, But it deserves and advanced in all seriousness and sincerity. In

excuse

the former. the latter account, and none on that there is not an of reason to suppose atom Physiologically On the contrary, qualitycan be improved by restriction of numbers. all probability is for improvement with practice, and good combinations of hereditaryqualities are more likelyto be produced short of excess in the later than in the earlier littlerespect

on

"

"

concludes

that

uneducated,

women

"

the

prevailing American and

'

men,

"

and

one

ideal, among which

even

rich

foreign girl. The

and

poor,

immigrants

educated soon

and learn

is two Atnerican Idea, 45, cf, adopt, children," preferably a boy and a who tenants examples, 26-g; so among physicians, 44; landlords do not want have any at all, lo-ii. have many children, or who who to 91 Cf. Christabel Pankhurst, seems contemplate this possibilitywith a grim satisfaction, op. cit., 104. The Limitation 92 Clara G. Stillman, quoted by Robinson, of Offspring, 193. 93 New Statesmen, Cf. an editorial in in The Candida," June 20, 1914, p. 335We much The of the opinion York, May are Nation, New very 21, 1891, p. 418: for any nation in it that the most to be happy is for all the individuals likely way for an individual and that the most be happy is to have to to be happy; likely way "

to

"

12-19;

"

far as compatible with the right of every in life, other man to have his own as way of marrying and raising children as to This rule is as applicable to the matter his way. of life, and will be better other able ordinarily intelligentman concern every any it behooves him than to do in that regard to judge of what or anjr college professor editor can do for him. Neither of a legislature or newspaper need citizen member any his own of what to feel bound present happiness to any consideration postpone may hundred hundred He two of his country hence. neither see foreor become a can years be futile to do so. avert the future; and if he could it would As long as nor a to exist; if it is not nation is fit to exist it will continue it makes fit,the sooner If the French other people are doomed for one that is, the better. or room to any which be for deep-seated organic reasons, extinction, it must no legislationor rhetoric need make reach," In other words, we effort to make "fit no can people more any to keep it from to exist," or becoming less so. The Decline in an article on 9-1 Thus of the Birth-rate in the Westminster Review, Sept., 1908, pp. 268-73, J. Fizelle attributes the decline to women's greater knowledge for the welfare of the sexual of relations, revolt at its inequality, and consideration be better if they be fewer, the perferencebeing for quality the children, who n\ay be found before pasHm in feministic literature. quantity. This last may


FEMINIST

DEMANDS

children. Reliance, of course,

143

is

put upon education;but it is a false notion that education can make of innate up for the want excellence.'*^ The claim is that education itself be given in may better doses if there be only a couple of children, since very few parents

are

well

enough

off to give a good education to four or this notion is false. If restriction were

five children. But even taughtto the very poor, and confined to them, it would be a good because the very poor are so because of thing and principally their incompetency. The majority of persons in the middle a nd all in the upper, are well enough off actually classes, to give a better education to four or five children than to onlyone or two. In the first place, children in educate another. a one family many In the second place,with but one, or even two, the tendencyis to and coddle them, and spoil pamper them,renderingthem timid by from them all The recommended keeping danger. opportunities for as attainable only in small families are generally opportunities for havinga good time,with fine thingsand expensive pleasure recreations. In largefamilies there is more occasion for work for hard study and to learn to pass time without expenditureof In brief,a singlechild is taken care children of ; many money. have to take care of themselves,and of one another. This last is the better education of the two. Small families directlycontribute bad of the race through bad gestation, to the degeneration and bad b ad bad education, training, rearing, discipline.*" The tendencyto small families is furthered by the fact that all the feminist views lead up to the culminatingone, that women are The unmarried of their children. to have control of the number And have a child,if she wants have seen, may one. we woman, the married woman need not have a child,unless she wants now " and than she wants. Motherhood," it is said in more no one, " "' the new morality, can be sacred only when it is voluntary." "

"

"

95

Cf. Mobius, op. cit.j53.

This rather than quantity in a race. to improve quality There is only one way to breed little or the better quality already existing and breed much from quality already existing. In default of this, the next best nothing from the poorer and preserve the offspring of the better quality and thing is to do everything to save the offspring of the poorer quality. In our country, to do little or nothing to preserve And this need exists in England however, there is need of increasingthe quantity also. In an article on Quality, not Quantity of their colonies. and France also, because Darwin advocates increase in an in The Eugenics Review, Jan., 1917, Major Leonard taken to counterbalance these are in others," and because some types and a decrease himself boldly striving for quality and not quantity," p. as each other, he considers consist in the novelty for a eugenist to advocate to boldness The seems any 315. suffering must he adds that '* the fears " as to continued of numbers. Thus increase all the advocating an increase in the rate of production among not prevent us from in inborn above the average which qualities,"318. are of the community sections nation which he considers above the average, or why belongs to a race Yet, if one than counterbalancing the of the upper more increase should he not advocate an strata^ lower combining advocacy of quality and advocated in the strata, thus decrease (let us hope it is not quantity? But this article is a good sign of a returning wave occasioned by the war. a mere ripple) of sanity, 96

is

to

"

"

"

97

Cicely Hamilton,

Marriage

as

a

Trade,

255.


FEMINISM

144

"

"

to According to another advocate of this doctrine, it has come the of elementary justice that, since be recognisedas a matter lie in her should decision final the the has to bear child, woman is apparent if marriage The elementariness of the justice hands." "^ if wife is the nomically ecois only a pleasurepartnership, especially is It husband.'^ means her no of by independent married with the if the it man is not because a fact, apparent, for this his wife purpose. hope of raisinga family,and supports dutiful. The also state if it is sacred is Then motherhood only

should have a hand in the matter, as the state needs children for its own perpetuation.Law, however, can accomplishbut little which the state here. It is an affair, rather,of publicsentiment,^ foster by instruction. Law can help by givingthe husband can ber numfor divorce if his wife will not bear him a respectable cause of children (at least three or four); and tlie wife also,of for divorce,if her husband should have the same cause course, The instruction should be a supplementarefuse her children.^ tion It should continue to teach the of ordinary Malthusianism. thriftless and incompetenttheir duty to avoid having children it of doing so) ; and additionally (and permit them the means and competent their duty to have children should teach the thrifty and enough to fillthe placesleft vacant by the others. Yet the the if state can people,or the upper class hardly prevent it, bent upon devotingtheir line to extinction. the people, are among of propagatingthe species It is true enough that in this matter attendant its when the of with lot the disqualifications, women, much are overlooked,seems compensatingjoys of motherhood and so strikinghas the difference harder than that of men; that the for it by Jews of old tried to account always appeared, and so difficultis it to account for that that fable would a fable, "

"

98

Candida," he.

article

on

cit.,cf. Christabel

Refusal^of Maternity

The

Fankhurst, op. cit,, 102.

followed June 27, it was belonging to the unmarried woman: see p. to the objection which she cannot give an answer The father," 367. Cf. above, p. 132 and note. woman including both the right of the unmarried the married to to limit her family, appears woman

number,

next

not

as

"

need side by *'

against

sex

Scandinavia, "

defence ; and to side is evidence

to

Under

sex

slavery

"

her of to

"

it is clear '* and natural the wombless

a

The former is in an married In the woman. The hood on Right of Motheradmits 365; although the authoress ** from the child's right to a arises motherhood," right of "volitional and the right of to motherhood Katherine Anthony " so manifest " that the existence of these two mands dehealthy revolt of the child-bearing in Germany sex," Feminism and

the part with an up

on

of the article

97-9.

voluntary system of marriage (woman being economically independent) ilton, hardly bear a child unless she desired to bear it. Cicely Hamop. cit.,256. Marriage, according to W. Lyon Blease in his The Emancipation "become of English Women, a partnership," in which London, 1913, pp. 224-5, must the wife has both personal and economic independence, and for her both the birth and 99

a

...

a

would

of children is voluntary. At present countries be annulled in some if the husband is ima marriage may of the man's be freed because to give inability may potent. Surely, then, if a woman the right of divorce if the otiiercannot, her pleasure, she, and he, ought to have will not, beget or bear children. or care

1

"

woman


FEMINIST

DEMANDS

145

succeed even if it were But the fault is not man's, and true. itis his duty to see to it that the woman body perform her task. Somehas said that,if husband and wife conceived alternately, there would would be a third child. But then the race never have soon become extinct. Against that,nature has guarded by exempting one sex from the pain. The pain waxes greater and the strengthto endure of it wanes smaller with the advance civilisationinto luxury. Then it becomes the desire of women to take into their own of hands the determination of the number their children ; and if the men, in any nation,resignthe headship of the family or concede this rightto the women, it means the of ness weakend It of that nation. of is, course, a sign approaching alreadydeveloped,when the persons who have to suffer a pain,shrink from it. And it is a signof stillgreater necessary and degeneracy, weakness when those who only have to inflictit on others,likewise shrink from it. should be And as women the bearers of the children, are women their guardians. So say feminists. The the extreme more moderate themselves with claimingthat the mother must content be guardianequally, and jointly, with the father. This is now How self-evident.^ littlenature determines set up as natural and the facts that in the question, be from seen some speciesof may in others the animals the mother alone takes care of the offspring, both and in others neither, father,in some theybeingleft to their taken of care own (among bees) by their elder devices,or being in the primitive mankind maiden sisters or aunts ; and that among mother-age the mothers alone did, and in the father-agewhich succeeded, the fathers have been the supporters both of the natural in the primaeval mothers and of the children. If it was it is natural in civilised ages for the mothers to be the guardians, times for the fathers to be the guardians.^Should it ever pen hapfor the children the that the mothers (as equallyprovide be natural,and selffeminists expect them to do), then it may mother should be that the jointguardianwith the just, evidently to bear; but it is not natural father of the children she consents In self-evidently or just as yet, but much rather the reverse. that mother the fact is does of not most forgotten sayingthis,the and earlyrearing;for that has its own the work of procreation the protector compensation. As long as the father is practically

not

" The suffragists have been trying to secure legislationmaking Alice S. Blackwell : joint guardiajis of their children by law, as they are by nature. father and mother etc.. Objections Answered, This self-evidently just measure," 4-5. to denies the mother the suj)reme control of the who Man is the only animal 3 The Other Side, The Nation, London, May 31, Aberconway, young," complains Laura who takes care not is the only animal only o" the child but forgetting that man 19:3, who civilisation. has made of the mother, and the only animal

2

the .

,

"


FEMINISM

146

at least as supporter of the mother, he should be recognised feminists guardian of the children.* In case of divorce, some

and

This would give the first rightto the children to the mother. in instituted the if would be natural they marriage were way desire it to be. But with marriageas it is,it would not be natural or just. If any division of the children is to be made, it would the should have more control over best that the mother seem Every fatherless son daughters,and the father over the sons. who talk so should be providedwith a male guardian. Those should admit the rightof the boy to have a gliblyabout rights, substitute for his father a positionwhich his mother cannot state needs this to fill. The take,since she has her own position to prevent eflfeminisationof such boys." Also,to compelwidowed mothers to be the sole guardiansof all their children helps to from This demand of disincline married women having many. of their weakening measures. the feminists is one more There are, and have been, two theories of marriage. The one is,that it is primarilyfor the sake of the children (unions for pleasurebeing otherwise formed), and is a matter of duty (not and is permanent, unless its purpose is violated always pleasurable), unendurable. The other is,that it is it becomes or utterly primarilyfor the sake of the marrying partners,and is a matter children beingonly incidental, and it is no more of pleasure, manent perthan the pleasurefound therein. The latter is the animal and was the first to be enjoyedby kind of marriage,or pairing, and w hen mated while they liked each human men women beings, and women left in charge of the children other's company, were borne by them, in the mother-age. It is againthe feminist theory of marriage,and would again leave the children principally The former is the human kind of marriage to the mother. and it is man's invention. In (no longermere pairing), proper children take whom it men to charge of the they have reason believe theybegot,as they do of the mother too. The father also tianity, regulatestheir number, in consultation with his wife. Chrisfor a time,produced a diversion. It taughtthat neither wife should refuse each other's embraces," and husband nor "

shirks this dutjr and in the present system the father who 4 Of then, even course, forfeit his his wife or children, or is incompetent to protect them, should abandons and if she assumes and forfeit it to the wife mother that duty in guardianship law ought to recognise such cases. his place. The 5 The appointed male guardian, however, should be only co-guardian. The trouble to appoint a guardian to law is not that it permits the husband with the old common He to that guardian. him after his death, but that it grants too much succeed power the mother, except by order of a court, to take the child from should not have power unfitness should qualify disproof of his own on proof of the mother's unfitness. And him. mediaeval (" Remigius, a bishop or monk, thus interprets I. Cor. VII. 3 in his Exviro : id est, non subtraiiant Uxori vir debitum se planatio, ad loc. : reddat^et uxor Veterum Bibhotheca Patrum, riii. 959. ab invicem a coitu," in Bigne's MaxUna "

"


FEMINISM

148

will

things

again

over

will

his

the

own

dying its

on

way

is

no

is

thing

is

has

said

would

they

truth

of

portion the

0

ideas

Cf.

11

Hence

the

would

they

have to

would 12

13

have

to

cease

this

the

to

and

at

London,

Questions

if

Fortnightly

of

the

cost p.

Day,

did the

whatever 1912,

Hale:

If

man

from

suffer

[then],

Mrs.

by [1].

race

denied;

were

Adrift, on

of of

be

to

come

Woman

Essays

ends

the

hindsight

disparaging widely,

spread

the

do

existence

mere

its

that

threaten

best

parts,

of when

doomed.

The

Question^

make

this

to

The

of

The

Unfortunately and

widely,

says "

Review,

October,

1889.

29-30.

absurdity the

is

well

to

of

^^

existence

the

them,

Woman

cit.j

op.

not

likely

them.

seeable fore-

a

occurrence.^^

Ideas

race."

the

spread

But

and

not

are

of

for

ious var-

suffering.

optimism

entertains

among

through

go

and

mistakes,"

our

by

would

fallen

its

anti-feminists.

life

may

safe.

the

on

Mobius,

forgets

never

is

spread

Words

Plain

10

race

which

world

after

"

probably ruined

be

remedy

going,

are

Smith, the

ideas

have

is

by

even

such

empires

Misplaced

Goldwin

large

at

race

such

the

the

correct

we

^^

threaten

is, that

to

where

with."

might

future

correction

her

tolerated

been

matrimony,

the

not

ter mat-

among

Allen

although

the

error

this

may^mean, Grant

apply

to

first

meanwhile,

England

many

time