Page 1


FEMINISM

BY

CORREA

STURGIS

MOYLAN

"" WALTON

COMPANY

1917

WALSH


1^y//rf^

OOPTEIGHT,

By

Set

STURGIS

and up

1917,

ft

electrotyped.

COMPANY

WALTON

Published,

October,

1917,


PREFATORY

Here in

be

may

the

work The

form

Climax to

explains

with

in

to

those

the

the

Yet

and

are

The

merely

of

present

teachings

socialism

which

advocated

its

are

without

of

of

others.

ism, Social-

on

the

tendencies feministic

the

feminism whole

the

it

introductory

of

That

the

through

that

all

tively. respec-

the

the

knowledge

without

which

to

grasp

consummation.

socialism

without

full

itself,

with

least

complementary a

ii.

running

argument at

is

have

can

of

bearings

the

back

references

by

this

alluded

i. and

either

reading

consultation book

to

work

a

without

the vols.

arating sep-

of

especially frequently

and

as

Preface for

reason

and

also

is

pages,

constitutes

by

and

The

the

and

the

three,

Socialism,

volume.

Part,

three the

following

volume

student

no

the

Civilisation.

of

third

said

the

others,

Climax

this, is the

said

was

ously Simultane-

two

introductory

marked

improved

volume. as

the

comprehension

be

The

of

on

understand

his

Still, would

of

this

can

entitled

of

volume

course

published

the

what

Socialism.

on

are

connection

volumes

reader

is

connection

The

volume

which

of

series,

the

them.

to

one

Civilisation

of

volume

and

a

the

to

words

altered

slightly

volume

present

Socialism,

three

it

Note

the

on

in

repeated

Prefatory with

NOTE

be

may

of

which

it

"

is the

a

part, rest

and

feminism,

is feminism criticised two a

not

in

is

is

on

standing

in

supported

in

advocated

by

suffrage

woman

complete

an

be

itself.

itself. may

also

the

the

fact

human

alone, Within be

without

similarly of

illustration

ingredient

sometimes

work

a

only

necessary

a

simply

chapters treatise

suffrage

woman

"

of

it this

regarded

that mind.

sistency con-

As

here

may

volume as

be the

forming


CONTENTS

CHAPTER

I.

PAGE

The

Movement

Woman

and

History

its

3 ...

II.

Some

Assumptions

Fundamental

of

Feminism

20 .

III.

Error

of

Feminists'

the

First

36

Principle ...

IV.

Feminism

V.

Feminist

VI.

Views

VII.

Women

VIII.

Woman

Marriage

and

74

Demands

119

Feminists

Leading

of

and

149

Work

199

Suffrage

Arguments

the

234

for

"

.

IX.

Suffrage

Woman

X.

XI.

The

The

Situation

International

Outlook

Argument

the

"

in

the

United

.

.

against

and

294 .

.

.

.

Prospect

353

368

States ....


FEMINISM

CHAPTER

THE

The

WOMAN

MOVEMENT

socialist movement

what

I.

AND

always

is called

feminism

ITS

includes ^

the the

and

HISTORY

movement,

woman

almost are to-day ; unanimous in advocating one inism, of the necessary implicationsof femwoman suffrage.^ But feminism, by stopping short, does or

not

go

so

far

as

socialism, and

feminists

and

may

be

socialists

satisfied before

that

is attained,

ists, suffragistseven being anti-socialbranch offshoot or regardless of consistency. It is an that it be is itself. As contrasted twig such, growing by may ; with socialism, with which it has many points of analogy. for equalityof the poor with As socialism is a demand the rich, f with eminisim is demand for of so a women men. equality They seek have in common that they both excessive equality,with the reaches for complete equalityof propdifference that the one out erty, for complete equality of the sexes.^ the other They both some

many

"

"

violate

nature

; for

the

one

is

contrary

to

the

natural

constitution

The 1 Lily Braun-Gizycki : woman question is only a part of the social question, und Cf. Isabella O. Frauenfrage Socialdemokratie, Berlin, 1896, p. 3. Ford, Woman Labour and Socialism, London, (published by the Independent Party). 1904 Belfort socialist few Ernest Bax is the only prominent 2 There are exceptions. very ' the Monstrous who The is systematically suffrage: opposed to woman see on essays Some Fallacies Woman of Current of the Womanhood," Question," Regiment '* in his Essays Old Feminism in extremis," in Socialism and London, New, 1906, also The Fraud his The Gronof Feminism, 1908, and Legal Subjection of Men, 19 13. New lund Economy, suffrage at least in the present regime. The opposed woman 126-30, rather take the view transitional others of Hillquit, that it is a demand," 358; though Socialism in Theory While and needednow, Practice, cf. 141. in precisely most 102, the socialists for it, in Europe there is some as are now one holding back, country our In Gotha the in the Erfurt for opportunist reasons. Programme only by implication, demanded universal discrimination of directly was suffrage without Programme sex. of it has been abandoned times and the direct in places, beat But since then cause advocacy would further the cause, not of fear its adoption especially in Catholic countries, the influence of the priests would where be adverse. Yet the demand such Belgium, as Socialist re-inserted the International at at Congress Stuttgart in 1907. was is defined 3 Feminism by Teresa Billington-Greig movement as a seeking the reorganisation basis of sex-equality in all human of the world a relations; a movement upon would differentiation between individuals which reject every the of ground upon all sex-privileges and and abolish would strive sex-burdens, would to set the sex, up of woman and of the common the foundation humanity of law recognition man as and Feminism and Review, custom," Politics, Contemporary Nov., 191 1, p. 694. According " feminists L. George, to identify absolutely the QOOditions of the sexes, to W. propose f^eminist Intentions, Atlantic Moatblft Dec, 1913, p. 7a;, "

'

"

"

"

3


FEMINISM

4 of

and the other to the natural constitution of the human society, ing as it is termed,or the freebody. Theyboth aim at emancipation, from bondage, the one of working people,the other of all discriminations women,* these latter desiringto break down "

in the female sex ; " and while socialism and barriers that hem excites class-consciousness and stirs up class-antagonism, inism femexcites sex-consciousness and stirs up sex-antagonism, and Their reliance advocates have confused on a places sex-loyalty." " notion of justice, in whose name demand their and rights," they because of which they think their claims so self-evident that they the feminists, be achieved in this age of enlightenment, must speedily well as the socialistshaving at first had great expectaas tions.''

Moreover,

as

know, evils developin advanced

we

ations, civilis-

and homelessness,that such as lack of self-employment There is,therefore, giverise alike to socialism and to feminism. in the one, in each case, a real problem to restore to the of of in themselves the other, majority men the means employing ; labour at home in the midst of their children. to restore to women of weak with strong men is not the men Only as the equalisation solution of the labour problem,as we have seen, so, as proper shall see, the equalisation of women with men is not the proper we "

Annie

"We to set women mean free," The Political Status of Women between 1870 and 1880), p. 16. Lily Braun: "The Woman has set itself the aim to free all women movement from economic dependent slavery through inwork. Die Frauenfrage, Leipzig,190:, p. 193. Ethel (Mrs. P.) Snowden: Ihe chief of feminists is the achievement of freedom for womanhood purpose and Its equality of opportunity with manhood," The Feminist Movement, London, J913, Elizabeth S. Chesser: ''Women p. 13, cf. 246, 258. are striving for economic, legal, and sexual independence," Woman, Marriage and Motherhood, New York ed.. ion. p. 4

Besant:

(undated, apparently

...

257. 5

Uie

Maurice present

Parmelee:

basis of sex J he.Economic

extensive and for

"The movement

term

for

'feminism'

.

.

.

seems

to

be

used

as

a

name

removing discriminations against woman placing her entirely or as far as possible on an equality with Basts of Feminism, Annals of the Amer. Acad, of Polit. and

on

for the

man,"

Social Beatrice Forbes-Robertson Hale: Feminism 1914, p. 18. Mrs. is "a to bring about the removal of all artificial barriers to the physical,mental, moral, and economic development of the female half of the race," What Women Want, New Yet throughout this work York, 1914, P.. 3the authoress nowhere inquires what barriers artificial and are what natural. She think seems them to all artificial. She answered her title more might have quickly with the words of another, an inist: ultra, femIf the woman s movement means anything, it means that women demanding are everything, Floyd Dell (Miss Dora Marsden), Women World as Builders. Chicago, 1813, p. 51. Juvenals " nil non permittitmulier sibi,"VI. 457. 6 Feminism advocated is by women of every class who have instinct of sexan " loyalty, and women are now learning sex-loyalty,"says Mrs. Hale, op. cit. 3, 73. bhe adds that they must be woman-conscious, and class-unconscious," 00 Ttis last into conflict with socialism,which requirement bringrsfeminism ness. enjoins class-consciousThis opposition is not much felt in England and America, where feminism is the stronger of the two, but is pronounced in Germany, where socialism is the stronger and there of the upper and of the lower women classes have separate organisations But the ultimate goal is harmonious, the one aiming at the suppression of classes,and the other at the obliteration of the sexes, while meanwhile both class-antagonism and sexbe employed as means. antagonism may " 7 We " fully believed," said the Rev. Mrs. Antoinette Brown Blackwell, so soon as that woman's we saw suffrage was right, every would one the same soon see thing and that in a year or two, at furthest,it would be granted," quoted by Mrs nam PutMary Sense" Jacobi," Common Question, New York, 1894, afplied to the Woman o. p. """" "" Cf. Ida H. Harper, The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony, i. 129.

Science, struggle

Nov.

.

.

.

Cf. '


ITS

HISTORY

5

solution of the sex problem,the latter suggestion ticable beingas impracthe former, and even as and the of more advocates so; these solutions resemble each other in their lack of seriousness in to ends and of foresight adaptingmeans as to consequences, like children playingwith fire and both expect, with equal lighthearted optimism,to reduce work to play in a happy world of calm and concord, with equalityof enjoyment." Indeed, the remedies offered in both cases are exactlythe oppositeof what they ought to be, having the tendencyto increase the evils they intended to cure. The social conditions profferedas such are remedies have, in fact,both existed in primitive munism times,as com"

"

and the so-called matriarchate ; but those times were long-drawn-outand almost stationary periodsof savagery

barbarism, prior to

superseded,the

one

the and

which civilisation, began after they were by privateproperty, the other by male supremacy,

and

which will probablyend if they be brought back. Both have likewise in historical times been imperfectly tried, and both have failed lamentably.Attempts at both have always attended the decline of civilisations. Feminism is not new, any more than socialism. The modem is a productof the peace movement, with its elaborated doctrine, and prosperity of the nineteenth century; but the movement, out withthe completedoctrine, had appeared long before. The literal of them out from under the or the taking emancipationof women, hand (themanus) of their husbands,took place, at firstby the aid in the cycleof its civilisation in Rome, as it rose of legalfictions, then enjoyed toward the pointwe have reached in ours. Women the freedom of owning the property bequeathedto them by their efforts or speculations.Their parents or acquiredby their own in effecting indirect influence on the repealof the legislation Oppian law againstluxury,by throngingthe streets and besieging the doors of the opposing tribunes,was but a flash in the pan. The Voconian law only forbade men to leave property to women outside their families. The serious and deleterious influence of noticeable toward have seen, became women on as we politics, the end of the republic, ciently, and continued under the empire. Anwhen a woman had appeared in the forum to plead her the oracle monstrous own so as to requ,ire case, the affair seemed In consulted.* the first admitted be b. c. to women were century to practise as lawyers,tillthe intemperateconduct of a certain In the Grecian secCaia Afrania caused them to be excluded." 8 9

Plutarch, Comparison of Numa Digest, III, i. I. " 5; Valerius

and

Lycurgus. Maximus, VIII.

States in one of our westtirn the bar to women of water in the face of the presidingjudge; but

an

xii. 2

"

Soon

enraged female

without

a

similar

after the openinj^ o." lawyer threw a g^tis? result.


FEMINISM

6

turers and publiclecof the last philosophers gusting the woman by diswas Hypatia,who dissuaded a wooer From the Christians murdered. then, him, and whom which the dark women were middle and through ages, during in the famUy, though not again reduced to a subordinate position it is a considerable jump in earlyantiquity, to the same extent as tion of the

empire one

the sixteenth

to

and

seventeenth

centuries,when

in

Italy,again

Erasmus whom admired,*^once degenerate, women, and and lectured in the universities, more disputedwith men the race of monarchs, verging toward decline of power, among women prominent as queens and regents, against again became some

learned

his First Blast Against the Monstrous wrote John Knox Regiment of Women.^" of the Roman It was the long civil wars at the end republic it the that gave their emancipationto the women, was though long peace of the empire that recognisedand consolidated their to come quasi independence. It is during revolutions that women

whom

the front,but in the clash of arms they are soon driven to the rear, Their after the restoration of peace. forward to only push again of their repression. have sometimes been the cause own excesses Thus in the Englishcivil war the women of London petitioned the House in 1641, 1643, and 1649,^t first humbly of Commons and tumuland were answered, and at last scoldingly politely told home and mind their own to go tuouslyand were rudely business.^^ In our revolution so much moderation and decorum observed that little room fere; offered for women to interwas were established the indefiniteness of whose were yet principles admitted of perversion, terms and as men refused obedience to the somehow British parliament,women for refound therein reason fusing their obedience to husbands, and the word obey was from the marriage service razed of some of the reformed From churches.^^ of manlearnt here of the equality principles "

"

Erasmus In his colloquy Abbatis et Erudites. But the feminist was by no means in his recent Vance New Thompson York, 1917, would make him book, Woman, been. He skit (the colloquy Senatulus) in whicll he represented wrote out a to have modern therein some women reviving Elagabalus's " little senate," and committing similar absurdities and ridiculous putting forth some pretensions; all which son Thompswallows he did teach seriously, that women serious, but ignores what as should suckle their children and be economical while their husbands at home worked for them abroad (see the colloquies Puerpera and Procis et PueUce). Catherine de' Medici 10 This was was published early in 1558, when Queen of Fralice, Marie de Lorraine of England, and Queen Queen of Scotland, and Mary Tudor Marie's daughter Mary (afterward Queen of Scots)and Mary^ sister Elizabeth ward (afterof importance. Knox denounced "the were Queen of England) personages monstnferous he also called it "phrenetic" as empire of women" repugnant to of good order and of all equity and justice. to God, and subversive nature, contumelious 11 Cobbett's So Parliamentary History, London, 1807-8, ii. 1073-6, iii.160-1, 1311. Etiocles tried to dismiss the troublesome in ./Sschylus's Theban Seven Against women, Thebes, 219 (or 230) S. 9a

that

"

12

This

fact was

"

A Kick for a Bite,p, s^, noticed by Cobbett in liispsiQpblet


ITS

HISTORY

7

kind Condorcet in France, in anticipation of the convocation of the estates of the realm,advocated the rightof women to vote and to be eligible to office, of deducing it also from this principle " the English,"that is legitimately one subjectto. pay only the "

which

"

least

^^ for, by a representative ; aristocrat that he was, he was confine in to willing participation the government, and even to landowners,^*among citizenship, he would draw line of distinction whom, then, no accordingto sex. So again in 1790, in the Journal of the Societyof 1789,he disapproved of keeping half of the human from takingpart race the and that in the formation of the rightsof laws, as argued fact that result the sensible from ceptible men solely they are beings,susof acquiring moral ideas and of reasoning these ideas," on have therefore qualities, women, having these same necessarly " in himself But he confined to later, office, equalrights." ticality, pracand in expounding the plan for a constitution in 1793, zenship while extending beyond landownership the principleof citihe restricted the latter to all adult and of the franchise, males ; ^* only to repeat, in his last work, his own opinion, the sexes had no other that the inequality of rightsbetween ^^ force." Women than the abuse of themselves,at source did take the outbreak of the French revolution, a prominent in violent and the most were wreaking part, among vengeance for past wrongs. To the men's declaration of rightsOlympe de Gouges (whose real name Marie was Gouze) opposed a declaration of the rightsof women, demanding full civil and eignty equality,on the principleof recognisingthe soverpolitical is the reunion of of the nation,which but men nothing The and women." for law," she said, ought to be the same has the rightto mount she the scaffold, as woman all,"and the the tribune." '"^ So great were should have the rightto mount the terrorists were disturbances raised by them, that even ordered the suppressionof their offended, and the Convention ^^ them from and clubs prohibited assemblingin public places.

taxes

has

one

voted,at

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

i"

Lettres

d'un

Bourgeois de htew

14

268, xiii. 35-6. xii. 16-17; cf. 233, and

15

Sur

16

(Euvres,

cf. also

Heaven,

1788, in (Euvres, Paris, 1804, xii. 20-1;

V.

also v. 225. Droit de Cite, No. 5 of that journal, July 3, 1790, des Femmes I'Admission au in (Euvres, Paris 1847, x. 121, 122; cf. the Fragment sur I'Atlantide,in (Euvres, Paris, 1804, viii,561; also xii. 20.

1804, xviii,227-32. Progr^s de I'Bsprithumain,

in (Euvres, 1804, viii. s.sg. Droit public, 29-30. Similarly Wendell is admitted have to the gallows, the jail,and the tax-list,we While woman Phillips: have the Right to Vote? dress Adno right to debar her from the ballot-box," Shall Women Equal Franchise Society of Pennsylvania, 1851, reprintedby The at Worcester, 17

Tableau

18

La Ostrogorskij

1912,

p.

des

Femme

au

point de

vue

du

14.

of their extravagant acts see Lady Grant Duff's article on For an account Revolution in The Nineteenth in tfieFrench Century and After, May, 1912, pp. 19

Women

1009-18.


FEMINISM

8

Mirabeau wrote, but death preRobespierrechampioned them. vented him from speaking, and women to the effect that as men play an entirelydifferent role in nature, they cannot play the role in the social state, and the eternal order of things same end makes them only by assigning co-operate for a common ^" different the Chanto them nel, places." Meanwhile, across had led who hard life a as a Mary WoUstonecraft, erness, govin her Vindication of the Rights of Woman, published in 1791, and strangely dedicated to Talleyrand, protestedagainst both in fact and in the theory of the place assigned to women male writers like Rousseau and others,denied the divine rightof ^^ the confounded desired distinction of to see sex husbands," in society" (71), recommended co-education of boys and girls both preparationof women for (171-9,cf.58), and demanded work and opportunity of work for women, that theymight earn their own and thereby be subsistence independentof men that women (97,149, 172),incidentally suggesting ought to have in in Even Germany, in representatives" parliament (154). the extreme east, Hippel,a magistrateat Konigsberg,who published all his works advocated liberal ment treatmore anonymously, and their admission to political in of women his Ueber rights die biirgerliche Verbesserungder Weiber, in 1792, and already in the successive editions of his Ueber die Ehe, first publishedin "

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

1774, had inserted passages to similar effect. Union In one State of the American the principle of indiscriminatio this time between the sexes into at was put operation in its of for a short while. New constitution Jersey, 1776,had all inhabitants of this colony of full opened the franchise to who worth are fifty pounds proclamationmoney." Whether age, this was expresslyintended to extend the right of voting to is not known; and it is not known that any women freeholders, made till 1797, when law of it was use a special suffrage definitely referred to persons being entitled to vote only in placeswhere resided."^ Thereupon a fitful use was he or she made of the in o ccasions the of on some localities, right special politicians one to the polls and party unexpectedlybringing women thereby "

"

"

Feminists often complain (.e.g., 20 Ostrogorski, op. cii.,30-1. Kaethe in Schirmacher C. C. Eckardt's her Modern Woman's Rights Movement, p. 178) that the translation,, took French of the old " rinits of women. revolutionary laws of freedom away many " instanced the land-owning noblewomen's these are right " to levy troops, raise Among their convents. justice, and the abbesses* unlimited over taxes, and administer power these, things as privileges.They were, Most in fact, among the people look upon did awa:^ with. abuses the revolution 21 P. 56 of the Humboldt Library ed.,references to which are inserted in the text. said in the British parliament,tliat 22 In this very year, by a curious coincidence. Fox "in all theories and projects of th" most absurd been speculation, it has never sue" be advisable the elective suffrage to the female to extend gested that it would aex," Woodfall's Retorts of Debates, iii. 327.


ITS

HISTORY

9

turningthe

election in their favour. This was done notablyin " that year at Elizabethtown by the adherents of a certain federal aristocrat " ; again in 1802 in Hunterdon County ; and lastlyin in in hot Essex contest a 1807 County, where, it is said,both white women and coloured peoplevied with white men in illegal voting. Thereupon the legislature passed a new suffragelaw, which confined the franchise to " white male citizens." As far this law repealedthe law of 1797, it was as legitimate ; but if the these constitution itselfauthorised female and coloured suffrage, exceeded their powers, as no legislature can legislators abrogatea conferred the constitution. But to have no right by protestseems been made any more than by negroes, not indeed till by women after the constitution of 1844 had confirmed the law, when, in 1858, Lucy Stone, a temporary resident from Massachusetts, of having no representation.^* refused to pay her tax on account That early incident passed almost without remark, and was few so nearly forgottenby history.In all probability very then had the property qualification them to vote, women entitling them seemed only like shutting that the law which disqualified for false swearing, the door to opportunities and other repeating, "

irregularities. The convulsed with wars in Europe and the times,moreover, in in of its not were America, ending possibility war actuality, for women's takingpart in the world's affairs tillafter propitious the peace set in, in 1815. Then began the periodof expansion led to the development and easement, which, as alreadydescribed, attracted to the free lands elsewhere, of democracy. Labourers were invited into the lower Women and wages were rose. abuses soon w here of called for of all sorts ranks factoryservice, in our restrictions. Highest of all were try, counlegislative wages school teachers,for and here need was felt for women as serviceable which positions there were not men at the rates enough that could be affordedwhen the publicschool system was rapidly in the west.^* For the purpose of being extended, especially with their families,our western settlers,especially attracting States began breakingdown the barriers of property rightsthat and opened the suffrage to were hedged around personalrights, all men States had to follow suit,in order to reeastern tain ; and our in their lower classes from emigrating;while Europe was reflection similar feebler the a movement, produced by though suffragebeingextended in England to lower and lower strata of

24

New

Suffrage: The Reform against Nature, New Bushnell, Woman York also an article in The New Evening Post, April 5, 1913. did pioneer work E. Beecher in sending young There Miss Catherine States. England to teach in Ohio and other western Cf. H.

23

pp.

1

York, 1869,

10-13;

women

from


FEMINISM

10

bound broadeningout The movement, of course, when once to all men. started,everywhere gatheredforce from the fact that each political party by Individual voters. favouringit would attach to itself the new

the male

and population,

in France

at

one

feared to antagonisepossiblefuture voters. the female carried over No to cover wonder, then, the tide was half of the populationalso. In the French Republic in 1848, raised when all Frenchmen became voters, a man's voice was for women, Victor Considerant unsuccessfully proposing in the National Assembly the extension of this right to all French In a America, in the same gathering women. year, there was

likewise politicians

of

at

women

another

at

Convention

Seneca

York, and in 1850,in the spring,

Falls,New

Salem, Ohio, and in the autumn, a Woman's Rights from attended at Worcester, Massachusetts, largely

leaders as Mrs. Lucretia Mott, Mrs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Miss Susan B. Anthony were coming to the front. Decided upon at the first of these ence meetings,they issued a parody of the Declaration of Independnine States

by

both

Then'

sexes.

such

Declaration of Sentiments,after laboriously delvingin number T law books for the requisite of grievances.^*^he meeting in England,where it called had a reverberation last mentioned forth an essay on The Enfranchisementof Women by the wife latter in collaboration with the of J. S. Mill, himself,who probably of it than he acknowledged,his radicalism ing havwrote more parting followingBentham's lead,but deearlytaken in this subject, of father.^' In his the from teaching England, too, in in

185 1,

a

of women, field, agreed to at a publicmeeting at Shefpetition claimingthe electoral franchise,was presentedto the House a

Lords

;

while

in

country, in that year,

founded was a the followed next Indiana, year by another in Ohio, after which, during several years, many then on, also, held. From Woman's Rights Conventions were of the conventions for revisingState down to the present, most frage sufconstitutions were confronted with the questionof woman for and eligibility to office, although many years they alof

our

SuffrageAssociation

Woman

in

24a It may be read in the Stanton-Anthony-Gage-Harper History of Woman Suffrage, i. 70-1. Mill's Autobiography, 104-3. 25 See Bentham, in his advocacy of parliamentary reform he could for excluding women in 1817 and thereafter, admitted no see reason for excluding them from from membership in the voting, although he did see a reason " the reciprocal seduction that would arising from sue," enlegislature mischievousness Yet he did not advise agitating Works, iii. ^63, 567An., ix. 108, cf. iv. 568B. ix. 1 09 A. Tames Mill found for their enfranchisement, shall see. His a as we reason, elicited from article on W. Thompson an government Appeal of One Half the Human cal, Race, Women, againstthe Pretensions of the Other Half, Men, to retain them in Politiand thence in Civil and Domestic^Slavery, 182^. Also S. Bailey advocated woman suffrage,with a higher property qualificationthan m the case of men, in his .Rationale of Political Representation, 1835, pp. 236-42. "


FEMINISM

12

In

merit.

formed, in 1867,the Manchester

England was

Societyfor

Woman's

Pankhurst.

The

in which extension of the

Suffrage,prominent

occasion

was

the

National

was

male

a

Dr. chise, fran-

then accomplished;at which time Mill yainly which was " in the person argued in Parliament for the substitution of " diately immein the electoral bill. But the claim was placeof man " " " " even raised that meant so, by virtue of man person Lord another law, known Brougham's,which prescribedthat as words importingthe masculine gender should be understood to include expresslydeclared. females, unless the contrary was Cases were brought before the courts, one appellantalso going lost ; but the decision back to the statute of 8 Henry VI., and were women's that some names came so late before the election of 1868 At v oted. few and left the women actually were on registers a of Mill's Subjection this time, and especially by the publication in 1869, such recruits were to women's as cause won of Women and Masson Sir Professors Charles Dilke, Cairnes, John Morley, turned the last and two Goldwin soon Smith, John Bright though of these,Jacob back to the oppositeside ; but the brother of one the remained women's Bright, parliamentarychampion; and Charles Kingsleyoccasionally took up the cudgelsin their defence, After for their scientificand medical education. more especially "

"

giventhem in 1869 by renewingto them, on equal terms with men, the municipal franchise,strictly confined to rate-payers; for this righthad from time immemorial belonged to women rate-payers, and had only been taken from them the by Municipal CorporationAct of 1835. This raised with the parliamentaryfranchise;only to be hope of success the shattered by of the proposalthe next year, although rejection 1868, a

their defeat in

in

that

school further

of

women

year

and franchise,

widened

permitted Already in

to

was

further admitted to the againin 1884, when the franchise was still

for males for

property ; and

were

women were yet againpropertied new county councils.

members of the in the Isle of Man women

vote

1881

sop

admitted to the franchise on a property qualification than the one for narrower of the upper classes. To men, givingpreponderanceto members this the House of effect, prevent Keys desired to extend the franchise to women the same terms with men on ; but the Council, to preserve it,resisted. So in Great Britain at large,the Conservative have shown a to extend the franchise to willingness of largeproperty,while the Radicals,even women those desiring woman suffrage(Lloyd George, for instance), determined are that it shall not be accorded unless to all classes of women responding corto the enfranchised men. ConThere, too, the same were


ITS

HISTORY

13

or were servatives, upper-classmen, gladto make use of the prestige of their ladies,^^ and with the Primrose Dames set the fashion of admitting into the arena of politics.^' women On the continent of Europe, as in England,there had existed old wide-spread to take part,either an rightof land-owningwomen or directly by proxy, in the local government of communes ; and in sometimes extended to this rightwas even representation up higherbodies,when such were formed. It was not an important few women there were so since,wherever it existed, right, fied qualifor in inherit land default the to for women custom was only ; of male heirs,and when an heiress married her property passed to her husband and her rightlapsed, to re-appear only in case of widowhood This rightstillexists in some without an adult son. of the backward countries,such as Russia (of late somewhat Galicia,Bohemia curtailed), (where only in 1906 propertied ceased to vote and even in for the imperial women parliament), rural districts of Germany. It existed in ancient France, some and was recognised by the Convention in 1793, but was abrogated the duced introby Republicof 1848,when universal male suffrage was without reference to property, and an attempt by Pierre Leroux to restore Universal it,in 1851,met with no success. male suffrage has become the principle also of the Third Republic. in tried have themselves registered some to There, women 1885, by to that which had been invoked in England,maina similar quibble taining that the term les Frangais in the electoral law included it as undoubtedlydoes in other laws ; but theycould make women, no impressionon the courts. Still, women engaged in business have since been giventhe rightto vote for judgesof the Tribunal of Commerce. Of course, the rightof suffrage in demanded now "

"

"

other countries is an individual, human and so many mand, debased on a claim to personal, in distinction from a property, is that suffrage a nd d ifferent from so once right, entirely widely and stillin those backward countries locally accorded to a few women exceptionally placed as property-owners or heads of families.^^ Similarly, to enter political too, the rightof all women "

our

hundred remarked that English ladies were Addison the greatest years ago He likewise observed in Europe," The Freeholder^ No. 23. that a gossip Also in The Spectator, Nos. 57 in politicsis a slattern in her family,''ibid. No. 26. them for their party-rage, and 81, he gentlyrebuked for instance, such a Tory as 28 Then, Lecky advocated a " female franchise on a incidental advantage of imposing a real the basis," as probably having great property and powerful obstacle to the further degradation of the suffrage ; as probably being conservative influence, very hostile to revolutionary and predatory change"; and as a in any overwhelming degree, to strengthen ecprobably tending somewhat, though not clesiastical influence, especiallyin questions relating to religious education," Democracy and Liberty, ii. 552, 555-6. The advocacy of such a restricted suffrage by Lecky, Caimes, and others of their kind, has no applicationto the advocacy of universal female Buffrage on top of universal male suffrage. difference is clearly recognised by the suffragistQara Zetkin 29 The in her Zur Frage des FrauetiviahWechts, Berlin, 1907, pp. 5-6, 68, 69. 27

"

Two

"

stateswomen

"

"

"

"


FEMINISM

14

is officegenerally, if theycan get themselves elected or appointed, gency very different from the occasional elevation to queenship or remale relatives. of women in default of male heirs or near Even side to that sort of propof the Atlantic, on our a claim erty heiress of Lord vert Calin made an was by 1647 representation of in Maryland ; but alreadythe principle personalrepresentation But in her claim disallowed.^" and too was was strong Massachusetts the records show that women property-owners did vote at times ; but this old rightwas graduallyabandoned without that imposed the old feudal property rights, a struggle.In America But here,as we have struck root. on never personalrights, the claim for the extension of the personalrightto vote seen, from men under women's to women, as inclusive rightsas parallel with men's broached in France f irst and England,'^was rights, first widely agitated in connection with all sorts of wild socialistic, other schemes,^^ and communistic, spiritualistic, prohibitionist, and made a practical issue. The cause was put to sleepduringthe Civil War, only to awake again with redoubled energy when the method of quibbling war was over. sorted rewas Here, too, the same the first section of the fourteenth amendment to, by interpreting the States to " abridgethe privileges as if,in forbidding or immunities of citizens of the United States,"it forbade them to of the franchise. Yet, had that been the case, all deprivewomen have had the rightto vote, and there would negroes would equally have been no need of the fifteenth amendment, which, by the way, sanctions the exclusion of women. Some by implication women, and were fined for so doing. Here, however, succeeded in voting, too, again,as has happened also in France and in England, some refused to pay taxes tilltheycould vote, and only suffered women in consequence. At a convention in 1871 a woman's rebellion but of it. guished lanThen the movement was urged,^^^ nothingcame for a while. When The American wrote CommonBryce 30 Ida Husted for Woman Suffrage in Harper in her Brief History of the Movement the United States, a campaign tract issued in 19:4, treats this as the first instance parently (ap" in the world) in which asked a representation," p. i. So far is this a woman from of the first inthe opposite ist true, and this is one stances being the case, that directly of such a rare demand being refused! 31 Abigail Adams's banter with her husband this subject can make on no pretension to serious consideration. 82 Well described in the late Mrs. Rossiter (Helen Kendrick) Johnson's Woman and the Republic, ch. iv. 32a Victoria C. Woodhull, who will have Especially insistent was proclaimed: "We We will try you our rights. We no longer by your leave. more. just once say If the very next all the legitimate results of citizenship, Congress refuses women then we deliberate notification of what will do. We give here and now shall we constitution and to create expressly to frame a new proceed to call another convention complete in all its parts, and to take measures new it as a government, to maintain do theirs. We effectuallyas men mean we mean treason; secession, and on a thousand times greater scale than was that of the South. We are plotting revolution." In Paulina W. Davis's History of the National Woman's Rights Movement, New York, .

.

.

.

.

.

"871, pp. 117-18.

.

.

.

.

.

.


ITS

HISTORY

IS

wealth in 1888,he was able to report that women's was suffragism " in England.^' Yet nearly bad form," and not so forward as frage Suftwenty years before (in1869) had been formed two Woman Associations the National and the American, the former for a federal amendment, the latter for winning over to work the States individually; and both societies, both names, and both in combined objectswere 1890.^* In that earlier year (1869), full the territorial franchise and jury also, (including eligibility in Wyoming, where at the time duty) had been grantedto women the populationamounted to a little over nine thousand souls, whom females of all fell short of two thousand, or among ages about one female to every fiftysquare miles of territory. The creditable to the cause, put through as it grant was by no means of one the wiles member of the legislature, was principally by who played off the two partiesagainsteach other ^^ and was because of its service in advertising the acquiescedin principally Two later the council tried to repeal community. legislative years retained it,but was preventedby the governor'sveto ; and it was became when the territory a State in 1889-90. In the territories of Utah and Washington,whose legislatures to gave the suffrage in 1870 and 1883 respectively, these grants were nullified, women in the former in 1887 by the federal Congress for fear of polygamy, and in the latter in 1887 and 1890 by the federal courts, with their customary which irritating high-handednessdenied "

legislature. Washington,on becoming a State but has recently done so. that in 1889,did not re-enact measure, to women, Colorado,in 1893,and Idaho,in 1896,gave full suffrage and in the latter year Utah did so immediatelyon becoming a State. In 1887,Kansas, which so earlyas 1861 had givenwomen admitted women to the municipal the school suffrage, partially competency

to the

States six or seven and since then several of our but cials, offinot for town have permittedthem to vote on town taxes, form and as many as thirtyhave opened to them in some it happens,vote the suffrageon school questions.Few women, if be the best educated but at these partial only they elections; that take the most interest in such matters, especially and the ones of the others is all the more of the schools,the stayingaway franchise

;

"

"

desirable. have female municipalsuffrage. Nine of the Canadian provinces in British South Africa. The have some Women votingprivileges

34

Miss Miss 85

of the president's

The Susan

Jane See

B. Anthony, Addams.

combined Mrs.

Bryce, op. cit.,ii. 44in.

Carrie

society have been Mrs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Howard Catt, Rev. Anna Shaw, and Chapman


i6

FEMINISM

the municipal Australasian British colonies granted to women land ZeaIn 1893 New franchise between the years 1867 and 1886. Before the full state franchise.^" 1902, when gave them States Australian federation was of the two effected, (as we should call them) South and West Australia,in 1895 and 1900 and in order not to had extended the full franchise to women, chise disfranchise them there,the federation opened the federal franto women everywhere,and the other four soon followed suit with their own Tcisfranchise New South Wales immediately, mania the next year, Queensland in 1905, and Victoria in 1908. "

"

"

The

British government,

added, over thirtyyears ago in where the women the women Burmah, tax-payers and the men and embroider, sew carry loads and work in the fields, in has inverting thingsas given the municipal Egypt of old. It franchise also to the tax-payingwomen of a coupleof cities in India,and in the town of Belize in British Honduras. In England, in 1889, was formed the Woman's Franchise which discontinued after few In was a League, years. 1903, Mrs. and her two Pankhurst Social daughtersfounded the Woman's and Political Union, with headquartersat Manchester. This the Votes for of hold to society adopted Women," began slogan unauthorised street meetingsand make other publicdemonstrations, in imitation of the workingmen whose riots in Manchester had recently been effectivein causingthe passage of the Unemployed Workmen's Bill,and also because of an admission by the Premier (Balfour)that the Scottish Churches Bill was passed in consequence of in that region.^'They gradually a crisis adopted the various tactics which have received the ridiculous of with their own appellation eternal militancy '' interrupting held for other questionmeetings (1905); paradingthe purposes without license and attemptingto invade Parliament and streets had declined to see them, raising to visit ministers who a rumpus in the women's gallery in Parliament, going for of the new one ministers said to be their enemy (Asquith)at the suggestionof it may

be

enfranchised

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Lloyd George,refusingto recognisethe authorityof courts that enforce laws made onlyby men, and choosingimprisonmentrather than pay fines,but at the same time claimingthe treatment given offenders (1906); formingso-called Women's to poHtical ments Parliato consider the King'sspeech, in imitation of the real Parse method little better than in Wyoming: by which it was carried there was see of it in The Fortnightly Review, Feb., 1804, The Suffragette,New 37 See E. Sylvia Pankhurst's York, 191 1, p. 18. "militant" 38 The term into use in 1905. applied to them came In 1906 the term invented for them "suffragette" was by The Daily Mail; see E. S. Pankhurst, op. cit The term "wild had been given to their upper-class predecessors long woman p. 6in. The before: cf. Mrs. Lynn Linton's WUd Social Insurgents, in The Women as Nin^ teenth Century, Oct., 1891. The

an

account

"


ITS

HISTORY

liament,advancingthe pleathat

17

if the

government did not giveto their undoubted women rightto vote,"the government would be f or the disorders that might ensue,^" taking part in responsible "

elections in favour

of any

candidate

who would pledgehimself to it by sandwich ling redoubsupport the cause, advertising women, their efforts to attract attention because the newspapers ceased to report their doings^"(1907); chainingthemselves to railings before Parliament building and the residences of ministers,ringing "

a

bell at

aft

"

election, holding monster

meetings (in answer

Herbert Gladstone's challengeto act like men, who franchise by assemblingby tens of thousands), and first in the houses

and offices, that

at last

should

women

to

the dows, breakingwinhad

won

of

opposing ministers,then in public advice to Haldane's indiscriminately (inanswer not

wage

war

with

bodkins, as

do

men

not

like

and parties pin-pricks), invadingprivatereceptions (1908); trying into Cabinet meetings,enteringdisguised to force their way or In halls where meetingswere to be held so as to hidingin advance windows make or or a disturbance, shoutingthrough skylights, mauling ministers at golfand elsewhere,refusingto eat in prison (hunger-striking), objectingto forced feeding,and refusingto tions submit to prisondiscipline, endeavouringtp destroyballots at elecwires (1909); after a brief truce (1910),snippingtelegraph Hobletters in and to mail-boxes, (in answer (1911); burning house's reminder that the Chartists had burnt down Nottingham such as sporton ing unoccupiedbuildings Castle)committingarson closed stations and even (1912), private railways pavilions, ing incommodand finally houses (sometimesof woman suffragists), Sunday worshipby loudlyprayingfor their imprisonedleaders in (1913) ; explodingbombs in empty churches,slashingpictures the destroyingnational monuments, and insulting publicgalleries, These his consort inoffensive King and (1914). unwilling tices, pracCat-and-mouse the so-called which were m et by finally "

"

to an abrupt end in the middle of 1914 Act of 1913, and which came silent et feminae),have probablyalienated more (for inter arma than they have gained; but their from the cause and women men attracted equallyobstreperousthough less destructive, beginnings,

subjecteverywhere throughout the world, and for the franchise. impetus to the movement undoubtedlygave a new attention

Even woman

39

E.

made

a

40

E.

to

the

independentcountries have adopted full national but as yet,with a single imperfectexception, only suffrage, some

op. cit., I43. again 275. S. Pankhurst, the Allies would similar claim, because S. Pankhurst, op. cit.,176.

The not

Germans,

give in

to

it may them.

be

noted, in

1915


FEMINISM

i8

confined to Scandinavia. Norway the first of these. There, where the influences of Fredrika was emancipationbegan in and of Ibsen was Bremer strong, women's the municipal 1854,and made such rapidheadway that by 1901 in and 1907 these franchise was grantedto tax-payingwomen, the on thrown open to all women which was received the

and they are small countries,

national,

in 1913, after the municipalhad been thus followed suit,opening Denmark in 19 10. thrown open to them m in 1908,and but recently, the municipalfranchise to women same

terms

1915, the

as

men

national.

There, it may

noted, George Brandes Semi-independentIceland,

be

Mill. helpedthe cause by translating the municipalfranchise likewise,havinggiven to women

in 1907,

Sweden that of the whole state. littlelater extended to them has not yet taken the full step,althoughshe began as earlyas 1862 and spinsters, to grant the municipalfranchise to tax-payingwidows The in married bouring, neighwomen and extended it to 1909. a

no

longer independentFinland,with the sanction of the

Czar, after the bloodless but successful revolution of 1905, in 1906 the parliamentarysuffrage, equallyas to men A few years ago Bosnia and Herzegovina along with eligibility. to vote of land-owningwomen by converted the ancient privilege the Chinese passed republic right. Recently proxy into a personal has that but the law vote to passed as republic women a giving ; nothingcame of it. In Japan, the strongestcountry of the away, take no part in politics. East, women after 1896,but after 1910 for a few In America a lull took place another in adoptingwoman States fell over one years the western in ing off that suffrage Washington leading year, California followIn 1913 in 191 1, and in 1912 Oregon, Kansas, and Arizona. it was ture adoptedin the Territoryof Alaska,and the Illinoislegislaall Montana the it officeswithin its to jurisdiction. granted and Nevada adopted it in 1914. Then, perhaps,the movement to an end for the present. In 1912 Michigan escaped woman came suffrageby a very narrow margin, but the next year gave a (Dhio likewise majorityagainstit of nearlya hundred thousand. increased an adverse majorityof eighty-seven thousand in 1912 hundred and in In the latter to a eighty-twothousand 1914. gave

to

women

"

also North

Nebraska voted it down with majorities rangingaround ten thousand each, and Missouri with a majorityof a hundred In 191 5 New and fortythousand. thousand, PennsylJerseyrejectedit by a majorityof fifty-one vania thousand, Massachusetts by a hundred and by fifty-three thousand, and New York by a hundred and ninetythirty-three four thousand. In 1916 it was rejected againin South Dakota by year

and

South

Dakota

and


CHAPTER

SOME

The

FUNDAMENTAL

ASSUMPTIONS

has

movement

woman

II.

(likeJill,tumbling after), and the advocates and of women have working men sought the ones

of

help

natural

as

allies.^

feminism

But

with

synchronous

almost

been

FEMINISM

OF

in

has

of

rights

the the

others'

details

some

cialism so-

won

socialism while istic socialhas not actuality,which yet attained ; and in the old and this woman theory began populous countries, became in in the the movement west new -especially, operative in thinly settled regions, where still fewer than men women were ; where in and to demand, consequently women so speak, were, inducements held out to attract were them, their work being As yet women have lightened and their privilegesextended. got in colonies the franchise so-called States, or our only provinces or in a couple of barren countries northern whose is or peace served preby the mutual jealousy of their mighty neighbours. No large state exposed to war, and supporting the balance of power, has yet admitted local suffrage ; and perto anything but women haps which no large country, except ours, for a special reason will permit women will be noticed direct its destinies to later, ever "

1

least

at

"

It

is,

in

fact,

According

to

millennium.

till the the

Bebel,

in

that

belief liis Die

Fran,

like the

something

allies, whom an oppressed

seek

must

women

millennium they

will

urally nat-

of men, from labourers the such, than help from men can can no more as expect 225 ; will be solved and middle the two Similarly Edward problems together, 5. classes, 117: that their cause is also the cause of the oppressed Women remember must Carpenter: remember islabourer whole and the labourer has that his the to cause earth, over find in for they

the

proletariat movement,

as

the

of

is

movement

class

**

New York A "twin in sex struggle," Coming of Age, ed., 191 1, p. 60. Mrs. Gilraan calls woman's and the labour movement the economics, ment,'* moveThe the labour Women and Economics, lem," prob138. sex problem is at bottom From The said Keir Serfdom to Hardie, Socialism, 63. solidarity of women," factor with it as the to sociological only according May Sinclair, has comparable a solidarities of the working-men she Femone," two solidarity adds, "these are ; and, "The the is dawning," and ini"sm, London, day of women working-class 191 1, 33-4. deals Mrs. Atherton of her novel Julia which with ism. feminFrance, on prophesies p. 266 is a class-war," The Militant There is a sex-war, Edna Kenton, just as there Women The For clear and Nov., ments stateWomen, Century Magazine, 1913, p. 13.

theirs," Love's and

"

in

"

"

**

"

"

"

about the

part

16,

421,

meet

females

of Death, on

due

parallelism, by

Chances "

says,

this

played

the

same

in

the

i. 226,

230-1,

ground

and

onlooker the socialist thoughtful fighting the same battle, however

of Freethought,

to

connection

its descent,

and much

251, turn

the

to

they 20

may

the of

of property ownership of Freethought, 377, Labour and he women,"

Ethic "

cf. 238.

advocate

415.

between

Pearson,

see

*

woman's

disguise

"

remedies,"

same

the

255. *

To

and 414-

here the

rights are essentially fact to themselves," Ethic


SOME

FUNDAMENTAL

ASSUMPTIONS

21

that has

of women's encouragedthe expectation and well as to all the admission to politics as statesmanship, The theoryof feminism, like that of socialism, occupationsof men. false in belief and the future is based on peace, prosperity, how say) of reason, and someplenty. This is an age (theage, some

alreadyat hand,

ing intellectis to keep the strong from attackfaith in has done. than God hitherto more effectually The is drawing towards a close,"said the presiage of war dentess of the Woman's Rights Convention at Worcester in 1850, of womanhood is and that of peace is dawning ; and the uprising ^ We its prophecy and foreshadow." are livingin a transition the at the same convention, when age," said another woman and wherefore of the minds of the community are askingthe why ^ is to be all things," an age, it may be added, in which the new welcomed because new, and the old rejectedbecause old.* But instead of its beingmerely a transition from the ascendingperiod to the culminating periodof the same cycleof civilisation, atory preparold to the decHne, it is taken to be the transition from an

reliance the weak

on

human

"

"

"

"

"

and

worn-out

to

a

new

and

up-springingcivilisation,yea, "

from

the civilisation of the past,semi-barbarous,now ending,to another and full civilisation that is to last for all time into the future.^ of the world's at the centre According to this view, we stand now the division and future between a t that are to a past history, a balance each other,forming two halves,the one of which is departing and the other approaching. And for the feminists, of course, is to be woman's the new era era,'to which the twentieth century,

Paulina W. Davis, Proceedings, p. 8. Cf. Wendell Phillips: " The age of and we is gone, want to put ballots into the hands of women," Suffrage "The And stinct's] 1861. only recently Mrs. Hale: days of its [the fighting inof Women, domination is past," What Women Want, p. 293. K. Hunt, ib. 45. 3 Harriet " of women novelty,'' 4 So G. W. Curtis spoke of " the general enfranchisement as a " " this ** ia true of every a and therefore," because stei) of politicalprogress," it is " York constitutional convention of 1867, reNew published : in the presumption in its favour of certain objections in his Orations and Addresses. New York, 1894, i. 182. And Sense" cisely "Prefeminist claims Mrs. to some Jacobi in her "Common says: it be suspected that they are these objections are very beginning because old, may out," 36-7: and of another, that it " is very funny, but very old. to be somewhat worn Such is the spiritin which of air of venerable It has, indeed, an senility,"105. many Mrs, confronted. serious problems are most Jacobi herself calls this age " an inour " achieve its own of lax and facile time," in which thought may realisation," ter-regnum 2

Mrs.

physicalpower

"

150. "All B Cf Emma [things] portend that a change is at hand, that a Hardinge: be born of the The butterfly must transition state in society is being passed through. is now which writhingin the effort to cast its shell," The Place and Mission of worm, An Women: Inspirational Discourse, Boston, 1859, p. 3. York Woman and Her a long work, published in New 6 In 1864 Eliza W. Farnham be that which is must she taught that "^the grandest Era of Humanity Era, in which " " " about to incoming era was dominated qualities,"ii. 430, which by the Feminine theory, based on the essenWorld, with its democratic tially rise to view first in the Western " of trust in human her sentiment nature," 450, and in which feminine woman, " of sovereigntv," 83. Leo to enter a career now upon long suffering ended," was explanatory title of Miller published at Buffalo in 1874 a pamphlet with the sufficiently and the Divine Republic; and under the pseudonym of Virginia Leblick; EmerWoman .


FEMINISM

22

since its advent, is heralded as the dawn/ Statements of this made sort have been rightup to the outbreak of the European in the middle of 1914.^ That they will be repeated, well war may be doubted.^ The

belief in the absoluteness of the transition confrontingus furthered was by the writingsof Maine and of Spencer,but it held even their distinctions between before they advanced was militarism and and between and industrialism. status contract believed not only that socialist, Mill, having become a moderate mankind into and the division of capitalists hired labourers would much be the rule of the world, but that alreadyin not longer and obedience (which the youthfulSpencer modern Hfe command

pronounced "radicallywrong") ^** are becoming exceptional facts,and equal association the generalrule.^^ But Mill knew

had

as

"

the the substitution of element in this transition, thing justice"for "the moralityof submission," or someis take to the former as now effect, likely near-resembling

that at least moralityof

one

taken place once before, in ancient civilisation, though he Not so others. One gave no heed to the results then obtained.^^ had

M. Lemouche published in 1910 (place not desi^ated) a book with the descriptive Woman's Civtitle: Th0 New Era Era, or Transformation from Barbaric to Humane ilisation. ** Woman's 7 The Vida D. Scudder, Woman and Socialism^ Century has dawned." " Yale Review, April, 1914, pp. 45s, 467. The twentieth is the age of Woman; century the golden age, the dawn be, it will be looked back upon day, it may some as some say civilisation ** Mrs. Walter M, Gallichan of feminine (C. Gasquoine Hartley) opens so her The Position in Primitive York the title of Woman Society (New ed., 1914, under of The Age of Mother-Power). " 8 Once at the of the war, Mrs. Hale: We standi at the beginning of the more eve end of the rule of force, and on the threshold of the rule of intelligence,"What Women She does not that intelligence, suca it was, has to understand seem as Want, p. 300. of guiding), and it has ruled through always ruled (in the sense force_(which performs), and otherwise. More always will, and cannot intelligence is being displayed in this war than in any previous one, and also more force. the last sentence Mrs. Florence Gucrtin Tuttle 9 Since written, however, has was *' Civilisation has left its dark period the old refrain: and entered boldly renewed the period of mental of social and spiritualdevelopment," The a new era: conquest New of Woman, Awakening York, 1915, p. 53, cf. 80-1, 114, 116. the youthful 10 Social Statics, Part II. ch. xvi. " 5, probably pettingthe idea from (Part III.) had written: Shelley, who in his Queen Mab " The man Of virtuous soul commands obeys." not, nor faculties did not deof women's tract state Spencer also at that time argued that the weaker their right to the full freedom of exercising them, II. xvi. " 2 ; nor from did he hesitate to apply the same reasoning to children, xvii. " i, concluding that neither should and both should have the suffrage. But in the case of women, be subordinate of as that society was not children, he conceded to recognise their yet civilised enough ward he afterrights,and therefore he did not advocate them, xvi. " 8, xvii. ^ 9. No wonder tetter justification retraction he had even retracted these views; for which than in about the case of his views the right of all (and the non-right of individuals) to own land. 11 The Enfranchisement of Women (Dissertations,iii. m, cf. 104), The Subjection of ence

"

.

.

.

"

_

Women,

79, he

cf. 81.

entering into an order of things in which justice will also on grounded as before on equal, but now sympathetic before the joint influence of association," the referring to late antiquity when civilisation and of Christianity obliterated [successfully?] these distinctions^"to Roman He did not wit, between class, or social position,"Subjection of Women, sex, p. 80. perceive that the obliteration of these distinctions,and the breaking down of command la For

added:

*'_We are

again be the primary virtue "

"

"

;

*'


SOME of

the

most

woman's

FUNDAMENTAL of

earnest

his contemporary Thomas Wentworth

rightsmovement,

littlebefore

ASSUMPTIONS

23 of

supporters

the

Higginson,wrote

civil war, in explanationof woman's social in inferiority the past,"that to all appearance, historywould have been impossible without it,justas it would have been impossible without an epoch of war and slavery. It is simplya matter of social progress, a part of the succession of civilisations. The a

"

our

"

"

past has been

of engrossing a period of ignorance, inevitably sical phybrute force, not of freedom, of philanthropy, and of culture. During that lower epoch, woman was inferior. The truth simplywas, that her time an necessarily had not come. Physicalstrengthmust rule for a time, and she the weaker. From this reignof force,woman was freed never herself by force. She could not fight, The reanot. or would son, of woman has been simplythat then, for the long subjection humanity was passingthrough its first epoch,and her full career to be reserved for the second. Woman's was appointedera but It omitted. is not was not delayed, merely true that the empire of the past has belongedto man, but that it has properly at belonged to him; for it was an empire of muscles, enlisting, but lower of the the There be best, can understanding. powers is that the of the no an question initiating empire present epoch of arts, affections, for that epoch higher reason aspirations ; and the geniusof woman Till the fulness of time has been reserved. woman was came, necessarily kept a slave to the spinning-wheel and the needle. Now higher work is ready; peace has brought invention to her aid,and the mechanical means for her emancipation also. the for blindest to How is it are ready possible help seeingthat a new era has begun,and that the time has come i. e., to take full part with ? for woman to learn the alphabet in the administration of the world.^' man Fifty years have the empire of the higherreason passed,and we are no nearer than was Higginson. He and his fellow northerners freed the freedom ever slaves of others,but have fast been losingtheir own is takingthe form since. Culture is being diluted ; philanthropy to charitable institutions; art is degeneratof leavingendowments ing

and of necessities,

"

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

"

"

"

"

"

hobble skirts " share in it into into cubism," and women's slouch and the ; while morals are becoming so lax that mothers with young men der unallow their daughtersto discuss prostitution the white of and, setting the euphuism example slavery," b reast in to breast, be hugged public, to promiscuously themselves, "

"

"

"

and

obedience,

were

causes

'fFomen to '"iTouefct

learn

of the decline the

Alphabetr

and

fall of

a

civilisation that has

reached

Atlantic Monthly, Feb., 1859, pp.

145-7.

its


FEMINISM

24

the pretext of dancing;and in some is leadingthem ready for women into factories and behind the desk and the counter stillmore Some of the professions. ranks of some and into the lower and freer to do what they please, have become

legsto legs,on bellyto belly, the countries higher work "

indeed, they pleaseseems

women,

what

"

to be

time, or be sporty. New

pin-money and least higherones,

to earn at

eras,

have do

a

good make

not

in this way.

their advent

scheme, the socialists with regard to their own into of women to believe that the entrance feminists actually seem the about new of the suffragewill bring life by means political of The entrance of the reign at all events peace. like the

And

epoch," or as

that

life by the grant of political takingplace everywhere at once.

into

women

women

ceive suffragethey conEven so, they forget

the

others since On that day," says Mrs. Schreiner, when began. in the governance and takes her placebeside the man of external affairs of her race, will also be the day have

been

inciters of

to wage

men

war

on

"

the world the

woman

"

arrangement that heralds

death

the

of

war

as

a

of

means

arranginghuman with pleasure lingers

Mrs. Schreiner Yet this same differences." footed bareof old,who, of the Germanic women the picture over and white-robed,"arranged the differences of their race with the Romans by leading their northern hosts on the long march to Italy," animated by the thought that they led their " But sunshine and richer fruitage." peopleto a land of warmer be introduced everywill feminism, than will socialism, no more where if If it comes at all, or at once. any such portionof it as the great nations of the earth,it will female suffrage comes among in two, long before others will dream of in one, or at most come of the enfeebled admittingit;which latter will enjoy the spectacle abandon their dream, in the and will influence of men former, ^=

"

"

"

" Give Rights Convention, Worcester, 1850: AbbjrH. Price, at the Woman's morning, will rights inalienable,and then a new era, glorious ag the millennial dawn earth, an advent only less radiant than that heralded on by angels on the plains And of Bethlehem," Proceedings, p. 35. she quoted Elliott's verses:

14

us

Mrs.

our

"

Wait, boastful

man

!

Though

worthy

are

thou are Thy deeds- when true. and holier far. Things worthier still, Our sisters yet will do." and Labour, "War will pass, when intellectual culture p.^ 176. Again: and activity have made_ possible to the female an equal share in the control and governance national life"; for "it is our of modern intention into the domain to enter and to labour there till in the course of war of generations we have extinguished it," ** intuitive and Snoad: influence of their [women's] The Cf, Mrs. Warner p. 184. Parliament will increase the tendency to arbitration between peace-loving nature upon ster nations and hasten the time when shall be no more," A Plea for Justice,Westminwar have women Review, July, 1892. She, however, does not forget that " before now led armies.* So to-day the women of Germany doubt 16 Pp. 149-50. and Austria are urging no their husbands and sons to the seizure of Belgium and Serbia, to give them and their on children a better *' place in the sun." 15

Woman


SOME if

they ever

FUNDAMENTAL

ASSUMPTIONS

25

far as to dream, of admittingit. The women in those feminised countries may be determined, like our late Secretaryof State,that no war shall take placeduringtheir rule ; but as it takes two to make a quarrel,it takes two to keep the anxious and be as to as ever they they may peace, preserve peace at any price, they will therebyonly invite insult and derision,or attack and invasion,and their own overthrow. For there is stillanother analogybetween feminism and socialism. We have seen that,althoughsocialistsspeak as if they were going to level the poor up to the rich,their system will have the the rich down to the poor. oppositeeffect of levelling Similarly in demanding the equalisation the feminists, of women with men, in the qualialways conceive of it as if they were to raise women, ties of to

got

so

and to support themselves, independence, ability

the level of

men

the

like,up

; but the result of their eiforts will more likely toward their level, to need, for instance, so as

be to reduce men to feminise men than support from the state, or in short,more The of evolution has been to masculinise women. to process of the animals,and goingvery far differentiate the sexes in many in the human producing,as we shall see, hundreds of species, in addition to the primary difference of sexual traits, secondary reproductivefunction which constitutes the sex differentiation. This process is contemporaneously illustratedboth by the fact that in backward of mankind there is barbarous and savage races "

and women than in the less differentiation between men ences and by the fact that in the young the differmore highlycivilised, much of the less marked than in the full-grown. Some are in differentiation is without doubt due to the influence of reason itself more the human developedin the civilised than in species, ing it is due, too, to education or trainthe uncivilised races ; and lastly But is that has the of under the guidance reason. one process in a be undone for myriads of years, and cannot been going on of the deepSo at least in the case much less period of time. of the mental and moral seated physiological differences,some and a later efflorescence at the differences being more superficial

somewhat

top ; and yet they,too, mostly are

due

to

sands discipline throughthou-

of years, which has bred them in and made them as natural other inherent characters;wherefore they are not effects are as of differences of up-bringingmerely of individuals, though they Modifiable modifiable less thereby.^^ by individual more or are IT as

assertion (commended of Sydney Smith's by Mill) that " as long the error Hence both prehoops together, they are about in the dirt,and trundle and girls run cisely and train them of these creatures, to a parcatch u_p one-halt If you alike. ticular and the other half to a perfectly opposite set, of and opinions^, of actions set the will other one of or sort differ, as ocunderstandings their

boys

course


26

FEMINISM

and entiations deeper differfrom of these sorts have gone on cycleto cycleof later the have advanced as civilisation, beyond the earlier;and within the cycles, differentiations proceed as more superficial the civilisation rises from its pristine condition toward nation.^* its culmiof But at the culmination the advanced tion civilisastage

the highestmoral qualities of men are training minor of their bodies. Somewhat configurations

tends, as and

we

have

and economically

women

were

obtained

sooner

to

subordination

a

plexusof to that

than

men

a

and

bringtogetherand mix up and, as it both leads socially,

for women, and even in the subjection

sex,

its effect is much

to make men the masculine

of

men men

comfortable circumstances which and reduces the totality of men

more

highlydevelopedsocietyand

of the other

women,

to

seen,

the easier,safer, and

to

and

women:

nexus

state, somewhat to

more

sternness

make

and

givesway

virtues recede before

the

com-

similar of women to

ness, mild-

feminine,since

it is easier to make the hard and strong soft and weak than it is the soft and weak hard and strong.^' If some to make women make for of cannot loss real mannishness, they ]the hood manape up the part of men, and the country in which this tendency on exposed as a prey to those in which goes the furthest is inevitably have remained men. men Now, the whole operationof modem feminism is consciously and purposelyto increase this tendency. know that For women they cannot become like real men, and so like women, they would firsthave men become as much as possible in order that they may then resemble and equal such men. And cupations occasion

has to

go

called this or into any deeper

that or

more

talent into action. abtruse reasoning,

There is in order to

surely_ explain

no so

Female Education, Edinburgh Review, Jan., l8io, vol. xv. would that some Dissertations, iii. lo6n.). He overlooked deeper reason for people catching up and training differentlytwo yet have to be sought for, to account otherwise undifferentiated. posed half-portions of children who would Whately disgrow up of this passage increases in after-life: neatly by referring to a difference which It did not He to him occur ingenious, but often rash and inaccurate. [Smith] was that when master, in nine cases they are all taught together to write, and by the same hand and which out of ten, people will rightly guess which is a man woman's," 9 a "To mind it would be one Miscellaneous not whit Remains, 187. Cf, Maudsley; my simple a very (Mill. p. 209

phenomenon,"

"

absurd to affirm that the antlers of the stag, the human beard, and the cock's comb effects of education; or that,by putting a girl to the same education are as a boy, the female generative organs into a male organ," Body and Mind, might be transformed matched the ^pther New York has been ed., 3". Perhaps, however. Smith's error on side by the American editor of A. Walker's who As long wrote (p. 377) : Woman, the little girl prefers her doll and the boy his top, it is useless to talk [as Mrs. as Childs did] of the 'same of the sexes"; which moral and intellectual condition* has attributes our side, recently by Mrs. Schreiner, who again been outdone, on his own opinionson the distinction of sex, not only to artificial training, but also to artificial difference of dress! Woman and Labour, 165-6, 187-91. *' 18 Cf, Finck; The and women men more history of civilisation has been to make Love and Personal unlike, physically and mentally," Romantic Beauty, 175, and so 290, more

"

541-

noted in Germany about fifty years Otto Ludwig that " the sex vices ago have now become those of men; culture is predominatingly romantic and our not of the woman, the woman to be feminine, educatingthe man to be the tender mate of the man," the strong, masculine companion (quoted from Rosa Mayreder'a Survey of the Woman Problem, Scheffauer's translation,pp. 90-1). 19

of

Even

women


28

FEMINISM

The

character of his

and

it would

to be sure, may qualities, go on improving and becoming more the size in his descendants, own capacious of their brains growing,but only in the slow process of evolution ward through the ages. Thus if a portion of a populationare backfrom lack of education and opportunity, the children of this portion might in one generationbe educated up to the highest level the capacityof that population is capableof attaining; but the next generationof children could not go appreciably further,

be

a

false induction

from

the

rapid progress of the tinuance peculiarcircumstances,to suppose the con-

in generation, of anythinglike the same Such is progress in the next. the phenomenon we have lately witnessed in the female portionof modern have society.^^Independent and well-educated women do what exhibited have advanced : they they can already beyond well-educated and not independent;but not who women were this advance in no wise prognosticates advance of independent an the and well-educated in future women over independentand one

well-educated

The

circumstances and conditions are changed. The progress actuallymade has been one of acquirements; the progress inferred and believed in is one of capacity of the former affords no reason : the occurrence pate to anticithe occurrence of the latter.^* There is one more fundamental assumptionmade by feminism. socialism wishes all classes to be melted down into one Just as class,so feminism wishes people at least to shut their eyes to difference of sex (except the primary) and to treat all every individuals dren (for the distinction between these and chilgrown-up will still of of as they allow) specimens only one kind tity enhuman as beings. We have seen this claim put into the women

at

present.

"

In

similar a feminarum

period of women's

" in antiquity, Seneca Non wrote: sed vita est, ' Epist During the same 93, " 20. modem waists have grown tight stays, women's period, by abandoning considerably in size in that similar freedom generation; but this does not mean one in the future will go on enlarging their waists. be cited the testimony of a scientist,who is himself 24 Here a may feminist,Forel: " When certain peoplemaintain that a few generations of activity sufhce to elevate the intellectual development of women, the results of education they confound with Education is a purely individual those of heredity and phylogeny. matter, and only generation to prodlice its results. But neither mnemic requires one engraphia, nor even three selection or can modify hereditary energies in two Tied generations. down the mental faculties of woman hitherto partly by servitude, will doubtless rise and flourish in all their natural as they are soon as power absolutely free to develop in societyequally with those of men, by the aid of equal rights. But what does not that is to say, in the energies of germs, inherited through exist in the hereditary mneme, be created millions of years, cannot in a few thousands or The generations. specific characters, and consequently the sexual characters, have quite another constancy than is believed by the superficialprattlers,who deafen us with their jargon on a. question There is no of which they only grasp the surface. at the present excuse day, for characters with hereditary correlative sexual the individual confounding results of latter are education. The acquired by habit, and can onljr be inherited as such by an infinitesimal engraphia, possibly after hundreds of generations," The Sexual Question. 68.

23

mutata

natura,

"progress"

"


SOME

FUNDAMENTAL

ASSUMPTIONS

29

mouth of an adulterous woman under the Roman empire; ^^ and its appearance it made movement. earlyin the modern woman " Is not a woman of the race," asked Mrs. Abby H. a member in 1850; and she Price at the Woman's Convention at Worcester " answered, Yes, for above these titlesof wife and mother, which depend upon circumstances and are accidental and transitory, ing there is for a woman a titleeternal, inalienable, precedingand risabove all, that of human being,co-existent with man." ^^ Even before that,Fanny Wright (later Madame Darusmont), the who firstbrought feminism to America, said in her Scotchwoman " is the purpose of What partingaddress at New York in 1830: human The equalisation of our souls? our conditions,the annihilation the the ple simof all arbitrary substitution of distinctions, character of human beings for that of all others." ^^ And a littlelater Higginsonquoted from Jean Paul Richter's Levana that " before and after being a (published1806) a statement is a human mother, a woman being."^* And Mill followed suit, " then consciousness a woman would the mere declaringthat human like have of other a being being [when emancipated] any ^" The would effect an immense expansion." e. like a man] [i. ^'' since. It is be idea has continued to a constant harped upon ever " We refrain in the writingsand lectures of Mrs. Oilman. "

"

in trying to make our case women," says Mrs. Pankhurst, and make of have to as our argument, clear,always part urge the fact that fact in a audience, our simple men very upon '^ human York, beings." Only recentlyat New are women feminists conducted six a publicsymposium February 20, 1914, Human into the Race," at which of the Breaking on subject the world m aintained that Marie Jenney Howe, who presided, want to be human, not merely emotional, is human, and women We're sick,"she cried, of being personal,feminine creatures. intend We simply to be ourselves,not just to sex. specialised "

"

"

"

"

Above, i. 99. Proceedings, 28. ^ddrew, in pamphlet form, p. II. 27 Parting "" , The Bevor nnd is: original the Alphabet? jp. I47to learn Women 28 Ought So G. W. " 87. Curtis, Mensch, possibly ist em man ist, eine Mutter man nachdem be"They [women] are not only parents, they are human in mind: with the same at New York, 1870, in Orations and Addresses, Address Fair Play for Women, ines 25

26

""

"

.

..

"

Still earlier,in 1792, Hippel be able to say If Why m die burgerhche Verbesserung der Weiher, Ueber should they not be persons?" human as beings, vi 119; they should, he replied,have the rank due to them Werke human being, we ought not to divide only one and woman are man as because, 2W be tolerated to-day! would which not an argument has united, God 143," what constitutional convention the Massachusetts During of Women, 155. 29 Subjection of woman's converted to the doctrine been to have seems Greene B W of iS^I are beings. Official people and human the fact that women upon rights by re'flecting Report of Debates, ii. 726 A, B, 731 A. 100. Sense. Jacobi's Common 30 E.g., in Mrs. Report, p. 6. at Hartford, Nov. 13, 1913. Verbatim

also has made i 2 '10 Ibsen question :" asked 'thestrange

his

Nora

talk this

NfVhy should

not

_^

31

Speech

way.

women

"

""


FEMINISM

30 little female

our

selves,but

our

selves."^^

whole, big, human

the Slovenes the leader of the women's movement, " the motto To see, to know, to Zof ka Kveder, has formulated : ^^ Woman is a human understand. being."

Even

among

In all this it is

both

and

men

ignoredthat Women

women.

human

is

cannot

only what become

is

like

to

common

by

men

coming be-

ent differthey are from men only by giving they be. They can become like men is tinctive disis distinctively womanly and adoptingwhat up what find shall a by becoming "virile,"as we manly Yet sometimes this is feminist sophism prominent urging. more frequently. openly made, and it probably is latent much the the fashion WoUstonecraft at Thus, setting outset, Mary wrote : Women, I allow, may have different duties to fulfil; but they are human she concluded duties ; whence that, as she t hat should the regulatethe sturdily maintained, principles ^* Then, at the Worcester dischargeof them must be the same." Maria L. Varney asserted that woman's Convention, rightsare the rightsof a human and deduced from therebeing," immediately all law should be made that without regard to sex, either ^" in the governor And the governed." or latelyMrs. Oilman, in of all social,economic, and political advocacy making activity the principle to both sexes," lays down that common human work is woman's well as man's." as Now, the argument here is the of all fallacies implied simplest pointedout in every work on logic,being the fallacyof undistributed middle; for, when fullyexpressed,it runs in this form : Man's work and rightsare human work and rights.Woman's work and rightsare human work and rights. Therefore woman's work and rightsare (or the same are as) man's work and rights. The error comes from supposingthat the denotation in the subjectis as complete as in the predicate. Mrs. Oilman's first principle is correct; but her and Mrs. Varney 's deduction therefrom is true only to the extent that woman's the rights(and work) are rights(and work) of human some of all human beings not necessarily beings,as wrongly implied. And Mary WoUstonecraft's inference is true to the extent that the broadest principles that regulatethe dis-

human,

human

because

already,however

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

^"

"

Reported

in

The

New York Times, Feb. 21, 1914. The meeting was probably under the same title in Hampton's Magazine, Sept., 1911 by " Childe " Rheta Dorr. There she characterised the whole as'" a woman movement " mighty effort to break into the human race (p. 13 of the reprint). She might better have described it as a futile attempt to break out of the female into the male sex 33 Schirmacher's Modern Woman's Rights Movement, 135-6. 34 Vindication, 65. She also says " the sexual should not acter, chardestroy the human it could do so, is not explained. 67, though how 32

inspired by

35

36

an

article

Proceedings. 74, 75. and Economics, IVomen

52, S3.


SOME

chargeof

FUNDAMENTAL

human

duties

ASSUMPTIONS

31

the

for men, for women but same as other of men's excluding regulative principles duties alone,and still others regulative ties. of women's peculiarduFor what is distinctively woman's tinctive work, and what are dis-

not

to

the extent

of

women's

held

in

rights,are

the

not

also,but that work

to men

common

are

with

common

And

men.

not are rights, distinctively,

human work and rights those rights which are not and men's work men's so and the rightsheld in common

and

the work

with women.'' It is

pitythat the languagesof the English and the French, the rightsof man," have peopleswho have most insisted on distinctive human for the terms no speciesas a whole and for its male division. If they had such terms, it would have helped them to perceivethat a largeproportion of the rightsof man talked about are the rightsof human but that some are beings, the rightsof men and that there are other some distinctively, distinctive rightsof women, when they are maids, wives, and as Yet whose the Germans, mothers. language has distinctive a

the

"

"

"

terms

saved

for the two of senses from this confusion

"

man," have

our

of

thought.

held

the

always

not

For

the

been

misogynist

his mother that, contrary to Schopenhauer human is the man genuine being (Mensch) tongue, (der not Mann) ; '^ and before him, Hippel was prevented by the clearness of his languagefrom takingthe trouble to assert that well human ing women are as beingsas are men," and from drawtherefrom the unauthorised conclusion that the same rights under belong to them," and, further, from complainingthat of (human beings)', peoplemean rightsof men onlyrights men almost all the which last is since not a fact, simply (proper)"; wherever insisted on, have been extended declared rights of man, Our language, however, like all others,contains by men to women.'" for the two in that distinctive terms for ours sexes, though is blurred by being extended to the whole the male sex species. human The term being,"we should remember, Mensch," or

spiritof

"

"

"

'

"

"

is

abstract,that is,it

more

words

"

"

"

or

man

woman."

connotes

We

fewer

than the attributes,

properlydeal

with

human

be-

result from not observing this distinction. For the same and she is [in consequence?] human as as man, with [all?] the same rights,privileges,and immunities by logically endowed of reasoning [except right reasoning, that by no it follows is man, process as nature, their exercise and enjoyment," she be denied can takes differences into account] which Suffrage, No. 3, Justice, not expediency, p. 9, Frank, A Plea for Woman Henry shall see this matched We feminists und Paraiipomena,ii, " 377. by some 38 Parerga claim for woman. the same making ,, " eben so dass die Weiber Menschen gut die are: sind, wie 39 Hippel's words meint gebiiren." " Man unter Menschenrechte und ihnen gleiche Rechte Manner, Ueber die Ehe, Reclam's ed., pp. 152, 165. als Mannerrechte." nichts anders 37

Dogmatism

instance: justly and

"As

and

woman

often illopcalness is

...

,

.


FEMINISM

32

ingsonlywhen animals,real

dealingwith imaginary; *" for

we

are

or

generalattributes

more

and But

are

we

men

are

we

and

in

have

women

mon, com-

(and no more) a singleterm is useful. cies, speengaged with a subjectwithin the human the very differences of its sexes, we ought to which

to cover

when

which

other dealingwith the

in distinctionfrom

them then

that involves

words the two we possess in avoid error their distinctive senses. We should especially try to the instead of o ut of, from, ambiguitylurkingin making capital also at times includes woman. the fact that the term man Mrs. Price and The above made from Fanny quotations certain another i nduced disclose terms, by Wright lurkingfallacy avoid

the

term

common

and

"

use

"

in the references to " accidental circumstances distinction of sex itself is distinctions." The

"

"

and

by

arbitrary

the feminists

just as is the distinction of arbitrarydistinction, classes by the socialists. Sex," wrote Margaret Fuller, like rank, wealth, beauty, or talent,is but an accident of birth." *^

treated

an

as

"

"

And

Mill called the aristocracy dental of sex " " a distinction as acci*^ that colour." The that the distinction of as supposition "

is the only thingthat distinguishes Africans from Europeans is as shallow (itis literally onlyskin-deep)and as naive the that and men women are as supposition distinguished onlyby characteristic. But their most still sex more worthy unprominent is of a philosopher it to speak of birth and all that it as a bringsas an accident. I ought then to be treated the same talented person, because it is an accident noble, rich,beautiful, capacita that I was born without these advantages. I ought not to be infrom votingin France, because it is an accident that I ought even I was born in America. for a to be able to vote it that I is accident because Roman born fifteen an was consul, consuls ceased after Roman be voted for. hundred to years Birth,indeed, is the most determinative thing in our existence. and not lions or dogs By it we are determined to be human beings, or spidersor nothing. By it we may be given the inheritance

of colour

40 "

We

So

the

must

feminist to

cease

Did, Tauchnitz 41 Memoirs,

Grant Allen be Calibans.

_ed., p.

once

We

made must

a

right

begin

to

use

be

of

words

human,"

when

The

he

Woman

wrote:

who

207.

ii. 145. iii. 99.

" *' of sex " the accident with the Similarlyhe couples that " to be born asserts of skin, Representative Government, 180, and accident a should than black not have influence " any more to be born girl instead of a boy instead of a nobleman," instead of white, or a commoner Subjection of Women, 33, Also in Political Economy, IV. vii. " 3, he repeats ** the accident of sex." cf. 149. constitutional In the woman-suffrage debate in the Massachusetts convention of 1853, " asked: Are not the differences of sex and colour accidental, merely, in W. B. Greene So G, W. Curtis classed sex with *' height human existence," OfficialReport, ii. 731 A. " i, 189. Others and and Addresses, weight " as purely arbitrary tests," Orations said the colour of the hair would be no We have that Mrs. test. have worse a seen Hale to development equally with men's at seems regard all barriers to women's artificial: above, p. 4n.

42

Dissertations,

"


SOME

FUNDAMENTAL

of the higher races,

ASSUMPTIONS

33

only of the lower. By it we may be or idiots, intelligent beings,or cripples,

or

brought forth

sound and How abortions. And is it itself indeterminate? does Mill or know? Because the sex of a child is not determined by the choice of its parents, is it undetermined? Neither the materialist the theist can affirm this. If sex is an accident,so is everynor thing

and are : so is our existence,our being human all which entities is metaphysicsgone at all; beings,our being ferred. ^skew, and is absurd,^^and from it nothingwhatever can be inSo, to add, as Mill does,** and it is the objective point of all the others, that the distinction of sex is as irrelevant the distinction of colour to all questionsof government as is a pure begging of the because they are both equallyaccidental, to be sure, question. Arbitrary distinctions, ought to be done with. The distinction of the is and not sexes arbitrary, away the distinction between whether the sexes in matters of government The questhe issue. is arbitrary or relevant,is questionat tion of colour, reallyof races, is another questionof a similar Each of these questions different elements. nature, but involving its should be settled on own merits,and it is possiblethey might receive oppositesolutions.*^ Modern or feminism, however, has, of course, a deeper cause mistaken of words or foolish talk about occasion than a mere use is. This would-be the accident of being born what one mascuin fact as well as in language,and contrary linisation of women, dustrial inat birth,is a result also of modern to nature's determination from which has taken women the home, where they where they work side by worked by themselves, into the factory, whence and side with men, they return to the home as moneywe

possess

"

"

"

"

"

earners

by

like

side with

men

; and

women,

side industrialism, by puttingmen likewise operativein the oppositedirec-

the is

"

same

is it for Mrs. Price woman's to speak of any being a wife in comparison with her accidental being a human being; for her being while her human her determination, own mother a depends on a Of course of her parents. the association of one's being depended on the determination there is no when causal conattribute may be regarded as accidental birth with some nection Christian in the case of one's being born hammedan, Mothe two, or between a as a tween beDemocrat or a Republican. But there is a direct causal connection a birth and inherited birth and also between our as our our qualities our sex, and temporal and spatial surroundings. our in the rest. in other words first quoted, and the passage 44 In of begging the question by Mill, or his wife, is the following, where 45 Another case " The real question," he says, " is, whether it is right It ought least of all to occur. should the of human race half through life in a state and pass expedient that one The real question half," Dissertations, iii. 113. the other subordination to of forced is forced it is forced extent or natural, or to what their subordination is, whether need Of if, or to the extent, it is natural, it may forcement; natural. legal enand course not " of forced." Mill would deserve the derogatory term not but this does " of children subordination to their parents, although there not speak of the " forced also of this. is legal enforcement 43

and

Especially absurd

mother and wife

as

bein^


FEMINISM

34

middle

of the lower

women

classes,whose

classes has

is

aspire to

women

spread up the

enter

his

seek

have

who fortune

own

left the old best he

as

can,

status

is

going over

familyas well as the state in physicalisolation,without atoms,

also ; and constituent

ward for-

look

vidualism indi-

the of birth,every to

is to break

the

*^

the

to

professions,

to

of men,

out-of-

The

the upper classes,whose women spreadingup and even to enteringpolitics diplomacy. Thus

and

to

their feminisation.*"

tendingtoward

tion upon men, home labour of

one

women

into its

up

chemical

any

So of stable substances. in the permanent molecules " would advised that educate soul not a as Margaret you " *^ be and do not to to be an a woman aristocrat, so ; Higginson combination

Fuller

La carriere oiiverte Soul before sex. aux for for himself, every woman herself,and Every man *^ This individualism the alphabet[i. e., education]for us all." this individualism which Ellen Key mad of the feminists run ^" has outcalls " the principleof the woman stripped movement," to individualism sociaHsm, which has come only through followed

suit

"

:

talens.

"

"

collectivism,while socialism

is

tryingto

are

jumped

feminism

tryingto extend

to

it

directly.And

while

get rid of the wage-system, the feminists Even it to all women.^^ the house-wife,

definite pay from her husband ceive (or resay, should demand his law definite of for her domestic a income) proportion by

some

and barbarism have EUis: C/. H'avelock "Savagery more usually than not been civilisation militant, that is to say masculine, in character, while modern in character, for the industries belonged is becoming industrial, that is to say feminine, and they tend to make like women. Even in quite recent men primitively to women, it is possible to see the workings of this feminisation. times man To-day a O. Mason would is a tender and T. have Woman, also us thing," Man 392-3. than of ages, of militancy and Share industrialism, Woman's speak rather of sexes, of industrialism, then, is predominantly An woman's in Primitive Culture^ 2. a age 46

predominantly

.

.

...

.

.

age.

Jacobi: "This spread to little,

47 Cf. Mrs. has, little by 48

Memoirs, a

man

Education, 49

Ought

ii. 143.

for

manhood,

How and

idea

[of individualism], Common also,"

at

"

wcmen

much a

truer woman

first suggested only for

Sense," "

is Clarke's for womanhood,

men,

143. "

"

physiological motto: both for humanity,"

cate Edu-

Sex

in

19.

Women Woman

to

learn

the

Alphabet?

145.

of it may be found in extravagant specimen The Solitude address other on of Self, in which, among Cady Stanton's "Her [as an individual, [woman's] rights, under such circumstances things, she says: of her own, all her to use Crusoe, the arbiter of her destiny], are in a world a female We ask for the complete developsafety and happiness," 3. faculties for her own ment benefit and happiness of every individual, first,for her [or his] own Again, In for the public good," 6. ask complete individual another address development we the principle: "In the settlement of every ply simshe had laid down must question we consider the highest good of the individual," reprinted in The History of Woman I go on the assumption throughCf. also Josephine P. Knowles: Suffrage, i. 717. out soul has a right to search for happiness (not amusement) that every their ["c] on Cage, London, 1912, lines," The Upholstered own p. xiii. this false tendency of feminism Karl Pearson has raised 51 Against a warning for voice. The equal opportunity he ascribes to tlie fact that the woman's cry started by superior Chances but for women of Death, i. 235; was movement women. for "freedom of contract" for labourers, in general it is as fallacious as is the cry well as according to this Fabian as need the socialist, 238; for women men, 233, " " of the state, 234, 238, 240, 246, 254. special protection The Elizabeth 50

Movement,

qj.

An

"

.

"

"

"

.

,


CHAPTER

ERROR

Common

equal

to

men

made

there

of

this

be

are

about

Full

male

obliterated

the

feminism

the

between

shall

to become aspiration of women to all the rights,privileges,powers, the other and enjoyed by possessed

haziness

some

equality.

all differences

species

that

is

PRINCIPLE

FIRST

is the

admitted

be

to

"

emoluments

Yet

FEMINISTS'

THE

all feminism

to

and sex.

OF

III.

the

female

one

big

the

be

to

use

that

demands

and

except

of

amount

practically

of

the

human

difference

of

getting be-

(of being fathers and mothers), species of living beings. In belongs physiological language, they recognise only the primary sexual would differentiae and ignore all the secondary.^ Just as full and

of

seeks

the

all but

to

socialism

children

bearing

which-

abolition

lowest

of

distinction

the

between

social,

nomic, eco-

desires that, sopoliticalclasses, so full feminism cially, shall economically, and politicallyat least, the two sexes Besides semi-socialism is this, just as a isfied satundistinguished. with equality of ownership of one kind of property only, so and

be

semi-feminism

a

the

goes that

requirement

rights of with The

when

votes

latter kind

forthwith, for

being

men,

their

and

content

feminism

effects

would

feminism

be

too,

it is

as

might

come

instead it would

of

1

144.

what

an

full

feminism several

with

introduced

broaden

away

any

further

with

could

the

sexes,

will

do

with

or

for

generations, without

whereas,

So

of

amount

its

as

the

its kind

socialism. must

to

If come

feminism

socialism.

is

be

and

Either

socialism

tendency since

itself

not

its extension.

competition,

competition ;

upon

political

possible to introduce completely perceived

be

ever feminism, it is true, come, But integral part of such socialism.

without

doing

the

they

should

between

sexes

be

insist

to

all

see

be

not

less than

concomitant

might

full socialism

and

it would

The in

accorded

them.

yet its effects would

a

than

present, be

wait

to

they get

of

at

shall

women

generation or two. brought into operation of

further,

no

If

would set

up

beginnings

so,

do, petition com-

of

cy-

not Higginson, of all animals, that only of the human species, but the two and do " in breathe, everything precisely the run, same cept exmanner, the Women as one solitary fact of parentage," Ought the to learn Alphabet/ thus in sheer ignorance of physiology. Higginson wrote move, to

36


ERRONEOUS

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

37

the sexes have cles of civilisationtilltheir culminatingperiods, lines of labour,with as littlecompetition had their own as possible Men have now invaded the upper ranks of wombetween them. en's have been invited into the lower ranks of work, and women This process, alreadybegun, the feminists wish to men's work. entiated. of men and women no longerbe differcarry on tillthe work and Competitionis to be free not only between men but also between and and men and between women women, men, and

women

between demand for

and

women

men.

with men completeequalityof women (with for includes the demand first deal) a now plete comwe may in the that of men sense women on one independence when is independentof any other particular he is selfman man, bour: lasupporting, livingeither on his own property or by his own economic an independence. It includes also a demand for of supwhich is effected only if the amount equalindependence, port, is obtain for themselves, equalon or income, which women The which

"

the average

which of perfecteconomic

for

to that

under

women

to

full

all without

equalitywith

discrimination

But

be attended

by

might

men

socialism,since this

and consequentlywithout it would

This

obtain for themselves.

men

between

attained

be

distributes

equal

strengthand

discrimination between

all the evils of full

dition con-

the

comes in-

ness, weaksexes.

socialism, already

such socialism reviewed, repeat. Without unnecessary full feminism simply runs againstnature; for it assumes, that if admitted to free competition with men, women were they would do, and gain economic equality, produce and earn as much as men efforts. The demand for equality rests on an sumption asby their own is the of equality.The firstprinciple of full feminism of men and women. And it is an erroneous ciple. prinsimpleequality and

For have

here nature the same

to

steps in and forbids its achievement. and

strengthas men, function earning capacity.Their child-bearing not

not consequently

Then the feminists say: this itself is way. be who bears must allowed for : the woman

stands

labour,and

Women the same in

the

must

be

But if she is to be paid by the state, here is quasi socialism ; or if she is paid of present conditions,with dependenc by the father,here is a remnant The is unworkable without male. scheme ism, socialthe on It would of course be unand it is unworkable as socialism. workable the race would then come without child-bearing, to as with the be minimum it would of end ; but even incompatible an the that would race going longenough to see keep child-bearing has the additionalhandicap, not only of the effects. For woman

paid.


FEMINISM

38 beinghampered by the

burden

but also of the cataof the breasts,

enhood her system. In the *' forming" age of maidto (for a few years after puberty)assiduous application to of kinds of industry,especially study or to any one many those requiringmuch standingon the feet,interferes with the of of that discharge, causing,if not a breakdown regularity for motherhoood. health,at least a weakening of the capacity This result was mencement shortlyafter the compointedout by physicians into the highereducation of women of the movement the and into industry and as soon as the effects could professions, little be studied on a wide scale.^ But to their representations has continued, and the birth-rate heed was paid. The movement of births began in New In our has sunk. country the falling-off first movement were England,where these features of the woman drain upon

menial

put into operation. Women or

strain.

in capacityfor self-support simply are not equal to men able stand the to and n ot stress same independence, being Women must work, and they do work, as much as, if not

be varied,intermittent, their work must inM an's be it work call or at any incessant, terruptible. may may moment for full exertion and always find him ready.^ He also in youth for any of many kinds can prepare himself assiduously of life-work,work at it throughoutmanhood without interrup-

than, men

more

; but

H. Clarke, Sex in Education. in Industry, 1873, and A. Ames, Sex Shattered Boston. health or the former undeveloped ovaries" alternative result of a strenuous school and lege colas a common education the notion that they could do what pursued by girls on boys do. It is possible also that enfeeble a persistent application in early youth may too or and it would that this happened 01 seem in the destroy the sex-vitality even men, of the much of J. S. Mill. But, because greater application required to produce case in the male. the same effect, this is much rarer characterises the female 3 Periodicity," says Clarke, organisation^ and develops characterises Persistence the male feminine force. organisation, and develops masculine He the healthy women force," op. cit., 120-1. more pointed out, too, how much period of Germany respected the menstrual than do the less healthy women of our recommends Hall G. Stanley four a monthly rest for young or country. women, four New weeks, Adolescence, i. 510-11, ii. Sundays together every York, 1904, The Laura is for specialised and genius of man," Fay-Smith, 639. centrated consays is for adapted effort and distributed effort, while that of woman energy," York New Times, April 25, 191 5. This is not recognised by tiie feminist, in The work with who will have women at the promiscuously same the work, with men, who often taken same persistency. Yet it is recognised by the lower are so races, the Zufiis, for instance, where is division for their models. of labour Among tween befrom the sexes, the well during mennot women are expected to fetch water struation: Zuni Mrs. so James Stevenson, The Indians^ in the 23d Report of the of American Bureau in Ethnology, Washington, 1894, pp. ;503-^. But even Germany function Lily Braun interfering with woman's pooh-poohs the idea of the menstrual such as unhealthy clothes and injurious work; ascribes the bad effects to other causes, that know they can nothing about the subject, as it is not a habits; and tells men In America of theirs, Die after Clarke's function soon Frauenfrage, 191-2. work Mrs. published The Question of Rest for Women during Menstruation, 1876, should there is no reason women in which she concluded why normal rest durin^^ that has made some period, pp. 26, 227; and recently Leta Stetter HoUingworth investiga* Functional Periodicity, New on York, 1914, in which tions, published in a monograph in four or five women disturbances she found during their menses no more perform* time in a couple of men three months, than at the same or ing certain tests for two she used as controls. WDom 2

So

especially Ed.

1875, both at pointed out (p. 39)

"

"

"

"

jacobi

"


ERRONEOUS

PRINCIPLE

FIRST

39

and in later age be able tion,alwaysadvancingin skill, direct others

and

in it. Such

guide

to

interferes in no wise with his function of fatherhood,nor his function of fatherhood with but it him better renders for fatherhood, and fatherhood it; in the case of women spurs him on to be better at it; whereas motherhood interferes with any kind of life-occupation except domestic labours,and any kind of life-occupation except domestic labours interferes with motherhood.^^ The distinction between man's labour and woman's labour is not merely due to custom, or economic conditions: it is physiological. to Women's women's ferent bodies,and in consequence minds, are diffrom men's. of the Nature," said the presidentess in Woman's Convention that men Rights 1850, does not teach and women but that are unan unequal, only they are unlike; likeness so naturally related and dependent that their respective their balance differences by their establish,instead of destroying, * The d ifferences to sum equality, equality." respective may up if you like,and if you can standthem by any common measure medans Mohamard." and women Before God men be the equal: may in at least since the but Christendom, that, nobody deny to do so." In the world Council of Macon, cares women may ^ in and worthiness this in : usefulness, consequently equal men is believed to be ruled by a is indisputable, as the world especially work

"

"

" A man, in the full tide of business or El. C. Stanton : pleasure, can be husband, father, and everything life iota; he can and his one change not marry Suffrage, gives up all," in The History of Woman beside; but in marriage, woman But she spoke complainingly,as if this difference ought not to be. i. 720. shall see, by This is extended, as we W. 4 Mrs. Paulina Davis, Proceedings, p. 9. in all species: they are, she says, " always B. Blackwell Antoinette to the sexes Mrs. throughout Nature, New true equals, but not identicals," The Sexes equivalents

Cf. Mrs.

3a

"

York,

1875, p.

II. ,.

"

.

",

.

this: her in Woman, statement as in his," Kaethe Schirmacher, The Modern man is the equal in the hand-labourer As well say Woman's Rights Movement, p. xiv. the hand-labourer that therefore his peculiar field of the capitalistin his, and conclude of the capital with the capitalist. an should be put on equal footing in the management Hardie's effusion in Keir dithyrambic Something of this sort is, in fact, maintained of I. Cor. XV. glorj; 41) to the effect that "if there be one (playing a variation upon domain, each of the equal within their own another and they are the moon, sun

meaning in peculiar sphere, is entirely the equal of There

5

is,

however,

no

such

a

to Socialism, Freedom 69. r ^ -itt , I. Cor. XI. 3, 7. Feminists quote Galat. III. 28, as a divine authority, but ignore The French feminist Gen. III. 16. Jules and 9, Ephes. v. 22, 23, 24, 33, Col. III. 18, " and the soul of man suffrage, etc., because Bois preaches feminism, with woman This is York Sun, April 15, 1915Evening is equal," as reported in the New woman different bodies, with different functions peculiar. God, nevertheless, has given them why should they not have different duties in the state? to perform in society. Then to world, would seem of their souls in the next is to be the treatment Whatever of Alexandria, Father, Clement The early Christian nothing to do with the matter. have in perfection,Stromata. IV. c. 19 and 20, share equally with men sard women He in in the church. recognised that rights the same them did not he assign but " nature he pressly exthe same have and ; but women men what pertains to humanity is not the same nature as man s, added that "so far as she is female," woman's

From

.

.

6

c.

8 7

of last chapter). " on early remonstrant, C. E. Beecher, an Miss are equal in value happiness and usefulness that woman's Profession. Hartford, 1871, p. 4. Woman Suffrage and Woman's

(cf. above, "We

near

wrote

principle,

of man,"

end

,

"

agree

"

the to

eral gen-

those


FEMINISM

40

God who is no respecterof persons, and who rewards merit for and men work performed accordingto ability; are as certainly for the welfare of much concerned for the welfare of women as should be more and there is no other men, reason why women But the existence of than in men. interested in other women that in some differences means are superior,and in respectsmen be superiorin Women some are superior. may respectswomen moral some or virtues,and in certain aptitudeswhere qualities tant: delicacyand nimbleness of thought,feeling,or touch are importhose who how she will superiorities possesses, many may stance, should be taken; for, for incare inquire. In the enumeration it would she is superiorin the raceto say be absurd man's contribution is likewise indispensa which to propagatingfunction, merely on account of her labouringharder than man in the work. of man's excellences On the contrary, it is one that here, too, he does his work more this be, easily.*However do much work that women cannot men do, and in much work that both can do it much work that is left to better and do, men ; cause women as work, is left to them not beproperly woman's they do it better (tending of children,of course, is an are exception),but because men fullyoccupied with other All this is due to the greater bodily more important work." strengthof men, and their greater stayingpower in continuous and monotonous to which is to be added their greater activity;

willingnessto

go

ahead,

their greater mental E. Ferri

"Cf.

"

One

run

aptitudefor

risks, and

experiment, and combining,^"organising,and

no longer deny the physiologjcal and psychological inferiority A being who creates another not the fleetingmoon being ment of a voluptuous contact, but by the organic and psychological sacrifices of pregnancy, child-birth,and giving suck for herself as cannot much preserve strength, whose physical and mental, as man, only function in the production of the species is infinitely less of a drain," Socialism and Modern Science, trans., Chicago, 3d ed., igog,

of

woman

to

:

man.

can

"

...

"

20-in.

pp.

Some feminists, beginning with Plato ^Republic, V. 45SA-456A) and including CChances of Death, i. 247-8) Mrs. Jacobi (" Common Pearson Sense," 100), and D. G. Ritchie (.Darwinism and Politics p. 30 of the Humboldt Library ed.) cf. also Spencer, quoted above, p. 22n., and Mill, Subjection of Women, cient seem to think it suffi93-4, if women in all the labours can that men engage perform, even though it be admitted that on the average do them well. they cannot But this gives away as their case do one entirely. Men can thing which cannot women possibly do, and women do another can thing which cannot men possibly do; in everything else they can both act but their natures somehow, such that many are do women men things which can do so poorly in comparison {e.g. fight,and all hard and stressful labour), that it is better for women to give up the attempt altogether, and, to make for these, men up leave to women occupations which do well many they can enough, besides the supreme which one is interfered they do better and which with by too many others. Hence there naturally springs up a of the activities of the two great diversification which, however, itself varies at times, with perfect naturalness, as new sexes; tions occupaare invented, tried out, and assigned. 10 "In have co-operation women weak. There always been few are duties that in common. Even they have beasts of burden as they seldom worked in pairs " Share Mason, Woman's in Primitive Culture, 160. Men's greater aptitude in this been respect has, of course, explained by the greater need for co-operation, from the 9

"

"

very

beginning, in fighting.


ERRONEOUS

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

41

is inequalityin a Here systematising.^^ couple of details, whatever be the equalityof the whole. And they are details essential to all the questionsinvolved in the woman ment. movefor In the very pointswhich women the movement need and for economic are they inaugurating, independence, political with men. they fail in possessing equality The bodies of men differ not only in essential and and women that them, but (as has alreadybeen primary orgatis distinguish be followed up) in innumerable other noticed,and may now of considerable importancedown to respects ranging from some minutiae human that The seem trifling utterlyinsignificant.^^ male and female differ in numbers of life, at birth and in tenacity in the periodsof growth,in proportions in the of the limbs,even in their relative lengthof the fingers and the shapesof the ears, in the in their and the their teeth, bones, especially pelvis skull, of fat,in the voice,in the odor they emit,in their hair,in amount in the instinctive direction of the of pulse and respiration, rate of their hands movement (whereforetheir clothes are buttoned oppositely in the

compositionof the blood, in

resistance to diseases

in such facts as that males are more frequently and liable to deafof keener more color-blind, sense, yet are mutism and to the habit of stammering,but women more exposed of the thyroidgland. The differences in the sizes of to swelling smallerWomen bodies and their shapes are marked. their are Their tallness is found to than men. chested and larger-hipped be on the average about seven teen per cent, less,their weightsevenabout less cent, Their ten per brain averages per cent. less. their brain is smaller relatively to in size and weight. Hence ence This differto body-weight.^^ largerrelatively stature, but slightly birth of wherefore the in the embryo, a boy is appears even and

to

and poisons,

that if man invades the so-called woman's Ellen Key admits of dressmaking), it is most the art of cooking or frequently Movement, and attains great success I" discoveries makes new The_ Woman be who business since time immemorial, The l8in. preparation of food has, in fact, been women's who developed the art and science of yet it is not they, but men, Even in such peculiarly woman s Cut und Base, " 234. cf. Nietzsche, Jenseits von than helped by work obstetrics,improvement, it is said, has been rather hindered as des Weibes, 9th ed. Ueber den physiologischen Schwachsinn P. J. Mobius, Even

11

spheres

the

**

feminist

(for example

cooking:

women,

i9o8,_p. 12 an

For

cf. 146-7.

12,

Ellis's Man and Woman^ London, 1894, following, see Havelock earlier opinions A. Walker's Beauty and in this subject. For of See also the opening pages (1-26) of the first volume be consulted. L Thomas's Sex W. and Society, work Das Weib, Leipzig, 1885, and

most

of the

authoritative work

Woman may Floss's H.

Chicago. 1907, 13 Topinard

pp,

3-51. to

,

,

,

.

.

,

relation to tallness as more important, for he says L'Anthropologie Paris, 3d ed. 1879, is really lighter in woman," brain therefore "the But Ellis argues that the Similarly Mobius, op. cit., pp. vi., 4, cf. 39-42. p. 123. hanced relation to weight is more important,and that (here following Manouvrier) it is enof account; the other hand he points on excessive fat be left out if woman's the larger the body, the smaller the relative sizfe of the out that as a rule in animals of this, epileptics generally having relativelylarge heads, brain, and the advantage

op. cit.,95-101,

seems

cf. "gn.

take

the


FEMINISM

42

difficultthan that of a girl.^*It is found in savages is relatively well as in the higher races.^* The cerebellum as than in men, as also the frontal lobes, the last largerin women in apes too.^" The spinalchord has a twofold difference, being The than in men.^' smaller above and largerbelow in women " the highest absolutely greater size of man's brain Bebel called " and the he himself of antithe found feminists, trump-card brain triumphantjoker in the relatively greater size of woman's of measurement, in the latter mode overlookingthe other.^^ about two-thirds the have in civilised lands Women to-day strengthof men, althoughin this respect they fall less short of in primitive men peoples. Their athletic records are always poor in comparison with those of men. and women The minds of men also differ. No, says the feminist " leader,Mrs. Oilman, there is no female mind ; the brain is not ^' This is a an organ of sex : as well speak of a female liver." mistake, as male and female distinctions run through organs that of sex, and even the liver is different in men and not organs are tained indeed, the Danish zoologistSteenstruphas mainwomen,^" that sexual characters are present in every part of the and women so body. The brain,in which there are between men and which, differences of size and internal conformation,^^ many the the the that of contains seat nerve-centres nervous as system,

usuallymore

"

"

control the sex-organs,

has

sex

as

woman

than

Mrs.

even

more

14 15

"

hardlybe an exception. The mind The piowell as the body,"rightly neer says Mr. Finck.^^ E lizabeth better informed Blackwell,was physician, Sex in the human she Oilman. is being," wrote, ^' And the a mental passionthan a physicalinstinct."

Sexual Forel, The Id. ib. 190-1.

can

"

"

Question,

59.

Forel he still maintains to the first,66, but the as III; 92, 28; likewise view that these lobes, the seat of intelligence,are larger in men, 66-7. 17 Ch. L. Dana, in The New York Times, June 27, 191 5. IS Die Mill's reply had been that woman's brain might be FraUj 188, 191-2, 194. of iiner quality, having the advantage in activity of cerebral circulation," hence joying engreater quickness, but sooner subject to fatigue. Subjection of IVomen, 120-2. W. I. Thomas also attaches little importance to absolute brain size, Sex and Society, 16

Ellis"

older

'*

255-6. and 19 Women Pier Economics, 149, cf. 159. that asserts Accordingly Florida there is not the masculine the feminine and a jot of difference between minds," The Masculine and the Feminine Mind, Harper's Weekly, Sept. 24, 1910, p. 21. Long D. Mansfield, in his Legal Rights of Women, Salem, 1845, p. 97, asbefore, Edward serted sex." But mind has no he based his opinion religious grounds, and on avouched it in the sense that soul has no which is another about matter, sex, which know nothing. we 20 According to Pearson the liver is more variable in weight in women than in men, much that he treats this difference of variation as a secondary sexual 30 so character, The Chances of Death, i. 318. those already noticed, see Mobius's abstract of Rudinger's investigations, 21 Besides in the former's op. cit., 4-5, cf. 41. 22 Primitive Love and Love Stories, 64. 28 The Human Element tn Sex, New York, 1894, p. 7, cf. 18. She here, however, words with feminine instinct. uses an inexactitude, as sex can be neither a passion nor "

"

*'


FEMINISM

44

more men utilitarian, again,are more better little in men things,^^ practical

aesthetic;^^ women more in the largerconcerns managers

to parof life. Hence, also,women's thoughtsrun more ticulars, with wholes, as with generals, deal more while men or " These are equivalent faculties," Lotze maintained.^^ says Paul woman's mind is more crete, conLafitte, but they are not the same: said Buckle, "are abstract."^* "Women," man's more "

and men inductive"; more deductive in their reasoning, has ficial been beneinfluence of women whence he concluded that the to be merely the too great tendency of men in counteracting Mill considered women empiricalin their scientificenquiries.^^ their with of ideas,which men greater application more suggestive tive, intuia llowed to be more Women are elaborate.^^ universally more

to conclusions, that they jump more which means instantly instinct.^^ It almost an is,says Lester and this habit has become " " F. Ward, being a highlyspecialised part of the maternal instinct," had of mind which of as its originally a faculty development ^" and offspring." In of the mother the protection sole purpose of being " unof the quality erring"; this confined sphereit has somewhat the possessor of an instinct which " is lost the moment Ellis points out that among was generally begun primitive peoples ornamentation op. cit.,6, 316. men, are/' says 32 Women practical and careful of details than men are certainly more excel While excel in judgment, women Mrs. men Gallichan, op. cit., i33n., cf. 209. K. Brooks, The Law in common W. of Heredity, 258. Similarly Mill, sense, says 31

by the "

Subjection of Women, "^f-136. 105-7, 33 Mikrokosmos, ii. 386. Sie [die Weiber] 34 Quoted and by Ellis, Man 189. Already Hippel: Woman, besitzen eine praktische,wir [Manner] eine theoretische Vernunft, Ueber die Ehe, 157. 35 Miscellaneous Posthumous and by themselves, Works, i. 7-8, 16-17. Women "

rather, in their

Buckle also said: occupations, have rarely risen above empiricism. of inferiority:physical and mental,383. For a similar opin-' reported by Xenophon, see above^i. 99n. tells ZQ Subjection of^Women, In his Autobiography he humbly cf. 105-10. 131-2, this position toward he assumed the woman who became his wife, 189, 242, 243, us In particular, her his visionariness, 248, and practicalness, he says, repressed 247. " Les his work some thereby gained in practicality,igo. grandes inspiratrices own

*'

have two Women ion of Socrates, as

Frenchman

sorts

'*

called women. de Stael: Les femmes n'ont Cf. Madame point veritablement superieurs; mais elles n'en ont pas moins eminement de la litterature par la foule de pensees servi les progres hommes qu'ont inspirees aux consideree les relations eGtretenues avec etres mobiles et delicats,"De la Litterature ces les Institutions sociales,London, 1812, i. 198. Also Mrs. chan Gallidans ses Rapports avec of a law of tion is convinced absorption by the male of female ideas," The Posiin Primitive Society, 86. of Woman '' instinctive than Gallichan. that women will deny," says Mrs. 37 Few are more Truth about Woman, inist, intuitive than cerebral," The early fem296. An logical,more this. In its intellectual aspect," she wrote, " the built upon Eliza W. Farnham, Feminine Era will be characterised pects, asby a sacred respect for Truth in her broadest which it is the office of the intuitive, but especiallyfor those self-evident Truths " and which but slowly accepted by and trust deductive to see, are power supremely," her Era, ii. 447. For instance: Woman and I mind," "Fortunately the masculine C. Stanton, to that class endowed with mere intuitions,a belong," said Elizabeth In presenting to you, feel out right and wrong. we kind of moral instinct, by which will of course the weight only of the of divorce, you give them views therefore, my that is all God fit to give us, it is evident intuitions. But inasmuch as saw woman's be as reliable as what do perceive of truth must Hence, we need we nothing more. of reason, authority, and speculation," in what grinds out by the larger process man Suffrage, i. 722. History of Women 88 Cf. The Psychic Factors of Civilisation,175.

'compose

has

d'ouvrages

"

"

^

'*

"

"

"


ERRONEOUS

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

45

is removed to a different environment from that in contact with which the instinctwas and then the slower reasoning developed," is requiredfor the forming of sound process employed by men has judgments.^* Advance, therefore,out into the unknown been made but mostly by men, with many aberrations at first, with somewhat of approachtoward the one rightway.*" Women,

furthermore,are

"

emotional,irritable, or

more

more affectable,"

hypnotic,more subjectto hysteria,*^ ecstasy,and suggestibility; also more more and therefore, more vindictive,*^ impulsive, forgiving, in the magnifying spectacles of men, well diabolic more as *' in as more more as Lecky angelic ; general, subjectto fanaticism, admits.**

As

steadfast in and more in attack and attack.*"* counteradversity, they Less self-controlled, less too, are they,and consequently self-reliant,more conservative,*' therefore,their conservatism in exhibited their even bodies,which, it has been maintained, being

perhaps,as

courageous,

less brave

are

and

men,

bold

"

adds: Ward Woman's and Intuition, The Forum, June, 1890, pp. 401-3. instantaneous' admitted that the habit of forming judgments is carried by of registered expethere is no store into departments of life in which riences women many such be correctly constructed, and, as a consequence, whereon judgments can ference Mason gives a slightly different explanation " of this difthey are usually erroneous.*' few Very which between and position: men supplements Ward's women, are doing what their fathers did, so their opinions have to be .made up by study men in civilisation, are doing whether in savagery or and precedents. Nearly all women, born therefore m did, and their opinions are and what their mothers grandmothers ject therefore When woman them into them. a or expresses an opinion upon. a suba shown, covers and this, as has been she is entitled to speak at all whereupon this is called her instinct. and wisdom of ages, wide field the accumulated she utters With reference or an to a gun object out of this long concatenation, she would Culture, Share in Primitive and say it is a horrid thing," Woman's be only bewildered W. K. Brooks, Law of Heredity, 257-8, and in the Popular Science S9

"

Genius

It must

be

.

.

.

"

"

Cf. already 1879, pp.'i54-s,

275.

Monthly,

348.

40

Gallichan admits sex," op. cit.,292, cf. 293-4.

41

The

42

C^ Juvenal,

Even

term

from itself comes XIII. 191-2: Nemo

43

So

that

Mrs.

Tennyson:

the

"

man

Greek

.

constitutes

word

,

.

"

,.

"

ing, changing, the experiment-

,

the

for womb.

"

magis

Vindicta femina.

guadet, quam

"

.. and Earth, differ as Heaven and Hell. and best, as Heaven Merlin .

"

For men But women,

at most worst

,-

.

and

Vivten.

of his abbot of the twelfth century, in one GofiEridus,a French old opinion. Thus An " melior; sed ubi ille ubi bonus, nuUus Sexus letters {IV. ep. 43) says of women: xxi. 48. Akin, V eterum Patrum, Bibliotheca Bigne's Maxima malus, nullus est peior,'" saying, that nothing is so good for a with this is the ancient but not quite the same, and Works good wife, and nothing so bad for him as a bad one: man as a and 11 14. Flortlegtum, LXIX. Euripides and Sophocles in Stobaeus's Davs 702-1. the whole more on there also says they are and Liberty, ii. 556- He or an undisciplined induced gratify to easily more emotional than and men; impulsive of interests permanent misplaced compassion, to the neglect of the larger and more distant results__ = the proximate than the more ""^= apt to dwell upon society; more ^' of legislation, .,557-8, the curative powers to overrate says, apt too, he elsewhere also much than men.' conscientious 555, and "more hand, other the but, on 521influences, sacerdotal 54i. be governed by to likely more o".rfi,_^",.,, ," 69-70, Question, ";" will-power. The Sexual holds that they have stronger 46 Forel even

^Hesiod,

/"ibemo^acy

'"e

calls it "an F. Ward Lester the male and is the conservative Sociology, 295. 194, cf. Pure

obvious

fact, patent to all observers, that the female Cmhsatwn, Factors tn sex," PsychK

the inventive


FEMINISM

46 remain

nearer

to the

and whose type of the species/^

anatomy in

tween intermediate bealso their behaviour,witness the child's and man's ; as *^ for their pouting, weeping; and in their pathology, exclaiming, diseases as children.^** subjectthan men to the same they are more Men show in their minds, as in their bodies,a greater tendencyto and to abnormalities both of geniusand of idiocy race-variation,^^ ;

respects is closer

many

to

that of the child,or *^

47

Cf. the

Paracelsus;

fantastic to

notion

that

is

woman

328, cf.

to

to

Even the feminist Society, 4. leader, Ward, Victor Hugo's approvingly as follows from

22,

the world, according to still according nature,

to

nearer

Michelet;

earth, according to

about Woman, Gallichan, Truth Mobius, oP. cit,,8, and nearer

Mrs,

to

old nearer

to

nearer

267,

"

or

plants,according in

his

Pure

Quatrevi/ngt

nearer

to

to animals, according Sex and Thomas,

Sociology, 414"15, quotes " What Treize : makes a instinct is divinely animal.

sublime is that she is a sort of beast. The maternal mother is no she is simply female.*' longer a woman, 48 Darwin, Descent of Man, 557 (following A. Ecker and H. Welcker) ; Topinard, cp. cit., 148; Letourneau, La Biologic, 71, 75; Ellis, op. cit.,60, Sgn., cf. 387; Ferri, this Mobius, both bodily and mentally, op. cit.,4, cf. 14. Of course op. cit., 22\ been disproved. opinion is rejected by most feminists; but it has never 49 A. Walker: "Woman remains tion, almost always a child in regard to her organisawhich yields easily to every 138. Schopenhauer called them impulse,"Woman, "large children," Parerga und Parahpomena, ii. " 377, cf. " 379; and Comte spoke of them state of continued as de Philosophie Positive, existing in a childhood," Cours iv. 405. Of old, the collocation was said that women's made by Seneca, who as anger, As for the than also that of children, is sharper,but less severe, men's, De Ira, II, lo. of women resemblance to children in form, that was noticed by Aristotle,De Anitnalium Generatione, I. xx, V. lii., 16, 24, 34, 62. cf. Problemata, IV. 4, X. 4, 37, XL tion: distinc50 Ellis, op. cit., 38^-^0. Mrs. Antoinette B. Blackwell would introduce a "The differentiation between and child is much woman greater in kind than between and child; the difference in quantity remains with the man,*' The Sexes man and throughout Nature, 123, cf. 124, 128, 134; but she hardly bears it out, cf. 131-2 mother

The

*'

132-3-

and Plants under Darwin, Descent of Man, 566, Animals Domestication, 2d ed., li. H. Campbell, Differences in the Nervous and Woman, don, LonOrganisation of Man 1891, p. 133; Ellis,op. cit.,358-71, 3B7, citing J. Hunter an as early holder of this view. Ellis himself holds the strange doctrine, entirely opposed to Haeckel's biogenetic theory, that the child is nearest of the species, to the ideal (future) type then the woman, and lastly the man, K. F. Burdach and J. F. Meckel 21-5, 390-2. 51

457;

nearly

hundred

held

the most variable. Pearson has and medical statistics do not show than in women, Variations in Man greater variations in men and in the first Woman, volume of Chances of Death. Every teacher or examiner," says he in his Ethic of who has had to deal with women Preethought, 425-6, students, will admit their capacity the same to grasp intellectual training as men." But in the same not way, to according Forel, who, from his experience of mixed classes, affirms that the show women a The more equal level than the men. most intelligentmen reproduce better, and the most than the corresponding female stupid men reproduce worse, tremes," exThe Sexual L. Thorndyke, Question, 68. Similarly Edward Sex in Education, " The Bookman, New York, April, 1906, p. 212. A woman is never so stupid as a man can be," says Otto Weininger, Sex and Character, English trans., p. 253, cf. 316, who denies all genius to women, 113, 189. On this subject we may note, that the two sexes might be equally variable (potentially),or the female even more so, but if the male used his variations he would exhibit greater variableness more, (actually). show variableness Also, if men than women, more this,of course, is not a virtus formawith other secondary sexual tiva,but its occurrence, as of differences,is in consequence the primary^sexual difference. If some rise superior to any men in certain women illustration of their greater variableness, not qualities, this is only an a consequence of it; and it is counterbalanced if other men sink lower than any women, if many or and men sink very only few women low. The doctrine of the greater variableness of or man variability (or of the male in general) is, therefore, wrongly used as an difference from explanation of man's in woman, by W. K. Brooks as, for instance his Law of Heredity, as will be noted presently. Whether the physiological greater variability of man be proved or not, is of little importance; but the evidence can on a largescale for his greater variation is so demonstrative, that to seek for proof, and especially for disproof, in a few measurements and tests seems superfluous. While feminists does not include Pearson) our minor (which term are tiradingagainst this doctrine (as seeming to show inferiority in woman), and the latest, Vance son, Thompsimply asserts the opposite (" Women differ more widely than men do They a

years

ago

urged against Ellis that anatomical

that

women

were

measurements

"

"

"

"


ERRONEOUS

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

47

" for " genius," common men by virtue says Ellis, is more among is of the same which generaltendency by idiocy more common, ^^ is with men." the Genius, intuitive, too, incompatible among deductive,particularistic tendencyof woman's mind.^^ Thus, on is reposeful, the whole, while woman sive, submispassive,yielding,

is active,aggressive, sedent,man wild, erratic, receptive, is his he seeks : expansion leadership divergent, ; extravagant ; and of rapidityof motion and transportation, of characteristic so he has always been the inventor, and the improverof civilisation, all else."*

The

existence of secondarydifferences between the sexes is,of the human In confined animals not to species. describing course, do but half his job,unless he portrayed the a naturalist would Some particular female as well as the male. differences extend, the animal apparently, throughoutall,or nearlyall, kingdom, and into the vegetable.These are, in some some even cases, so plain for instance, that they attracted attention in antiquity, Aristotle, of them."^ often alluding But they have not been speto many further from reflect that Ward to io6), it is curious type,"^Women, it his whole (the more gynaecocentric theory about the superiorityof woman is accepted' by the feminist leaders: his Pure stable female), which see Sociology, Virgil's varium 322-3, 325, 335, 481, cf. 300, Psychic Factors " of Civilisation,178-90. the precise reverse is he says, rautabile semper of the truth," Pure femma," et Which himself says, to depend, as Ward opinion one Sociology, 33 sn. adopts,seems " differences in the constitution of individual minds," 332, or, more on particularly,on is progressive or the one conservative, and admires whether the other quality or one in women, hardly a solid basis for science to rest on. He here also remarks that the statement 52 Op, cit.,z^^about the greater quency freof genius among has sometimes been men regarded by women slur as a their sex; they have sought to explain it by lack of opportunity, education, etc. upon that women have been equally anxious It does not appear to find fallacies in the statement men." that idiocy is more But recently Leta Stetter Hollingworth common among has taken pleasurein poiritingout a (possible)fallacy in this statement, it is based as the statistics of public institutions, but to these, she asserts, it is more on usual to send defective males than defective females, more maining boys being sent than girls,and of the reold ones, than men. more women in Variability as related to Sex Differences American The Achievement, Journal of Sociology,Jan., 1914, p. 515. She finds the of the greater variation (not variability, cause at least not inherent or variability) of toward eminence, in the different sex-life of men and women men (which of course is the right explanation), 523-4, 528, 529; but she thinks it desirable that women may find a way to vary do, and yet perform their function of procreating, and as men in another prophesies that this problem will be solved century," 529. fancied 53 " The woman's intuition and manifestations of analogy between the in the article first cited, "is an exact reversal of the true genius," says Ward tions relabetween these two Women of real genius have things. .^ little intuitive very the true power. They are usually rather indifferent to the affairs of the household and focus of that faculty," 404, 406. Hence the absurdity of the pretension held locus advanced to-day, and voiced in the following by Adeline women by many E. York in The New Women "know Times, Feb. 20, 19:6: that placed and Browning their intelligencematches circumstances well with man's, brought up under the same and clear-sightedness are much while their intuitiveness greater." animals "As do the same always from time immemorial 5iCf, Mobius: things, so would have remained the human in its pristine species, had there been only women, from derives All progress book, with all its feministic state. man, of. cit.,8. Hasan's with this. Other feminists will also be found virtually agrees praise of woman, acknowledging the same. practically Animalibus 55 De Historia, II. xix. 4, III. xix. (or xiv. or xiii.)4, IV. xi. 5-7, V. xxx. (or xxix.) 2, IX. i. 2-4, viii. I, 2, xiv. 3-7, VI. xviii,11, VII. i. 3, iii. 5, VIII. Generatione, IV. i.,vi., V. iii.;De (ii.) II, vii. (or viii.)5, X. vi. I; De Animalium II. ii.,ix.. III. i.; Problemata, IV. 25, 28, X. 8, 36; Problemata Partibus Animalium, end. His only mistake of fact was Inedita, II. 148; Physio gnomonica, v., and vi. near break rests

away

on

"

"

"

"

'

"

.

.

"

"

"

'


FEMINISM-

48

studied tillrecent times,since the developmentof comparacially tive of the number such ences differphysiologyor biology.Naturally to all animals

common

which

be

in any

largeas the

so

number

of those

in the genus especially species, And there is numerous. as they are superlatively in the within any one there is irregularity irregularity species, whole series : we not are dealingwith universal laws, but with less more or generalrules,always admittingexceptions.A fairly complete list of the most importantdijfferencesthat prevailseems mobile and active,females to be the following: Males are more a nd more inclined, therefore,to paraquiescent passive more sitism, and more males illustrate while better the tinctive disvegetative, in the search for food. animal qualityof agility For malfes are less nutritive, what take consume more in, quickly they can

found

is not one

homo, where

"

hungriertherefore

better nourished on the ; while females are it same supply,storing up more, and therefore are more easily satisfied. For, again,in the internal metabolism of the tissues, which consists of the two processes of anabolism in buildingup are

and

in

and

of katabolism in tearingdown and in latter process predominatesin males, the former in females. This difference shows itself further in males, in their havinga highertemperature, in females in their having a lower temperature. females longer Males, too, are shorter-lived, lived,because the males use themselves up quicker. Males are accoutred with better weapons of attack,or more brighter-vested, than the whose is generally adorned, females, uselessly appearance variable than females,and in the sober. Males are more more and females follow.^^ Males males lead developmentof species are generatedunder less favourable conditions,females under of these differences are also favourable conditions. Some more exhibited in the male and female germs, the spermatozoon of the of the other more one being more agileand hungrier,the ovum affluent and inert ; the male element also seeks the female element, which is likewise an almost universal distinction between the male ^' female whole and the and as a organism organism; they univer-

storing energy, expending energy, the

De Animal. in sayingfthat males generally live longer than femaleSj Hist., IX. vii. (or he gives foolish reasons, viii.) 5, cf. xlvi. (or xxxiii.), for which Problefnata, X. 48, and De Longitudine et Brevitate Vitae^ v.; of opinion,that the male is the better, Animal. ProbUmata, XXIX. Gen., II. 1., Politico,I. ii. (or iii) 12, v. (or 11, cf. De stunted xii.) I and 2, the female being considered or male, De Animal. Gen. a maimed of the difference between II. iii.,IV. vi. His account and women in De men Animal. be considered Hist., IX. i. 4, might have been written to-day; but it would misogynisin the Physiognomonica. tic, and especiallyso the account 66 Note method for disprovinggreater variabilityin women that Pearson's has no of variation," says Brooks, The which amount application here. organism has any in two be learned lately undergone, may by a comparison of allied species, ways and by a comparison of the adult with the young^" The Law of Heredity^ 253. tistics Staaside from the question. of measurements and laboratory tests are Sexual 07 Cf. Forel, The Question, 49, 155, 192-3; hence the stronger sexual appetite in the male, 77. "

"

"

"

*


ERRONEOUS

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

49

male germ being much smaller than the female. Also in the lower speciesmale animals are usuallysmaller than the female, and sometimes in the higher,as in birds of prey ; but in the higherspeciesmales generally in females this But this is the a more respect. surpass and here, too, the female apparently than usuallyvariable quality, dency and where the tento the original keeps more type of the species, is to degeneration the males lead the way, degenerating more, and even, where the tendencyis to parasitism, becoming,in some dency females; and where the teninstances,parasiticupon their own the is toward advance and increase in size,they become more individualistic, larger. Males are more self-sustaining, females more more more tive, reproducspecies-maintaining, egoistic; absence of this distinction, altruistic with exceptional more however. reversal of it,in several species, or even hit of these differences Some investigators have one upon some Thus and others upon others. the fundamental W. K. as one,

sallypossess

one

the pronounceddifference,

more

.

"

Brooks,

of Heredity^(Baltimore,1883),lays most of the males.^* But this greater greater variability

in his Law

the rather than a cause, of of the males must be an effect, variability grier the other secondary differences. W. H. Rolph rests on the hunmale seek the wellcondition of the as cells, urgingthem to female thus nourished cells, explaininglove by hunger.^' P. work The Evolution Geddes and J.A. Thomson, from whose on of Sex facts have been taken, these of (London, 1889) most " " recognise the fundamental difference between male and female in the contrast between the greater predominanceof katabolism in and in the other."" This theoryhas the merit of anabolism the one behind the primary sexual difference, of going even as it explains of energy, can why the female, because of her accumulation the while male scattered has his energy expend it on reproduction, all along his path,and has less left for expenditure in reproduction. The male, however, in expendinghis energy less on reproduction, has more to spend in other ways, and other parts of him Thus in birds this greater developmentof the may developmore. of more brilliant plumage, more tuneful males takes the form form the In it takes of and bodies man voices, etc. stronger stress

on

medium is the material through which the law of heredity manifests is the vehicle by which variations are element added. tlae male The new element the progressive or and the male variable factor is the conservative ovum of the race, as well as in the reproduction of the indiof evolution vidual, in the process is an The male organism specialised for the productionof the 250-1, and the female an organism specialisedfor in the reproductiveprocess, variable element It is Brooks element," 252. whom Ward follows on the production of the conservative above this point: see p. 46n. nutrition and Leipzig, 1884. The close relationshipbetween 69 Biologische Probleme, recognised by BufFon, Des Animaux, ch. ii. end. generation was 60 Ch. II. 5, cf. VII. 4, X. 2, XVI. 558

'*

The

ovum

itself,while

'*

"


FEMINISM

so

sexual selection of males may and far Darwin this tendency enhance was so right. Also natural selection of sober-vested females, who escape capture by this differenhances ence less their enemies conspicuousness, through ment from the other side,in the case of birds,while greater retirealso far Wallace and so effect in women, has the same

capaciousbrains.^^

more

Female

"

"

right. But

was

There

be

must

Darwin

neither

somethingto

nor

start

Wallace

the

tendencies,which

selection

fundamental

something

only increase. This emphasisedby seems itself the explanation of the primary or but itself unexplainable.^^ difference, of

kind

either

can

to be the difference

It

deep enough.

went

and

Geddes most

is,then,futile to say that the differences which and

men

have

women

been

imposed

women

upon

Thomson,

distinctive

sex-

exist between

by

the

way

far

treated them. as to Mill,it is well known, went so nently emicalled the of is is nature what women an that assert now in some the result of forced repression artificialthing directions,unnatural stimulation in others ; and he denied that so knows, or can know, the nature of the two sexes any one did another it their relation to one lasts, although long as present him that they are from not confidently maintaining prevent the firstto say this,^* and he has had many equal.^^Mill was not have

men

"

"

"

"

"

61

free

Elizabeth

CA a

vast

store

Blackwell: of nervous

"The healthy limitation of sexual secretion in man force for employment in intellectual pursuits," The

sets

man Hu-

in Sex, 29. Element and Thomson I. Thomas in his Sex and Society follows Geddes in distinguishW. ing katabolic and anabolic and women more men respectively, and emphasises that as " katabolic and in general are more animals anabolic, wherefore woman plants more than man," 4; and as the animal the plant process is more variable to stands nearer " the female, 13. He summarises follows: Man than the plant, so the malethan as is conservative of it. The structural more woman more rapidly; consumes energy variational is mainly toward motion; woman's ward tendency is not tovariabilityof man is fitted for feats of strength and bursts motion, but toward reproduction. Man has more remains stability and endurance,^While woman of energy; woman nearer to The variational the infantile type, man to the senile. dency tenextreme approaches more itself in a larger percentage of genius, insanity, and of man idiocy; expresses distinction remains between the tendency ward tonearly normal," 51.^ The more woman stationariness in woman and toward motion in man he treats as fundamentally pursuits, SS-6, 67" 8, important, deriving from it their respective life-habits and economic G2

134-40, 149, 160, 196, 228, 291-2, 293-4. Subjection of Women, 38-9, also 104-5, 125, cf. 98-9. For a good criticism of Mill on this point see J. S. Stuart Glennie*s The Proposed Subjection of Man, in The Fortnightly Review, April, 1889, pp. 571-2. have 64 Thus only privileges and not rights, Hippel had said that so long as women fulfil their true their rights, and we vocation; but give them shall see they will never what die bilrgerliche Verbesserung der Weiber, Werke, vi. be, Ueber they are and can So also Condorcet had thought more 167, 186, 224, 226, 241-2. mentation experi42, cf. 151-2,

87* 92-3. 63

1 he

was

sexes,

Fragment

needed sur

before

one

could

pronounce

the

natural inequality of the And Wendell Phillips had before it could experiment be in the intellects of the sexes," just before, Emily Davies had know cannot anything certainly

upon

I'Atlantide,CEuvres, 1804, viii. 562-9.

take twenty centuries of the new it would is some distinctive that " there peculiarity Women have the Right^to Vote? Shall 12. Only " Until artificial appliances are written: we removed, Education about the native distinctions,* The Higher of Wom,en, London, 1866, p. 167; Gail Hamilton (in a slightly different application): and shall never "Certainly we woman's natural what know sphere is, till she has an absolutely unrestricted power of choice," Woman's Wrongs, 85, cf. 162. claimed

proved


FEMINISM

52

sumably speciesof fishes,where the male is larger(and prethe of be there no where can question but stronger), be Also it cannot male. general of the female to the subjection and females the are stronger than larger because in some species of without any subjection other fishes, the males, as againin some that Also this theory supposes subduing the male to the female. the that for primitive is necessary procreation of the mate certain

to

"

avoided the sexual act; which is contrary to all Furthermore, if largeand strong the natural instinct of animals. why did this not mated men only with small and weak women, spring, produce only an intermediate size and strengthin all their offmaximum would be while the kept male and female alike, and both of fortuitous large strong parents,and matings up by the the minimum by those of both small and weak parents? This

strong

women

to be the natural result,if as is sought to be proved, would seem natural sex-differentiae. Here, to be not size and strengthwere pointin the science of biologyand the theoryof sure, is a moot of the parents are inherited only, evolution,as to what qualities of the same sex. Heredity has no or by the offspring chiefly, Salic law," Mrs. Oilman repeats; and she recognisesthat girls But inherit from their fathers and boys from their mothers.^* "

"

heredity as merely preserving such as has taken placein from too our a sexes divergence, great the gypsy moth and among bees,"*althoughit has not preserved be them! Whatever our ignorance on this subject,it would nevertheless seem a majorityof probablethat if,in any species, tic, take after their mothers in a certain characterisfemale offspring take after their fathers in and a majorityof male offspring the oppositecharacteristic, these characteristics are tions sex-distinchowever belongingto, proper to, natural to, that species, be in the difference size and to they originated.Such seems male in the female between and the the strength higheranimals, and in the human the mammalia for the species especially among in the others. Of the most reason same as probablereasons yet obtainable an inklinghas alreadybeen given.'"An explanation, she treats

this

"

blessed power

of

"

IVomen and Economics, 6^-70, 334; cf. 46. 69/6. cf. Darwin, Descent of Man, 565. 134; 70-72; Ellis explains the larger size of men due to the fact that the species has 70 Thus as been increasing in size, and this variation has taken in men in accordance place,more with the general tendency of males and to greater variation, Man Woman, 368. This, have not however, seen we to be altogether satisfactory. The general difference in of the higher animals, and in some of the flower too, J. T. Cunningham would plain exmany " the males gained their superior size and strength by fighting for by saying that the female and throughout their subsequent evolution the males with one have another,^ led the more active,energetic, and pugnacious existence," Sexuai Dimorphism in the freedom Their from the gestation of their offAnimal spring, Kingdom, London, 1900, ij.46, have permits their greater development in. other respects. As for the we seen, females, already Geades and Thomson production of the gentler qualitiesin the human 68


ERRONEOUS

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

53

does not alter a fact. Even if it be admitted that the difference in size and strength between men and women has been at least enhanced by men's sexual selection actingin the way this sexual selection on the part of men has been natural, described, and its effect therefore is natural. Bellamy spoke of it as " a rather mean here from using device on Nature's part,"shrinking the name of God. Whether God or Nature adopted the device,it and it is advice that we should not kick against was adopted, good the pricks. If men have, on Nature's dictation, preferredsmaller and weaker in the past, they probablywill in the future. mates And if they should change in their treatment of women, women's and stature would not so lightly nature change with them. By if not expressly the feminists the conclusion is always implied, is that when the old of treatment women stated, by men and women of men changed,the difference in the size and strength will soon are alreadyin the disappear.Bellamy thinks women Mrs. with their pristine men. equality process of reconquering " has been checked, woman Gilman, though she asserts that " the male human starved, aborted in her growth,"and being is in of the female economic status," thousands of years in advance " few aborted that far of not are a so generations yet says women ^^ It is overlooked, freedom will not set them abreast of the age." that be it said once more it),'''' (for we have alreadycome upon have in of thousands of years must been employed tens as ducing proit at to undo and fixingsuch a result by sexual selection, least thousands of years of a reverse process would be required. " of To obliterate such differences," say Geddes and Thomson " be have all the of it would allied results evolution, necessary to '* basis." evolution over on new a again and What has been said of the singledifference between man broad the other and in size and also to woman strength, applies For the feminists extend to all differences between them. deep mistakes justpointedout. of them the same two They ascribe in character wherein it of women the inferiority or quality, every itself in the past, and stilldoes so at present, so has manifested and suppression plainlythat they cannot deny it,to the repression

moreover,

with The spasmodic bursts of activity characteristic of males contrast written: continuous sion patienceof the females, which we [the authors] take to be an expresas some would have us believe, a mere of constitutional contrast, and by no means, of Sex, ch. xix. " 4. Cf. Brooks : "The bullying," The Evolution product of masculine sex is not due to the subjection of one by the other, but is the means difference of Heredity, 259. by which the progress of the race is to be accomplished," The haw Similarly Higginson treated woman "a s as and Economics, Women 71 75; 9: 134. is steadily diminishing," Common Sense about merely liistorical inferiority, which fast " equalisHe even thought our public schools were iv. 90. ing in Works, Women, and women, 319. the brains of men "

had the

...

"

72

Above,

7S

The

p.

25.

Evolution

of Sex, ch. XIX.

i 4.


FEMINISM

54

as a rule,denounce as by men, which theyadditionally, selfish and unjust. And they assert, with utter dogmatism,their all this will be ended by a more belief that soon just and less if selfish treatment of women take the by men, especially women in their own hands and see that they get equaltreatment. matter it is often amusing to note the shifts the feminists As for the first, have are put to in their explanations.They assert that women in been always repressed,kept ignorance,never given a chance,

of

women

deal ; '* and express astonishment that under the circumstances they have done as well as they have.'" But, as a shall times women did take the lead fact,as we see, in primitive in many have the lead ; they were now occupationsin which men the retailers of knowledge and the repositories of wisdom; they chance: then competed with them; were men certainly given a then surpassedthem ; and afterward their relegation men to certain in which they did better or well enough,was firmed conoccupations and by law. by custom Why did men get ahead of them? This the feminists, with their belief in the equality of the sexes, cannot explain. Instead they comfort themselves with the idea that because women showed themselves men's equals,peronce haps their therefore sometime come even superiors, againthey may beinitial successes their equals." But after some to be beaten in innumerable for believing races hardlyprovidesgood reason "If in future retrievement. held sway and lost it," women once " well remarks Mr. that is more John Martin, damaging to very " their claim than if they had never possessed it." Moreover, in which there are occupationsand amusements is intelligence have been in which drawn upon, and women never repressed,yet in which they have always fallen short. Chess is a good example, which has rarelybeen forbidden to women; yet their inferiority weakness of body plays no part, is with respect to it,wherein Some of the arts supplya stillbetter ; for instead of remarkable. been being repressedin these, girlshave, in some countries, never

a

square

"Women have never yet had a fair chance of showing their capacities definite as* have really no sufficiently right to make we largescale," wherefore sertions on the subject," loc. cit, Mrs. Hale: "It has been the fashion her to vote has to given freedom [woman] never impotent, she [sic] who yet been try her IVhat Women strength! Want, 236. 75 So Eliza B. Gamble, The Evolution Frauenof Women, 72-3 ; LilyBraun, Die frage, 205; and Ward, though he knew what follows in the text. Pure Sociology, 371, cf, Sociology, ii. 616; also Thomas, Sex and Society, 312. 372, Dynamic 76 Thus, account of woman's time physical equality^ and mental on one superiority, " Pearson denies that there is any rigid natural law of feminine and, exinferiority," plaining ** their present of as inferiority in the familiar way largely the outcome woman s physique and intellect being little trained at present and not severely selected " in the immediate sex-equality will be really possible in the past,"believes that Ward future," Ethic of Freethought, 425, cf. Chances 96. And of Death, ii, 49-50, thinks " all signs are hopeful. Pure Sociology, 377, 373. 77 Feminism, New York, 1916, p. 19. 74

on

Ritchie:

"

a

"


FIRST

ERRONEOUS

PRINCIPLE

55

longer than boys in music, in drawing, and in for these painting,without producingequal capacityin women nishes arts to what is exhibited by men.'^^ however, furStatesmanship, the feminists with their strongest hand; for here the sohas been removed and women elevated called repression actually attained it of queens and regents (for none to the position ever and several have behaved acceptably.Thus by her own efforts), toria Isabella,Elizabeth, Christina,Catherine, Maria Theresa, Vicare cited;while Mary of England, Marie de' Medici, and others are looked upon askance,Anne is overlooked, the many of the Countess Matilda, who was u nder the the thumb entirely priestHildebrand (Gregory VII.), is ignored,and Pheretima, whose is forgotten.It is a wrong describes, crueltyHerodotus inculcated of a country notion, by monarchists,that the prosperity A coupleof the is due to the person sitting the throne. on the rest- were nary ordigood queens were extraordinary women, profited ones, who by the prompting of the statesmen about them.'* When have prompted kings,very different rewomen sults have generally have been due to appeared. No great policies In invention in general, rulers. have been wanting, women women it took since the primitive when of years them thousands times, to developthe elements of the arts, tillmen and took them over Their deficiency in invention in perfectedthem scientifically. be referred to their every department,"says Whately, cannot not having been trained in that particular department;for it is trained much

"

"

"

"

remarkable that inventions have seldom trained. The stockingframe was invented Thus,

with

regard day, whose

music,

Ellis:

come

from

by

Oxford

an

"

those

so

scholar,

include two Unless three women we or enhanced by the fact that they are it is diflicult to find the names of women in the list of third-rate comeven posers," women, Man and Woman, He G. P. Upton's explanation, that women quotes 319. The latter knew too emotional, and enough. are Rubinstein's, that they lack courage of no cradle song, and he considered the increase of the even, composed by a woman; feminine execution and in composition as of the signs contingent in instrumental one of decadence." Already failure in musical composition Hippel had ascribed women's Ueber die biirgerliche Verbesserung der Weiber, Werke, vi. 166. to lack of courage, On this subject Mill was Women," he says, quite reckless. are taught music, but of composing, only of executing it: and accordingly it is only as not for the purpose that men, in music, are superior to women," Subjection of Women, composers, 134. Two facts are here distorted: men off music, also as executors are superior to women Charlotte and composition is not taught to them alone. Bremer, for instance, says in the Life of her sister Fredrika, quite currently, but speaking of Sweden, not of England: " We studied and to skill at comnow were thorough-bass, try our we position," York Did ed,, 186S). it never to Mill, that if wometn occur p. 38 (New it might be not as are men taught the science of musical compositionso much are, of abundant because experience of the futilityof doing so? 79 examination of the various Goldwin For see an usually brought forward queens female A who of th Day, 2d ed., 220-3. remonstrant Smith, Essays Questions on " did Alexander P., well asked: lean, or Caesar, Upon whom signed herself J. W. Who tutored Peter the Great, or Charles the Charlemagne, Frederick, or Napoleon? maintained the Silent, to keep who a Twelfth; or perpetualstruggle with William with the greathim true to the national policy, like that of Burleigh and Waisingham est View A Remonstrant of modern of Woman Suffrage,Cambridge, Mass., queens? 78

of

our

own

to

says

reputation has perhaps been

*'

*'

^

.

"

1884, p. 25.

.

.

"


FEMINISM

56

man." spinningjenny by a barber,and the power-loomby a clergy*" invented by was add, And the sewing-machine, we may his wife the drudgery of stitching. wished who to save a man have in fact, not been kept down of genius, Men by the repression Neither want fatal to women. and the lack of opportunity so crushed the geniusof Homer, Shakespeare, of higher education Franklin to of opportunity condemned and Burns ; nor want adverse did and the multitude of self-made men ; nor obscurity, Citing publicopinion silence Luther and the host of reformers.

the

"

"

"

"

"

"

these cases,

indicates

a

female

remonstrant

than

deeper reason

some

once

want

wrote

of

"

:

We

do think it

training, opportunity,

not only as often yieldprecedence, *^ the few dressmakers." But even cooks, but as laundresses and known to historyhave not been kept down by the alleged women

or

custom, that

cause.

The

our

sex

must

so

only great poetess England

Browning, lived

at a

time when

women

are

has

produced, Mrs. supposedto have been

were suppressed. Sappho flourished in Greece, where women ever less free than at Rome, which produced no female poetess whatdifferences beyond an uncertain Sulpicia.If, then, some mals, and inherent between women men are (some generalto all ani-

however peculiarto our species, yet inherent now, the conceit of the feminists that they can by a they originated), in idea, though reallybeyond little change of treatment (little and of men alter the natures their power to effectuate universally) to be content of women or (for they seem principally women, men's level with men's) and bring them to (theexpressionis up is an idle dream a Utopian fantasy. theirs), ject. Altogethertoo much levityhas been indulgedin on this subThe Professor John Dewey has been reportedas saying: brain are woman's brain and the man's both capableof equal the for tween beThe only reason achievement. apparent discrepancy erately the work each has so far performed,is that one has deliband conopportunities handicappedthe other with narrow some

"

"

Misceiianeoits Remains, 189-90. that at least two to be noted, however, inists, femJ. W. P., Op. cit.,26. It deserves and the deep-seatedand by us ineradicable scientist,have admitted woman a a Thus of our Ellen Key, in consequence of *' the hundifference in the nature sexes. dred have thousand practised the maternal years at least," that, as she holds, women " and the children creating the homes, believes in functions, rearing a pronounced and masculine the feminine difference between soul," The Woman Movement, 5S-9, 46, And "No doubt cf. 186-7, 218-19. Forel: these [of more phenomena 28-9, 222; and arrested development later of more development on the part of the girl, premature the woman] but this explaare nation partlydue to the defective mental education of women; Here is insufficient. again we must distinguish the phylogenetic disposition of the effects of education during her ontogenetic development," The Sexual from woman " This from Ward; There has been no important orQuestion, 204. ganic may be added differences which during the historic period. The triflingphysical change in man of environment attribute to differences during a century or two, acting on man we ' would have here he no diagnostic value in biology," Pure Sociology^ 17. By " man But have he this and women. seems to forgotten later, means men 372. so

81


ERRONEOUS

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

57

restrained ventionally

outlook. If you take two equallyhealthy babies and tie the arms of one of them tillboth of them grow up, of course have a weaker physical you'll developmentin the case of the one who has been bound. For centuries men have been tying women's and the result is a weaker mental development. brains, That will ail be remedied when the bandagesare removed." ^^ What proof has this professorthat the reason assignedis " the only reason" for the existingdiscrepancy(for what everywhere

generallyappears, is),even if it be a reason at all and has he any proof of this ? Certainlythe one profferedabout the two babies is not worthy of a man who professes to be a scientist. If he means to account for the discrepancy between living and men the in women their he takes only by own discrepancy upbringing,^^ in which he will find littlesupport.^* But this is hardly a position his meaning, as is indicated by his reference to centuries of men's tying of women's brains. Here, however, the analogy no longerholds. For the babies referred to are two independent beings,and as such they can be compared only with two separate "

"

"

In The So already, but with less absoluteness, Press, New York, Nov. lo, 1909. Antoinette B. Blackwell: "When tie up your weak and it will become you arm, tie up woman, she will become weak and feeble; and when you helpless," quoted in The History of IVoman Suffrage, i. 729. 83 As was see carelessly done by Sydney Smith: above, pp. 2S-6n, 84 This in a position different from, and surpassing, Mill's. Mill claimed that the of male ment superiority is due to past as well as to present difference of treatappearance of the sexes; but this opinion is that this appearance is in every generation produced in individuals velopment through development of their faculties in the males and non-deof them Of this position there are in the females. still some adherents. Christine Ladd It is not true that men's minds and women's minds Thus Franklin: of working," or that the Creator has made two kinds have different ways separate of mind and for women," but it is true that society has set them to work for men differentlyand in separate fields,causing them to acquire different development of their similar faculties,Intuition and the Reason, The Monist, Jan., 1893. This overlooks difference in size and conformation of the brain in the two which bly possicannot sexes, wise Likebe produced in individuals merely by their different training and situations. "Little girls are certainly not on the ignoring this, Ritchie attempts argument: show to have] men [.i.e., seem stupider than little boys; and, if on the average average in which the two this must, be due to the way intellectual abilitythan women, more eminence respectively treated in the interval"; and so "the greater average sexes are in intellectual pursuits," he thinks we than of women fairly (in the past) of men may be mostly due) to the effect of institution is entirely due (as on any theory it must suspect, and customs and ideas operating within the lifetime of the individual, and not to differences physically inherited, loc. cit. But the fact of equal intelligenceof the intelligencein is no better attested than the fact of their unequal in childhood sexes offered for the supposition that the change there is no the adult stage; and reason He the sexes have undergone in the interval. be due to the different treatment must equally beardless, therefore the that because boys and girls are might as well argue the two must in men than in women be due to the way of beardedness greater show above, p. 26n.). For we iCf. Maudsley respectivelytreated in the interval! sexes are know no why sexual differences should not develop after birth as well as before reason discovered weight development that the maximum birth. In fact, anthropologists have in males between between the years in females 15 and of the brain is reached 20, and d'Anthropologie ginerale, 517-25, Topinard, Elements and or the years 20 35: 30 nection biogenetic law (which is used in a similar conAlso according to Haeckel's 557-8. of Death, ii. 96-7)* equalityin intelligence of the two by Pearson, Chances if the two sexes ever female superiority,is to be expected in children,^ or even sexes, primitive condition {cf. also superior)in intelligencein some were equal (or women day Forel, above, p. 56n.). All, therefore, that the equality of intelligencein children toand once were women equal in intelligence (in the is that men to prove goes " mother-age ^),not that they must be so still. 82

Mrs.

'*

"

"


FEMINISM

58 races.

If, to

be

sure,

(for here

we

agree) you bound up sands races duringmany thou-

all

of the members of one of two of this race would undoubtedly of years, the present members the the other. But two be weaker th^n those of sexes are would the and their crosses distribute not independent, probably been proved, unless has never weakness at least the opposite howsoever it be a natural sex-distinction alreadyexisting, duced. prothe Even as an illustration, does not moreover, example described we lead to the conclusion desired. In the case should have good reason of the race held in to believe that the weakness would for be inherent and of thousands subjection by now years natural,and the removal of the bandages would not remedy it have experience We not for several hundred to the years more. the whites for the have become since not point; equalto negroes the removal be reof their bandages. But the negroes, it may plied, weak and base in the beginning, which is the reason were in their bound the first for enslavement was why theywere place; and baseness, but these of their weakness not the original cause what permittedthe whites to enslave them, and slaveryhas were an only enhanced already existingdifference. Preciselythis from baseness,which is not in questionbetween the sexes) (apart have been the case with the difference between and men may should Otherwise have tied up the brains women. men ever why of women ? And if women to were equal men, why did they ever permit it? This is not accounted for by the feminists ; for the sole explanationoffered by Bellamy we have seen to be a failure ; but is accounted for by the supposition it,so far as it has taken place, of a natural divergence.And this natural divergenceis not far It was which tied up the brains of women, to seek. nature and their bodies too, by tying them to their children. And it was which left men free. nature The idea that men have bred certain qualities qualities which desired into breed them and out again, they,men, women, may that they have become less selfish, of now has, course, gained weight from men's successful breedingof animals and cultivation of plants. But analogydoes not bear out the idea. For we can breed or cultivate certain desired qualities in animals and plants It may of sex. be that a only in varieties of them, regardless certain desired qualityis produced only,or more in luxuriantly, but this chance far is the of matter breeder one sex a pure as as ; is concerned,and the very fact that it occurs merely shows that he lightedupon And when such a fact does a sex-distinction. breeder should the who to breed deliberately occur, go to work the of the same in the other amount or same it, quality, sex, would the

arms

"

"

"

"

"


FEMINISM

6o

tious." " As a wise man is lacking, has told us, when reason there sticks itself in an epithet. has been maintained applies What where the disto the cases crepancy human between the is general,being witnessed sexes and testified and accounted to everywhereto-day, by all history, for by anatomical differences in the bodies,in spiteof occasional exceptions.Yet, of course, it cannot be denied that want of opportunit "

training, encouragement,

or

do suppression,

have

ence influ-

the matured characters of both men and women. A different method of rearingboys and girls, of them a preparation for different work, a different demand and women made upon men in the conduct of life, the differences alreadyexaccentuate isting may in the two sexes, and a long continuance of such different treatment even through tens or hundreds of generations, may and minor differences of some character, produce superficial which seem natural,and may be, but yet are not thoroughlyfixed and become irrevocable. In fact,unless the different treatment is kept up, these differences are likelyto disappearof themselves, for it is well known that recentlyacquired qualities, such as certain excellences bred into plantsand animals under domestication, revert to their (for the analogyhere is applicable) quickly natural indifference, be continually unless the same bestowed care in them. Such the human for a one species, instance,seems upon which is hardlya sexual distinction, to be refinement, trace as no of such a difference is found in other animals and hardlyeven in in human civilised countries are primitive beings;yet women refined than This seems to be a as more men. usuallyregarded to which they have been subjected result of the special treatment ; this and a consequence be abandoned, treatment is,that if special upon

in this respect will vanish. It is,indeed,a common superiority is unrefine than easier is to to that it it women experience refine men.'" have been of Also woman's superiorchastity may man's imposition of the feminists' least shall is one this,as we see, (at complaints, notwithstandingthat the instruction to this effect is generally ence givenby the mother) ; wherefore,if all differ-

their

between

the moral

standards

for

men

and

for

women

be

instances For see above, p. 2in. " Since the world Ward he said: gan, beHence the error of Henry Beecher, when woman's function. She is God's earth to refine society has been vicegerent on reiinement You has caused to the household, for this work. be sure that she who may interest except governto the church, to social life,to literature,to art, to every ment, and will also carry it to legislation, the whole of civil and publicprocedure,if it is to be carried there at all," Address Woman's Influence Politics, Boston, *n on have refined than man since the world not began. We i860, p. 9. Woman was more when became in the not Biblical authority for such an so even opinion. But woman and strifes. She raised her above his cares has of civilisation man upward course with the sorrefined every she has been protected from contamination interest wherein did and there only. affairs of the world 88

89

"


ERRONEOUS

removed,

women

than chastity,

expect

to

men

FIRST

6i

will be much more rise to woman's

improve

women

they should remember men, in other respects. " The has placedwoman which man pointof view, tends produce them; yet

not

PRINCIPLE

the

to revert to man's unlikely If feminists the chastity.*" in some them like respects by treating that they may lower them distinctly social dependence,"says Forel, in both from the legaland the educational "^ increase her to failings," increase, "

"

same

treatment

have

may

tended

to

This last the feminists are apt to overlook, or theycontemptuouslydisparagesuch virtues as hot-house products, in not all virtues of cultivation. as were if, truth, products variable Moreover, if the doctrine be true that the male is more than the female, which means that male acquirements are ures departfrom the type, it follows that it will be easier, by a similar of the two sexes, to make like women, treatment than men more like it will be to make We women men. have, in fact,all along found that such is the result of ultra-civilisation, and that the condition of peoplesin the declining state is effeminate. Some and last-developed modification,then,of the most superficial differences between our be allowed as possible must sexes Thus it has happened that of them. under an altered treatment in the last fifty ters changes are noticeable in the characyears some and of men for of women that matter. We have too, " advance," as it is considered, alreadyseen, however, that this sudden does not trulyprognosticate though it has suggested, further continuance, the pressedspringhaving already its own of the process, as we its length."^Continuance have just sprung much is make the further modifications more observed, likelyto downwards in men than upwards in women. The reverse ation, opersuch as, for instance,to produce a new political aptitude and power in women equalto that which exists in men, may not be but for it longtime would be required and a impossible, absolutely " In procedurethat is rarelycontemplated.Listen to Darwin : should reach the standard that she order same woman as man, increase

her virtues.

"

than one It has been pointed out by more moralist," says W. R. Inge, "that in vicious even than the are of national corruption the women generally more For one under the Casars, i8i, cf. 62. such moralist see the men," Society in Rome " Mirum ad omnia negotium I mulieres delictae,ad pseudo-Cyprian, who exclaimed : viris," De Disciplina et Bono sunt sarcinas fortiqres Pudicitiae^c. 12. vitiorum 91 The Sexual Question, 138. Gallichan in one 92 See speaks of a certain quality as above, pp. 27-8. Mrs. passage *' " in woman's will not character, and as being such that women deeply rooted very The Truth Then about other mverted from its acteristics chardisplay, Woman, be 303. easily less deeply rooted, and some perhaps ineradicablyrooted. be more or may One mig^t think that the recognition of a fact of so much suggestiveness would lead But far from it: investigation into this feature of various sex-differences. to an on believe this quality (it is coquetry) to be very does not even Gallichan Mrs. deeply others still less so after all, and most nature at least the reprerooted in woman's hensible for the good characteristics of women are always taken to be innate, ones; inherent, and as strong as adamant. 90

"

times

"

"


62

FEMINISM

be trained to energy and perseverance, and to have her reason and imaginationexercised to the highest point; and then she would probably transmit these

ought,when

nearlyadult, to

qualitieschieflyto could

who

not

be

thus

however, daughters. All women, raised,unless during many generationsthose her

adult

excelled in the above

robust

virtues

offspringin

were

than

other

married, and women."

"^

duced pro-

This

largernumbers to take place. The most highly likely trained women, those whose education has been pursued especially with most the very at the age of becoming adult,are intensity last is

is never

exactlywhat

who bear the fewest children. Darwin's views about the heredityof acquiredcharacters are not views results in now accepted. But the teachingof Weismann's the same S. conclusion. H. Halford, is not Education, says hereditary only the capacityto be educated (a high mentality). thus endowed be highlyeducated (and they Now, if the women the ones most to be selected for highereducation), are they likely and child-bearing taken out of the marriageable a nd their are list, natural endowment is not transmitted further,while the duty of sisters."* procreationis delegatedto their less highly endowed Such is the conduct of these advanced shall we see as women, more Perhapsifmen and women fullylater on. only would bend all their energiesto produce the equal standard desired : if they should forbid the weak and the less intelligent to prowomen create, and if the strong and the intelligent should take women this duty upon themselves,then in the course of ages the object be and it be if only the hastened attained, might might possibly weak and the less intelligent men were permittedto be the fathers. But women do not act in this way, althoughthere seems to be of is and there likelihood some that men no danger doing so; will. The very feminists themselves do not advise women ever them On the contrary, as we to act. shall see, feminists so recommend small families,and at even none all; and of if any women to take their advice,it will be their own course are and strong-mindedfollowers. And then these will strong-bodied ones

who

are

least apt to marry

and

"

"

"

"

disappear.'^ Descent of Man, 565. A Criticism of the Woman Movement^ London, pp. 7-8. And even those who have nature account of their own a child or a better tion. educaon two, do not transmit to them " Rather the contrary. There to believe," says are reasons' Mrs. tin, John Mar"that than if it be fully expressed; surely transmitted a suppressed talent is more for the very of developing it in itself sometimes in women process proves exhausting to it is therefore the whole to transmit organism, and the power impaired. If conserved, it may be handed intact," Feminism, on 2^0. 95 Mary Roberts Coolidge actually thinks " it will be several generations probably before the eiTects of domesticity upon the character and mentality of women will [by with domesticity] disappear," Why Women the doing away are So, 86. It would take 93 94


ERRONEOUS

No, this is

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

63

Nature artificialmatter. herself has had a hand past, and will continue to have in the future. In the past her operations had began long before men intelligence enough to interfere. The highermammalia bringforth but one offspring at a time,and not only the periodof ordinarily i s b ut the is less developedat birth and gestation longer, offspring stillneeds sucklingand tending. Hence, the higherthe development of the species, the greater the burden upon the female, and there is a long interval between the human speciesand the next : in women is alone the catamenial phenomenon, for instance, "" pronounced ; while the male is no more subjectto this burden in the human than in the lowest species, or even is less so, compared with the totality of his functions and activities. Thus the advance of the sexes has been the inverse of each other, the female becoming more burdened with the maternal function,and the male less burdened, physiologically speaking,with the paternal. continues Hence the man free to advance and to assume other functions, while the woman is held back by the child under her waist or at her bosom."'^ This difference appeared in the had human speciesbefore men's conscious and rational activity it has with and it and do must survived, survive,and ; anythingto in body and mind, has caused, and will cause, other differences, Men have often taken undue tage advanand women. between men of their superiorstrength.But they have also allowed for ently women's handicap,and assisted them, herein actingvery differof animals,and exceeding from all but a few other species h ave t hem all. acted near the men and excelling so Especially culmination of the ascendingperiods of civilisation. Indeed, has been appliedto the subject, when their reasoningfaculty men have vainlytried to relieve their mates, at firstin some cases only, and of other at the women servants, (slaves, last, nurses), help by with the of in all cases, of that and recently, help cows, by means not

an

in the affair in the

"

"

if the undomestic than is supposed, even continued to have women but as their progeny will be a continually decreasing other women; be accomplished. never quantity,we may be sure that the result supposed will_ menstruale mulier Pliny, Naturalis Historia, VII, 13 animal Solum est, wrote 96 abundant (or 15), wrongly. Aristotle had correctly stated that the discharge is_most ^istoriaj III. xix. of all (sanguine and viviparous) animals, De Animalibus^ in women Generatione, I. (or xiv. or xiii.) 4, VI. xviii. (or xvii.) 9, VII. ii. 4, De Animalium the larger animals it cf. III. i. He also says that among XX., II. iv., IV. vi., vii.,viii., II. viii., IV. in the first work cited VI. viii. (or vii.) 10, in the second in mares: is ieast of the year, and no than neuters during ten months Mares V. are, in fact, little more from their equality with stallions. be drawn inference can in the This necessary [greater]helplessness of children makes 97 Cf. Mobius: than in animals," op. cit., 13. It human species a greater differentiation of the sexes species with other animals,that, as is well be added, in comparing the human may of our certain we puts strains upon assume, the erect attitude which organs, known, direction given to gravity, are not sufficiently supported or which, because of the new this is the same in men and in women, but in some In many cases properly situated. harm in women. and does more This is another son readerangement more it makes cases than other female animals are in comparison with men in weaker are why women with their males. comparison

considerablylonger as

large progeny

as

'

**

"


FEMINISM

64 "

device,"a man's invention (perhapsthe worst),the labor-saving milk-bottle. baby'srubber-nippled Some modifications of the sexes as superficial being possible, have altered of treatment an we women by by men (at seen, women's a nd some ones suggestion), being ideallyposdeeper sible heroic conduct, which is not likely, and by a long-continued men's closer and women's natures being brought together,we cui bono? Are between the differences to not inquire may pause the sexes, as enhanced, better than would they exist,and even be their cancelling,especially the would more as cancelling likely "

be of the

under attributes of men, have had her, or Nature may

masculine

more

of women? in

two establishing

than we

sex

is

or

in

some

be three

may

or

world

better more

in

"

his,purpose

obviouslymore

are

sexes

God

than

ours,

terestin in-

for all

worlds, for instance,

of space ! To be sure, the dualism with the polarisation that runs out through-

dimensioned

more

only in

accordance

But, for all

nature.

been

and

one;

know, there

in four

sexes

: two

the reflex influence

arranged

we

know,

in

generalmight have quadrangular,scale."^ Or,

nature

or a triangular, commonplace space, the distinction of sexcells and of sex-organs tinction might have been maintained without disof sex-individuals. For we might all have been made l ike the of old,"^or, to use fabled hermaphrodites, androgynes a

again,and

actual

more

on

in

even

a

our

example, like snails,which

fecundate

one

another

ciprocally. re-

The

equalityof all snails seems, in fact,to be the ideal of the feminists (and the snail ought to be adopted as their of realisation, since symbol or totem); but without possibility nature

has

world, not

of

built

the same us on plan as the snails. In our of human b ut snails, beings,differently constructed,

not

have the function of doing most of the work of procreating the to its commonest preserving race, and of ministering labour for its advancement, and for imagining wants ; while men and satisfying dreamt wants of by other animals.^"" Nor never does woman for her part in the world's work, go without reward does she as which, standing half-waybetween child and man, she finds in the double joy of love both of her husband and of her children : she both is protectedand protects,she both clings and is women

and

98 Of our biologiststell us the service performed by the dichotomy of sex course, is the blending of strains and the production of variations,thereby providing the bility possiof improvement. But the question for us is whether other means some could not with better results. equally well have been employed, and even A blending of three might be still more parents, for instance, it would effective. seem, 89 Pliny, Nat. Hist., VII. 2, Augustine, De CivUate Dei, XVI. 8; after Plato, Sjimposium, i8g E. " the woman 100 In other words, on chiefly falls the burden of population, on the man chiefly that of civilization,"so P. T. Forsyth, Marriage Its Ethic and Religion "

London,

'

p.

91.


ERRONEOUS

FIRST

clungto ; while man, standingat an the fleeting and passionfor woman

PRINCIPLE

65

than extreme, has littlemore of exultation passing, suregoistic if he can, or in what he can, his rivals (and most often he must his work being to support and to provideand, as fail), " others Pleasure is as invade, to ward off and defend. long If this be true, and if it anaboHc, pain is catabolic," says Ward.^ be true that woman lows is more and anabolic it folman more catabolic, that

must

women

have

more

the

more pleasurein life,and men much pleasureefleminises. To

It shows, too, why too these distinct duties of up and confound either by abandoningthem and devotingthe

pain.^ mix

and of women, energiesof both

men

to

indulgencein pleasure,or by attemptingto assignto women (or take all the duties by women alreadyperformed over) assumingto the of have effect women's can by men, only impairing ance performof their own take their place; cannot duties,in which men and therefore it is to endangerthe perpetuity of the race and of human it carries. Our civilisation which species is not but into three, divided into two sections,of adults and children, and children. It of men, not seem so difficultto get women, may and women, it would be to rid of the distinction between men as get rid of the distinction between adults and children : the last is, of in fact,too difficulteven to attempt ; but the alluring possibility doingthe former, when inducingthe attempt to effectuate it,only leads to disastrous results to children and the coming generations. the distinction between the feminists' effort to minimise The ^ The sexes is sometimes performed for them by nature. sexes sexless protoplasm. The consequence primordial are a developmentfrom is differentiation the is that perhaps never complete. the

1

Pure

Sociology,

131.

it is naturalljrmade, is a better that " the world, as he concludes with A. Walker, who Man and Woman, than for men," world for women 394, agrees member rehas the best of life,"Woman, 67; (and we may suspected that "after all,woman the opinion of Jupiter and Tiresias. according that something of the sort was has a sexual 1X1. 320-1, 333)- According to Ward, woman to Ovid, Metamorphoses and so is endowed with a source of feeling in giving suck, Pure Sociology, 413-14, Love is the history of de Stael's saying Madame man. pleasure denied to normal love is of man's life woman's life; it is an episode in man's," and Byron's "Man's existence," though intended, and in this sense whole a thing apart, 'tis woman's condition, really extol it. Cf. R. v. Krafftfrequently quoted, to disparage woman's it is the joy of life," Psychopathia Sexualis, love is life,to man "To woman Ebing: Similarly Elizabeth Blackwell: York, 1906, pp. 14-15, cf. 204. Eebman's trans.. New than of the form more important part of the woman's a All the relations of sex that the sexual Element in Sex, 17, cf. 18; and she maintains man's life," The Human ence than in man, 45-52, 56. This differpassion [not appetite] is profounder in woman for by, Forel's theory of the different seat rather accounts for, than is accounted and in woman. of love in the brain in man Mabel Powers at a by Miss statement public a attaining its limit m 3 Perhaps is 49 per cent, feminine; the best woman best man "The she said: where meeting York Either New Times, April 13, 1914. masculine," reported in The per cent, 4Q for the class of beings to be described presently, admiration exclusive this expresses and to suppose men women Of course, too, it is wrong it is entirely erroneous. or mon, and feminine qualitiessolely. They have a ^reat deal in comcomposed of masculine whwU jnascuhne and feminine, and then some are differences, is human, which mixtures. varying and admitting of many 2

Ellis, when

"

"

,,,.,,.,"


66

FEMINISM

and in every Darwin held that in every female male characters, male female characters, exist in a latent state, because of the inheritan through each sex of characters of the other sex.* But these oppositecharacters often come to the surface,and appear, exist in fact. It seems to be true that always in the male or even feminine attributes, and in the female some line mascusome appear it has been ones. Indeed, maintained,by Weininger,that the absolute male and the absolute female do not occur but separately, there are only intermediate them.^ The mixture stages between is not only of the oppositeprimary sex-organs, as occasionally in but the of or happens hermaphrodites, usually primary,more less fully of the secondaryof of the one sex, with some developed, the other. There may be all shades running between the extremes. Yet most individuals are predominantlyof the one sex the other,with few noticeable characteristics of the opposite or A small percentage,however, contain enough of the opposite sex. attention. Thus to draw there have been women who sex proach apin resemblance to men, and have generallyabandoned women's who function; and there have been men approach in resemblance to women, and have generallyslighted men's work. named Uranians,*'these have been fancifully Urnings,"or by " and an earlyAustrian investigator ; by others they have been intermediate sex," ^ and variouslycalled the "third sex,"'' the the alternate sex." " been described They have not infrequently the and the of the mind, soul,or one sex as persons body having brain of the other.^** A peculiarity of persons so endowed is their "

"

"

'*

Animals and Plants under Domestication,ii. 26, 27. Sex and Cfiaracter,7. 6 K. H. Ulrichs, himself who, in several publications in the sixties of the last one, them this name, after Numantius," under the nom-de-plume of " Numa century, gave allusions in Plato's Symposxum, 180D-181C, because of his admiration, like Plato's, for such A little before, the Prussian men. J. L. Casper had written about them, and still earlier the Swiss works H. Hossli. Since then many have ject, appeared on the subwhich be singled out Krafft-Ebing's Psyckopathia Sexualis, pp. 333-461. among may 7 By E. V. Wolzogen in a novel under thifi title. He to workers compared them and bees, which workers ants beings systematicallyproduced among are, in fact, such in those species, and among bees, as Mrs. Gallichan notes (.The Truth about Woman, 63), the female ovipositor,instead of laying ova, contains the sting (which is only a of rotten mass or mess eggs) 8 By Edward Carpenter, Love's Coming of Age, 120-40. H^ indulges in a revery *' " about like the feminine of ants new sex neuters being possibly on the make, a and bees, not adapted for child-bearing,but with a marvellous and perfectinstinct of social service, indispensable for the maintenance But of the common he life," 7Znothing about the development of a perfertilequeen, or anything of the sort, to says for their maternal make deficiency. up 9 By C. G. Leland in a work under this title,London, 1904, in which he advanced the visionary theory that the subliminal self is the alternate sex in us, asserting itself female in man and as male in woman, as p. 38. *' soul '* is so used by Carpenter,op. cit, 123, 131 and by Krafft-Ebing, 10 The term muliebris in corpore Ulrich is quoted as employing the formula: anima op. cit., 399. for speaking of " a female virili inclusa." Krafft-Ebing ridicules Gley and Magnan " in a man's himself maintains brain He it is " only a feminine body, op. cit., 342-3. vice masculine brain, versa,'^ in and centre a 348n.; and he perpsycho-sexual mits *' Kiernan to speak of a feminily functionating brain '^ in a male body, and vice 4 5

"

.


FEMINISM

68

undoubtedlyvaries place,being larger, probably,where nervous

hundred time

up to

and

one

in twenty-two.

It has

both

movement, to

The

suspectedthat

been

this class

itself

movement

of the leaders of the feminist longed and their male abettors,have be-

naturallywithin

"

diseases

many

women

among

in

much

peopleare healthyand sound.^^

where

abound, and smaller

It

them

reallytakes

a

wide range of variety.^" for its model, and is an

But they are adapt civilised societyto their needs. attempt would be its and to adapt a society to its exceptions exceptional, undoing,save for the fact that in this case the exceptionswill soon All that is requiredby justice and philaneliminate themselves. thropy be left in the social scheme for these unforis that room tunates, less likely their kind, if to multiply as they are especially to

constrained

interfered with and

not

such

have

women

conduct

freedom

to act like normal

if

to be men,

people.

they choose

Let

the tional excepdo littleharm to the

of

:

creatures can exceptional And such freedom often have. things. they now generalrun Rosa Helene Weber, an agriculturist, Bonheur, a painter,and been humoured have even with perMary Walker, a physician, mission

of

masculine habiliments. These were matched, in queraded by the Chevalier d'Eon de Beaumont, who masanticipation, and whose sex was in female attire, long in doubt. For to wear

ordinary pursuitsthere

be

enrolled

in armies

as

soldiers ; whose

dressed in

that serve petticoats and decency moralitydo

Where

to

be But 18

like men,

act

; and

women

men

sexes

is not

while

these

of the

Mobius,

no

themselves,like the disguise

to

women

should

as

far

as

amidst not

necessity compellingsuch found occasionally

women

counterparts women

as

forbid,women

they can,

and

the

are

men

etc. waitresses,

might be stillbe known

mitted perto

Of course, the equality might do the reverse. the of these inverts. accomplishments provedby should be treated too not epicene creatures

op. cit.,i6, 44-5. to Weininger,

" it is not the true who clamours for emancipawoman tion, masculine of woman," cit., 72, cf. 56, 64, also type op. only Mobius, Finck believed the would movement op. cit. 70. collapse if this were Love and Love known, Primitive But Carpenter is complacent over Stories, 756n. the " the women of the new movement thought that from naturally largely drawn are those in whom_ the maternal instinct is not especiallystrong; also from those in whom the sexual instinct is not preponderant. Such do not altogether represent women their rather mannish in temperament; some are that is, inclined homogenic' some sex; are to attachments rather than to their own, to the opposite, sex; ising ultra-rationalsome are and brain-cultured; to many, children less a bore; to others, man's more are or sex-passion is a mere impertinence, which they do not understand, and whose place they consequently do to say misjudge. It would not that the majority of the new movement thus out of line, but there is no doubt that are and large number a are, the of their progress will be correspondingly curvilinear," Love's course Coming of Age, 72. Similarly Mrs. Atherton, in her novel Julia France, already cited, spealcs of the women in the suffrage movement desexed as a new again sex^ p. 340, of them, she says, "look sexless, if you and like," 375, cf, 300; she 349; many makes of them ''We want We one women want things beside love. say: many it: enough wants comfortable and to make Yet love, but as a man us happy," 111. in Tennyson's Medley, the heroine at the end, like the Princess gives in.

19

_

According but

the

J

*

*'

...

.

.

.


ERRONEOUS

harshly,no

FIRST

69

PRINCIPLE

should be given to promote their extension.^" be should and not set as models, Especiallythey up their confused mode To do so of life be treated as normal.^^ ruin the race at large, cannot cannot be permanently as the practice established. But it may wreck a nation that experimentswith such disregard of the normal course of nature. tinction Except in the case of Timings,then,there is a well-marked disand their differences, between men and women; except, in in the of two attributes, are senses natural, again, superficial

encouragement

having been naturallyproduced and being naturallyinfixed,or, the belief that humanly speaking,permanent. Nothing warrants they may be broken down and abrogatedby an alteration in the of women An alteration in the treatment treatment by men. of women of the superficial acteristic charby men modify some may of other

but effects,

of

and

women,

men,

too, and

may

have

many

physically equal making women ure, because doomed to failproduce equality,

the effect of

not

The effort to will be a waste and loss of energy, and in addition will have a deleterious influence on the march of cilivilisation. Against this conceptionan inductive argument is urged of a It is maintained that the march of civilisation very fallacious sort. has been a progress in the approximationof the condition of women toward equalitywith men, and that this elevation of succeedingtheir debasement, may be taken as a test and women, of the advance made by civilisationup from barbarism ; measure whence it is inferred, as a strong presumption,that the further cerned, goes the assimilation of the sexes, the better it will be for all conuntil perfection be reached in completeequality.There is an ambiguity in the term condition,"which may refer to a and mind of state of the body or to the treatment women women, In the former the is to. statement the exact are subjected sense, and women of the fact ; for the fact is that men are reverse more in the more highlycivilised peoplesthan they highlydifferentiated barbarous. This in the more are ployment ought to give pause to the emYet the social of the argument in the other sense. the position condition of women they are relegatedto by the of of burden, or of collabakin that beasts to orators, whether more men, companions,equals has often been set up as a test or and sometimes been looked upon as one criterion of civilisation, to

men.

"

"

"

20

Cf. Mobius,

op. cii.,63, 70 ; Weininger,

''^Uranism

of. cit.,70.

be suspected in females ing wearof men. who dress in the fashion the sports and or hair short, or pursue But since these op. cit., 398. things have pastimes of their male acquaintances," who are not Umings imitate those who are, fashionable, and women actually become this test no longer holds. 21

Krafft-Ebing

their

wrote:

may

nearly always


FEMINISM

70

of the surest and best.^^ And of course not confined to the past, but it is launched

this test or criterion is forward into the future, that the highest and is used not only to prophesy,in the form civilisations will be those in which erally libtreated most women are but to prescribe the by men and most nearlyas their equals, of conduct for attaininghigher civilisation, course necessary freedom them and treating to women namely, by givinggreater and

more

more

like

men.

This

shown itselfinfallibl test,however, in the past has by no means It is generallyacknowledged that the civilisation of Athens was higherthan that of Sparta,and yet the condition of less restrained in the latter state ; also that the civilisation women was of Greece at largewas higher than the Roman, and yet Rome.^' had freedom The correct test would at women greater much rather seem to be the inverse : the stage of civilisationis the of the and women. In criterion between men proper relationship other words, that condition of women in society and before the law which exists in the higher civilisationsis better than that which exists in the lower civilisations; and, furthermore, that which exists in the ascendingperiodsof civilisationsis better than that which exists in their descendingperiods. The reason version for the inshould be plain;for it is easier to recognisewhat is a than to know what is the best condition high stage of civilisation, But even of women. as it stands,the ordinarytest does not bear out the feministic conclusion. Civilisations have, indeed,advanced toward the approximationof the condition of women to that of men advanced cline, dealso toward their own ; but they have which has always been synchronous with an excessive of that approximation.We have seen amount this in Egypt, Yet it is true, the commencement of that Greece, and Rome. approximationalways took place in the ascendingperiods of and contributed to the ascent. The trouble with the civilisations, feminists' argument is that is runs far too on beyond the golden mean.^^'' The induction that an increment of factor always producesan increment of function,is wrong; the function often "

Martineau, Society in America, 2d ed., London, 1839, iii. 105: Van at the Woman's at Worcester,1850, ProceedAmringe Rights Convention Constitutional Convention, in the Massachusetts 1853, Official '"g^, 37; D. S. Whitney, Mill, Subjection of Report, ii. 737; G. W. Curtis, Orattoits and Addresses, i. 212; Women, 37-8; Spencer, Principles of Sociology, "324 (in a moderate form)j Bebel, Die la condiiton Frau, 86; Letourneau, La Sociologie, 160; Louis Frank, Essai sur politique Evolution T. de la Femme, Paris, 1892, p. xxii; Eliza B. Gamble, of Woman, 75: V'eblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class, 353; Ward, Pure Sociology, 366. 23 It is recognised that at least as far as the earlier stages of by Westermarck Position of culture are concerned, the so-called test is not supported by facts. The Women in Early Civilisation, SociologicalPapers of the London Sociological Society,

E.g., by Harriet

22

H.

H.

1904, 23a

had

p.

158.

Cf. Spencer, Principles of Sociology, "340. He recognised that the already gone to an extreme, and expected a recoil; which has not yet

movement come.


ERRONEOUS reaches

FIRST

PRINCIPLE

71

maximum when a certain mean condition of the factor is reached,and beyond that it descends. tration To take a homely illus: if on a cold day you approacha fire, you feel a pleasanter and pleasanter warmth sensation of up to a certain point,after which between the heat from the fiire and the (the equilibrium heat of the body being reached) if you appraoch still proper and more more pleasant, unnearer, your sensation of heat will become and a too close approach may lead you to disaster,like the stupidmoths around the flame of a candle. So, undoubtedly, treated somewhat from a stage of barbarism in which women are like slaves,there is improvement of civilisation as the condition of women in the direction toward freedom and equality moves with men. But it may well happen that after a certain pointis is that reached (where the amount of freedom given to women which is their due, and the amount of equality with men accorded them is the amount with men of equality theynaturally possess), freedom further and w ill have increment of trary a conequality any effect. Undoubtedly,also, the perfectcivilisation will be in which the condition of women both is the best possible, one for themselves and for everybodyelse ; and this best condition of civilisation. But is a necessary prerequisite of the perfect women of women what the best condition or treatment the is,is precisely in is w hich issue between the feminists and at problem sociology others. The feminists adopt the cheap and lazy-man'ssolution of approximationof women of saying that the process to men and the best condition of women shall go on indefinitely, is where them and men. between distinction is made no This, however, like men to be treated more that women than they are means of the between the of treatment meanequilibration reallyare, and the facts of their nature women beingpassed;wherefore it and the rightsolution is stillto seek. be the rightsolution, cannot The inference,then, rightly inducible from history, is not the drawn. pleasantand promisingone so commonly and so lightly History also supplieswarning details of the process of decline. What happens is that as civilisations reach the culmination of have become their cycleswomen freer,have been allowed out of the home, have been emancipatedfrom their husbands by receiving their and have been admitted to earn fathers, property from This last is their own a thought great gain,doing away living. either not working or working at home of women with the waste divided and inefficient. But the result has always been the same : have rebelled but their not women only againstmen, own against independentthey have become, nature, and the freer and more to marry the less willingboth they and men and have chilare a


FEMINISM

72

dren, this been not

that the class

so

the state died out,

or

the

that encourages

race

much when or reduced, has tendency,has always this overthrown or conqueredby others,in whom process has takes what far. There Ward, as a place begun or gone so for the

name

new

of

or

the

wayward." succumbs

women,

side of the far from

^*

The from

wanders

and

beyond

survival

mean

to

and

of

calls fittest,

the

wayward the

class

or

"

the elimination that passes state

of the proper

mean

people or peoples that are approachingtoward it or have a

treatment

of

the

safe

on

not

strayedso

it.

in our civilisation menced comalreadycommenced ventions effect of circumstances,of inan naturally, unconsciously, of woman's desire. But it is the ness busiof man's greed, of what it is doing,and to look of reason to become aware ahead in the direction it is going. Instead of calmly examining to their precedents,analysingrelations,and leadingout causes enthusiasm effects,sections of societyare now agitatedby a new but warp the judgand idealism, which fire the imagination, ment. intend their efforts Men to are own by expectant of, or with the ideal of riches well establish,the new Jerusalem, Jewish distributed for blessedness. Women not willing to wait : they are work side side with too are to act, they are to men by (how their leave to to poor chests swell at the thought!), they are no longer them and civilisation, the burden of supporting men they are going from do their share, no to take part and longer distinguishable little is mixed in: men's share. And have no women so pride often been told they are better than men, that they have come all the pointson which claim to believe it.^^ They contest men and all those which concede to men them, with superiority, accept This

process

has

"

Pare Sociology, 132, cf. 335. the practical working people, and you in this form: We Even women are men the sentimental Mrs. are talking part of humanity," Pankhurst, at the Madison Square York New New Times of the next York, Oct. 21, (reported in The Garden, 1913 she appears in this form followed Vance (And to be day). by a man, Thompson, " is but scatters who that woman and methodic," man impulse says spray and According to Mary Fels (wife "sputters," Woman, 10, cf. 122, 170, 171, 175, 205.) successful and active of a is the soap-manufacturer philanthropist) woman patient and hard laborer and man is, as always, the fighting, dominating protector, while disinclined His work," New to drone," inherently Joseph Fels, Life-Work, York, The limit has been reached M. Lemouche, by Emerence who, in 1916, pp. 209, 210, 213. ** Woman's Era the noble creature Era, speaks of woman her The New whom Nature as wherein created is to be found the justice in a superior to him [man]," p. 14; asking would further Superior being ruled by an Inferior?" 10; arguing that "what prove Man from is, that she was the Superiority of Woman over not, like him, created clay," lowest and prostitute is yet better than the best of men," asserting that "the 101; "The Harrison, who wrote: reading Frederic once most 65. Perhaps she had been is in this [devotion to her offspring] superior to the most degraded woman heroic he entered two modi(abnormal cases apart)," Realities and Ideals, 72, wherein man But the pseudo-scientificbasis for these views which she omits. about the ficationSj shall later see supplied by another sex we man superiority of the female (Lester F. 24

"

25

"

"

'*

"

"

Ward).


ERRONEOUS

the

incHne

in

to

better

are

which

this

present,

The

world

world

far

it

also

that

adopt

But

reserve.

a

aims

!

not

not

pleasant

a

be

to

a

saviours.^' the

Only

so.

in

others

holds

those

for

one

alone.

is

its

Nature

than

men

it

:

be

Yet

fall.

better

be

by

to

lower

civilisation,

to

world

are

all

at

will

is

remedy

her

"

the

future

going

nists Femi-

that

conducted

women

world

a

these

is

part,

man-made

women;

be

to

The

been "

only

by

cease

may

nations

is

equal

an

them.^"

hold

classes.

hitherto

73

with

He

must

socialists

as

upper

take has

which

made

Alas,

the

will

so

just

behef,

than

women

the

PRINCIPLE

superiority

that

result

apparent

classes

FIRST

who

succumb.

26

For

And

is

cited

that

27

that

function

of

Speech

men

at

to

we

and

Hartford, have

must save

it.

it

life: must

it

Conn., learnt

without

Nov.

13,

this

saved 1913,

time

care

to

the

Verbatim

that

to-day.

her

for

Report, own

race,

the

and

in

34.

Great

of Mrs.

we

the are

The

race.

emancipation p.

is

that

beings, of

the

because

Well,

human

saving the

through

tics, Poli-

and

failures,

self-confessed

to

delay

be

only

by

business

our

Women

reprint).

appalling

absolutely

this

think,

I

difference,

women,"

than

47n.

p.

gallantry,

excessive

important

feminists'

stand

[men] are

come can

the

above,

Browning, to

only

conceited of

16

They

is

"the

more

(p.

civilisation in

saved,

however,

"

Pankhurst:

that be

must

and

1869,

E. due

statements, intellect

in

:

duller

perplex women

determined

one-sided

Kingsley

Magazine, Mrs.

Thus

Ch,

Adeline

from

quotation

men's

generally

are

Macmillan's

problems

of

from

men

the

see

instance

an

be

may

instance

an

for

race

women."

Pankhurst,

Britain,

needs


CHAPTER

IV.

FEMINISM

civilised

The

world

MARRIAGE

AND

"

is

a

"

man-made

world

for

:

this

American

authority of ought to be on her guard lest women There is some exaggeration in the statement, considerable in making share a society what have

we

the

foremost

the

feminist,^ who it. had

has

alone

man

has

made

and

government,

civilisation his

for

man possible. And but for advantage solely,

own

With

child.

this

the

which

few

feminists is

statement

have

Men could

not

only

for

they

had

other

made make

it for

themselves

and

men,

of

both

good

civilised

much

as

by

the

put

the

succeeding

less the

not

and

of

the

women.

of

sakes

their

children

and

their

is for every good man in his sons, and any woman daughters as is not in her daughters than in her sons well

male;

as

uncivilised

The

degradation, is, and

Mrs.

is

"a

the

to

differences

in Women Gilman. " All this 8; man's world," 96;

masculine,"

2

Schreiner

Mrs. "

that

so

both the

same

says

attain

it

make

men

mostly

leading

as

that

always, they make

borne men

the

new

for

the

children, female in

interested

who

is

good

a

the

to

the

but

sakes,

of

as

is well

as

much

as

and

barbarism

as

his

interested

more

woman.^

through

savagery,

have See 164. almost .

cf.

best,"

to

woman

and to

man.

74

few

and

had The a

a

New

of

her 226.

74;

this

part in World, Similarly man," Survey of the

Coolidge:

Roberts

whether

Labour,

exclusively

men/' insignificant

Man-made

York,

ondary sec-

little marked.

by

most

product

the

is almost

progress

accomplished

Mary

So,

are

Woman

impartiality belongs

her

and

94;

Women

it is indiiTerent their

also

entirely

.

51,

Economic

"

has been hitherto

progress

.

brute, in which

comparatively

Economics;

and

the

of

nature are

human "Women

their have the world made," sons " Civilisation Rosa Mayreder: Woman tr.) Problem, (English world," Why essentially a man's

excel,

that

primitive times, through non-differentiation,

of

nearer

was,

sexual 1

and

of

world

form:

concrete

assertion

children's

to

contrary

could

of

history

in

form

remember

marriage. To-day, make who laws are men: mostly married of for their own regulations marriage not out

not

woman

seem

children

This

dered ren-

and

it is apparent at once the good of women

of

good

has

abstract

truer

and

solely,but desire

to

it is; but

civilisation

the

world;

woman

as

of

it does

in

generations, and reason

men

it

make un-

benefit

In

agree.

not

created

the

generally put,

But

self-seeking.

natural

has

do

alone

government

ment state-

female

1912, sons

But

p. or

she

"This

is

238. her seems

daughters to

look over-


FEMINISM

'jd

almost continuous state of dependence, such as it was.^ Also the prolongation of infancy,which means birth at an incompletestage of development,permitted freer and it increased maternal fuller development of the child, while affection ; and the subsequent helplessness of childhood, in the in the ways also of men, of boys, who would need training case the of the to and mate so mother, helped appealed to prolongthe family life. A tendency in this directionis seen among apes. Among men it in time divided anythinglike a primitive promiscuous horde the clan system. into family groups,"starting males, like the males of some Although the earliest human have helped other animal birds, may species,notably among their ailing the earliest human have been females must mates, yet would

in

keep women

thrown

much

needed

things,and

She

needed

some

cave

on

their

an

own

resources.

Woman,

more

doubly so, both for herself and finer diet. She therefore shelter,clothing, or den, which she swept and garnished,and

than her

man,

babe.

retired to to do so,

she thatched togetherbranches, Afterward invented the broom. and constructed a rude hut. She stitched togetherskins of animals, for and her her hairless infant's to make a own covering for fruits and for roots, and learnt the body. She sought more medicinal properties of plants. Seeds which she dropped near the offal from her abode, sproutedmore and so invited luxuriantly, cultivation and suggested and led to the selection agriculture, and

improvement of vegetablesand cereals. The cat, and possibly the dog, she tamed, also some the and with and fowls, goat, the milk of the latter discovered the making of cheese, and the of intoxicating fruit. Also she tried distilling liquorsfrom rotting order in the littlecommunity which to establish some gathered about her. Before this,fire had been brought under control ' whether first by man is unknown used or by woman ; but woman and her child's food, and she guarded it zealit to cook her own ously the hearth,because of the difficulty of rekindling on it. She boil water learnt,too, to by heated stones. Clay,smeared over the inside of a gourd to make it withstand the heat of the stone, was and hardened, and as the gourd fell away, held the water by itself, able withstand the fire to covered. diswas directly.Thus pottery was of Baskets were rushes and or mats plaited osiers, "

woven

of straw, and

finer

ones

of hair,and

in time cloth of wool,

Of Civil Government, " 80. Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy, Boston, i8?5, ii. 342-5* 360-3, 369; in Darwinism, Studies by Spencer, Principlesof Sociology, gay/n. 43-8: followed ascribed of fire to men 7 The ancients the discovery^ to Prometheus, in iJie wellI. xiii. 3. known According to this mjjth,or to Hephaestus, according to Diodorus,_ the first to give laws, xiv. 3-4, and to diswriter, Ists and Demeter (women) were cover G 6

Cf. Locke, Cf. Fiske,

"

medicinal

herbs,

xxv.

2.


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

yj m

of flax,and

of

Thus woman's ward ingenuitywas turned toproduction,and she became the first producer.* Man, meanwhile, remained the finder,the chooser, the approcotton.

priator:his ingenuitywas

turned

toward

He, too, acquisition. of attack and defence clubs, weapons the slings,the bow and arrow, spears, sharpened fiintstones, and the and and later date knife at shield, a sword, possiblythe hook for catchingfish,and various other snares." Thus armed, men were becoming the most predatoryand pugnaciousof all while became than the less combative animals, women even females of other carnivorous species, their greater occupation with children and the home holdingthem back from such pursuits. In spiteof their agriculture and their domestication of carried very far, they became more animals, which they never and more both for support of themselves and dependent on men their children,and for protection againstthe depredationsnot Their very productiveness only of wild animals but of other men. lowed attracted men's acquisitiveness. Naturallythe men had folthem to their lairs, and after the firstgeneration sons were off and went born and bred there. As the sons some up, grew tained deOthers were joined the hunting and marauding bands. and with their the of the comforts home, stayed by did the daughters.^"The latter set of men mothers, as of course the former with daughformed sexual unions with their sisters, ters either goingto their homes, where they were of other women, invented:

he

invented

"

their protection againstothers, or stealingthem so They got their wives to make portablehuts or tents,^^ away. about where was that they could move plentiful.They game until while the others settling, women, were depredatorsupon of from the beginningdefenders women. were and spreadingover the continents,new Populationincreasing hordes were formed, which, when they again met and could not another as another's language,looked upon one understand one and fit game. other species, Then, under the spur of great need, formed, leaders offered effected,ranks were organisationwas chosen from many were petitors, comor themselves and were recognised, and all the of this all beginning forming government, tribes ; and where The hordes thus became performed by men. welcome

for

"

in the attempts of the woman at places the origin of improvements and Ethic of Freechild-rearing," during the times of pregnancy self-preservation primitive industries see of Death, ii. 3, 48. On woman's thought, 384, cf. Chances and and Woman, work already cited, the first chapter of Ellis's Man also Mason's 8

So

Pearson

Sex and Society, 123-46. loc. cit. classes of primitive men these two 10 On of Death, ii. 103. 380, Chances owned the the women the Arabs XI Among I. Thomas's

W.

9

Cf. Pearson,

.

see

Pearson,

",.,_,,

Ethic

of Freethought, 388, ,

tents,

as

being made

,

,

by them.


FEMINISM

78 this

was

done, the hordes

not

were

destroyed. For the struggle indulgedin,until it was found

Cannibalism was and children of other tribes that, probably first,the women Men too. could be better used for slaves,and at last the men and with the women, labour then put to manual slaves were kind of that habit of the also in time acquired thereby men was

to

the death.

ger between tribes,the danwa'rfare became common within the tribe was perceived,and not only quarrelling taken to suppress them, but endeavours were punitivemeasures the causes. made to remove Woman-stealing from other were

work." of

When

tribes continued,but within the tribe it was

discountenanced, and

for the to be substituted; purchase,in kind or by service,came The tribes for their labour. valuable at home daughterswere those did which which adoptedsuch measures not, prospered,and dwelt in retired unless to or suffered and were they destroyed, of the In the tribes that prosperedthe women secluded nooks. tribe were far from being treated like the slaves ; for the women had of the home, and to them at all events everything head the were the men off on militaryexpeditions. to be entrusted when were be underfed.^' The women, too, did the cooking,and could not easily Where the would too men suffer, maltreated, they were barous and barand that tribe would go to the wall.^* This was a rude ^" life hard for both men and women. was age, in which If the women in the did more work, more drudgery,while the men intervals of their the women's nature

were pied, unoccuhuntingand militaryexpeditions work was or self-imposed,^^ imposed more by

The

than by men.^'

first division

of labour

was

that be-

He Pure thus traces back the foundation of industrialis Sociology, 270-2. militarism. Woman's Share in Fritnitive Culture^ 236. 13 Cf. Mason, 14 Cf. Mason, op. cit.,6-7, 275, 276. '* life was Their look back 16 But : hard, as we at it, not cf. Thomas as they could not themselves with the future, and looked at it. They comparisons comjjare doubtless in their favour," Sex and Society, 128. with the past were 16 Cf. Mason, op. cit.,284, cf. 8. "The has not been Goldwin Smith: lot of woman determined 17 So by the will of lot both of the man in any considerable The and the woman at least not degree. man, determined from to age which the will of neither has been over by circumstances age neither could be blamed for accepting or failing of them had much control, and which The hunter would have been domestic to reverse. spoiled by heavy Giddings: ** Savage life labour," Essays on Questions of the Day, 2d ed., 224, 228. be ready to meet the community must at all times is a series of petty wars; its foes. are by child-bearing unfitted for fighting and During the best years of life, women be undertaken the women do iSie by the men, must hunting. As these activities must they attend to domestic drudgery, as far as their strength permits. Not only must articles duties, keep the fire, do the cooking, and provide such simple manufactured and also actively assist in procuring any mats food as fishing-nets;but they must the march become of burden, their reach, and beasts that is within on they must versal lugging, beside their babies, the utensils and supplies. This latter practice is uniand the necessity of it is so selves themsavages, among obvious^that the women instant defend it. The be free to fight at any must men or to meet any with any than their weapons other burdens might be to surprise. To ^loadthemselves sacrifice the lives pf all. It therefore that women to conclude in seems quite wrong life are their tyrannical masters. always slaves, and men Certaihly their consavage 12

Cf. Ward, to

.

.

.

.

.

...


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

79

man's and woman's, in which, to be sure, the woman took the largershare.^* But this,if anything,increased her importance.^' ' If you care to do Probably the man's attitude was : all these things, I if not, can get along without them you may; better than you can.' Yet he liked her products,and encouraged her in her work, and in return assisted her with his. Also those tribes prospered most, wherein the men and more aided the more the of children. i n training Conjugal and especially women, that have been augparentalaffections are useful dispositions mented through the natural selection and survival of those who ages developedthem.^" The persistence to-dayof a few degradedsavin out-of-the-way the of semi-civilised on as globe, spots peopleselsewhere, does not disprovethis. On the contrary, it proves it. They have been able to survive only because of their the struggle.They are removal from remnants, not beginnings.^^ tween

In

the beginning, when some animal, developingintelligence, knew he and no woman that became no man was a father, man, This knowledge no animals posknew why she was a mother.^^ sess. There is requiredmuch ratiocination by generalisation, elimination of negativecases, explanation of incongruities, fore bethis knowledge can be acquired ; and at firstit would appear then as a belief, then as a generaldoctrine, only as a suggestion, but stilladmittingexceptions, and only in a high stage of mental development and of civilisation has the universal necessityof fecundation in the higheranimals been recognised.For at first, and. women had sexual intercourse by instinct or for when all men when and only women occasionally brought forth pleasure, connection between these facts was no apparent; and the young, seemed mysterious. It enpeculiarbehaviour of the women "

"

it is made dition is wretched, but at the outset more by social conditions than by so will and The masculine power," Principles of Sociology^ 266-7. Thomas: tive primidictated the sexes an not in any sense division of labour among was arrangement and women both men but a habit into which fell,to begin with, through their by men, The real master of both man and difference of organisation," Sex and Society, 140. Much Ado Edward S. Martin, about Atlantic is Necessity," says Women, woman Cf. also Spencer, Principles of Sociology, " 326 (quoting Monthly, Jan., 1914, p. 11. "

"

Dobrizhoffer) was drudgery, that of man 18 According to T. Veblen, the primitive lot of woman exploit. The Theory of the Leisure Class, 13. of fact, the strong differentiation of work, however "As a matter 19 Westermarck: .

of rights. It gives her authority within is itself a source burdensome to the woman, In the house she is very commonly an autocrat," is exclusively hers. the circle which in Early Civilisation, SociologicalPapers, 1914, pp. 150-1. Position of Woman The Marriage, 20-1. History of Human 20 Cf. Westermarck, that their imperfect in remote regions really proves existence continued 21 Their the original social relations (especiallytheir lax sexual morality) were and weakening mostly destroyed by the tribes that improved their morality; was condition, which have whereas, had the better condition been first prevalent, the degraded tribes would extended the world to the extent that archsology over to chance have once had no done: cf. Bagehot, Physics and Politics,J22-4. them to have shows Pure Sociology, 200, 340, 341-2. 376. 22 Cf. Ward,


FEMINISM

8o

with an awe-inspiring and led on to the power; of magic and the like,which to them of other powers, ascription in good stead as a defence againstthe physically stood them of the earth, It was likened to the fertility stronger men.^^ larly at first appeared,in a simiwhich brought forth vegetation, as of The mysteriouspowers productionof haphazard way. into female therefore made nature were divinities,and these to have been the earliest of the beingsworshippedby mankind. seem after the need of seeds for When at length, plantshad them. It must have been noticed, the truth dawned upon greatly appeareda wonderful discovery,and it in all probability the minds of both and it was exercised men women. Very likely instituted ; which lasted tillthe wonthen that phallic-worship der was off. It must have greatlyelevated the importanceof wore in and in the eyes of women, their and it gave them men own eyes claim to the children. who It is believed that then the men a in child-birth by that curious claimed to be fathers imitated women called the of couvade, pretendingto be sick when the wife custom, bore a child. Yet for a long time continued the belief in a possible human of some at the instigation parthenogenesis now other cause, as by something unusual eaten or touched, or even breath of air (or spirit), a as a sudden by thingsless substantial, in shadow, a phantom whether seen awake or a dream, startling often t he unusual other or any suggesting presence of occurrence, Of these there are indications in the myths and legends a god. of many peoples.^*Even when this belief was nearly extinct, in high positionwere advantage was taken of it ; for, as men who from the common men rose proud of their ancestry, new herd to high estate, and perhaps had no knowledge of their real to some father,found it convenient to ascribe their paternity god, them done for unless they could be or this was by their flatterers, linked to some line with an earlyhero or deityfor its founder.^'' But in this we are anticipating. For at first the new discoverycould not have' had much eflfect dowed

them

"

"

23

For

them by this fear which the service rendered they inspired,cf. Mason, op. cit., op. cit.,in Sociological Papers, 159-60. S. Hartland evidence has collected much this subject in his Primitive ternity, Paon

256, Westermarck, 24

E.

London,

1909.

to both these methods, Jesus being elevated to be of God and in the male line from David. to be descended Alexander the Great, as is well known, was Caesar tempted to look upon himself as the son of Zeus. made such pretension; but for Augustus it was made no by the poets, in the form descended from that his line was the idea that a goddess could be a goddess. This and bring forth a human fecundated child, which is ridiculed in the fable of by a man Ixion was a wholly poeticaland later opinion, when the original belief was longer no Achilles as goddess-born. At the border-line Homer could understood. Even treat hit upon: to find something between scheme was myth and written history, another in their early bringing-up, as that they were miraculous foundlings and cared for by the elements, as by a river (Sargon, Moses), or by animals (Cyrus, Bow-tseih, 25

the

Even

Christianity conformed

son

"

"

Romulus).


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

of the

which promiscuity, practical

social conditions,because

on

it difficultfor

made

children,while

a

however

man,

8i

temperate,

to

his

know

own

much however indulging, always knew had be reckoned which to therefore, Relationship, begun stillfor a long of the practiceof cohabitation, account on was while traced through the mother only. The only surelyknowable and child, mother uterine brothers still those of relationships were woman,

a

hers.

and

cousins sisters,

uncle

family and

sororal

and

aunt

or

the children of such

among

the clan

nephew or formed, and

were

niece.

sisters,maternal On

this basis

the descent of

the

positionand

owned was regulated. A woman's For a man's to her children. property property naturallywent If his sisters' children. he known heirs but were no a were it was a chieftain,and this positionhad become quasi-hereditary, sister's son who would be chosen. Names, too, went in the same that of their mother. Of name adding to their own way, men of the

few

articles that

were

primitivepeoples in this state there is frequent mention in the writingsof the ancients,^*and of earlymodern explorers; ^^ and there are such peoples still existingto-day.^^There are some of it also left in the customs, myths, tales,and languagesof traces The of this matancient and of modem first investigator ter races. the Swiss

Bachof en, who

to it

the

of

"

motherand discovered described right." by J. F. Karl Pearson, who McLennan.^" has done good work in digging " " of it fossils retained by the Germans, prefersto call it out the the " mother-age." Others have called it the " matriarchate,"or was

^^

name

Independentlyit was

well-known of the Lycians account by Herodotus, I. 173, supported by in MuUer's Historicorum DamasFragmenta Graecorum, II. 217, Nicolaus ib. III. 461 (similarly of the Ethiopians, 463), and (of the Xanthians Nymphis cenus, The in particular) ib. 15. connection with Lycians, according to Herodotus, had some the Spartans also got Crete, whose motherland," and where people spoke of their of their ideas of government; which doubt some no a more helped to maintain ijromithem. Plato likewise drew from that source. nent Again acpart for women cording among I. 216, the cannibalistic in to Herodotus, had wives, but used them Massagetes of the Tyrrhenians Athenasus that the women (or Etruscans) were common. says and the children brought up without regard to their fathers. Deipnosophistae, common, XII. cf, Heraclides, loc, cit. Somewhat similarly of the Libyrnii, Nicolaus, in 14: Muller's III. 458, cf. 460. Strabo kind describes of a Fragmenta, gynsecocracy," the Cantabrians in Spain the women he calls it, among working in the fields, as trouble and bed to (the cowuade)t taking giving birth without putting their husbands inheriting, and portioning oif their brothers. III. p. 165. part in war, Islands. 27 E.g., about the Guanches the Canary on the Nairs of India, the Menangkabau of Sumatra, and best specimens are 28 The Africa. of North the Tuaregs rested Das 1861 (2d ed. 1897). He his work 29 In Mutterrecht, especially upon of the contest between Poseidon Varro*s and ^Athena at account three old legends of the Beotians' ment treatAthens presently), Ephorus's narrative (which will be noticed and their trial before a jury composed half of women of the prophetess of Dodona myth and half of men (his pursuit by (given by Strabo, IX. p. 402), and the Orestes and the Erinnyes acquittal by Apollo) as related by .^schylus (and to be noticed 26

So

gave

the

Heraclides,

"

"

"

"

later) : "" xxiii.,xxiv., In Studies 30

xxv.

his Primitive Marriage, Ancient xn History, 1876.

London, See

which was latter p. 41 in.

1865,

in the

included

in

his

later


82

FEMINISM

the the

"

^* matronymic period." "

term

confined

their children ; but extended " the to mean patriarchy,"

idea

by suggestedespecially of is mother-rule, matriarchy," to the rule of mothers over strictly in with it is, parallelism as generally

matriarchate," or

unobjectionableif

The

"

rule

of

women

over

"

(more implication is men

"), the definitelyexpressed by gynaecocracy in Egypt, that there is not for even evidence,'^ no false; ruled

ever

anythingbut children.^^ There

over

breastless

of amazons,

or

controlled

their

affairs,got themselves

own

women

legends

some

acrobats),who fecundated by their children,and waged

female

(likeour

women

are

neighbours,reared only their female with men war thinguniform about all such legendsis ; but the one and their congregations that the women beaten were destroyed.^^* in their households over If in some tribes wives have been superior male

their

husbands, it

because

was

their uncles and while the husbands disputes, and

had

without

and

backing;

positionwhich

'*

they

were

among

their

own

men kins-

brothers to side with them

in their

from

kindred took the

were

away

their

but then the uncles and take elsewhere,

the husbands

brothers

there

was

andri-

periodnot so much of mother rightas of father indifference. Yet it is probablethat in those primitive were on a considerably greater equaldays women ity than they have been since. Men with men as yet practically had no fathers, they knew onlytheir mothers,were broughtup by for longattached to their mothers ; and the emancipation and were of sons from their mothers' rule must have been later performed, archy, if

if not

yet patriarchy.It

"

own

not

was

a

when fathers also had a hand in their was even training.Moreover, the women's productivity greater than the men's though it is difficultto compare the value of their often essential to their contribution,since that of the men was for the mixed safety. Also the communal gatheringswere poses, purand not only of settling disputes fixingthe common policy, less complete,than

" 31 There is no for using the form for writing than more reason metronymic '*^ metriarchate." Mater is the Greek word for mother, meter Attic being only an metronomics." variation. is too Tlie proper form suggestive of Metronymic Matnlineal and in his Studies in Ancient used by McLennan History, p. 289. was " matriherital further that have been used in this connection. are terms does not bear out the term he employed. 32 Except Strabo's; but his account Mrs. 33 This is why Pearson of Death, II. 2. But prefers mother-age," Chances " Truth concedes about this, still uses matriarchy,'*_The Gallichan, though she Also W. I. Thomas follows L. von ception conWoman, Dargun in rejecting Bachofen*s 143. It is rejected also by and Society, 70, cf. 93. of it as a political system. Sex Vance Thompson, Woman, 25-7. of women have 33a Some communities actually existed, who tried to maintain may themselves. The regions compelling obtaining in some explanation is the condition of the year in quest of food or employment, the men to go at a certain season away at to home things: and then if the men happened to be leaving the women manage be left permanently alone and might set up some would cut military oif, the women in Antiquity and Modern defense. See G. C. Rothery's The Amasons Times, London, "

'*

'*

"

"

"

"

'*

igro,

178-81,

210-11.

pp. l"^/. Giddings,

op.

cit.,268.

"

"


FEMINISM

84

of their could not be sure children,and so the old condition was allowed to continue.*^ and more the old conditions became irksome; for a more for Still,

end.

an

a

time, men

own

But man

in the tribe to his sister's had to leave his property and his position he coof the woman habited son, though he might suspect that the son of property and position his own. with was Every man he claimed the woman then began to keep stillcloser guard over

wife, and

for

children

so

increased

his children.

were

should devices were

that their inheritance

obviate this,two to

man

his confidence

Men, then,

in the belief that her were

no

longer willing

To go to their nephews and nieces. for a The one at first tried. was

father or his uterine sister (whether by the same marry But that his nephews and nieces should be his children.

not),so discountenanced this practicewas Long before this, by nature. probablythrough an instinctive lack or erotic feelingcaused by dulged brother-and-sister marriageshad been littleinearlyfamiliarity, where it was indulgedin most, the race, in; moreover, decayed and perished,and only those tribes through inbreeding, the contrary in whom littlepractised, prospered where it was tionship fixed.** instinct became During matronymy, however, the relafather half-brother and half-sister by the same between either unknown or was unrecognised,and nothingpreventedsuch the purpose of the father unions; but now they did not serve with increasing mindful of his children,and therefore, knowledge of incest,even these marriages had to be of the injuriousness shunned, and equallyso the marriage of a brother with a sister the father or fathers. The for the father to make his property to his was over wife during his life-time,so that her, and his, children might But this had the inconvenience inherit it from her. of weakening in a nd him in the man's a position society, putting dangerous wife. A such his tribe which on a practice adopted dependence could not thrive in competition with tribes in which as a custom, their retained There own was men only one other property. be recognisedas such, his solution : the father's positionmust children must be his heirs,their name, be traced too, must own rather in the must from him, relationship male line. Of run the same other device from

mother, whoever

were

whose work above^referred to on Primitive Paternity of evidence about denies primitive ignorance of paternityj with uncertainty of paternity, i. 300-325, connected that mother-right was 11. 2, in cases is that in some where peoples mother-right continues 283, 287. His reason is observed in cases fatherhood is certain, and in others father-right (in the husband) He overlooks that the former to be the father. is known is a where another person (proving degeneracy) either of survival, and the latter a substitute, or else a matter indifference of cupidity, the children merely as property, like the being claimed or children of slave-women. Marriage, 319, 320-34; it Cf. Westermarck, History of Human 352, 545. 43

Rather

gives such

strangely, Hartland,

an

accumulation


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

85

the mother's property continued to go to her own children : then why did not the so-called matriarchygive way to a doubleheaded matro-patriarchy, instead of to the other-sided patriarchy which actually did follow ? This is because such a double-headed rule is impossible in the nature of things, no equilibriumbetween *^ two would-be and because, even equals being maintainable ; had been the ruler,and the onlychange now before,the man was that the man-rule father-rule became a ised andriarchywas specialinto patriarchy.There and economic also religious were course

"

reasons.

At

had no knowledge that they had have seen, men of children : women seemed anythingto do with the procreation to produce them like the earth producingplants. spontaneously, Then it was that for found the earth to produce plants, seeds had it to be sown. that transmission When, then, was a perceived from into a woman it was for a man was procreation, necessary with in confused the sowing of seed the ground. But the seed is what carries on the nature of the plant, and the ground onlynourishes it into growth. So now the belief became prevalent that it seed which transmitted human the man's was life,and women the where it could garden merely provided grow.*" This view also,of course, was ought to have been wrong, and its error plain,since in that case it would have been indifferent into what female the male planted his seed, provided the specieswere alike,and the hinny,for instance,would be a horse structurally Also there would be no reason for children, and the mule an ass. itance and especially even boys,resemblingtheir mothers ; inhergirls, could be only from the male ancestry,perhapsmodified,at most, for better or for worse, by a strong or by a feeble mother, as first,

we

The husband and common wife, though they have but one cern, condifferent different understandings, will unavoidably sometimes have that the last determination, i.e. the rule, should being necessary wills too; it therefore it naturally falls to the man's share, as the abler and the be placed somewhere, " 82, stronger," Of Civil Government^ emission "seed," was the belief of the Jews: the man's 46 Such was cf. Gen. the woman sown," XXXVIII. 16, 17, 18, 32; and impregnated was 19, Levit., XV. the earth The of Manti treat woman as Laws Numbers, V. 28, cf. Leznt., XII. 2. the earth the primeval womb," (inversely plants his seed, IX. 32-53 man in which In the Greek Similarly the Egyptians, according to Diodorus, I. 80, " 4. 37, cf. 44), to take together or gather in (suWaBecf, language the part assigned to the female was of the male. In conceive ") the seed (sperm) the Latin concipere, and our wlience tific) scienthe primal to this developed (and seemingly tradition the transition from Greek 628-31 (or 658see ^schylus, Eumenides, in the Orestes myth: belief is shown from The tillagewas frequently employed metaphor 61), Euripides, Orestes. 552-3. and by Plato (.Cratylus,406B, Laws, VIII. 838Eeven poets, and by the dramatists and other "physiologists," according to the doctrine of Anaxagoras Such was 839A). with the earth, Anim. Gen., IV. i, (who himself compared the womb Aristotle, De X. 9, and cf. Politics,VII. xiv. or xvi. g); and of Chrysippus, according Problemata, Latin The word for seed {semen) has De Stoicorum Repugnantms, 41. Plutarch to It was this belief which element. for the male permitted technical term become our had no soul. of Macon For ences referto hold that woman the minority at the Council barbarians, see Westermarck, History of Human concerning this belief among 45

Cf. Locke: yet having

**

"

"

Marriage, 106,


86

FEMINISM

plantsby

as

rich

of the Greek

some

opinion. Thus

we

soil. Observations

of this kind

led and amend to that philosophers physicians that Pythagoras,Epitold by Plutarch are curus,

or

poor

held that the female also emits sperm ; and and Democritus that the Stoics so believed on account he further specifies of the of children to their mothers, which resemblance they accounted

for thereby.*' That of his

school,held

Hippocrates,or at least some earlywriters this revised opinion,we from his (or know Thus the work De Genitura (cc.7-8) ascribes not onlybecause of the resemblance of women,

works. their)own a generativefluid to children to their mothers, but have only male children from

because

found to and only female children one man fluid being supposed the weaker in the

from

some

women

are

her another man, and the stronger in the other. one case Impregnation,then, this school regardedas the mixing of the two fluids,the male and the female ; ** and they accounted for the sex of the offspring, and its different intensities, several the of combinations possible by of wind-eggs laid by hens, and these fluids.** Observation of certain facts in connection with women, led Aristotle to modify this new doctrine in the direction of his own philosophy, by saying

that the female

whence, and the male the provided the matter Neither of life-giving agent whereby, the embryo is formed.^" far in the old these views reallywent view, the correcting very principalelement in the seed being stillderived from the male; view continued to hold sway, unaffected by the and the former the middle ages the doctrine of Hippocrates fact that throughout and the doctrine of Aristotle was held held by the physicians was dred by the philosophers.It was, indeed, only a littleover two hunit well and fiftyyears ago that within was discovered,and it that female that hundred was proved, a plant and every years animal produces spores or ova, and that, in the higher types, the homolog of the seed developedfrom an ovule fertilised by a grain Placitis Philosophorum, V. 11. 47 D^ 5 and Lucretius, IV. 1211, reasoning, is probable from

That

Epicurus

employed

the

same

1220.

Natura Mulierum, I. 24. Pueri, c. 1, De Morbis 6 ; De Diaeta, I. 28-9, already ref erri-d to, above, p. 67n. A be found in De further to the subject may reference Morbis, IV. i. discovered the difference between 50 Aristotle potentiality (connected with passivity) of employing with fond it activity or was and actuality (connected energy), and occasion offered. So here he represented the passive female as providing the whenever this or that, and the active male as which has the potentialityof becoming matter viding promakes this or that. it become The the soul-bearing energising principle which he therefore represented as the product of these two elements, and no longer embryo the male's single-handed product.^See his De Animal. either the female's Hist., or as Animal, Gen., I. ii,,xvii-xxii.,II. i., iii. near X. ii. I, V. I, 7, 9, vi. 2-3, and his De American Naudawessies Rather had curiously, the North a end, iv., v.j IV. i. end. indebted fathers for their* souls that offspring were and to their to similar notion, for their bodies: tlieir mothers Marriage, 105-6. Westermarck, History of Human 48

lb.

49

De

c.

5, also De

Genitura,

c.


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

of pollenis the embryo developed from

an

87 fertilised by

ovum

a

spermatozoon/^ That quasi-scientific the beginningof doctrine,originating near and the view at the time we civilisation, so long prevalent new are speaking of represents the swing of the pendulum from the one side of the truth to the other,and in placeof the mother being considered the creator of the child without any father,the father became, in the common opinion,the child's creator, with the mother's help,but with her actinga very indifferent part. "

"

Then

the father's action was likened also to that of rain,which the earth absorbs: he indeed acts, he covers, as the sky covers and fertilises the earth; and as woman had previouslybeen assimilated to the earth,and her internal powers, spontaneous and the under earth t o to goddesses hidden the uncontrolled, powers of darkness, assimilated to meteorological was so now man active phenomena, with powers aerial and spiritual, volitionally and regulatedby intelligence, and he, the first star-gazer,became "

"

ship. with whom he claimed kinworshipper of the gods of light, In fact,a totally into existence, came new mythology now and Zeus, with his dependent sister-wife, succeeded the nearly and Rhea, and Wodin supplantedFreya or Frau equal Kronos were males, whereas Gude, and the more prominent gods now of been more female goddesseshad previously a few important."* continued in honour whom (such as Vesta, or the fire on the minor goddessesof the air hearth),or were supersededby new Men at least the eminent the sea (such as Venus). men or now, in every country, came to be looked as themselves, to, gods, up had to be appeasedby worwhen dead, and their manes ship especially their continued existence and nourished by offerings, ing dependcould be rendered and the and offerings thereon; worship only by sons and their sons, brought up and trained thereto,at the familytomb on festal occasions,and on ordinaryoccasions at Hence of such station needed, for the familyhearth. every man of his happiness after death, the perpetuation the continuance line on earth ; and, to begin with, as also for his supof his own port who could in old age, he needed a recognisable son, only be a and recognisedand home-kept a legitimate legitimate son, from and in early Such a son, too, would perpetuate his name, wife.

the

"

contributes equally with the father to the though the mother 51 Still, however, but its nurse before after giving birth; formation of the embryo, she is otherwise as its own for instance it no blood, which for it develops itself, forming comes to its father. What the mother does from is to provide it its mother than from more it absorbs and and to bring to it nourishment, which warmth, similates. ashousing and 62

Cf. Pearson, Ethic

of Freethought,

393.


FEMINISM

88 lore

close connection

a

made

was

between

named, or its substance, in the case of man possessionof a never-endingline of descent

and

name

a

his

life;so a

was

only means, obtainingimmortalityof a sort.^^ confounded another line of thought; but it was of

As

a

life,and his

result of all this,the the

new

new

view

the

and

means,

This, indeed,is with

the preceding. of

consequentlytook

in

every man stricter regulation of

requireda offspring, had to be more about particular

own

thing

that the

the transmission

about

interest which

the

marriage.

The

the woman who was to be the mother of his children ; and because he wished to keep his children with him always,he had to keep his children's mother also. as he did not Previously, recognisehis children,he let them their mother mothers. And who with the woman, or always go knew her own with children,kept them, whether she remained man

their

father,or fathers,or

not

; and

she had

no

for

concern

riage mar-

regulations.Thus the so-called mother-age was an age of sexual irregularity and laxness and license.^* Man could stillpermit for pleasure;but for procreationhe the license to continue Real marriage,human regulatehis connection with woman. cohabitation for the sake of the children,dates marriage,life-long from this period. Chance-begottenand tinued hapless bastards connamed and be after their to received their posimother, tion from reference their without if to her, father; or any man interest in them, it would be their mother's took an brother. called "natural children,"to indicate their They commonly are must

birth in the natural state, outside the artificialinstitution made for purposed procreation. This institution is needed by man. lead.^^ take the for it man must And And were men taking the lead also for an economic reason. We have seen that in the pristine the first mother-agewomen were dressers of skins,agriculturists, docooks, architects,weavers, of the smaller animals, potters, physicians, invenmesticators tors "

peaceful arts. but they never civilisation, of

the

They entered

made

the

first steps toward civilisation itself. At best

IV. 721 B-C. of Freethought, 394, followed It is so recognised by Pearson, Ethic by Mrs. Chances Tr"t/t about Gallichan, Woman, of Death, ii. 96, 105, 244;" but unknown 143; who holds that when IB. Gamble, women to Eliza ruled, everything was modest, and The has developed since. Evolution of Woman, licentiousness of 301. great outbreak time took place in May, as will be noted later. Since license in the olden then May the month has been avoided^for regular marriage. is in no wise derogatory to woman. fact that marriage is man-made 55 The Woman her own of marriage to know need children; man has no his. This has, to know is It also supports the thesis that marriage is man's of the whole matter. the bottom than for man for woman to regulate, rather to regulate. affair, proper 53

54

Cf. Plato. Laws,


FEMINISM

they made

the advance

MARRIAGE

AND

89

The ther furbarbarism."* Men domesticated made by men. step into civiHsation was the largeranimals "^ the cow and ox, the horse,the camel, the if had firstdomesticated women elephant;or any of these,men the chargeof them as exceedingwomen's took over and strength, either themselves domesticated or assumed men charge of sheep in large flocks."^ Men and worked the minerals of copper up gold,and discovered the metallurgyof silver and iron, becoming in possession the firstsmiths ; "" and now of the knife,the shears, the axe, the spade,the hoe, and the saw, (for it is but a step from *" of improveto tools) they launched forth in a career ment. weapons They invented the plough,and appliedanimals, especially bandry, husand graduallytook over to haul it,"^ or agriculture, oxen, in distinction from kitchen-gardening, from the women. made roads, cut staves They cleared forests,filled in swamps, erected and stone and boards, built houses, hewed permanent then with and them with first s urrounded palisades buildings,

from

to

savagery

"

and

walls,constructed boats, using oars rivers and

the seas,

sails,and

coasting alongthe shore ; for

navigatedthe they did not yet

invented also the wheel, and afterward to machines for use in applyingit to land-carriage, all it be noted that and our higher material industry, may civilisation, restingas it does on machinery, is based on the in nature. The first industrial application wheel, which is not known to have been to pottery, in the shape of the of it seems from took over this women wheel,^''after which men potter's discovery,glassindustry,to which they added, as their own and the all these took over ornamented things, making. They have

keel

the

and

the compass.

They

"

women's not who treats as early inventions is not recognised by Pearson, 58 This civilisation," but a good part of the superstructure," Chances of only the basis of our GalliDeath, ii. 48, cf. 6, and Ethic of Freethought, 384. So also his follower, Mrs. But she.does not hesitate, on occasion, Truth about Woman, 21, 139-40. chan, The Elie Reclus, however, states of barbarism, 143. an as the mother-age age " of the primordial elements the creator he was woman says correctly when Folk, 58. civilisation." Primitive of Freethought, 391, following Lippert, D%e Geschichte 57 So Pearson, Ethic

the

treat

to

of

case

,

Familie,

41.

.

"

.

,.,.

,.

^

.,,..,

,

,

.,-

^

,

r"

der 1

simply, of animals, by Keclus, treated the first domesticators, as ' in domesticating the animals, and assisted him domesticated man, knew also who Sex and Society, 228, cf. 137. .AlreadyHippel, according to Thomas, der Weiber, Verbesserung die burgerhche started the industries, Ueber that women animals and set them to first to tame the held that were women vi Werke 55-9, in the idea of slavery, and were, to men he lamented, they first gave 58

loc

Women are cit. Woman

work,

whereby,

themselves

consequence, 69

"

Tubal

60

Cf. Thomas,

61

The

menides),

made

Cain, Hephaestus, ancients or

the

first slaves,

57.

etc.

Sex and Society, 145, 293. to ascribed this invention

Triptolemus, according

to

a

man

Pliny, Nat.

"

,tt

Buzyges

Hist., VII.

,

(Hercules 57

t-

"

or tpi(or 56), Suidas,

Xlcsvchius to Anarcharsis, of the potter's wheel Posidonius 62 wrongly ascribed the invention the same and Pliny committed error, loc. cit. But 30-1; according to Seneca, Ep. XC. it. Pliny, in the same who invented place, men of opinion is that it was the consensus assigns the use of the wheel in carriages to the Phrygians.


FEMINISM

90 arts

by

and Astronomy was the first science they cultivated, proper. and later in navigait theyguided their actions in agriculture, tion. of make science medicine, a They commenced, too, to

who took surgery.**The men to not always apply themselves for the manual directing, labour, but they used their ingenuity which labour in the male slaves was and employed beyond the industries of their original retained some Women strengthof women. relegatedto long undisturbed; in others they were them from taken others smaller parts; still entirely.** were who of free the remained and occupation men, looting Fighting vals they superintendedin the intertherebyprocured slaves,whom extinction of game ; and as these intervals augmented through substitute found of their neighbours, and subjugation a more they and more in the supervisionof industry. Property was now mostly men's property, being mostly accumulating,and it was in the shape of pots and pans had capital their products. Women in the alone acquiredcapital and other simpleimplements. Men largerforms, and produced so much as to have a surplus. They in the form of established exchange,therefore,which, especially

invented did the lead in all this movement,

practisedanatomy,

and

from its invention nations and over seas, was expeditionstook the place of wholly their affair. Commercial in from which, fact,they but slowly became distinmarauding, commerce

between

guished.*"* To prevent disputeswithin the tribes, laws of property had to be instituted, and they were made Thus marriageand by men. became the fields men's of two without legislation, property great which no civilisation could grow. The territory, which too, over roamed with their herds and flocks,or which men hunted, or cleared and a nd where tilled, they they established their abode, and buried their dead, was theirs;and it dug wells,built cities, who defended it from others, and among themselves was they had institute to firstfor and ing distributagrarianlaws, they sharing their common land, and then, after its division,for owning it separately.Peoplesoccupyingrich lands became the first confirmed and the soonest of agriculturists, adopted ways peace; "

68

Chiron,^sculapius,

etc.

when drew his imagination he wrote that the working-upof wool Lucretius upon of their superiority in every because first done ward was by men, art, and that tney afterRerum turned it over to women, De V. 1354-8; but he would have been Natura, it was to be much right, had he foreseen that if ever improved, it would, on this account, But have he said that to be done by men. Pliny was writing history when till late (about first baked B. C.) not women at Rome bread, and that it was 174 28. the Jews became still cooks that men and bakers, XVIII. Among women were I. Sam., VIII. bakers in the king's household, even 13. and 05 Nestor asked his visitors, Telemachus Mentor, whether they were chants meror pirates,Odyssey, III. 72-3) cf. Thucydides, 1. 5. 64


FEMINISM

92

wardness stillretained their ancient lead through the backsubdued or driven to the wall,in inaccessible of the men, were

whom

women

where regions, them.'^"

The

the others

transition

found

from

it not

matronymy

worth to

while

to pursue

patronymy

and

mostly slow and prolonged. So probablyit was in Greece, as Germany. But in Italy all of a sudden who Rome founded by unattached was adopted the patriarchal men, or system at one stroke,and in the midst of peoplesstillmore less controlled by women, they were easy victors,having to fight with hen-peckedhusbands. oughly Likewise the Jews had become thorwhen patriarchal they left Egypt (perhapsby antiperii n stasis, puttingoff the ways of the Egyptians),and there is evidence that the Caananites,who, though numericallysuperior, graduallyfell before them, were stillin the matronymic state,with all the licentiousness of the mother-age,wherefore they likewise supplieda warning.^" The regulation of marriageand the regulation of property were, in all probability, were now performed synchronously. Men in of their the owners estimation, own becoming both, principal the principal the life-stream,and, in reality, of property. owners for the purpose both of transmitting needed a son Every man him and his life of through transmitting through him his property. buried on his own land,and his future life (conwas nected Every man with his tomb) and his estate went together. The estate, in fact,belongedto the family in a "continuous line of descent ; and the individual was only a temporary occupant.''^Hence the the peoples,to alienate real estate primitive repugnance, among into in which generally inheritance of their fathers ; law passed the sale of land,'^and Greek states forbidding some form, many the Jews requiring its restoration after fiftyyears. What is here of the said refers to the men the harones) rulingclasses, (vires, only citizens of the state. To be a citizen the ownership of to have a share in the communal primitively necessary property was

patriarchywas

later in

"

'^

"

not

in the country. lands,later to have a lot of one's own who only this : to be a citizen one had to have ancestors

69 The Cluinces

superiority of

patriarchism

the

over

mother-age

is

admitted

by

But

had

Pearson,

of Death, ii. 4, 96, cf. i. 239n. For the few of traces 70 Leviticus, XVIII, XX, 23-4, cf. Ezra, IX, i. 24-30, in the Old Testament, principallyin Genesis, see H. Schaeffer, The Social matronymy On the Jews and the Romans the two as Legislation of the Primitive Semites, 1-3. "

pre-eminently patriarchalpeoples of antiquity, cf, Pearson, Chances

of Deaths II.

4n.,

95-6, 99. C-D. 741 and Naboth, I. Kings, XXI. 3. from Aristotle, La CitS antique, 73-4. references 73 Fustel de Coulanges cites many and his family, not foreclosed, the owner When being separable mortgaged land was with it into the possession of the creditor: so in Attica till Solon's refrom it, went form, Structure H. E. Seebohm, The of Greek Tribal Society, 127. XI. of Ahab

71

Cf. Plato, Laws,

72

Cf. the story

g23A, also V.


FEMINISM been

AND

MARRIAGE

93

And not was garded refurthermore, one unless he had a son to become a citizen as a dutiful citizen, A son became after him. a wife a necessity ; and to have a son '* in became addition the need of her take to also to a necessity of the household.'^ care Celibacywas everywhere,forbidden '" A that is, to citizens, not of course. enough. daughter was For, under the view of the transmission of life only by and could not carry on her through the seed of the male, a woman own family,but could only help her husband carry on his. As out regarded her own, she was an end of the family a twig withRoman said the law. She also bud : mulier est finis familiae, the kind of property in question have seen, own could not, as we real estate. A son needed to inherit both the estate and was the name died without a son, but of his fathers. If,then,a man left a widow and also a brother from his own family (on his the brother to raise up father's side),it was incumbent upon if he married her, the first a nd from her a son the to deceased,' born to him had to be treated as the son of the deceased,that son his name the living'^ and his might not be cut off from among be divided and merged into others. Another estate device,if he her off with the condition had a daughter,was for him to marry that he might adopt her eldest son.''* Or if he were without hope of any children, he might adopt a son outright, preferablyone of Fictions of this sort were kindred. his near an earlyinvention. In some due to the husband's peoples,if the childlessness was his his lifetime man, brother,or another kinsimpotence,even during If the impofor him from his wife.'" to beget a son was tence his wife's,she was to be divorced,and the husband was another. similar reason, for adultery had Divorce a marry because a wife so actingmight impose on her husband not a son

citizens before

him.

"

"

"

"

7*

Cf. Seebohm, Marriage was comfort, with

op. cit., 109.

be solelyfor child-rearing,but also VIII. (or xiii.) 7; the husband xt. (within), Polit.,II. ii. (or being the provider (from without), the wife the conserver I. iii. 4, cf. Fragmenta iv.) 10, Oeconom., (Didot's ed.) no. 218, and Plato, Meno, 71E, More at length Xenophon view). (giving the common Oeconomicus, s. 7, who 73 A the earner and the wife the spender, c. 3. also said that the husband was In India de Coulanges, op. cit.,51. is called putra 76 Fustel "because he a son delivers (trayete) his father from the hell called Put," Laws of Manu, IX. 138, cf. i5i. " consists who (of three persons There he only is a perfectman united), his wife, The Chinese also retain similar ideas somewhat himself, and his offspring,'*ib, 45. still. Laws 77 E.g., Deut., XXV. of Manu, IX. 59, cf. 146, 190; s, cf. Gen., XXXVIII: XVIII. Law, also Gautama, Institutes The of the Sacred principle was that -4-10. another of the field in which plants his seed, owns man the owner the resultant fruit: Laws of Manu, IX. 41-4, 48-55. The widow was regarded as still belonging to the husband till she released herself by performing this duty. deceased his daughter " an India the sonless father simply made 78 In appointed daughter " '* male child born The of her shall perform my funeral by saying to her husband iS. of Manu, IX. 127; cf. Gautama, XXVIII. rites. Laws 79 Fustel de Coulanges, op. cit.,53. 75

for

recognised by Aristotle

division

of

labour, Nich,

not

to

Eth.,


FEMINISM

94

device of

his own.*"

The

but in time

it came

adoptionwas

to be used

also when

sparinglyused only the wife was

at

first; sterile

and at last when not willing to put her away, and the husband was even or neither were, but when the wife did not desire the travail, fraudulent purpose, the when they already had a child,for some Like all of the institution being forgotten.^^ originalreason it came to be abused. like marriageitself, human institutions,

barbarism, in the long, early stages of this change from toward civilisation, the chief industrial factor, which women were for both ensuring the took the leadership, in which men women, perpetuationof male lines of descent, and for their domestic In

valuable to men became more supervision, cities were when walled while, with advancing civilisation, ing if of stone, by the labour of slaves,hfe becomfounded, especially

labours under

male

;

diminished. to women of individual men could be but in ; only by the as this practised Polygamy now came richest,and left the poorest unprovided for, wherever the spirit where forbidden, and elseof democracy at all asserted itself,it was of in. value The but casuallyindulged it was rising and parents became unwilling females attached also to daughters, the purchase of without compensation. Thus to part with them securer,

the The

the

parents, as

from

prevalent;for the

kindred.

their male it

value

or alreadyremarked, became more tolerate civilised too to now people were of them, and marriagewith aliens was generallyprostealing hibited, although aliens might still be stolen for concubinage. of daughtersfrom old stealing, it must be remembered, was

brides less

the

was

ever

of all

our

a

practiceamong

ancestors

drag them

and

It is absurd

off

at some

to suppose,

as

is often

done, that

and consequently primitivepeoples,

time, for

to their dens.

to knock

men

women

down

animals is there need to apply force to the female, their attraction being and the mutual, only fighting being between the male rivals. If stole women, men ever they did not steal them from themselves,*^ There are some but from other men. degenerateand brutal tribes of savages to-day(near the end, rather than at the beginning, of whom, women being scarce through among any line of descent), maltreatment, unprovidedbachelors or widowers, not beingmeanspirited enough to put up with polyandry,have sometimes thus But there is no ravished them from their parents or husbands.

Among

no

for the male

The

80

husband's

with another intercourse (unmarried) woman it should be complained existed why

reason corresponding_

no

not adultery, and of, provided he did

was

neglect his wife.

not

in the

81

As

82

Cf. Mrs.

Mary

Austin,

case

of Clodius: cf. Cicero, De Domo Position in The of Woman and the Soul Maker, p. 90.

Gallichan, Love

XIII-XIV. 34-7. Pritnitii/e Society, 72, 84-5, 98 ;

Sua,


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

evidence for believing the practiceever

95

have been prevalent. of like the early newly men, in peculiar Romans, or men like the defeated Bencircumstances, who lacked wives, raidingother tribes to appropriate jarnites,*' theirs,prove nothing. The stealingof wives must have been either a temporary stage between the original the or promiscuity, laxness of the mother-age, and the regularinstitution of Isolated instances of

formed

to

bands

marriage,

aberration from the latter, which it seems to presuppose, but in either case somewhat i n wide-spread, some ness, periodof lawlesssince traces of it are common in some of atrophied

or

an

ceremony

pretended seizure and resistance.^* It and the system of purchase have helpedthe comparison of women with chattels or with may slaves. But even where the whip is introduced among the paraphernalia of the marriageceremony, this may be the symbol,not much of mastership, of love, because of its use so as in sexual In all placesand in all ages a clear distinction has flagellation.*^ been drawn between wives and slaves,*^ and where slavery existed the wives

had

their

hand-maidens.'^ Roman wives were in ** the legalstatus of daughters; and Roman their sons, during father's lifetime,were in the same sort of subjection, all beingin the power of the house- fathers of the men who made Rome.'" own

"

Judges, XXI.

6-14 and 15-23. Hence Grant himself Allen, though a scientist, showed only a fiction-writer when, Woman Who in his novel The Did, he treated marriage as an ugly and harharic form *' of serfdom," based the primitive habit of felling the woman with upon a blow, stunning her by repeated strokes of the club or spear, and dragging her off by the hair of her head as a slave to her captor's hut or rock-shelter,"p. 211, He apparently toolc for gospel truth Lubbock's generalisation of Oldfield's and Collins's accounts of the of the most tribesmen degraded in Australia: Lubbock's doings of some Origin of Or he himself Civilisation, 73-4. generalised the quotations from Turnbull and Grey about the same Studies in Ancient Australians, in McLennan's History, 58-60. Even about these "As Australian is always McX.ennan betrothed after an woman says: birth to some of a different tribe or her own, man stolen or a family stock from captured wife is always stolen or taken from a prior husband," 60. Or had he (Allen) been in his Scienza Nuova reading Vico, who of the account generalised Homer's Cyclopes (Milan ed.,1853, pp. 253, 256, 259, 268, cf. 132) ? While he was about it,he the Ahitas, in the might have cited the terrible plight of reluctant youths among Philippines, where courting damsels are said to seize them by the hair and run away with them, according to J. W. Wheeler, Primitive Marriage, in Progress, 1885, p. 128. the Tartars 85 CA Krafft-Ebing, Psychopathis Sexuahs, 36, 197, 211. Among ping whipthemselves token to have been of love, cf. as a seems regarded by the women Atkinson's Recollections of the Tartar Steppes, p. 220. Mrs. 86 As Cf. Goldwin (or xii), i. Smith, Essays on e.g., by Aristotle, Polit. I. v. Questions of the Day, 226. and Hagar. 87 Cf. Sarah " The loves is always his own man 88 Cf. O. W. Holmes a woman daughter, far : law of life," children born to him by the common his daughter than the female more ch. XX., vol. ii. p. 65. Elsie Venner, at one time to Aryan term 89 The languages, seems to pater (father), common sexual of dominion. (See Fustel had no significance,but to have been a term have it with feeder and pastor, and de Coulanges, Cite antique, 97-8. Others have connected been the idea of filling,which its ultimate root to have accounts Pearson suggests Chances wife called his never was of Death, ii. 204-8.) A man's for both senses. called her father :_ she was merely in the same position to daughter, though he was his manus his slaves, or his daughters, that is, under dominion, as were him were as his children. A childless boy, at not the father, though they were he was of whom the family-father, because of his father, became he was then the familythe death master. S3 84

"

.


96

FEMINISM

The

of the patriarch his sons and over power over as places,nearlythe same was, in some exercise of it was everywhere different. He wife

as harshly as to whom relatives,

his

she

slaves,because

daughtersand

wives

his slaves ; but could not treat

had

his his

family of male

a

would occasion appeal,and who also in her avenge any injury.""They would interest themselves if she If obtained did. wife was a daughters by capture, she than a slave ; but she was littlemore into a wife, was a slave made instead of a wife made into a slave. The purchase of a wife the husband the same nominallygave rightover her her father diminished by the father's and his brothers' or had, but actually and law also protected sons' continuinginterest in her. Custom she could

her, givingher rightsover

on

againsthim,

and

often

the practically

rule in the household.'^ As for the sons, a punishment of a rebellious son was and then he sometimes to sellhim into slavery, became a slave indeed."^ and We ever appropriatedwomen see, then, that if men treated women's products,and oppressedthem, as in fact men of women, stood other men, yet, in the case also men up as the first the maternal defenders of their female relatives uncles and then t he the brothers, the fathers,and lastly husbands. Upon the husbands the rightsand duties ultimately devolved,the brothers wives to protect,and these being the only contemporaries having their own of the women the who could completelyexecute two movements an early charge. It may be said there were and a later one for men for men to appropriate to one women, Rather curiously, the time when look after their welfare. men "

"

hardest

were "

;

and

upon

women,

only under

Reversely,however, it

was

the

very

patriarchydid must

be

added,

men

" chal matriarage called become considerate.

women

were

in the

better able in the later.

earlyperiod,and less so less able in the later,because they were They were oustrippedin had started. the industrialism which they They remained so, weakened the men.^^* tillthe industrialism ultimately Then, too,

to

defend

themselves

Note the story of 90 In return woman might prefer her brother to her husband. a She said she might III. 119, band husget another Intaphernes' wife, told by Herodotus, (and other children too), but, her parents being dead, she could not get another brother. Cf. Sophocles, Antigone, 905-13. that in marrying have their they gave 91 In fact, men up frequentlycomplained liberty: e,g., in antiquity Anaxandrides, Alexis, and Hippothous, in Stobaeus, LXVIII.; cf. Menander, ib. LXX. 5. kill his rebellious the Jews the father could son not 92 Among himself, but could XXI. But for killing 18-21, cf. Exod. by the judges, Deut. XXI. 15. get him executed different from that for killing a free one's slave, if an alien, the punishment was and it was, in practice than XXI. and in so Exod. 20-1 probably, more 12; man, he disand inherited act also a father had to give reason, formally, when precept. Elsewhere a

i)2a

This

son:

cf. Plato, Laws,

weakening

and

XL

5128D-929D.

eiteminizing influence

cf industrialism

was

perceived by the


FEMINISM the ultimately,

AND

MARRIAGE

97

of the women, freeingthem the protectionof individual men, and making all individuals,

from

state

came

to the

rescue

nominallyat least,independent.It is difficult, however, to in this because out a general straighten matter, survey of the ages we are dealingwith an advance from cycleto cycle,and at the time with advance from period to period within a cycle. same From deal to now are only with the latter changeswithin on, we historic cycles. In these something like patriarchismalways exists in the ascendingperiodsand alwaysbeginsto break down in the culminatingperiods,to be followed by individualism and collectivism.

When,

in

primitive stage of

healthypeople,privateproperty of most out established, likely by the parcelling in the i t victors,"^ was sion succesconquered territory given among A very good and sufficientreason only to sons. why it was that it not givento daughters, was was originally appropriated by and stillneeded wherefore defended be to men women men,"* by ; that simplycould not own because they could not possess land Thus ancient of the question.^^ the out was altogether among inherited only by warArabs, for instance,land could be legally riors."* Moreover, the daughterswould and themselves marry a

a

in land became

"

mistresses of their husbands' households, and lieutenants in their absence; and therefore the daughtersdid not need real estate of their own. Religiousideas and the reformed clan-system become

added

further

joinedthe Greeks, and Cf. above,

was

p.

; for whereas

reasons

clan of his wife the

why

reason

or

remained

they disparaged it.

formerlythe outside,and See

Xenophon,

man

either

in either Oeconomicus,

case c.

4.

34n.

while of their own, the people around Prominent fighters would get domains Or the people would still in the communal give them such a cut-off were stage. for services 184) asi a reward piece of land IretievoSy cf. Iliad, VI. 194, IX. 578, XX. such land became and in expectation of protection; and hereditary (Iliad,XX. 391). their temples were which Just so, too, they gave plots in perpetuity to gods, on warriors built and of which and beneficiaries. The thus the priests were the trustees will be said in a endowed the kinglets (reguli, smaakonge), about whom more were be would the first to become They subsequent note. patriarchal,and the people them the freemen would only slowly follow suit, and never completely. There among such u^iited them: Fustel de kinglets in Attica before Theseus ,were innumerable Coulanges, op. cit.,146,^147, quoting Pausanias, I. 31. These the ancestors of were the afterward So also in eupatrids (or patricians')who congregated at Athens. Latium and at Rome, where certain families preserved the tradition in the surname of barons of mediaeval Regulus. The times were the cdrresponding phenomena in the modern So also the country on a larger scale, with more gradations of ranks. cycle,^ in their manors; and in some countries the yeomanry even gentry held their estates in the same of the older sort existed even Smaakonge way. son, recently in Norway: PearChances of Death, ii. 66. 94 E.g., when the Jews divided the land of Canaan, which they had conquered, they distributed it to the men (really to the families, but to the men at the head as of these) : Numbers, XXVI. s^ff-cf. I. 2. 95 That the wife was of the earlier custom merely the reverse skipped was when the husband went was skipped and the mother's to her children, and, in all property probability,principally to her daughters. In fact, the mother's acquisitions are most suitable for her daughters, and the father's for his sons. 98 None be heirs, who do not take part in battle, drive booty, and can protect property," Sura, IV. viii,26; quoted by Schaeffer,op. cit.,28. 93

them

"

"

"


FEMINISM

98

the wife was the children belongedto the clan of their mother, now taken into the husband's clan,or gens, and the children belonged tary to the father's clan and family. But the man's property, for miliin the clan had to remain well as for religious as reasons, who and in the family,and therefore it could not go to women, but only a daughter or there was When left them. no son, At first the had to be made. daughters,specialarrangements then the male of kin seized the property, against whom next consideration daughterhad onlythe rightsof a sister. Later more would of her one shown to the daughter, was providedshe marry own familyor clan, for then the whole property might go to her it from the clan. This made an excephusband without alienating tion and to the rule of marrying outside the clan,or exogamy, may have been a survival,or revival,of what was a more perhaps of endogamy or marrying within the clan,or, at all ancient custom when clanship went events, of what took placeunder matronymy, in the female

enjoined,for

even

be

line.

noted, went

not

however, exception,

This

so

much

to the

marriageof

such

an

and tolerated,

property, it

this specialpurpose."^ The

to her husband, or through her and her son, the father's grandson,who

The

was

must

daughter,as through her, and her husband as guardiansto

heiress with

his true successor.'^ of her father's kindred

became one

required; but

generally marriageinto another everywhere which the the deceased in of would property propertiedfamily, shunned. be merged and lost,was Many a young man, either an brother of humble or or a stranger, uninheriting origin, younger the wealth least of and (at disposal it) acquired high position, by of chieftain.'^ an a man or daughter prominent only marrying Historical and individual instances are best known, in the middle not

was

ages,

among

royaltyand

the

nobility, among

whom

the custom

XXXVI. 8-11. 6-9, cf. XXVII. A See Seebohm, op. cit., 23-7, using mostly the authority of Isaeus. daughter had to be divorced, to permit the marriage required. The married out of the clan even " not properly heiress, but eTriK\T}00s, one daughter was going witlu the estate." Pearson's seeks in 99 See his Luck, on interesting essay Ashiepattle:^ or Hans reviewed Chances The tales therein of Death, ii. 50-91. certainly lead back nursery the not to early conditions, but necessarily, all of them, to the mother-age. because brotherless. the yokels gain their fortunes, often princesses, by marrying whom are of a smaakonig, but with the ancient tale of a similar sort, about the succession For an VIII. left out, see the in Macedoiiia, told by Herodotus, marriage story of Perdiccas More of Gyges, who became historical is his account 137-8. king of Sardis, after I. 7-13 (cf. Hamlet's the king, upon the king's widow, the queen, murdering marrying married the king's daughter, I. 91, 107; cf, also uncle), and of Cyrus's father, who also among this practice occurred matronymic Yet, of course, peoples, as 120. 109, the Lycians, whose to Bellerophon his (the queen's) daughter in king gave among So gained the king's daughmarriage and half his kingdom, Iliad, VI. 192-3. ter founder The Greek of Marseilles chosen in marriage was 121. by at Argos, XIV. occupied the region, Justin, XLITI. the daughter of the king of the Sigobriges, who 3. Later Rome Ancus Marcus .^neas won the at the daughter of king Latinus. was Servius TuUius married the king's daughter, Livy, of a prior king's daughter, and son 97

E.g., Numbers.

98

"Tydeus

I. 32, 39,


FEMINISM

loo

All these institutions well

or

ill. Yet

the

be

to

are

could

women

whether

they work be left entirely out personalproperty,

judged by by

no

means

They

had their own that when the men were on away attacks the the on o r borders, military expeditions, repelling In some had to be left in control of the homesteads. women the could not be women so trusted,and places, throughpolygamy, of the economic

and

besides

the

duty had

to be confided

tribes

or

nations

the trust

husband's which

was

or

strongest where

were

only temporary,

and

could

women

under

be trusted.

supervisionupon

the

all events, it was only the civilisations in the real estate, that have grown up to their reachinga stage of securityin property-owners

At

return.

the males

male head-slaves or stewards. nation where it occurred. Those

to some

the tribe

only weakened

This But

scheme.

it still remained

inherited

maturity." Then, on guaranteed by the well-ordered state, and well the measured could possess and own by money-system, women themselves. land safely and to satisfactorily Thereupon they have generally it and thereafter the not soon long ; got very very civilisations have

themselves on the road to decline ; for the countries in which much of the property is given over into the hands of women weakened are universally thereby.''There are tribes in

found

Polynesiaand

the coast

of Malabar where the father's the infant to turned over even son immediatelyupon property birth,thereafter the father being only trustee of it for his son.* but only in a small Such an arrangement is perfectlyfeasible, in for if it introduced were a large nation,that nation society; on

is

would

soon

become

a

small

one.

There

societies,too, in

are

of his first child. But these are the father takes the name hidden in It is evident that the hills of India. tribes petty away which

told that in its jurisin its historical period,seems are an exception: for we prudence divided without all the children was equally between regard to age property the younger under extent But the daughters to some (and even sons) remained or sex. or) brothers, the patria potestas descending only to the tutelage of their (elder brother their property. Estates their actions was also over males. This over a power power married undivided. The off in the lifetime therefore often remained daughters who were received dower and the old religious ceremony, of their father,under a passed of the family of the father, and into the family of the husband and out at his death received further share in his family estate. (.Cf.Fustel de Coulanges, CitS antique, no married off by their brother, also could not were 78-81.) Probably the sisters who take anything but personalproperty with them, at least in early times. Perhaps among the practice. But it was the plebes equal division had always been only gradually that with their adoption of the plebeian the patricians, along it became the practice among law was fied, codiof marriage. form completed before the Roman Yet, as this process was code. in the Roman the rule of equal division shows it 7 If Egypt lasted long with a semi ihother-right system, suppressed and re;arisinB, But when distant nations, with fatherbecause of its isolation. have as we seen, was, and jection. enough to reach it, it fell almost at once, forever, into subright, grew strong 6

Rome,

8 It is supposed to have originated as a device to get around his fellow man's being divided, at his death, among property rington. The Melanesians, 63; W. Logan, Malabar, i. 154.

a

primitive

clansmen:

custom

R.

H.

of a Cod-


FEMINISM

peoplescould

no

amount

AND

MARRIAGE

to much

in which

loi

the

men

so

effaced

themselves.^ During the

vance, men guiding its adrisingperiodsof civilisation, of the ever as a increasingprominence of consequence industrial men-slaves in the domain, even becoming freemen continuingtheir industrial habits,and forming a growing

men

and

middle class,the value of women to men decreased, and men refined ideas also contributing to ceased to purchase them, more this result. Or still given,but was the purchase-money was demanded back in the form of a dower to the bride,or it was given to her directly by the groom, who gave it sometimes only ding after proof of her virginity, hence on the morning after the wed" ^" The of in German the name Morgengabe." ; whence women depreciation continuing, becoming less useful,and especially father the young the of the ones family, being a drag upon for the father himself to give the dower, the practice went over inducement to take his daughter off his to a young an man as hands. her in To place marriage was the one way of providing for her. At first the dower into the hands of went practically But as security the husband. became better,and the daughter could be protected also by the state, the father demanded that the benefit. The dower should at least be preservedfor his daughter's husband might have the usufruct of it,providedhe kept the capital intact. The wife virtually remained the owner garded re; or if he was she had a mortgage on it. Then at his death as the owner, it reverted to her, as also in case of divorce; and if she died without offspring, it reverted to her family. But the rest of the man's property was his own, to do with as he pleasedwithin the of his country allowed.^^ Throughout range the law or custom these periodsof developing, but not yet fullydeveloped, tion, civilisaunless the lot of woman hard she had an individual male was father while in middle age, a son husband a a protector young, when old. It was her father's duty,therefore, before he died,and his son's afterward,to provideher with a protector, in a husband, who would be preferable to any other kind of guardian. Thus, "

B

Sometimes,

father of a twice in the "

Immediately

106), "a

man

in patriarchal peoples a man would call himself the that he had established So Odysseus his line of descent. Iliad (II. 260, IV. 354) refers to himself as the father of Telemachus. after the birth of his first-bom of the Laws son," says one (IX. of Manu is [called] the father of a son, and is freed from the debt to the manes

son

however, to

even

indicate

[of his ancestors].'"

Deuteronomy^ XXII. 13-21. Generally his patrimonial estate had himself be acquired he probably, what Lauis of ManUt IX. 209. uie pass: 11

to

go

could

according to law; but in every dispose of at pleasure: so,

people, n)r

stance, in-


FEMINISM

I02

in addition to the economic of this growing recognition

the father's alreadynoticed, duty contributed to the change from his retaining his daughtersunless bought,to his providingthem and the law and custom with dowers. He still stipulated, quired, rereasons

should support and protect the wife, to the best of his ability, to the end of her days; for which, in return, and obedience were promised. In peoplesstruggling allegiance it would have gone hard lor their existence amidst other peoples, with any one people if it had permittedthe internal disorders which would have ensued if husbands and wives had been allowed and the consequent want of training to discard each other at will, children. and discipline of the the on Every peoplethat has part risen to any great prominence has, while rising, guarded the familyand the home, generallythrowing over them a religious sanction. Men married of the race, and put for the perpetuation sake. their shoulders for their country's a yoke upon Marriage was no : it had a more importantpurlongera matter of feeling pose than to givepleasure. It was the institution by which the It family (oiKta, domus) was held togetherand perpetuated.^^ became formal,and was well regulated by tribal custom, and later by state law. Registryof births was kept,and kinshipwas traced to the eighthdegree(or up and down through four generations), observed and for some descent was to the ninth even purposes At birth,sons, to be recognised, had to be ceremoniously generation.^' of acceptedby the father;and, on coming age, they their introduced fellow clansmen and to were ceremoniously tribesmen,and then became citizens, warriors,and heirs of the the family duties to marry, to familyproperty, and assumed and after their father's death to injuryto their fellows, avenge off their unmarried sisters.^* did not sons Illegitimate portion count, because their mother had not been received into the father's could the man be sure of their paternity.They took nor family,^^ the heritan no worship of the ancestors, and had no rightof inpart in to the mother for them motherThey belonged only: In continued. default of a right a legitimate son, if there was daughter,a kinsman, probablyone who did not inherit a hearth of his own, chosen as son-in-law, to take the son's place, tilla was reared In default of either a legitimate grandson was child, up. resorted to, or the familybecame the other devices were extinct, that the husband

"

"

"

de Coulanges, op. cit.,52. op. cit.,48-55, 67-70. could marry his half-sister by a different mother, so that both Athens 14 At a son Studies in Ancient might enjoy the father's estate fully: McLennan, History, 275-6, This Atticae. was from the Leges probably a survival from matronymy, when they not regarded as related. were IB Fustel de Coulanges, op, cit.,si-a. 12

Cf. Fustel

13

Seebohm,


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

103

and

its property went of the to collateral heirs, to the great grief last of the line.^* These were of the patriarchal the customs conqueringraces. The matronymicalconquered races allowed to continue their were old laxness.^' The lower classes could marry for pleasure : the had of classes to observe considerations chal duty. The patriarupper

system is,in fact,an the

mass

beyond

oligarchical one,

unworkable

throughout developed tural agriculFor it implies

of the people, has after society at all events the simplicity of the pastoral or earlycommunal

stage. In itselfit contains

an

in

the male

inherent flaw. that every father of a familyshall have one to continue his son inherit and his and name one estate, daughterto be married off to for a daughterreceived from a neigha neighbour's bour son, in return In marriageto the son. The are a superfluity.

all others

line,one

is

son

enough, duty,

is begottento fulfila

eldest them would soon divide the estate among Moreover, the it,and impair the power of defence. dissipate homestead, with the tombs of the ancestors, did not admit of division. the eldest son was For these reasons givenall the property, the familyseat. or at least all the authority ; and to him came that In fact,many ancient states were ordered on the principle of families,each with they were composed of a fixed number handed landed indivisibleand inalienable its own estate,which was from generation to generation.^' Consequently all other sons on and daughtersbut the eldest constituted a problem. Yet other is not kind enough and daughtersare a necessity sons ; for nature ter, to furnish every married couplewith justone son and one daughand if every couplecontented themselves with two children,

the rest for love.^*

To

is born, several daughtersmay die. Before a son it be safe to Nor would several sons. come ; before a daughter, employ infanticide and to stop at a first son and daughter,for the several are that one of them might die. For security reason same for if they But these,if they survive,are in the way; needed. ultimatelydwindle receive a share in the landed estate, this must to practically nothing,and if they do not, how are they to be In the risingperiod,if there are for? conquests of

one

might

provided

other countries,they may lots in the new receiving le

Cf. Iliad, V.

17

Note

152-8. southern to-day in our

and sent off to settle there, to territory.But when conquests come be married

"

,

States, how

negroes

and

.

negresses

are

i, allowed

j

x quently fre-

not bothering to enforce the formality of divorce, the whites without remarry the laws against bigamy. with regard to them IX. 107. of Manu, of the Laws 18 So said one ,. , uri.-j his ideal Plato wished to establish, in de Coulanges, Fustel 73in Greece, 19 So number which was inhabitants), citizens (not of propertied state, a fixed number V. 740 B, XI. to be augmented by division or diminished by ataalgamation, Laws, never cf. Republic, IV. 423 C and V, 460 A.

to

.

929

A,

,

,

"

,.

.


FEMINISM

104

end, they must, if they are

an

remain

to

remain married unpatricians, ; only for pleasure)

(and have intercourse with women to marry, or if they want theymust go into trade,and cease to be ples, peopatricians.Such difficultieshave confronted all patriarchal with but cess.^" never and have been variously completesucmet, sort the system must Without primogenitureof some o f to an end, and with primogeniture any sort the lot of the come and daughtersis put in invidious comparison with sons younger to sons that of the eldest. For a time the younger may be willing in number the time,as ; but put up with their subordinate position of them and their descendants grow large, sent, they will no longerconPatriarchal elders. their with and will demand equality if it of time comes in the to require, thus course always marriage other forms of marriageto accompany had not in the beginning, it,and it must ultimately give way to them ; for,as the younger of the eldest,the eldest be elevated to the position cannot sons ing mobile wealth is becomtheirs. be pulleddown to must By now as importantas the immobile, and also the eldest sons desire in it. Patriarchal marriageis aristocratic: the pluto participate tocrati periodhas alwaysdestroyedit. ing. And there is another reason why the eldest sons should be willhave seen, is rigorous, and its Patriarchal marriage,as we ever, For a time,howirksome. bellion. growing consciousness of reThe sentiment of a peopleat this stage of development voiced by Metellus,when, in tryingto pass a law, for backing was to marry (for he lived up a decayingcustom, to compel all men the end of Rome's near ascendingperiod,and was himself a bit " If we could exist without a wife, we he said: old-fashioned), inconvenience has so with this all would ; but as nature dispense to live comfortablywith one, and ordained that it is impossible consult the perpetualsafety without at all,we must not one ^^ So brief rather than our pleasure." alreadyin Greece Philemon

yoke

upon the upper classes becomes it would be continued, with a

of the elder brother's Hindoo eldest son, father to his younger (IX. as a to the economic the In England, where brothers. principle has come prevail over in the church and in the army, sons are placed or are religious, the younger else are married to rich heiresses, or frankly permitted to go into business themselves there is a mixture class. Among the Basques of patriarchism and sink into the middle the matronjrmic stage. For among from them the indi^nsible with a feature survived eldest son and inalienable estate goes to the eldest child of either sex, and an inheriting other family, and eldest daughter from some has to marry a an estate an younger from has to marry other a son some estate family. younger daughter inheriting an dies But all the other children are supposed to remain unmarried, unless an eldest one for them as labourers, or unless they emigrate. See childless, or unless there is room In fact, an outside region is necessary Civilisations, i. 213, 461. as Simcox, Primitive Truly patriarchal peoples have always a safety-valve for such well-knit arrangements. been the greatest colonisers. Gellius's Nodes Atticae, I. 6. 21 In Aulus 20

The

Tibetans

brothers become the surplus

let the younger

wife, and practised infanticide upon enjoined by Manu who inherited, was "

sub-husbands

daughters. io8)_to behave

"

The


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

105

Menander There had called marriage" a necessary evil."^^ would be hankeringafter the freedom and individualism of the lower classes. The duty of looking after the interests of the race would gradually kind of duty,taughtin a be supersededby a new and

not to impede the happia moralityof sentiment, morality, ness of others. If one stillthought it a duty to conduct his life in the old way, one might doubt his duty to prevent others from seekingtheir happinessin the new way ; and so one might let his not as they pleasedand whom sons or they selected;and marry father's affection for his daughterswould lead to the giving a to them of their share of his property outright, to do with as they in of that the the case pleased,just as they too might sons, so they selected ; for by now marry or not as theypleasedand whom the perfectionmentof the state gives sufficient protectionto and they no longerneed individual male protectors.^^'^ women, new

And wives

in time

take to themselves it comes about that the sons concubines or or not as their fathers had taken to themselves a nd comes for with little view which benot to procreation, pleasure, secondary and is often omitted altogether ters ; while the daughdisposeof themselves,and like their fathers' concubines have other lovers. Marriage reverts from a human institution toward animal state, or from a man's institution toward an a woman's and remarrying,with of institution. Marrying,divorcing, want almost into promiscuof free thrown the aid love in,degenerates ity. And rich men rich and rich to consort with, women seeking rich men, property accumulates; and through their having women it few children to divide frequentlyonly one, it is among, ism Individualconcentrated stillmore into fewer and fewer hands. with individualism with regard with regardto property runs to marriage. Both old families and old estates are disintegrated ; the before and of individuals the state becomes law, a mass equal of whom freed from custom, some amass fortunes,which pass and from women to men from men to women accordingto erotic attachments. emotional or of thingsin Greece, when the old order Such was the course to its close at the time of the repulseof the Persian invacame ideas graduallyfell sion.^^ Not only the old religious regulative of the philosophers, but the under the questioning into disrepute, theoryat their base, about the supremacy of the male physiological in the transmission of life, began to be doubted,and we have for so

"

LXVIII. 3, LXIX. 22 In Stobseus's FhrUegium, ib. LXIX. 2. 22a Cf. above, i. pp. 23-4. 23 The significanceof Callias's conduct, noted

10.

,

^

With

above,

Metellus, cf. also Sussario,

.

1.

p. nan.,

may

now

be

stood. under-


FEMINISM

io6

modified theories the philosophers' and the physicians' beginning who the subject. The old families dying out, the new men on little record of their ancestry,cared to the front,having no came for their line of descent,and left their property to their daughters The families well as to their sons, or, having none, to others. as ceased to be the units in the state, and individuals, indifferently male or female,took their place.^*Propertywent to individuals ; duties did not, which were replacedby humanitarian promptings, the course of the sentiment happened to suggest. In Rome as better prepared. There, as is well known, existed change was from of old three kinds of marriage: a venerable religious one, a mere purchase of the irrevocable, practisedby the patricians; Avife,easilyrescinded,though at a loss,practisedby the rich; cohabitation (probablya survival of the poor a mere and among the primitive which, when not broken within the promiscuity), marital the husband, but, when broken by the rightsto year, gave wife absenting herself for three nights,left both parties free. several hundred When it is said it was years after the founding of Rome divorced his wife,the first case being before any Roman this can properly that of SpuriusCarvilius Ruga about 231 b. c.,^" refer only to the patricians.Upon the extinction of the republic, the old ideas of duty and obligation out and the common beingworn of bed yoke (conjugium) repellent, only companionship and board was desired only voluntaryfriendshipbetween the a

"

"

parties;and

marriageemployed by the breakingof it was became

of the three became

the last-mentioned

almost so

superfluous. The

the father's side

only)

everybody but

common

old view

certain

the form

of

and priests,

that the formality of doing so of relationship by agnation(on

slowly abandoned, side as well)came

and

relationship to be recognised by cognation(on the mother's had also been the case in Greece.^' as Toward the prevalently, end of Rome's the Voconian had law been ascendingperiod, unknown passed to stem the growing practise, to the old custom, of men givingreal estate to women incompleteand was ; but it was circumvented. Then the husband and wife became depende ineasily of each pther, and if she had inherited property from her family,she retained full possessionof it (under a lenient was

Plato's attitude is significant. Witliin little over after Callias he would a century liked to revive some of the earlier customs which looked to the interest of the the state rather than to comfort and convenience of individuals: but on proposing them in his Laws he gave (in which the new communism of his Republic, and up verted reof the communes), to the old communism he had to be apologetic toward viduals, indiand temper the harshness of the old laws by providing means for discriminating in particular cases, XI, 923 B, 924 D, 925 D-926 D. 25 Aulus 21 GelHus, IV. 3, XVII. (44); Valerius Maximus, II. i. " 4. that Plato admitted the wife's relatives,and females as well as males, into 26 Note the family council. Laws, XI. 929 B-C. 24

have


io8

FEMINISM

remained,^^and upon the fuller revival of those laws in the twelfth and succeedingcenturies, wives there early,and almost acquiredthe rightof owning property independent prematurely, have seen, of their husbands, and in some countries,as we allowed to vote vicariously were through their husbands or other n^ale relatives whom theydesignated.Yet even so, it was mostly the brotherless merely through daughterthat the property went, her first to her husband, and then to her son, althoughgenerally father's position, at least if a high one, would go through her only Still to-day such are the conditions obtainingin to her son/^ the families of royalty, and in graduallylessening degree down riage throughthe successive ranks of the nobility.Among these,marof pleasure; and is stillsomething else besides a matter if not incidentally attained in it,has to be sought outside. pleasure, In Germany, in many the of better class parts,even ants peashad their familyand their property organisedon the primogenitur scent; plan,which preservedcontinuityin a singleline of delaws

"

ideas since the revolution,and under the extension of industrialism, have been making inroads in the old customs,"* while the burgher class is fast abandoning the old traditions. In England the civil law penetratedleast, and in her law the old Germanic common (and Jewish) traditions were tained rethe longest, while her statute law permitting entail has preserved of estates in families. Nowhere the continuity else has and the daughtersbeen so well the problem of the younger sons in England; but there,too, the as managed by the aristocracy indissoluble marriage tie of the patriarchal paterfamilias system somewhat has had to give way to the bourgeoisdemand of the for a laxer system. The Roman civil laws penetrated plutocrats at small to extent least, even there, a though mostlyin the earlier form and spirit.Thus even there,and by transmission to us in but

French

the old patria potestas was where decayed, the Christians had no rience expesubmission of a woman to some Parental of the continual man. authoritythey adult woman, to confined children, and left the unmarried especially if her young her in the late Roman father were dead, as free as they knew jurisprudence, while extent dominion. This re-subjected her, when married, to her husband's they to some to men (one which the Christians produced a discrepancy in the relations of women could finally (when of their preference for celibacy) which because did not mind that out into the woman preference died out) be got rid of only by bringing the^married In the north, especially in Scandinavia, this disfreedom with the unmarried. crepancy same of the survival there of the pristine condition), did not exist (probably because and there all women remained in a perpetual minority in Sweden till within few a decades ago. 32 Thus Albert did not become king of England, but received only the honorary title Consort. of Prince i Die Familie 33 W. H. Riehl in his work (pp. 231-^ ofl the 12th ed.), describingthis and obtained of family unity state continuity, by primogeniture, as it still existed in treated it as typically" German," and contrasted Northwestern Germany, it with the French conditions in Westphalia, where divided was property new among eq^ually the family broken all the children, and The only individuals being considered. up, is the old and general one between less advanced distinction, of course, and a more a social condition. (often too) advanced 81

There,

"

'*

"


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

109

accorded to the America, some were compensating privileges for certain acts, and wives, such as exemption from responsibility after possessionof a claim upon the husband for support, even Some ties, absurdiin the of if his divorce, for fault, shape alimony. occurred however, ciples. through misunderstandingthe old prinThus we have seen that the property passedthrough the

daughterand also through her different grandson from the

husband

to the

grandson,and to a band's the daughter'shusband husThe daughter's

whom property, if he had any, descended. did not own it outright: he could not, for instance,sell it. in the modern cyclesuch limited ownership was discarded. daughter'sfather's property (save real estate, or unless an

But

The

one

to

ship ante-nuptial agreedupon) passedin full ownerarrangement was to his son-in-law,who could sell it and thus disinherit the

grandson,therebydefeatingthe

regulation ;

the whole preserved it,he combined his heir. if the propthe did to not marry, Also, daughter erty remained hers ; but in the ancient system the daughterhad

if he

or

of the purpose and it with his own,

whole

went

terest wife's and mother's inthe unmarried premium on pendent, the unmarried almost indestate for the woman, woman making her when married. It also gave the idea but subjecting and handed t aken from her that her property was over forcibly in the which did exist not to her husband originalsystem, in ; hers and which the property never was never was fullyher the modern has No husband's. wonder by the system gone boards more completelythan did the ancient. in all civilised countries the present age has reached the Now function is recognised.The true doctrine positionwhere woman's that the mother performs equallywith the father the transmission of life,is now firmly established.'* Relationshipby has ship definitively supplantedthe confinement of relationcognation the to that, physiologically, agnation. For it is known and transmits the inheritance of, qualities female inherits, as well does the male. countries,at as too, in most Economically,now herit, of the people,the female is permittedto inleast for the mass and to transmit the inheritance of, property. The family in agnaticsuccession be a singleline continuing on more can no from father to son : it is only a temporary state,like the natural, animal forebears, bifurcated above, and with indefinite of our division and cross-unions below. Patriarchyin its old extravato

34

in order that she might have marry in it. The m"odem system put a

Cf. Mrs.

omne

1677;

animal but it

" Sense " Common Suffrage, 33. Harvey's applied to Woman discovered spermatozoa dates only from in 1651, and Loewenhoeck established by Von Baer. really not till 1827 that the full theory was

Jacobi, ex

was

a

ovo


FEMINISM

no

gant form is dead did patriarchy

not

at least for the remainder

"

rest

onlyon

the old wrong

It rested that rested its extravagance. economic render the conditions that

on

of

cycle. Yet physiological theory: also on actual physiological our

different. be made Men and women more equal in the can no absolutely Yet this is be in any other state. married state, than they can when the feminist ideal,with inclination, not equilibriumcannow be maintained, in favour of the women. to Our modern regions, cyclehas gone so far as even, in some make that

conditions

already. The state has been so perfected tives protectedby it rather than by their male relathey no longerneed male guardians,apart from

this inclination women

are

; wherefore

for all but infants, has least,and this institution, been abolished.^^ Also they can now support themselves,with it has become less necessary the necessaries at least;wherefore their husbands

at

in the daughters. Consequently, have and lessen to even most begun to decline the dowering of their daughtersat marriage,though instead they generally bequeath them property equallywith their tions condiand whether sons they be married or not. Economic men can are becoming easier for men: concurrently port supmore a wife easily.Hence they are willingto take a wife for fathers

to

advanced

providefor

their

countries,fathers

if there be prospect of an inheritance. without dowry, content have been pioneers;for condiIn this change the Americans tions and to women, here were and favourable both to men so much less numerous, made which the latter were them, yet so in that the colonial more valuable, stage, men, needing very early, took wives without help-mates, gratuitously, thought of dowry of bequest,*'to share their fortunes with them, the need or for them being both for their work in the home and for their also needed.'^ productionof children,who were To-day, howbefore it was abolished for grown-up In every unmarried country women (this irksome it was done only recently in Sweden) an institution,restraining the But in denouncing it, agitators often comwoman's liberty,and serving no purpose. mitted of supposing it had always been a hardship instance the mistake of man's an intentional oppression of woman. Originally, however, it had been designed for the The in antiquity: for, although guardiansame course was run protection of women. ship before the end to be merely nominal. it came not of women was actually abcrlished, sometimes 36 They even bought them, from those who had been to the expense of importing indentured female servants. forefathers often say that our worked their wives feminists 37 Our now to death. New This idea is based the" fact that in some old gravestones England churchyards on that the deceased had two, three, or four wives. found which is recorded It is on are could have been common overlooked that that condition only if there were more women fewer it is known that there were whereas than men. It is overwomen than men, looked, and widows, might have married further, that the widowers that as many their husbands oft their gravestones, if they had recorded might have recorded women, it was the man, which do, because his they did not commonly commonly or as many; In those days few women remained long unmarried, estate, that provided the grave. if they could sruch as clergymen especially, who did any help themselves men nor the cocks of the walk. then were 35

was

"

"


FEMINISM ever,

even

AND

MARRIAGE

here,under the stress of is reverting, if not

attention living,

a

to

in

rapidlyrisingstandard the dowry, at least to

of the

prospective or

is effected accomplished inheritance,while economy in children. But the lawmakers, meanwhile, so anxious were not much for husbands for their daughters,as for so wives for their sons, that they extended the rightwhich wives their dowry (the rightwhich forbade the previouslyhad over husband to alienate it) even real estate, volunto the husband's tarily his it alienate to his without wife's restricting right sent, conalthoughthey put no such restriction upon the wife's power of alienating her own property; continued to give the wife a lien upon one-third of her husband's real property at his death, without putting any correspondinglien upon the wife's property ^* in the husband's behalf ; and freed her from all priorlegal and practically disallowed the duty of obedience,in disabilities, for support, except at her convenience. return is For a husband still under obligation to support his wife, even though the wife be richer than the husband, and his property can be seized to pay her debts,while hers must be left untouched to pay her own even debts,much less to pay his,even though she be rich and healthy and to man

he be poor and sickly, and if he be dying,she need his assistance. Even after divorce she may marry

than

her

former

husband,

from him, thus addition to what she may marriage,the husband

alimony

and

yet she retains

being supportedby

two

inherited from her cannot compel his wife

have

not

come

richer

a

her

annual in husbands ing father. Dur-

to

follow

him

sents if his business requires change of residence; and while she abher thus his from him against vow herself will, breaking of his he observe must vow of she made fidelity obedience, (if it) (even if he did not make one) or incur the risk of being divorced for neglectand charged with alimony. Here, too, in practise, than by the man, divorce is obtained more readilyby the woman divorces than by men, two and in fact is more soughtby women For breach husband. the being initiated by the wife to one by of promise,also,a woman get damages from a man, but it may and a woman to get damages from is impossiblefor a man find some On the other hand, dishonest men to. wants man no if trust such for can one a in these arrangements ; compensation "

"

make to her he may over (for our his wife as an accomplice, and his the Roman) thereby property, law is different from h as The extendbeen creditors. his practise escape all claims of 38

The

widower's right of curtesy of his life is contingent upon

wife's property his deceased during the the birth of a child and the wife's intestasy.

to

mainder re-


FEMINISM

112

and becoming more for the custody of stolen goods. England has laggedbehind somewhat in wives

ing,and

not

very

are

far,^"and

like

more

this

"

safety-vaults

though progress,"

in the denunciations indulgedin by the look impatientof a few instances of abuse, overrather

who, suffragettes, the recent changes. There the with to chastise his wife moderately,

still has the right husband Some other laws switch. a and customs, until modified of late,were unduly harsh, such as the givingsole ownership of the children to the husband, even

though he

their sole supporter,

not

were

or

even

their supporter

not

all. One, altered in 1870, though not always observed, of marriage. is especially inconsistent with the first principle his wife's control of This was the law givinga husband earnings. has he for which in The husband return a owes right support, But his wife's care of the children and of the home. to demand if he cannot support her, he has failed to do his share of the and if she is called upon to help him titled out, she is enbargain, at

that she does so. the extent In Burmah can a woman get a divorce if her husband does not her because he has properly. This is the true position, support failed to come justas up to his part in the marital relationship, to his

all

among

positionof mastershipto

let the

extent

his wife

of that.

correlative to

she

do

we

not

go

far, we

so

emancipated from plays the man's part;

his

from

If be

woman

that

be freed

the early stage of civilisation, the husband if she did not bear him a son ; which is the

peoples,in

could divorce

to obligation

the as

man's

also

his wife if she

ought the

does

rule

at

least

to

the

man

should

not

perform

the wife's part. She, therefore, has as good a rightto her earnings he has his in fact,a better,as hers are unpledged, to as while his are condition, also,but not pledged. It is a wrong the women confined to England to-day,when work in the mills "

and all day with the men the housework at home.*"

only if they do Our

country has

then

in addition have

Women

to

do

alone

all

should do the housework, unaided, not do as much, outside work.*^

do, or these defects,except the last (which is

not

not

a

of custom, not of law), at least,most of our States have abolished them. Here, on the contrary, women have the most In view of privileged positionthe world has ever seen. be this fact it can that maintained hardly seriously our marriage

matter

89

cited 40 41

For

"

the

above,

legal privilegesof Englishwomen, p,

As objected But for the

Martin, the wife

see

Bax*s

works, especiallythe second,

3n to

by Annie

E. S. Pankhurst's The Suffragette,22. this evil under conditions present see John The old preventive would be to keep 50-1. remedy is for the couple to board out or live in a

Kenney:

see

difficulty of remedying York, 1916, pp. Feminism, New

working at home. co-operative caravansary.

The

new


FEMINISM laws

made accusation is are

by not

AND for men's

men

true

whole, althoughit may

even

MARRIAGE

113

marriage laws

of

Such

selfishpurposes.

own

anywhere

details ; and

lie against some

yet even

oil

an

the

these,

ditions, adapted to one set of concases, are merely laws wh'ich, after the conditions have changed. For have remained the institution of marriage, made have seen, was as we originally found themselves for the benefit of the race, when men by men in the spiritual Then lead. selves and economic they organisedthemtheir daughters, as protectors of their children,including and of their wives, even of their mothers.*^ It may be that mistaken of the institution under a originally, theory generation, of marriagewas in favour of men bent too much ; but that is not a in favour of women it should be bent too much reason why now and economic facts of nabe unbent altogether. or ture Physiological stillremain, which requiremen to keep the leadership. not content, nor Yet even in America would the our women are Englishfeminists be with our laws. They complainthat in spite of laws respecting their equal rights, theystillare in a subordinate i n in position, subjection, dependence. Sentiment is involved:

in most

being owned, althoughownershiphas many degrees, and they in return either being the other's their husbands own *^ mine and the benefit such as husband's liability to even a ; for their if it still treat as trespasses, they put pay damages them on the level of The comparison his slaves or his cattle."** far-fetched ; yet it is frewith slaverywould quently to be too seem in.*^ From t he indulged subjection, they allege, only they

resent

"

"

"

"

"

" H, B. Stowe, because is helpless and weak, and It was/' says Mrs. woman 42 the law of marriage irrevocable," Christ was her great Protector, that he made because Stowe This is true of legislators in general. Mrs. White Pink and Tyranny, 320. to be the protectors of women," herself says born and organised by nature men were be described, from Smith, " may one point of view, 295. Marriage,"says Goldwin for the benefit of the woman," the passions of the man restraint imposed upon as a in all ages," says is an Mason, Matrimony, Essays on Questions of the Day, ig8. Share in Primitive to the child the authenticityof the father," Woman's eflfort to secure '* is of value because it supports Marriage," says Saleeby, Culture, 213, cf. 282. and Race 187. Similarly Thomas, motherhood by fatherhood," Parenthood Culture,^ with it [marriage]is to unroof Hence to tamper Sex and Society, 193, cf. 226-7. Its Ethic maternity has its shelter," P. T. Forsyth, Marriage the fabric in which and Religion, 92. what to do with the thing owned 43 To property (which is defined as a power own different are suitable limitations) and to own good name a very pleases, under one it is in the way is owned. To be evil in being owned, one things. If there is any friend, not;^to be owned wife (or as a a as as slave is bad; to be owned owned a as heard We have whether good or bad, depends on the facts in the case. husband), in 1871, " concerning the husband's Stowe Mrs. ownership much talk, of late," wrote than everj^ wife's ownerpronounced ship But, dear ladies, is that any more of tlie wife. be said ownership so intense and pervading, that it may ? an of her husband of womanhood," op cit.,66, cf. 209. to be the controlling nerve of his wife). feminists. Mill (probably at the suggestion 44 At least so the male 56, and Bebel, Die Frau, 212. Subjection of Women, at last beginning to realise that they are are thinkers, becoming 45 E.g. ; Women, condition; just as the working class is beginning slaves, and that it is not a necessary that wage-slaveryis not necessary," Jennie Ashley, in The Progressive Woman, to see' E. Beecher wrote: "Our good On the other hand, in 1871, Catherine April, 1913. often liken their agitation to that which ended suffrage cause friends of the woman doomed to unrequited toil for selfish,cruel masters. race the slavery of a whole "

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

_

_


FEMINISM

114 is

escape

If by equality.*' But

must.

men

that nature

does

nature

does

make

not

them

them equal, is equal, their perpetual make

refrain;althoughthe truth is,as we have seen, that as Yet it is on this has not made them cannot. nature equal,men take their stand: be men's equal not must women ground they but not only politically, only in the state, but in the home domestically not only as citizens,but as conjointsand as "

"

parents.

marriage laws and customs different from its neighbours', and it is impossible they should all be good, and unlikely them be that any of should ditions perfect. Conand and need laws themselves customs to adapt change, Every country

thereto. and

Reforms

women

reforms

as

be

in the

world

has

in the relations between necessary in the relations between and men. men are

as

suggestedfor

men

Many

in America.

us Fifty years ago stupidstate of thingsin this country of ours. Man had put woman and bowed down before her, on a pedestal, and tried to keep all toil and defilement from her. This was due to a scarcity-value in a new set upon women country. Such in the West : hence the coddling conditions stillsubsist somewhat of the women with the vote there the moment they asked for must it;but such conditions have ceased in the East. Women

there

was

can

a

most

But the married work is in a woman's well as men. as with which she can transition state, due to the facility accomplish " Our men," says Mrs. John what is left of domestic labours. " but have done too much for their women, Martin, materially " is much division too labour little." There of too spiritually and wife, and separation of the one between husband from the other. Mrs. Wharton, in her novel The Custom of the Country, of that custom the our rightly complains country is for the men little in their work too to interest the women (p. 206) : the wife has no part in her husband's business, where she might even assistance be of assistance, is shown the as by given to husbands wives in in France. She might have their by Europe,especially do not interest themselves enough in their added, that our men in the care of the children. Cerwives' work at home, especially tainly the boys after the age of puberty should be the concern of the father ; but in our country fathers stillleave the principally

work,

are When men so many of toil, it is difficult to S7-8, cf. 53.

toilingto keep daughters, wives, and mothers Woman the resemblance," Suffrage and

trace

"

from

Woman

land

any s

fession, Pro-

Women will be either the friend slave of man," or "Woman be a subject or an must Higginson: equal: there is no to learn the Alphabets 137-8, 148, Common Sense middle about ground," Ought Women is no in Works^ iv. 33S. This is like the Stoic doctrine that there middle Women, being a saint and a villain. ground between 47 Feminism, 301, 46

Mary

Vindication,

Wollstonecraft: so.


FEMINISM

ii6 in

publicand

should

to

be made

not

into crimes

by

that

Acts

segregate a nuisance.

not

are

What

is not crime in

law.

a

crimes

crime

in

not a crossinga crossing a county line,is certainly Act is the Mann to not only contrary State line ; and as principle, also an abuse of a constitutional permission to Congress,but it leads only to blackmail,and ought to be repealedimmediately. not Acts undoing a mistake, an accident,or a crime,certainly are the part of raped themselves criminal. Abortion, at all events on

deceived

or

should not

women,

be

as especially penalised,*'

it

can

blackmostly as the alternative of mail. punished only Perhaps the foolishest law we have in this matter is the federal here one forbidding contraception.Our government and our States directly violate the post-office, strains its power over free press, which the constitutional rightsof free speech and and fitfully,

be

rightof free science. To identifyit with obscenityis a subterfuge;for then obstetrics would have to be forbidden. Knowledge of contraceptionis only an extension of our knowledge of conception. Knowledge of conception,we from brutes. of the thingswhich distinguish have seen, is one men when reached that knowledge. distinct advance It was men a Some ancient moralists may, perhaps,have inveighedagainstits If so, they acted like some fusion of our moralists. Difintroduction. of the knowledge and means like diffusion of contraception, of the knowledge and means of preventingand curinginfection, naturallyinclude

the

facilitate immoral may be faced by moralists: from the moral Even recommend and

so

of

acts ; but

condition which their backs to turn

that is

a

must

it. on they ought not it has the advantage,often standpoint, for it,of permittingyoung early, people to marry for to patronise men prostitution removing a cause young

and

for young employment,also,is

women

to

suffer

restlessness. Its injunction upon all married nervous

moral positive defects. Moralists,moreover, not canhereditary shut the door on it altogether.In spiteof the law (which is abrogatedin almost every country except ours) such knowledge does extend throughoutour upper classes : *" the law keeps it now therefore,^o on only,from the lower classes. The lower classes, less lavishly, while the upper classes have curor tailed breedingmore Here is harm the their breeding. done by our law: it unbalances Malthusianism, permittingit above, and preventing of what is just the reverse should be. it below ; which The abolition of the law cannot, unfortunately, bring about the reversal but it least at of this sea-saw toward a levelling help ; may a

peopleafflictedwith

48 49

Cf. Forel, The Sexual Question, 402, 409, 416. The American Cf. Lydia K. Commander, Idea, New

York,

1907,

pp.

44, 90,

92.


FEMINISM

AND

MARRIAGE

117

the two

sides."* The supportersof the law are capitaUsts, who wish to keep up a crowded labour market, Catholic priests, who wish their sect to spreadand swallow up the rest, and that class of moralists who invoke the law to inculcate morality like the who would punish men stead prohibitionists, by law for drinking,inof merely punishingthem for the misdemeanours committed when they are drunk, or like the pacifists, who would keep arms hands for fear of the harm out of people's with. they might do therefeminists incline to be prohibitionists and Curiously,the time the that laws at all to same they are opposed pacifists, ing represswith the eugenists, that to contraception.They recognise, should be actually recommended. some persons contraception But it is not the purpose of this work to advocate positive of reform. of warning Its objectis the humbler one measures againstill-advised and dangerousreforms. Such are the reforms recommended specially by the feminists. None of those above

on

"

feministic. as much They interest men suggestedare specifically their interest and do need the women's for not vote as they women, adoption,most of them existingin many countries where men "

of our States the take another instance : in some age of consent is too low, being considerablyunder that at which tained girlsare firstallowed to disposeof their property. It has been redren chiltimes when from primitive marriagewas permittedto extended has been only too slightly on reachingpuberty,or

rule.

Or

"

in raising interested Fathers now are just as much mothers. Feminists, of it for their daughters'sakes, as are in such the monopoly of seeking reforms have not course, marital relations. For instance, the sexual and as important matters mendation. again,sterilisationof the unfit is another eugenistrecomBut eugenics(a man-made science)is one thing, In all these matters another. and feminism every country in the reforms. peculiar world needs reforms, and every country its own which need for we countries do not need the reforms And many nism. femiwithout have them that they already the simple reason

since.

"

"

"

be

tionally, soughteverywhererathe peculiarconditions of in manexist universally that conditions kind. the country, but of natural leged is peculiarto the feminists is the advocacy of alWhat the sexes beingequal. reforms that springfrom the idea of the that women recommended on ground Or if any reform is have seen is feministic. We are superiorto men, this a fortiori the in physiology primary sexonly that the feminists recognise admit difference of would no in differences. So sociologythey

Improvement in them ought to not with recognition only of

BO

So

W.

J. Robinson, The

Limitation

of Offspring, 52-5.


FEMINISM

ii8

function

assign

superiority

reforms

are

socialism,

or

the

Of

the

course

still

dependence gallantly

of

may of

the

as,

be

Bthic

and

as

it

we

of

Freethought,

be

this must

421.

kept

as,

socialism

end now

they turn

collective of

sight

"

by

contribution

to

possible,

direct

men

possibility

reference

our

members

unrecognised

this

without

even

the out

is

On

its

have

wives).

on

feminist

equal.

possible to

the

be

long

husbands, would

but

the

on

and

all ;

ungratefully

would

build;

recommendations

Fearson,

least

would

men

and

men,

women

defend men

under

artificially

sexes

individually

the

would

only

(independence

of

economically

think

feminists

"

Cf.

them

the

they

furthermore,

fathers

and

support work

on

the

two

of

on

who

men,

to

that

possible

dependence

the

women

far

the

independence

ability

at

of

status

to

and

by

As

some

Bl

the

be

independence

them

Such

women

their

their

in

feministic,

would

that

economic

principally

denied

socialism.

To

economic

state's

be

women.

and

equal

dependence

same

and

an

assimilate

would

would

the

matters

permit

would

and

these

the

and "

Especially

women.

in

Then

produced. state

to

^^

child-bearing

of

that

beyond

to

their

attention.

"

ism social-

efforts.


CHAPTER FEMINIST

The

demands

V. DEMANDS

of the feminists go againstthe very

essence

of

from mere marriage. For marriage,as distinguished pairingor like that of mating, performed by many species animals, having been instituted either by custom or by law, is,when once entered and as far as possible permanent association, upon, an obligatory with of forming the smallest society only two, prospect of more, and duties. The parties who are bound togetherby mutual rights who it lose certain rightsand gain others,as in the contract There of men case enteringcivil societyout of a state of nature. i n that civil all be to on seems a difference, entering society men b ut said to lose and gain the same on are rights, enteringmarriage and the woman lose and gain different rights:the man the man himself and gainsrights loses his rightto spend all his income on (now almost reduced, before the law, to nothing) over his wife loses certain rightsover self, herand his children,while the woman rather lost them, for now her property, and her children (or she loses,except her father's name), it is difficult to say what her husband and his property. Yet this difference and gainsrightsover is more apparent than real,since in forming the large of the state the strong and the weak reallylose and gain society formed there is immediatelya cleavage differently ; for in it when between the rulers and the ruled,who thus suffer or enjoy different losses and gains. In all association there is a differentiation and an inferior between between employersand ema superior ployes, teachers and scholars, between between priests and communicants, between directors and mere subscribers, etc.,etc. Only there in business partnerships be an approach to equality, and can in which succeed best senior richer a or a they generally party has the leadership. So in marriage the one party must preferablybe would and since otherwise it ture rarelybe lasting, as by nasuperior, in the relevant the he the man is, superior, respects, generally And ligion is almost everywhere so recognisedby law. usuallyby rein religion, which husband and wife too, as by our prevalent "

119


FEMINISM

120

said to be one flesh ^ or body/^ of which the husband is the head.^ Blackstone played into the hands of the Unfortunately, feminists here, by sayingthat accordingto the common law the husband and wife are one person,"and treating the husband as that one person, into whose beingthe legalexistence of the wife is " " The husband and wife together incorporated ; which is nonsense.^ form one w hich the feminists or legalbody corporation,* would leave headless,but which everybodyelse recognises ing as needhead which the husband head a is,so that the law ; naturally him must such. this condition of inequality natural as Against accept within the body marital, especially ment againstthe requireof obedience on the part of the wife, objectionsare now to whom being raised by our advanced women, marriage as a " " man-made institutionno longerappears worthy of respect,and to whose tianity contemplatedreforms, even if they be Christians,Chrisoffers little hindrance,and none of course if they be not are

"

"

since Christianity itself was man-made." Christians, is impossible for marriageto be otherwise,these women

^

But

it

as

their

and

male

abettors practically wish to make thing marriageover into somewhich is no longermarriage at all. The ideal is one of friendship or comradeship that marriage is to be a union of friends. Women wives to be, not as are the consorts of men for the perpetuation of the family and the but their for the pleasureof close or companions, hetairae^ race, association and sexual intercouse.^ It was Mary Wollstone"

II. 24, Matt. XIX. X. 8, Ephes. V. 31. Somewhat similarly The 5, Mark IX. 45. of Manu, la Lactantius, Dw. Instit.,VI. 23. 2/. Cor. XL Apostolic Constitutions^ I. 8, VI. 29, pseudo3, Ephes. V. 23; cf. The Castitatis, c. 5. Cyprian, De Disciplina et Bono i. 442. Of course the husband and wife may 3 Comtnentanes, form one in person of a corporation; but then the husband is incorporated into its being the legal sense the wife is, and not she into his. as just as much 4 Or it is rather the family that is the corporation, since the children also enter into law: see Maine, Ancient it. So in the Roman Law, 184. Howard 5 Thus the suffragist leader, the Rev. Miss Anna Shaw, is reported as saying this word to [obey] in the marriage use she thinks it positively wicked contract, (This word York in The New obey," once Times, June is, 1914. dropped from the time at the of the revolution sects in our country above, see marriage service by some Usually Paul is the butt. has recently been Thus dropped in Denmark.) pp. 6-7 1

Gen.

Laws

"

"

"

"

"

"

laid down the Christian ideal for women. St. Paul who had has ever more stultifying effect upon the character a Militant Women The and tury, and and of men," Women, The CenSt. Paul's grandmotherly old And Mrs. Gallichan Nov., 1913, p. 19. speaks of The Truth about 'man the head of the woman,'" Woman^ Tory dogma, making 257; Mrs. Matilda National Liberal Union, Syracuse, N. cf. 235, J. Gage in her Woman's she became because convinced Y,, 1890, says that that society (which she founded freedom that the teaching of the Church the great obstacle to woman's ") had for was to its purpose the way for woman the hold of the suffrage by weakening prepare Christian religion on the people. Christian virtues, of course, are rejected at the same time. "There is no writes- Mary more self-sacrifice,"' R. dangerous virtue than Women CooHdge, Why of it, are So, 178, although she will allow " a normal minimum from to keep women being spoiled, when (which will be soon) nothing will be too good" for them, 335. Cf. Mill, Subjection of Women, 77. 6 The is praised as superior relation of the Greeks to their hetairae, or courtesans, B. Gamble, The to their relation to their wives, for instance, by Eliza Evolution of Edna

Kenton: "It invented of morals of women

Nothing

was man

"

"

"

"


FEMINIST

DEMANDS

121

craft's idea, which

she seems to have and got from Hume Rousseau, that love is transient/and in happy marriageshould be succeeded by friendship.^She and her authorities misused terms ; for it is passionate love that is evanescent, and the permanent love it calms down into is not friendship, but affection. The to be, that the partiescontracting however, seems present intention, friends from the beginning."This marriage should be mere is well chosen, as it is only friendship term that exists between equals. Love, indeed,as also the affection in which it terminates, is a relation between unequals, is illustrated in its three typical as between and between men and women, tween bechildren, cases, parents ^^ and their aged parents ; to which persons grown-up may be added the actual cases of love (not friendship) between masters and servants, and the imaginarycase of love between human ings beand God/^ since no one with God.^^ can aspireto friendship and Therefore, the opinion of the feminists being that men it is for them to set women are equal, as right up friendship it contributed of Greek to the decline civilisation,does not have heard of Greek hetairism only in its sublimated with money could purchase They do not know, for instance,that any Greek man cases. hetaira (cf. Xenophon, who admires a one Oeconoinicus, c, i). Yet any Aspasia and her relation to society, should have the same de Lenclos and regard for Ninon the like. 7 Or in the florid words of Hippel, hard by the temple of Hymen lies the graveyard of Lovei" Ueber die Ehe, 169. 8 Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 46, 47, 64, 128. She 44, 45, 86, 113, 127; had written: Quotes Rousseau, loi, cf. 64x1. Hume prefers friendship, 45, 86, 114. The love, by long acquaintance, is consolidated happiest marriages are found where into friendship," Essays, I. xix. 9 E.g., G. B. Shaw maintains that "'healthy marriages are partnerships of companionable to Getting Married, 192. Princess and affectionate friends," Preface Troubetzkoy recommended idea, but something found (Amelie Rives) thinks this not a new by in his Song York Solomon Times, April 19, 1914), in of Songs, V. 16, (in The New addressed not to his (chief) wife, and that the Hebrew was ignorance that that song friend different meaning, term word translated has a very the same lated being transin Jeretniah, III. i, where the is plain. In lovers the Vulgate the sense arnica mea"" lover is made just as the French frequently to address his beloved as *' amie." The is not a new often call their mistresses mon however, of course idea,( since the distinction between wife and mistress always has broken down in degenerate one,

Woman,

That

317-18.

Of

matter.

our

course

women

_

"

"

**

*'

"

"

"

periods. All joy worth the name is in equal love between unequals," Coventry Patmore: the heresy Hence of the he.jcalls damnable Religio Poetae, London, 1907, p. 151. of the emotional and because it strikes at the root and equality of men women^ life of society in its spiritual prosperity and felicityof both, and vitiates the whole The Greeks did not bring this source," 153. Cf. Weininger, Sex and Character, 245. which of the ambiguity meant of their term both friendship account "j)CKLa. out clearly on and love. Aristotle in the Eth. Nich. treats first of c"tX/a between Thus equals and then of 4"CKLa between unequals, VIII. iii-vi, and vii. (or viii,),xi. (or xiii.),xu. Mor., II. xi. 51-2, (or xiv.), xiii. (or xv.); cf. Eth. Eudem., VII. iii.,iv.,x., Magna of Eth, Nich., VIII. ix.,_xv., xvi., xvii. Among and Andronicus's Paraphrase moderns, of the opinionthat the little friendship there is in the world is Bacon was however. unless he, too, used ** friendship superior and inferior, Essay XLVIII, mostly between not of love, which in his day. Otherwise was uncommon it is in the sense "

10

*'

"

*'

_

"

"

consistent with Essay XXVII. between God and man, In the infinite distance : theologiansfind the Patmore of the infinite felicity of divine love; and the incomparable happiness of love secret their inequality," op. cit.,156. is similarly founded the sexes upon between in XenoGreeks 12 The spoke of having (jyCKlawith their gods, as, e.g., Hermogenes of the ambiguity of their term, and also phon's Banquet, c. 4; but again on account of their gods. An exception, however, in modern of the smallness account times, on *' Schoene Seele." Goethe's is that wishy-washy creature,

hardly 11

"


FEMINISM

122

their ideal.^' Already the performance by the state of the individua man's function of protecting has effaced somehis woman what and to that extent justified the political the new inequality, the all But effacement be carried further: is desired to theory. be banished, and the present dependence on either side must conditions in which stillas a rule have an economic women tive mofor enteringmarriage is looked upon as base and impure.^* The love desired,then,is merelythe unaccountable attraction preferably of two souls (for these materialists are fond of speaking of the soul),althoughit would in practice be mostly of bodies, " which and after all the idea of interthey hardlydistinguish ; under a thin sexual friendship degeneratesinto simpleeroticism, We reminded of the of fine words to the contrary. are veneer decision gravelyrendered by the Provengal dames in one of their have Courts of Love, that love cannot place between married ^^ for they ; people,because its favours must be granted freely referred to marriageas it always has been, with the obligation of lovingservice on both sides.^' Agreeing with them, but carrying the idea more feminists are going to get out our logically, tary rid of such marriage,and substitute for its denial of pure volunfriends. Yet the love the pure love of free lovers or old conjugallove is reallythe highest, all love being ennobled by mutual service ; and on the man's part one of the services that not intensify only the wife's love of the husband but his love of protecting of her, is the big one and supportingher, for which in return she can render him littleservices innumerable the more, the better for herself as well as for him. Without an "

would be a hundred highest order of durable and happy attachments frequent than they are, if the affection which the two sexes sought another the genuine from were one friendship which only exists between equals in But of marfaculties," Subjection of Women, riage cf. his "ideal privilege and 123. union of of cultivated faculties,identical in opinions and two as a persons between whom there exists that best kind of equality, similarity of powers purposes, But if a masculine and man capacities,with reciprocal superiority in them," 177. 13

C(. Mill times

"The

:

more

*

"

feminine would be satisfied? Is it necessary not the condition woman, should be a sculptor and the other a painter, or the like, and both In admitting any side Mill has opened the door superiority on one money-makers? economic to superiority in earning-capacity superiority,also politicalsuperiority on side and on the other, dependence. the one *' will [in the new 14 No Ellen woman dispensation] give or receive love Key: benefit whatever," Woman The for any Mrs, Gilextraneous Movement, 213, cf, 149. with self-interest," Women and "Love went (She might never Economics, 97. man: of the most sensual added that this is truest love, which often have directly goes "The economic will for the independence of women against self-interest.) Pearson; it possible for the highest human first time render relationship to^become again [Jtc] a of pure matter affection,raised above every suspicion of constraint and every taint of " Yet he had said : Those commercialism," Ethic of Freethought, 422. marriages instinctive impulse are arise purely from which notoriouslythe least stable," 241. in her Women World Marsden) Builders says 15 as Thus Floyd Dell (Miss Dora " from the soul," 49, to be separated in the thought of women the body is no longer looks for the Magna Charta of feminism,'' and " in any it is to the bqdy that one case, should marry that the one

a

"

45. 18 17

De I'Amour, in full in Stendthal's be found It may 307. As re-enjoined, for instance,by Paul, I. Cor., VII. 3-5.

"


FEMINISM

124 their

instance,does

for

one,

The

disgraceof the ; other,except sentimentally

in that of others.

estimation and

own

affect the cast to the one not

the other. Not so in sire marriage,as it exists, and probably few female feminists deof her that the wife should not share in at least the honours with their share one goods husband. Friends,also,do not usually asserted who constantly another, pace the old Greek philosophers, else their do so regularly, or this;but husband and wife must shown

is honour

nor

over

"

be

marriage would

very

a

that if the husband to a

go

to

goes

is

a

cheaper one rule,the

to be the a

man

that

and woman

earns

twice

earns

and

fine restaurant

strange affair. It as

much

can as

hardly be

pected ex-

the wife, he will

while she pay a dollar for his dinner, Yet unless this cents. dines for fifty littlewill gain by marrythat earns ing all the

and

much;

fine-spundeclamation

be carried into can about independencevanishes. execution only if theyare to continue to live apart and merely visit less often, like each other and invite each other out, more or such a plan,as we male feminist has harboured friends. One few it ; but in all probability shall see, and another has practised incomes will ever entertain it.^* Else the socialistscheme of equal to be impracticable. be adopted; but that we have seen for all must The

are Friends, lastly,

not

full ideal

bothered, or blessed,by any such issue of

that marriages children. And we may be sure interfered with in this and women friends will not be much either. Marriage,the feminists tell us, is not for the sake way, of the children,but for the sake of the partners.^" Consequently the children that do occur will be relegated to others,preferably almost Such to the state. or childless,marriages childless, ^^ will be feasible for a time, pleasureunions, human matings

their of men

as friendship

"

"

but "

only for Feminists

a

"

time.

believe in

divorce,"says

one

of

them," ^^

Freedom

rich idlers in New York have married with the understanding 19 Yet already some around from to that they were the corner each other. keep separate establishments in all this. Juvenal described the Roman wife as There is, of course, nothing new '* her husband's neighbour," Sat., VI. 509. " I think the sex-relationshipof the future will not be regarded Pearson: 20 Thus for the birth of children^ in the first place a union but as the closest form of as and man Sex-friendship will mean woman. friendship between infinitely more for reproducing mankind," Ethic of Freethought, than a union 424. 21 Back in 1843 John A. Collins, an abolitionist, anarchist, communist, vegetarian, and at Skaneateles, N. Y., based woman suffragist,founded a community others, on, among " that marriage is designed for the happiness of the parties, and the tenet when such parties have outlived their affections and can no longer contribute to each other's the separation takes^ happiness, the sooner placethe better ; and such separation shall ^hen not be a barrier to the parties in again uniting with any one they consider their cialisms, Sohappiness can be promoted thereby," (from J. H. Noyes's History of American So of late Mrs. Elsie Clews Cf, above, ii. 42. 165-6. Parsons, in several pp. articles in The International Journal of Ethics, Oct., 1915, Jan. and July, 1916, ** " ** which standards for mating, among has tried to set up its own will permanence to be the final criterion of virtue," last article,p. 464. cease 22 Mrs. Women Want, 267-8. Hale, What .

.

.

.

.

.


FEMINIST

DEMANDS

125

of divorce is the cardinal principle of the new theoryof marriage. like seems Anything like an unconditional bindingtogethernow "

bondage or slavery. To me," says a leadingwoman-suffragist (so do they misuse religious terms), marriage is too sacred an institution to permit any allotted promise."^^ Marriage is to be entered into,only in case it can be got out of. Indeed, divorce is to become a new duty,as we have seen it taUghtby the socialist Bebel.^* Of course, in this new of equality, to have era men are mony, the same freedom as women, and so they will not have to pay alido not. since women The dangerous positionof a wife who has no property of her own, who has givenup her profession it,and who has (if she had one) too long to be able to resume for to lost her attractiveness another match, they do not seem consider.^** They look forward to the promised state in which shall be actually women as capable of takingcare of themselves "

as

men

are,

"

if not,

or

the

all events

at

'jtate shall take

of

care

Till then,probably, they expect alimony to continue to be And thinking who paidby the divorced husbands. onlyof women of liave property of their own or a profession or prospect alimony and even of of another match, they revel in the idea of women, or in an no uncongenialpartnership. longerhaving to remain men, from from free this Mankind be to are as any other constraint. " trial marriages ^' It will be but for a a step to if the short period,to see lowed to be folpartiesreallyare congenial, bill s uch renewal to or separation.Already a by legalise of our woman-suffrage marriages has been proposed in one States.^" Such marriagesare well known to sociologists. They have been practisedfor one and the Todas of day night among the Neilgherries, of our like the backward bundling in some for three nightsamong for a few days Arab tribes, some districts, for in Ceythe and the a fortnight Hurons, Wyandotts lon. among for three six months the or a s trials, Longer Jews among them.

"

"

"

"

Aeain

24

Above,

the Rev.

ii. 42.

An^a So

H. the

Shaw,

reported above. Jane Olcott, one-time Secretary of the New York York State Suffrage Association, as reported in The New Times, May 25, 1914: should be free to give love whenever it is natural. Love A is or woman man I believe it is unmoral it goes [the latest substitute for immoral] for volatile, and when 23

as

feminist

'*

for the sake of their children. to appear to live together, except and wife even each should be free to bestow love elsewhere In that case the by mutual agreement," her cecisbeo, as his mistress, and the wife husband have the degenerate to among Venetians! S. Chesser, protests, recognising that women however, Elizabeth 24a At least one, Motherhood and Marriage, 85-6. would be the chief sufferers. Woman, recommended Question, 387, 431-2; 25 They by Forel, The Sexual by the are in her book The novelist George Meredith; by Mrs. Elsie Clews Parsons Family, New York, 1906, p. 349 cf. p. xii.;and by so ^reat an authority as Sarah Bernhardt. in 1905 by Representative Townsend. to be allowed Marriages were Colorado 26 In and ten years with privilege six months of conversion between for terms by contract The but it is time into ordinary marriage. opposed by women; proposal was at any State. offered in a woman's significantthat it was man

"


FEMINISM

126

Morocco, for six months in Greenland, for a Creeks,and the Celtic handf asting for a year

of

"

"

to

whether

see

would

the union

allow

any

fruitful.

was

couple freedom

year and

among

the

day,were The thoroughgoingfeminist to contract marriage for a

by the Saracens.^^ All these abandoned the last,which was before the not excepting practices, in Saracens rose in the world, were indulged by small,primitive, period they please,as

any

done

was

could advance far in ; and it is plainthat none savage peoples civilisation with such customs. Among the Egyptians,however, or

there

marriagesfor a year, and easy divorce,at least in late periods;but the Egyptians lost their independencefor ever, as civilised. The traveller's tale used other peoplesbecame as soon were

told,since refuted

be

to

copies of and

wife

by

resident,that the barbarous

a

Islands

the Andaman

had

remainingtogethertillthe free to form

they were

other

the

child

custom

of the husband

weaned, after which

was

unions.^'"

Min-

Even

that is

more

than

now-a-days. And if marriage is only a private contract, what (by stillgreater freedom) is to prevent such the Hassaniyeh Arabs of Nubia, marriages as obtain among the married have free disposalof themwhom selves women among "^ Ever since every fourth day, or three days every week ? Mona ure Caird in 1888 started the question, Is marriage a fail? marriageseems to have been in the meltingpot. And here, of modern attention is paid medicine, more contrary to the spirit than of them, to cure to prevention. Feminists, accordingto one be necessary

would

"

"

"

incline rather to repairthe effects of bad their occurrence." ^"

than marriages,

to prevent

that it will marriagesand re-marriages be difficultto keep of a woman through the many changes is raised that women of her name. shall keep Already a demand their their own surname (that is, father's!) throughoutlife,as the man married and there is no law or as keeps his, single ; have adopted the women enforcingthe prevalentcustom, some There

will be

so

many track

Marcellinus XIV, 4. to Ammianus " " " Marie has advocated trial exsomewhat the same idea Mrs. Rose With a piration '* clause (which she calls " an American clause, since it would give freedom in marriage the oppressed ") to be inserted to contracts, permitting separation, if five years of married desired or to Enjoy life. How by either party, after four York, 1900, pp. 13, 29. etc. Matrimony^ New under article (written by a woman?) in The Dec, 28 In an Forum, 1915, anonymous riage, Marfrom of Our the curious title (misapplying something Westermarck) Incestuous^ " established in the like this is actually recommended An : system, something of statutory will guarantee social life,which to the wedlocked couple a certain amount the common and life, compulsory separations in public, home holidays from common self-exhibitions all open prohibitions upon performances of togetherness, conventional minus interior itself ring and other insignia of the conjugal state, and in the domestic " tion established all in imitaetiquette of taboos, and suspension of conjugal rights an of savages, that marriage shall be *' undertaken and borne and to the end as lightly and gracefully as a secret sin," p. 660. 29 W. L. George, Fcmimst Ititentions, The Atlantic Monthly, Dec, 1913, p. 727. 27

According

27a

"


FEMINIST idea.'"

new

name

titleof

"

More or

commonly

names,

Mrs."

This

instead

DEMANDS

127

the woman tismal bapkeeps her own of using her husband's, after the

is done

who have won by women especially fads of the various feminism; but notorietyby advocating the women whose husbands have gained some prominence,may be counted upon to stick to the old custom are adepts ; for women some

"

the game manded of Heads, I win ; tails, you lose." Also it is dethat the status of matrimony shall no more be indicated in the case of the woman, Miss by the change of her title from it is in the In to than the of Mrs.," case man. Germany, where there is another reason for it,an association has been formed for '^ the propaganda of this In our reform." country only idle sentiment is invoked: why, it is asked, are women to be treated ^^ ? if women the same from men And as are differently men, the question is unanswerable. It would however, able preferseem, for the men of the women, here to follow the practice and to the married from the as boys are distinguish distinguished single, from men son by the title of Master," there beinga good social reafor this,as society is interested in the marital status of all its will require them to members.^' As for the children,consistency ^* after the mother as well as after the father ; be named for why than the should the woman's cease man's, familyname any more for this being no longerallowed? the patriarchalreason Here, after the first generation that however, would arise a difficulty, the for the would go on doubling custom adopts hyphened names ; of the in infinitum. In Spain children take the paternal name of the mother, all maternal father and the paternalname names at

"

"

"

"

"

30

One

of

the

daughter received

first was Lucy Stone, the father's family name

marrying

on as

hers, and

B. Blackwell. the mother's family

Henry

But name

the

only

middle name. fiir den Einheits-Titel. In the German The Propaganda Bund language the term for "Miss" (Fraulein), as also in the Scandinavian languages (Froken), is a neuter be that diminutive. "There may women something derogatory in this, now grown-up for it had its origin at a time when remain unmarried; only girls were_ unmarried. and " Mrs." (mistress) still But in English there is nothing to object to in our terms; is appropriate, in most women. cases, only for married York in 1914 of the six feminists 32 In the symposium already referred to, at New " " name." Should the right of woman to keep her Fola La Follette spoke on own a " " absurd ? she asked, adding that the question was more no name man keep his own If a woman is to change her name which formed her subject. than the one simply as and has married not the that she loves a man him, why should acknowledgment an She urged also the abandonment her? " of the sacrifice be made by him toward same that if a to label spinster and title "Mrs.", matron; saying "it was unnecessary her concern and was one single or married, or had children or none, no was woman he was married first of all,whether and had children else's. Society didn't ask a man good for the goose." As reported in was good for the gander was not; and what or York The New Times, Feb. 21, 1914. " be quite as just absurd," and says * it would calls the prevalent custom 33 Forel ' ' ' ' celibate men mademoiselle to damoiseau non-married to as term to apply the Question, 378. Well, while one is advocating innovations, why not girls,' The Sexual one? recommend the right rather than the wrong " of their father and their mother, thus linking them combine the name 34 Let them be settled by each individual father and more closely to each other, or let that matter Also Vance Thompson, Woman, 224-5, mother," Fola La Follette,as above. as

a

31


FEMINISM

128

This of the immediate mother. For advance the feminists but a short way. would perfect equalityit might be established that the sons should take the father's paternal and the daughtersthe mother's maternal name, of children in the religion in Austria is determined as name, mixed marriages.; or ting they should combine the two, the boys putThe the the their father's last and girls mother's.^^ two side by side with the its own will then each run sexes course, vidualism, other, but separate. And in a democracy sunk into utter indiis again to be exalted why not ? '" unless the woman win's it not be stillsimplerto adopt Godabove the man.^^ Or would ^* ? Under socialism advice and abolish surnames altogether track of in there will be no sense family descent; and keeping here,too, feminism joinshands with socialism. It is impossible be the of both the families long: it must to keep track,in names, let the not neither. Then the other,or one or why familygo? of their b if feminists. And the suggestionse adopted, any say

beingthrown

out

except the

one

the familywill go. Somewhat analogousto this tempest in a tea-potis an objection nations for the woman's raised to the generalpracticeamong in cases to follow that of of international marriages, nationality, of who the husband. As the loss our women foreigners marry the of who the is made women our citizens, gain marry up by ings to be as broad as it is long. But it hurts the feelmatter seems treated of the new that theyare from men. women differently after their If men nationality marrying,so ought women, keep since

women

have

women

are a

their

less hold

is nothingbut

a

equals. Otherwise,

women

complain,

Of course, if marriage nationality.^" of t here would be no living together friends, on

35 Cf. Bellamy, Equality, 139. heredity, it might be better for

their

Or the

if there is any truth in Janice's.allegedlaw of (from his daughters to take the father's name (from her father). This is said to have been the the Hottentots at present. These are good precedents

and the sons the mother's ancient Egypt, and among for the feminists. 36 For in an aristocratic country^like England, an would lose her ordinary woman chance of becoming a lady, or rising to a higher rank, if she did not accept her husband's one also. band's There, in fact, as throughout Europe, a wife receives her husname rank and title,but not the husband his wife's. This is an inequality which ropean Eufeminists ought to take in hand. But which will they reform it? way 37 One feminist at least, a chivalrous matriarchism and Forel, would readopt man, of their mother, The Sexual have all the children take the name Question, 379, 379-Bo, would also have the wife and mother He the house, 523, though own he does 522-3. not do women explain how she is to get this proprietorship. In civilised communities He was build the dwellings. not usuallj^ probably influenced by Westermarck's account of the habits and habitations of certain low races, History of Human Marriage, 107-8. 38 Political Justice, VIII. viii. And by different sets of why distinguish the sexes christen your first names? not son Jane and your daughter John? This used Why in Europe, and still in France. Consistency is a jewel. to be done Katherine 39 They that they have no so Anthony in her Feminism country: say even in Germany and Scandinavia, 216, referring to a novel by Use Frapan entitled Die similar statement haben kein We have made Vaterland. Frauen seen a concerning with the difference,however, that to the feminists it is a workingmen by the socialists, complaint, with the socialists an injunction.

mother), custom

in

"

"


FEMINIST

DEMANDS

129

need

of either party going over untarily; to the other's nation,unless voland the children might belong where they were born or brought up, or the sons follow the father's and the daughters all have the choice. But while marthe mother's nationality, or riage is a closer union that that,the present practice will have

continue; for

to

else

a

a singleentity, family,would

The subjectcauses jurisdictions. since the event of woman suffrage, lose the rightto vote, on marrying a in America ; while a foreignwoman two

could

American

might

woman

ing foreigner, though stillresidmarried to an American

immediately upon arrivingin of only shows the total inconsistency

vote

trouble

under

trouble,however, in

some an

be

the

country.

This

as suffrage,

woman

part of feminism, with the present social as well as political who think also of those suffragists order, and the inconsistency a

"

without

they can

adopt their

perverse

system of the feminists.

These

are

Will

not, for "

So

measure

own

women

to the whole

be expected. pettier, may in dance ? Will they continue to be led the have to lead as often as be led? of equality,

trivial details.

the sake

leadingon

Another,

even

herself in need of some man's gentleher properlyout of a diningroom," wrote to conduct arm " Horace Greeleymany years ago, so long as she shall consider it dangerous or unbecoming to walk half a mile alone by.night,I how the Woman's cannot see Rights theory is ever to be anything Somewhat defensible abstraction." *" else than a logically if women be in every thingequal to more important is the right, well as to be wooed to woo of women as by men. men, men, claimed because of the the socialists have economic this, Already will for all.*^ But as the feminists t heir provide equality system

long

expect

women

as

lady shall

a

to earn

as

deem

much

themselves,they follow

as

men,

or

at least

enough to

suit,notwithstandingthat

a

port sup-

woman

always gain by marrying a man earningpower of the naturalising also advocate it Some who earns ones more. father female's selection the of the (or fathers) the woman's, for the improvement of the breed, and putting of her children in order to of women desire the economic independence this first, is But and in nature addition againstit, permit and foster it.*^ unlikeness into comes economic to physical play. It inequality, braces, is the male who seeks, the female who is sought;the male emthe male the female is embraced; imparts,the female rewith

will

small

"

"

this quotation is taken, admits here inconsistency Parsons, from whom Elsie Clews Feminism and Conventionality, Annals of the American suffragists, the part of many of Political and Social Science, Nov., 1914, p. 48. Academy Backward, 266-7. Long before it had Bellamy, Looking Frau, 342; 41 Bebel, Die Hippel,in his Ueber die Ehe, 69. been suggested by the eighteenth-century pre-teminist shall see in the next chapter. 42 As we 40

on


FEMINISM

130

ceives;in short,the male is active,the female passive. So is it, in varyingextent, throughoutboth the vegetable and animal kingdoms, with the fewest exceptionsamong the latter.*^ So is it likewise in the human also with but few exceptions from species,** backward of corners peoplesleft behind in out-of-the-way among the earth,*^ not to forget some worn-out peoples,degraded from their days of greatness.**Always is it such peoples, and in nature the exceptions, feminists set up as their models. our Among all great peoplesit is otherwise. They follow the dictates of nature. The man takes,the woman givesherself.*^ The key it is better for seeks the lock,not the lock the key. Wherefore this custom and for women to continue, to wait tillthey are asked. "

There

is

some

Beecher

truth in the old-fashioned of Stowe, when she wrote God made to be she, whom

feels when to seek." ** A stillmore

statement "

of Mrs.

riet Har-

the

disgustwhich man sought,degradesherself

ditions importantconsideration is it,that when these conit will be for the are about, brought hardly necessary for few are supposedto want who wants woman a child more in this way than one if she she at to marry can does, all;or rid of her husband that of be it would matter so a quicklyget indifference whether she went throughthe ceremony dren Chilor not. in natural be the as as they were primitivetimes, may and with as little when human to brutes, beingsapproximated need of artificiallegitimation the polygaas they were mous among *" for if man's children other a women are by Egyptians; with his the those those not are wife, on same women footing by as an Legitimacy,indeed, is hardly more good as his wives? feminists for the than for the of the socialists, objectof solicitude The of their to seems stigma illegitimacy thorough-goingtype. tender sensibilitiesan injustice to the innocent notoffspring.^" "

"

"

"

birds (the turnix, phaleropus, cassowary, the females, larger emeu) some Among said to pursue the males, fight with one another for than the males, are stronger them, and then leave to them the incubation, " of Alexandria, has been 44 said Clement assigned activity,to woman To man," the normal condition," according to Ward, Paedagogus, III. 3. This is passivity," Sociology, i. 609. Similarly W. I. Thomas, Sex and Society, 17, 28, 55, 229. Dynamic 45 of Assam, the Kasis of Bengal, the Kafirs of Natal, the Ainos Such the Garos as of northern Indians of New Mexico, the Moquls of Japan, the Tarrahumari Mexico, Islands and New Guinea. tribes in Oregon, the Paraguayans, and in the Torres some 46 Yet desired that our should reach the degree it is probably not women ever of immodesty attained by the Roman under the ejnpire,denounced women by Seneca: Dii illas deaeque male maribus Libidine nee quidem cedunt, pati natae. perdant! In the adeo perversum commentae impudicitiae, viros ineunt," Epist, 95 " 21. genus describes final seizure the courtship and of a degenerate days of Greece, Plutarch youth by a rich widow, Amatorius, cc. 2, 10. Allen's in the next Grant 47 Even heroine, to be described chapter, did so, The Who Woman Did, 56, 72, cf, 46. 48 Pink and White Tyranny, 269. See also Montesquieu, Esprit des Lois, XXIII, 49 Cf. Diodorus, I. 80, " 3. v. and polygamous peoples. vi.,about the absence of bastardy among 60 See, e.g., Carpenter, Lovf'^ Cornvng of Age, ii6. 43

and

"

"

"


FEMINISM

132

child without a husband and without a father for the child,thus infringing the child's rightto have a father, which would seem hood motheras strong.'^ The beautyof illegitimate has is so much wish been admired, that the expressedthat should go on increasing, in order to advance the time illegitimacy when it shall be legitimatised.^' In Germany this is an avowed of the feminists, and there has been founded demand (in 1904, by " Ruth fiir Bund Mutterherself Bre, an illegitimate child)a mothers. for the protectionof unmarried chutz," principally Norway, however, has gone furthest. There, March 7, 1916,was passed a law (promoted by the feminists)grantingstate aid to mothers anterior and subsequent unmarried duringthe periodsbriefly to

women

have

a

"

givingbirth,and to the children,where paternitycan the rightto the father's name and to inherit on established, equalitywith the legitimatechildren."^* An authorisation of consistent. But this has the polygamy would onlybe a littlemore when the mother does her that to recognise not care advantage child's father,she need not. Subservient to this allegedrightof unmarried mothers to suffer no disgrace, is the demand, already Miss and to give up the distinction between noticed,for women Mrs., and for all above a certain age to take the latter designation for additional tillthe the be lished, that, right fullyestab; purpose to

be

the And not

better

mother's

unmarried

status

if the custom still,

shall not

be introduced

children, takingthe onlyillegitimate

name

be

so

apparent.

of all children,and of their mother, as

of old ; for then the distinction will be still more all the laxness and indifference to paternityof

and obliterated, the

mother-age

be restored.^*

Spinstershaving this rightof matronhood, may it would seem that bachelors ought also be to preserve equality, allowed to enter to be fathers,and good societyaccompanied Meister in Goethe's romance. like Wilhelm their It bastards, by difficultfor men to know as will,on the whole, again become in primitive their children as it was times, and the matronymic Here be quoted Mrs. Florence Trade Union Wise, Secretary of the Woman's may of New York: I believe only in voluntary There motherhood, way. any who better off without children. well as women, are men as are Many many persons, unmarried children and there the other hand, want ought to be an on women, portunity opfor the expression of their innate York mother-love," quoted in The New Even of feminism, Mobius, has stumbled into this the opponent Times, May 25, 1914. welcomed to their ranks of the German pitfall: see his op. cit.,54; and he was by one feminists,ib. 156. 53 Quoted from many in Gersome one (approvingly?) by Katherine Anthony, Feminism 62

*'

League

and

Scandinavia, 137-8.

A law similar to this, known the Castberg law, has been as proposed in Illinois, It is advocated Woman, by Vance Thompson, 223. 54 Even the half-way practice in Spain of the children receiving also the mother's is considered it is coupled with the fact by Mrs. Gallichan significant" when name, that in no within her knowledge " does less social stigma fall on country child a its mother out of wedlock," or on tive (or father) either,The Position of iVoman t'nPrimi53a

*'

"

Society, 291.


FEMINIST

DEMANDS

133

back system, if it has not been introduced on purpose, will come of itself, will be able to have will be and the only heirs a man those of his uterine sisters, ward backstillis the case among some as will The women peoples,such as the Nairs of Malabar. then be owned by nobody,and will own their own children alone : how delightful!Yet by too much imitation of the primitives, ourselves. '^^ we may againbecome primitive These extravagant views are held as yet only by a few extremists. But alreadyan opinionequallywanton is becoming if it were self-evident. This widely advocated, and acceptedas is the demand for the same standard of moralityin sexual matters for both the sexes.^^ On this subjectthere has been much loose thought,even nists. the part of persons not otherwise femion For example,Malthus, though condoningthe difference of

morals,

wrote

"

:

That

a

should at present be almost commit nearlywith offence which men woman

for an society impunity,seems undoubtedlyto

driven

from

This is an error The fact is,that

committingan

which some

act

be

underlies are

women

which

no

man

a

'^^ of natural justice." of the talk of the sort.

breach

most

for almost driven from society commit that of bearinga can "

are recognisedfather ; while other women kept which beyond the palefor pursuinga profession(of prostitution)

child without

a

few comparatively he

men

pursue

still more

is condemned

and

which

Men fiercely.**"

when

and

a

man

pursues,

women

can

no

and In the perfect comradeship of the future/' says Miss Mabel inen Powers, to the Garden will return of Eden, which they left hand in hand," reported in York There is no Times, April 13, 1914. New authority but Milton's for their The for together seems having left Paradise hand in hand; and that which they are bound state of nature, without civilisation. to be only Rpusseau's times 56 We have this idea sprouting up in late antiquity. In modern the seen be found in Mary Wollstonecraft and her husband William beginnings of it may in her Vindication former Godwin. The after denying the of the Rights of Woman, of sexual existence virtues, not excepting modesty," are 65, affirmed that "till men " will be immodest, ' and maintained that more chaste, women modesty must be equally cultivated by both sexes, it will ever remain The or a sickly hot-house plant," 135. "When latter wrote: just notions upon this subject [of infidelity and divorce] shall the inconstancy of either sex be formed, be estimated at would precisely the same viii. In 1838 Sarah Moore Grimke "To value," Political Justice, VIII. wrote: me it is perfectly clear, that whatsoever is morally right for a man to do, it is morally to do," adding that women should not right for a woman only claim the same right-s, but should them "the recognise as devolving upon the same duties," Letters on Ten later the women assembled Equality of the Sexes, Boston, 1838, p. 122. years Falls objected to "the different code of morals for men at Seneca and women," which had given to the world, and " by which moral men delinquencies that exclude women of little account from in man," this being society are not only tolerated, but deemed of the grievances in their Declaration of Sentiments (The History of Woman one brought into prominence in England by Josephine E. Suffrage, i. 71). The idea was Work Culture in 1869. and Woman's She made Butler, who published her Woman's it aimed Act because against the Contagious Diseases a mostly at progreat outcry tecting (soldiers): see her pamphlet The New the health of men Era, Liverpool, 1872, followed in America She was by the Claflin sisters. pp. 7-9. 55

"

"

women

"

RT

Essay,

279.

58

There

is, of

" for the difference of treatment, Male reason tion," prostituto is certainly much more dangerous society than that of stain on the history of humanity," Psycopathia Sexualis, believe in the equalityof the sexes cannot admit this. Forel docs

593. not:

But see

those

above,

a

course,

KrafFt-Ebing, says it is the darkest females: who ii. 43n.

"


FEMINISM

134

and ramrod can When that new thingin the earth shall of to pass, come a woman encompassinga man,"" it will be time enough to talk of their actingalike in the matter wherein nature ence, Nature having made the differhas made them act differently. the notion that it violates "natural is rather strange tice jusfor doingdifferent and women to be treated differently for men and women and committingdifferent offences.*" Men acts this is the a nd when actions, case, the may perform corresponding A than on the man. world is usuallyless severe the woman on literateur was well-known not long ago ruined for engaging in mutatis are a practice which, mutandis,women permittedto enjoy with impunity. Habituallywomen indulgein sensual closeness another such as is not tolerated between of intercourse with one Which is desire to have men. it,then, that the egalitarians altered that women shall give up hugging and kissingone who shall take it up? So again a man another,or that men should say he loved another man would be shunned ; but nobody thinks anythingof it when in love with each two women are is the The other ."^ In which change to be made? again, way, feminist is the Greek who, in Plutarch's Amatorius true (c.21) it is is a matter of indifference in love as now says that sex said to be in politics.But it is precisely in sexual matters, which different in the two sexes, that a natural difference does,and are to men are common must, exist in their morality. Other matters and women and human with reference them to their as beings, It is the same crime for a woman for a as moralityis the same. murder. to lie, to cheat,to rob,to man however, it is Curiously, in these matters ideas that a so perverted are our modern distinction is not infrequently made: the man who murders his wife or sweetheart is hanged,the woman who band murders her hus-

perform the same perform the same act.

sexual act, than

more

a

gun

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

lover is

or

acquitted. of course, conditions,

Economic the sexual

*

are

bound intimately

conditions,beinga consequence

of them.

up with In the tal mari-

relation the

positionof the wife is not only physiologically, different from that of the husband. economically, iological Physand economic and duties are responsibilities differently

but also

in distributed, 69

/er., XXXI.

60

The

but same

the

class. And

Where

yet

the

Question, 252-4. 62 67. W. G. and

duties of

to

the

kept

of

kept by

man

counterbalance

way

each

other.*'' Conse-

22.

analog

true

society does 61

a

sex

a

there not

seem

latter Summer:

and

is to

no

is, of course,

woman

The

woman.

payee

payment,

place much

is apt to "Woman

be

the

the man who not keeps her, and the payer in the are, naturally, not and the woman does not bear a child,already difference between them. serious Forel, The more case: see Sexual

bears

an

unequal

reproductionjust as certainlyand

share

of

justlyas

the man

responsibilities bears

an

un-


FEMINIST

DEMANDS

135

the law ought to treat quentlytheir rightsalso being different, husband and wife differently in those respects. And divorce,the from differently breakingof marriage,likewise affects the woman the man, and its natural causes which should be are different; the the case. But and followed is law, as recognised by generally and women the economic condition of men when, as in socialism, is to be rendered the same, or when the feminists expect that even without socialism women nomically are going to prove themselves as ecoeffective as are men, and this is taken as if it already then at least one reason for treating and women were a fact, men in their sexual relations differently, For instance, is removed. because wives are no longerto be dependent on their husbands, either they will no longerbe so indulgentas in the past, or they themselves be indulged. " Only when the duty of support must the part of the man be on ceases,"says Ellen Key, " will woman and him able to demand the same from he as fidelity chastity demands from her."** become Rather, when women dent indepenand self-supporting, interest than they will have no more lack will have no in for the of which men a reputation chastity, effect upon their success in business.** The physiological fact, to continue to be interested are however, will remain that,if men in of their superiority because in their own children,women, children,have not such urgent need of knowledge of their own have on the part of their husbands, as their husbands on fidelity this demand their part. Never yet,therefore, have women made and now have men; the feminists are making it so as insistently for them only from a prudential pointof view, to safeguardtheir health.'^ to men, a reason as applicable leavingthem with the This difference beside. tween other reason stillunbalanced their on be so the sexes is a littlematter which nature will never obligingas to alter. Yet art and science are doing somethingto since the use obviate some other phases of the distinction, of of the make the wife on infidelity preventivemeasures part may from band's, littlea real concern as sentiment)as is the hus(apart when neither desire to have children ; while the especially for venereal diseases may go far to render newly invented cures such conduct equallyindifferent to both from the medical point "

duties of property, war, and and ways, politics,"Folkof the responsibilities 2d ed., 362. Movement, 148-g. Woman 63 The humble and our become so women so overbearing, that men 64 In time, too, our may small tribe in India, the is said to exist among which a be reached the condition may is not required in the wife, while infidelity on the whom constancy Kandhs, among which doubt feminists dishonourable; held no is highly married many of the man part which elsewhere the condition universally prevails. as think as reasonable would about Great in her Plain Facts Pankhurst a Evil,the sug65 So, e.g., Christabel gestion been given by Brieux in his Avaries. to have of which seems

equal share


136

FEMINISM Hitherto

of view.

chastityin they

take

men

have

always taken

the lead in

requiring

their wives and in the class of women from whom their wives; whereupon the reflex action of the

The helped to improve the morality also of men. resented."^ Men, it very statement, however, of this fact is now is exclaimed, moulded for their own women convenience,into what they did not themselves wish to be ! "^ At once resistance is women

has

aroused.

of their own Henceforth will be the makers women behave themselves. morality, And they will see to it that men But they will not go so far as men did: they will demand only for both the sexes, that all moralityshall be the same because human whether both are beings. It shall be the same they be married

or

single ; and

between

the

unmarried, whether

in

youth

middle

ferent or age, no difference is to be allowed, in spiteof the difneeds of the two and in spiteof which is denied,*' sexes, the difference in the possibleconsequences to them, although, these be obviated to It methods. are by contraceptional again, takes littleknowledge of the world to foresee which way the assimilation will be made.*" We have no intention of interfering with men," says a female feminist,in another connection it is do not put any fence here ; we true, but with equal application around them, but we insist they shall not put any fence around ^" either." And us, open advocacy of such fencelessness of the female sex will be reviewed in the next chapter. But the very the equalisation is generally stated shows the tendency. For way The Henrietta Rodman in York New example, Times, Jan. 24, I would heavier the girlwho no penalty put 191 5, says: upon I would the than blunders, on man. Societyhas no right to blunders more treat the girlwho That brutallythan the man." is of i s overlooked. nature, onlyfollowing society course, Nature, it is thought,has here made Women a mistake. to be like are and therefore their actions are to be like men's. If women men, "

"

"

of this in the next shall hear more chapter, from the leaders, especiallyMrs. 66 We Eliza B._Gamble had resented, not the implication, but Gallichan. Already, however, " denied absurd it is arrogant and it, calling it as as the assertion itself,and false," She apparently thought women created chaste were Evolution of WoJnan, 230-1. more is less, perhaps they were; in the beginning. As their sexual appetite than but men increase the difference, or rather the advance; for, to tlie other fact has contributed after all, the difference is not a deep one. Are R. Coolidge, IVhy Women So, 91, cf. 175, 179-80. 67 So Mary This authoress R. Coolidge, op. cit., 330. is one of those 68 E.g., by who Mary But know about hold that men know cannot 308, 312. apparently she can women, On about Pankhurst, op. cit., 126. men. Similarly Christabel 58-64 she makes pp. medical the point, and, being negative mostly not to quotations from men, many son, evidence, worthless against the positive testimony of other doctors J. Robine.g., W. Sexual Impotence, 3I4~IS( cf. 144-6. the single moralitywas in Bellamy's socialism of women 69 Even not to be that *' them the slave-code imposed upon by their necessities," Equality, 141-2. which she presided, as reported in 70 Marie at the symposium over Tenney Howe, York The New Times, Feb. 21, 1914. "

"


FEMINIST not

are

so

DEMANDS

already,stilltheir

actions Women's

137

be, and

be.

But into industrywill entrance will methods Contracepltional can

must

to be made are so. them make economicallyequal. make them physiologically equal.''^Consequentlytheir morality will be as free as men's ; wherein a great gain is found," notwithstandi the descent to man's level. The adoptionby women of men's and of having only one title for the married custom unmarried will,as we have seen, aid the assimilation.'* There is be to standard of morals as there is a singlestandard of a single and it is to be man's silver rather than woman's gold. money, And the baser it will be even on for, primitive worse, copper; of blessed equality, the rules account to be freed from men are of chivalrous conduct A which them. to are peculiar eugenic mandate of our has, in some States,been enacted into law, that the groom before marrying shall get a doctor's certificate of his health,inverselyas in several African tribes a jury of matrons called in to pass upon the virginity of the bride. The latwas is ter's virtue taken for granted,or is regarded as a matter now of small equally importance; but with perfect equalitythe law of health certification must be appliedto the female also. The of the socialists we have seen of indifference to be one spirit classes : if the lower classes can be elevated, to the welfare of the upper good ; if not, there is no reason why the others should So be allowed float them. the spirit of the feminists to over longer while avowedly aiming at bringingmen seems, up to the for women, to be one moral elevation theyprescribe of indifference be reached : at least therfeis no reason this aim cannot in case why level should continue above the men's.'* the women's Women, women

"

71 "

By

of *' prophylaxis of conception,'' writes of it: dreaded the most dulgence, immunity from sequel of illicit intend of both when it will undoubtedly to equalise the conduct sexes fronted conLimitation by temptation," quoted in Robinson's of Offspring, 243. Clara G. Stillman welcomes solute abThus the change. Undoubtedly," she says, Thus

Dr.

conferring

L.

Jacobi,

upon

the

an

advocate

woman

"

72

chastity in

"

will

'*

be reckoned in the past. high in the future as as rather than that of complete stinence. abThe ideal will be increasingly that of temperance But this change,_ which pend deis already beginning to be noticeable, will not [only] on the prevention of conception, but mainly on women's changed economic increased our understanding of sexual problems. Furthermore, a chastity status, and for its existence fear alone is hardly a valuable that depends on asset," quoted ib. woman's Similarly, in speaking of preventive arts that make indulgence almost 185-6. " safe as man's, Mrs. Hale The result is that in future shall have for as we says; enforced but a spontaneous fail to be of special not cannot women an morality, which Women Want, benefit to the race," What 271. Katherine is intimately bound The title custom," 73 Anthony, separate says up standard of morals," Feminism in Germany and with the double Scandinavia, no. be like like and their morals men's! Name women may men, The Elsie Clews 74 So on Family, 348-9, says we should have Parsons, in her book of women outside well as either with chastity of men marriage, or as monogamy in men. Of course she recommends promiscuity in women the former, allowable as as And Vance but in default of it is willing to put up with the latter. Thompson simply " declares that woman is not going to stand up there [qn the high, cold code of sex 198. longer," Woman, fidelity]alone any women

not

"


FEMINISM

138

of takingthe prescription

on

will

see

to

it that

no

more

their conduct into their own hands, be requiredof them than of men.''^

of comradeship, which we have seen demanded for spirit is extend all human Not relatioris. over marriage, to only in and women, but in play,men work, as we shall see presently, married or unmarried, are to be companions. What is proper for for women to do and enjoy. to do and enjoy,it is proper men The sexes to be admitted be to are are never separated:women everywhere men everywhere women are, and men are, except only where decencyforbids. And how will that hold out against perfectequality?Already it is proclaimedthat the sexes should unabashed.''^ Morality, it is bathe and together unclothed we afKrmed, will be promoted thereby.'^ When get the vote," is reportedto have said to a Congressional female suffragist a Committee, there will be no signsbefore placesof amusement in Washington, open only to men.' not Men, apparently, are themselves themselves: eternal be allowed the to to amuse by feminine is to be everywhere,oversee take part in everything, do things," to are see life,"and everything.Women justas attend do. and men prize-fights, witness the Already women Women have complained brutalities of nearly naked negroes. The

"

"

"

'

"

in certain

"

other

and

places of refection and recreation theyare unescorted,althoughthere for the sake of respectfor the regulation, is the best of reasons able the tables are beingturned, and in Now themselves. women York a year or two ago entrance afternoon tea New to places, that

restaurants not

allowed

to enter

"

where

there

"

\ras

was trotting,"

not

permittedto

"

a

man

unless

the feminists, however, Pearson Among sees danger in the choice of this side Christabel alternative. Ethic of Freethought, 378, Chances of Death, i. 239n. ascribes the recommendation Pankhurst, who of it to men, simply denies that women, under the lead of the suffragettes,will adopt it, op. cit.^ 133, cf. 125, 135. 76 This out and then, and here and there. now Thus, e.g., Miss Jessie crops every Ph be spared), a professoress of physiology in a State normal (her name s may children of both sexes, and and college, asserts that adults as well, should bathe 75

of

the

"

dress

together freely and

without prudish apology." She does tried over and of thing has been over again, and quimaux, has never cold-blooded anaemic worked, except among peoples, like the Esor whose Even the high development. passionlessness is not conducive to giving up this custom, and it certainly must Japanese are now ^o, along with the civilisation. Let the geishas, when they become thoroughly sophisticatedwith western read the Christian Fathers, who lady reformers had experience of such things among the heathen. Iri the Apostolic Constitutions it is well said that women should avoid himself still more many-eyed curiosityj" I. 9. Cyprian expresses vigorously : "You behold one no immodestly, but you yourself are gazed upon immodestly; you may not pollute your delight,but in delighting others, you yourmay eyes with disgraceful self are polluted," On the Dress of Virgins, c. 19. Precisely as just and guietpersons have to be inconvenienced by government (always exacting and interfering) because of the misdoings of uniust and turbulent the pure have to be so put to persons, inconvenience by the impure. 77 L. A. Hine, to the Worcester Convention in 1850: "I believe that much of the desolates socie^is due to the exclusion immorality that now of woman free from a and full companionship with man. Let it be impressed upon all, that she has a right wherever he may to man that the haunts rightfully go, and I apprehend accompany of vice and sustained sex,' would be broken sterner shame, now by the soon up," Proceedings, 57. not

seem

to

be

aware

frankly, openly, and

that

this

sort

"

*


FEMINISM

I40

What is not saucy in the gander, shall no more be in the There will dead level be at best of one saucy goose. of these feminists know, or mediocrity.For, of course, none men.**

as

"

know,

in women is worse than in men for dissipation the children to be born that is,for the next generation. The next generation,indeed, is poorly provided for. For, while man is freeinghimself from the primal curse of eatinghis bread in the sweat is also seekingdeliverof his brow, woman ance from her primalcurse of pain in travail not onlyby means of but by avoidingit altogether, or twilight sleep," reducingit With the looseningof the marriage tie,there to the minimum. is coming on an indifference to the possessionof children. A who may be abandoned man or woman any day by his or her be does to not care so burdened, not contemplatingwith mate, to the other, or pleasureeither to resignthe children altogether of the other parent, or to share them to keep them half-orphaned And if there not to be children, are alternately. why marry at of divorce all at least till perfectfacility be attained? So be because dren chiltoo, is becoming popular. Or it may celibacy, wanted in the first economic for selfish not are or other place, bond and that the is increasing. marriage breaking reasons, celibacy At all events, these thingshang together, associated with a shall that determination sensual pleasure be none the less. Whatever their appearance the cause, these thingsmake mination at the culfor a civilisation cannot of civilisation; long outlive have And in to them. the most they begun to-day, appear nations and where the advanced classes, marriage-rateand and where there is disinclination the birth-rate are falling, will to rehabilitate them women where, for instance,young the great social evil of prostitution, discuss with young men the great social good with old women but will not discuss even of maternity.*^Maternity,indeed, is becoming an object of business as indifference, compared with such importantmatters to

care

that

"

"

"

"

"

and athletics.^" 84 Yet, says Mrs. Martin: experience the slightestdesire

"

The do

to

woman

who

insists upon

things merely because

being herself

men

do

them,"

does

not

Feminism,

327. said the aged Mrs. discuss this vastly important theme," is dismayed by the York Times, July 12, 1914, " one mirably adin otherwise call it horror, too not frequently aroused disinclination, if we .may These mention of the subject. modern women by the mere womanly young to be to have given little thought, indeed pleasure-seekers are quicklyfound young for which Nature thought, to that phase of their existence unwilling to give any such discussion, with shfugs of them. openly resent has specificallyendowed Many disdain," " the fashionable the thing it became 86 About among a quarter of a century ago that it astride. But whisper from horse-back for women a to ride physicians, set the last few would impair their prospects of maternity, put a stop to it. Within the fashion women. of riding like men has again become among years this method warning; but it is no longer heeded. Probably the doctor* have given the same 85

Simon

"

If one Baruch

attempts in

The

to

New

.

"

.

.


FEMINIST

DEMANDS

141

Nor do the feminist reformers try to stem the evil tendencyof the times: on the contrary, they row with the current, in company with the sociaUsts. The most advanced ones even urge on the descent. teach the of They right ceHbacy. Marriage, for to be entered or left as one's them, is merely a privateafifair, If," pleasuredictates. The state has nothingto do with it. remain it be the choice of certain of them, peopleto says one with themselves." "^ affair which rests it is an unmarried, entirely "

"

here. be at a disadvantage They must be if along without marrying, they choose,just as well be in as enjoyablea position must The spinster as as men can. the bachelor,even if she has to be helped thereto by the state: the phrase now she is,indeed, to be a bachelor girl," as runs ; for old maid she sees no need of remaining. Spmsterhood is

And women able to get

must

not

"

"

"

pendence,* honor," and indethe higheststate, insuring and freeing the woman to serve humanity,"and, like *" have life full of joy and interest to a a making man, it A ! is their because largefamily bugaboo, deprivesthe money mother of the higherthingsof life, those in which men ested interare for a nd ties her down the to sery nur(" seeing" it, instance), and domesticity.Small families may be tolerated,as not wholly excludingfrom those other things. And the smaller,the A British militant, better. who has adoptedpolitics her lifeas child is enough,"since a woman work, declares that one ought of course this cannot be done to helpfillthe familypurse,"and who has an abundance of children." *" One child,in by a woman set up

even

by

some

as

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

of a " Bachelor She adds Girl " in The New York Times, Sept. 14, 1913. " sentiment : It is far better to look out for those who already exist than that cannot be cared to bring others into existence for," according to the ever of living.Cf. Gladys Jones; for "It is more advancing standard profitableto care of one's living sister than to sacrifice her soul [!] to a grandchild who the welfare may it is a safer speculation," The view, ReRights of the hiving, Westminster never appear; is taken for one's soul! June, 1905, p. 650. Even material comfort now and 88 So Mrs. Celia Burleigh, in Brooklyn, said: "I the single women, honour will be they, rather than the married predict that the time is not distant when women, the distinguished and honoured," quoted by J, M, Buckley, The Wrong and Peril of So the French Woman York, 1909, p. no. Suffrage, New "integral" feminist. Mile. " the pseudonym of Arria Ly, proclaims perpetual spinsterGoudon, who writes over desirable for most state hood," "virtuous" withal, to be "the dignified and most and the only one that will assure them true independence," as reported in women, York Sun, March the New 16, _i9i3. 89 Christabel reason a new Pankhurst, op. cit.,135. This suffragette has discovered for the recommendation of celibacy. She to be chary about women marrying urges from of the liability account to infection husbands, 103-5, cf. 55. on 90 York Thrice-a-week Mrs. Lancaster, as reported in the New Dorothy Maloney She says she was the tenth in a family of sixteen. Dec. From World, one 9, 1912. Also Ch. V. Drysdale, in his The^Small Family System, London, to the other. extreme does not to "the to object even single child system." W. J. Robinson, seem 1913, " We because have advocated the one never child however, takes credit to himself We have [of children] system. always stated that in our opinion the proper number" is two or three," The Limitation a workingman," of Offspring, 84. So in general, but than two should children in other children," " too many more he also says, not have " " families well-to-do crime," because then a they cannot than live well and being This subject has been investigatedby Lydia K. Commander, who comfortably, 33-s. 87

3

Letter

common


FEMINISM

142

fact,converts

a

into

woman

a

mother, and

But it does function. physiological which is the physiological purpose,

(nor

not to

so

her satisfy two) satisfy

to

seems

would

perpetuate the

race.

To

the supremest indifference. The rate birthfeminists show of one's own class,may fall stilllower, country, of one's own has children is a not Whether and they care not.^^ one or ^^ There is in matter." no it, longer any duty purely personal do to demand of the no anybody duty making thing anyupon except If the reproductionof the he or she does not want to do.

this the

"

valuable part of it, be dangerously reduced it can duty, then only be through observance of this great new able." repliedthat such reduction would be proved therebyto be desirof

or

race,

any

"

"3

but brazenlyin advocacy, of small families is really, the qualityof offered the plea that thereby,instead of quantity, mony be improved.^* This idea is in harthe future generations may From tendencies of a luxurious age. with the ease-loving it has been taken up by many the thoughtless well-meaningpersons, But it deserves and advanced in all seriousness and sincerity. In

excuse

the former. the latter account, and none on that there is not an of reason to suppose atom Physiologically On the contrary, qualitycan be improved by restriction of numbers. all probability is for improvement with practice, and good combinations of hereditaryqualities are more likelyto be produced short of excess in the later than in the earlier littlerespect

on

"

"

concludes

that

uneducated,

women

"

the

prevailing American and

'

men,

"

and

one

ideal, among which

even

rich

foreign girl. The

and

poor,

immigrants

educated soon

and learn

is two Atnerican Idea, 45, cf, adopt, children," preferably a boy and a who tenants examples, 26-g; so among physicians, 44; landlords do not want have any at all, lo-ii. have many children, or who who to 91 Cf. Christabel Pankhurst, seems contemplate this possibilitywith a grim satisfaction, op. cit., 104. The Limitation 92 Clara G. Stillman, quoted by Robinson, of Offspring, 193. 93 New Statesmen, Cf. an editorial in in The Candida," June 20, 1914, p. 335We much The of the opinion York, May are Nation, New very 21, 1891, p. 418: for any nation in it that the most to be happy is for all the individuals likely way for an individual and that the most be happy is to have to to be happy; likely way "

to

"

12-19;

"

far as compatible with the right of every in life, other man to have his own as way of marrying and raising children as to This rule is as applicable to the matter his way. of life, and will be better other able ordinarily intelligentman concern every any it behooves him than to do in that regard to judge of what or anjr college professor editor can do for him. Neither of a legislature or newspaper need citizen member any his own of what to feel bound present happiness to any consideration postpone may hundred hundred He two of his country hence. neither see foreor become a can years be futile to do so. avert the future; and if he could it would As long as nor a to exist; if it is not nation is fit to exist it will continue it makes fit,the sooner If the French other people are doomed for one that is, the better. or room to any which be for deep-seated organic reasons, extinction, it must no legislationor rhetoric need make reach," In other words, we effort to make "fit no can people more any to keep it from to exist," or becoming less so. The Decline in an article on 9-1 Thus of the Birth-rate in the Westminster Review, Sept., 1908, pp. 268-73, J. Fizelle attributes the decline to women's greater knowledge for the welfare of the sexual of relations, revolt at its inequality, and consideration be better if they be fewer, the perferencebeing for quality the children, who n\ay be found before pasHm in feministic literature. quantity. This last may


FEMINIST

DEMANDS

children. Reliance, of course,

143

is

put upon education;but it is a false notion that education can make of innate up for the want excellence.'*^ The claim is that education itself be given in may better doses if there be only a couple of children, since very few parents

are

well

enough

off to give a good education to four or this notion is false. If restriction were

five children. But even taughtto the very poor, and confined to them, it would be a good because the very poor are so because of thing and principally their incompetency. The majority of persons in the middle a nd all in the upper, are well enough off actually classes, to give a better education to four or five children than to onlyone or two. In the first place, children in educate another. a one family many In the second place,with but one, or even two, the tendencyis to and coddle them, and spoil pamper them,renderingthem timid by from them all The recommended keeping danger. opportunities for as attainable only in small families are generally opportunities for havinga good time,with fine thingsand expensive pleasure recreations. In largefamilies there is more occasion for work for hard study and to learn to pass time without expenditureof In brief,a singlechild is taken care children of ; many money. have to take care of themselves,and of one another. This last is the better education of the two. Small families directlycontribute bad of the race through bad gestation, to the degeneration and bad b ad bad education, training, rearing, discipline.*" The tendencyto small families is furthered by the fact that all the feminist views lead up to the culminatingone, that women are The unmarried of their children. to have control of the number And have a child,if she wants have seen, may one. we woman, the married woman need not have a child,unless she wants now " and than she wants. Motherhood," it is said in more no one, " "' the new morality, can be sacred only when it is voluntary." "

"

"

95

Cf. Mobius, op. cit.j53.

This rather than quantity in a race. to improve quality There is only one way to breed little or the better quality already existing and breed much from quality already existing. In default of this, the next best nothing from the poorer and preserve the offspring of the better quality and thing is to do everything to save the offspring of the poorer quality. In our country, to do little or nothing to preserve And this need exists in England however, there is need of increasingthe quantity also. In an article on Quality, not Quantity of their colonies. and France also, because Darwin advocates increase in an in The Eugenics Review, Jan., 1917, Major Leonard taken to counterbalance these are in others," and because some types and a decrease himself boldly striving for quality and not quantity," p. as each other, he considers consist in the novelty for a eugenist to advocate to boldness The seems any 315. suffering must he adds that '* the fears " as to continued of numbers. Thus increase all the advocating an increase in the rate of production among not prevent us from in inborn above the average which qualities,"318. are of the community sections nation which he considers above the average, or why belongs to a race Yet, if one than counterbalancing the of the upper more increase should he not advocate an strata^ lower combining advocacy of quality and advocated in the strata, thus decrease (let us hope it is not quantity? But this article is a good sign of a returning wave occasioned by the war. a mere ripple) of sanity, 96

is

to

"

"

"

97

Cicely Hamilton,

Marriage

as

a

Trade,

255.


FEMINISM

144

"

"

to According to another advocate of this doctrine, it has come the of elementary justice that, since be recognisedas a matter lie in her should decision final the the has to bear child, woman is apparent if marriage The elementariness of the justice hands." "^ if wife is the nomically ecois only a pleasurepartnership, especially is It husband.'^ means her no of by independent married with the if the it man is not because a fact, apparent, for this his wife purpose. hope of raisinga family,and supports dutiful. The also state if it is sacred is Then motherhood only

should have a hand in the matter, as the state needs children for its own perpetuation.Law, however, can accomplishbut little which the state here. It is an affair, rather,of publicsentiment,^ foster by instruction. Law can help by givingthe husband can ber numfor divorce if his wife will not bear him a respectable cause of children (at least three or four); and tlie wife also,of for divorce,if her husband should have the same cause course, The instruction should be a supplementarefuse her children.^ tion It should continue to teach the of ordinary Malthusianism. thriftless and incompetenttheir duty to avoid having children it of doing so) ; and additionally (and permit them the means and competent their duty to have children should teach the thrifty and enough to fillthe placesleft vacant by the others. Yet the the if state can people,or the upper class hardly prevent it, bent upon devotingtheir line to extinction. the people, are among of propagatingthe species It is true enough that in this matter attendant its when the of with lot the disqualifications, women, much are overlooked,seems compensatingjoys of motherhood and so strikinghas the difference harder than that of men; that the for it by Jews of old tried to account always appeared, and so difficultis it to account for that that fable would a fable, "

"

98

Candida," he.

article

on

cit.,cf. Christabel

Refusal^of Maternity

The

Fankhurst, op. cit,, 102.

followed June 27, it was belonging to the unmarried woman: see p. to the objection which she cannot give an answer The father," 367. Cf. above, p. 132 and note. woman including both the right of the unmarried the married to to limit her family, appears woman

number,

next

not

as

"

need side by *'

against

sex

Scandinavia, "

defence ; and to side is evidence

to

Under

sex

slavery

"

her of to

"

it is clear '* and natural the wombless

a

The former is in an married In the woman. The hood on Right of Motheradmits 365; although the authoress ** from the child's right to a arises motherhood," right of "volitional and the right of to motherhood Katherine Anthony " so manifest " that the existence of these two mands dehealthy revolt of the child-bearing in Germany sex," Feminism and

the part with an up

on

of the article

97-9.

voluntary system of marriage (woman being economically independent) ilton, hardly bear a child unless she desired to bear it. Cicely Hamop. cit.,256. Marriage, according to W. Lyon Blease in his The Emancipation "become of English Women, a partnership," in which London, 1913, pp. 224-5, must the wife has both personal and economic independence, and for her both the birth and 99

a

...

a

would

of children is voluntary. At present countries be annulled in some if the husband is ima marriage may of the man's be freed because to give inability may potent. Surely, then, if a woman the right of divorce if the otiiercannot, her pleasure, she, and he, ought to have will not, beget or bear children. or care

1

"

woman


FEMINIST

DEMANDS

145

succeed even if it were But the fault is not man's, and true. itis his duty to see to it that the woman body perform her task. Somehas said that,if husband and wife conceived alternately, there would would be a third child. But then the race never have soon become extinct. Against that,nature has guarded by exempting one sex from the pain. The pain waxes greater and the strengthto endure of it wanes smaller with the advance civilisationinto luxury. Then it becomes the desire of women to take into their own of hands the determination of the number their children ; and if the men, in any nation,resignthe headship of the family or concede this rightto the women, it means the of ness weakend It of that nation. of is, course, a sign approaching alreadydeveloped,when the persons who have to suffer a pain,shrink from it. And it is a signof stillgreater necessary and degeneracy, weakness when those who only have to inflictit on others,likewise shrink from it. should be And as women the bearers of the children, are women their guardians. So say feminists. The the extreme more moderate themselves with claimingthat the mother must content be guardianequally, and jointly, with the father. This is now How self-evident.^ littlenature determines set up as natural and the facts that in the question, be from seen some speciesof may in others the animals the mother alone takes care of the offspring, both and in others neither, father,in some theybeingleft to their taken of care own (among bees) by their elder devices,or being in the primitive mankind maiden sisters or aunts ; and that among mother-age the mothers alone did, and in the father-agewhich succeeded, the fathers have been the supporters both of the natural in the primaeval mothers and of the children. If it was it is natural in civilised ages for the mothers to be the guardians, times for the fathers to be the guardians.^Should it ever pen hapfor the children the that the mothers (as equallyprovide be natural,and selffeminists expect them to do), then it may mother should be that the jointguardianwith the just, evidently to bear; but it is not natural father of the children she consents In self-evidently or just as yet, but much rather the reverse. that mother the fact is does of not most forgotten sayingthis,the and earlyrearing;for that has its own the work of procreation the protector compensation. As long as the father is practically

not

" The suffragists have been trying to secure legislationmaking Alice S. Blackwell : joint guardiajis of their children by law, as they are by nature. father and mother etc.. Objections Answered, This self-evidently just measure," 4-5. to denies the mother the suj)reme control of the who Man is the only animal 3 The Other Side, The Nation, London, May 31, Aberconway, young," complains Laura who takes care not is the only animal only o" the child but forgetting that man 19:3, who civilisation. has made of the mother, and the only animal

2

the .

,

"


FEMINISM

146

at least as supporter of the mother, he should be recognised feminists guardian of the children.* In case of divorce, some

and

This would give the first rightto the children to the mother. in instituted the if would be natural they marriage were way desire it to be. But with marriageas it is,it would not be natural or just. If any division of the children is to be made, it would the should have more control over best that the mother seem Every fatherless son daughters,and the father over the sons. who talk so should be providedwith a male guardian. Those should admit the rightof the boy to have a gliblyabout rights, substitute for his father a positionwhich his mother cannot state needs this to fill. The take,since she has her own position to prevent eflfeminisationof such boys." Also,to compelwidowed mothers to be the sole guardiansof all their children helps to from This demand of disincline married women having many. of their weakening measures. the feminists is one more There are, and have been, two theories of marriage. The one is,that it is primarilyfor the sake of the children (unions for pleasurebeing otherwise formed), and is a matter of duty (not and is permanent, unless its purpose is violated always pleasurable), unendurable. The other is,that it is it becomes or utterly primarilyfor the sake of the marrying partners,and is a matter children beingonly incidental, and it is no more of pleasure, manent perthan the pleasurefound therein. The latter is the animal and was the first to be enjoyedby kind of marriage,or pairing, and w hen mated while they liked each human men women beings, and women left in charge of the children other's company, were borne by them, in the mother-age. It is againthe feminist theory of marriage,and would again leave the children principally The former is the human kind of marriage to the mother. and it is man's invention. In (no longermere pairing), proper children take whom it men to charge of the they have reason believe theybegot,as they do of the mother too. The father also tianity, regulatestheir number, in consultation with his wife. Chrisfor a time,produced a diversion. It taughtthat neither wife should refuse each other's embraces," and husband nor "

shirks this dutjr and in the present system the father who 4 Of then, even course, forfeit his his wife or children, or is incompetent to protect them, should abandons and if she assumes and forfeit it to the wife mother that duty in guardianship law ought to recognise such cases. his place. The 5 The appointed male guardian, however, should be only co-guardian. The trouble to appoint a guardian to law is not that it permits the husband with the old common He to that guardian. him after his death, but that it grants too much succeed power the mother, except by order of a court, to take the child from should not have power unfitness should qualify disproof of his own on proof of the mother's unfitness. And him. mediaeval (" Remigius, a bishop or monk, thus interprets I. Cor. VII. 3 in his Exviro : id est, non subtraiiant Uxori vir debitum se planatio, ad loc. : reddat^et uxor Veterum Bibhotheca Patrum, riii. 959. ab invicem a coitu," in Bigne's MaxUna "

"


FEMINISM

148

will

things

again

over

will

his

the

own

dying its

on

way

is

no

is

thing

is

has

said

would

they

truth

of

portion the

0

ideas

Cf.

11

Hence

the

would

they

have to

would 12

13

have

to

cease

this

the

to

and

at

London,

Questions

if

Fortnightly

of

the

cost p.

Day,

did the

whatever 1912,

Hale:

If

man

from

suffer

[then],

Mrs.

by [1].

race

denied;

were

Adrift, on

of of

be

to

come

Woman

Essays

ends

the

hindsight

disparaging widely,

spread

the

do

existence

mere

its

that

threaten

best

parts,

of when

doomed.

The

Question^

make

this

to

The

of

The

Unfortunately and

widely,

says "

Review,

October,

1889.

29-30.

absurdity the

is

well

to

of

^^

existence

the

them,

Woman

cit.j

op.

not

likely

them.

seeable fore-

a

occurrence.^^

Ideas

race."

the

spread

But

and

not

are

of

for

ious var-

suffering.

optimism

entertains

among

through

go

and

mistakes,"

our

by

would

fallen

its

anti-feminists.

life

may

safe.

the

on

Mobius,

forgets

never

is

spread

Words

Plain

10

race

which

world

after

"

probably ruined

be

remedy

going,

are

Smith, the

ideas

have

is

by

even

such

empires

Misplaced

Goldwin

large

at

race

such

the

the

correct

we

^^

threaten

is, that

to

where

with."

might

future

correction

her

tolerated

been

matrimony,

the

not

ter mat-

among

Allen

although

the

error

this

may^mean, Grant

apply

to

first

meanwhile,

England

many

time

Nature

on

look

to

begin

to

elements,

present,

for

;

do

to

mistake

or

the

Owen

but

mind;

The

it

but

the which

aberration

of

classes.^"

or

Already

relying

use

Harold

sort

better

decayed. evil

It

its

of

rejoicing.

races

"

country

is in

large,

at

periods

society;

peoples in

out

world

after

of

those

of

the

itself

classes

or

out

of

true

right

always

wiping

had

it is

peoples

certain the

for

;

This

^

themselves."

righted

have

226. 201,

its

"In

demands

deny

not

activities to

her,"

all were

them, of

that

nature

Women

Wont,

it

claims, to

would.

to-day,

woman

IVhat

Feminism

derogatory

the If

these

species,

the

erations gen-

activities

165.


VIEWS

CHAPTER

VI.

OF

FEMINISTS

LEADING

We

further examine these new demands may heads,whence theywell forth in fuller and more

at

their fountain-

constant

streams.

Not those who

ure pickout this or that pointin a series at their pleasand those who their but or accordingto consistently taste, the whole of the things that systematically grasp sequence naturallydepend on or give rise to one another,are the typical Mrs. Oilman and Mrs. Schreiner of a movement. representatives the foremost livingleaders in English-speaking done are lands, outin by the Scandinavian Ellen Key, who has found a disciple runner, foreGrant Allen,the naturalist, was a George Bernard Shaw. Lester F. who was Ward, precededby accompanied by Such historians of the subjectas Bachofen, Eliza Burt Gamble. may

be omitted

the firstnot

inism, a friend of femand Ellis so fair the last a feminist as well as a socialist, of his a collector of facts that the feminist conclusions at the end of it.^ We book are mostly belied in the body begin with may school of the of femfounder Ward the as prevalentnaturalising and Pearson Ellis,

"

certain conditions Ellis objects to ** maternity under being *' practically know that the vast and Woman. 396. Yet he must criminal act," Man a (much less several of them) well under cannot rear a child majority of single women therefore society has a right to object to this becoming a such conditions, and introduce artificial sexual barriers into at liberty to are not any practice. '* We hoof the cloven of opposition to constraint. Here social concerns," 397. appears and to nature as of contrary leading to bad results, no; in the sense "Artificial" in accordance with of improving upon nature in the sense nature, but *' artificial " Without artificial some nature," said Burke, Works, iv. 176), yes. (" art is man's backyards o'nightsw Then, should be as promiscuous as the cats in our barriers we the respective fitness of experimentation to ascertain like Mill, he desires further continual for he adds of work," and for any kind experimentation; and women men the conditions for such be obtained, as solution can experiment that no permanent is dogmatic exaggeration on an This important point. the same." twice never are " have broken natural law such experiment is unsuccessful, the minority who When suffer. An whole nation true : the is not exaggerated may suffer." This alone world is misplaced. The is not be securely inlaw overthrown, so anxiety lest natural just pointed poised." The world is not, but a nation is. This is the error excrescences a of the last chapter. All these things are upon very at the end out Somewhat the sexes. the and accurate investigation of the differences between sound and be found in the their bases the conclusions may inconsistency between same feminism, however, is not so promiand Society, whose Sex nent. I. Thomas, work of W. each class [of he says strongly on p. 94, where It appears perhaps most because the race is substitutingother and of negroes] is regaining its freedom women for the latter assertion he offers no better But for violence." of decision forms relations in all our there is too than his opinion, expressed on p. 314, that reason the technique," and his hope that fighting instinct and of primitive man's much result in the reconstruction of races" will and the lower participationof woman to particiare pate habits on sympathetic and equitable principles." Thus women more our civilisation will civilisation is becoming more equitable, and our our because to participate! are women equitable because become more 1 Thus counted

"

as

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

.

149

.

.


FEMINISM

I50

and Ellen Key and hers, and after reviewinghis disciples, inists,

of the physiologist recommendations advocate of Forel,we may end with the most recent and extreme the new ideas,Mrs. Gallichan. who turned to sociology, The late Lester F. Ward, a naturalist, in 1888, in an article on Our Better Halves in The advanced Forum of November of that year (pp.266-75),a theorywhich but which,as he the gynsecocentric," he afterward denominated the universalised it of all animate nature, he should have named " the with the is that nature This female, began thelyocentric.^ male be to an afterthought"for the sole insignificant appearing of impregnatingthe female (likea Prince Consort!) ; purpose for any other purpose for the male exhibits such superfluousness " the lowest forms of Hfe," as among in certain of what are called of which Darwin discovered the cirripeds barnacles,in some or " " in with two littlehusbands a pocketon a female packed away is quoted of a female spiderof a cerher back ; * and an account tain pregnati varietydevouringher tinymate during his very act of imand reference is further made to hemp and some her, the males in which other plants, are by the females crowded out of existence after they have performed their office of fertilisation.^ have been the males raised by female Higher up, after selves the males, among sexual selection, animals,fightamongst themfor the females,but do not protect them, they protecting " The mals," themselves and their offspring.* females of all wild ani" he asserts, than the to encounter are more dangerous ' when angry," thus originating Female males, especially Kipling's however, the males have species, of the Species. In the human and select the females inverted the usual practice, (forhe thinks the female animals select their victorious suitors ! *),and the ornamentation of the male animals has accordingly been transferred to As the female among the female (at least in her clothes !)" the and

briefly glancingat

the

Pure Sociology, 2gyfi. In opposition to a possible arrhenocentric icf. Buffon: theory,or universalisation " model The male is the true of the species," Histotre naturelle, art. du Serin) of the old androcentric theory (the locus classicus of which is I. Cor. XI. 8-g, cf. I. Tim. II. 13; cf. also Aristotle and Schopenhauer, quoted above, pp. 48n. and 31). 4 The reference letter to Lyell of Sept. 14, 1849. More given is to Darwin's formation inthe subject may be obtained from Darwin's on Monograph on Cirripedia, 2

3

London,

1854, pp.

23-4,

27-30.

All these examplesare repeated with increasing gusto and enlargement in Dynamic Sociology, 2d ed., 1. 6551-60,Pure Sociology, 2d ed., 314-16, 320-1, and a few in The Psychic Factors of Civilisation, 2d ed., 87. 6 This, too, is repeated in Dynamic Sociology, ii. 617, Pure Sociology,330-1. It xs, of course, a exaggeration. gross 7 Again overstated in Pure She alone is dangerous." Sociology, 331: 8 " The female simply looks on [at the males fighting for her] and admires the victorious rival,and selects [!] him to continue the species," Pure Sociology, 331. 9 Ward here was The preceded by an anonymous writer on Changing Status of Women in The Westminster Review, Sept. 1887, p. 826. The is expected new status to restore their due weight in sexual selection. to women 6

"

_


VIEWS

OF

so species,

still"

speciesis at the

"

lower

LEADING

FEMINISTS

is the

"

151

*"

and as the human ^^ is woman." the fact in nature grandest top, Yet so plastic does he consider the human female that he maintains " that under the power of this comparatively modern male selection woman desire her whatever to become shall man may " be." Accordingly, the way is to civilise to civilise the race woman," (which apparentlymust be done by men ! "), and " the elevation of woman is the only road to the evolution of man." This littlejeu d'esprit, intended to pleasethe ladies,^^ originally might be passed by without comment, but for the fact that it attracted much attention and that its author,pleasedat the invention of a novelty, afterward elaborated it with all seriousness and it in his sociological incorporated system. The fullest treatment in his Pure of it is made Sociology,where is occupieseighty and reveals its inherent absurdities. closelyprintedpages, clearly " Here Ward life beginsas starts out againwith the assertion that female" ciated (p.313), which is as false as it is old; for it was enunis thousand and two over logical years ago by Aristotle,^* and and correlative the terms since male female are nonsense, exist without the other,what existed in nature before cannot one neither this distinction of female the appearance male. nor being in which male no But, holdingthat all the lowest forms of life, this conditioninto the past, appears, are females,and projecting for it he renews doubt lasted the assera long period,^^ no tion were of that "the male is therefore, a mere as it were, afterthought ^* At best he had a rightto say that sexual,in distinction nature." later from other kinds of, reproduction, as a development, But Nature. this is not of tenable. If even was an afterthought Nature thinks,we may well accredit her with forethought enough from the her if she later and to have planned products beginning ; of hers. To vary does not think, nothingcan be an afterthought " the words and call the male sex, as he sometimes does, only an " adjimctor incident,"

woman

does

not

race

;

improve matters.

in Especially

in Pure Sociology, 322, 372; or put in the past tense, 415, Psychic is the organism.* female cf. 87: "the "Woman's had written: Eliza W. Farnham, organism in 1864 a woman, 11 Already habiting is more complex and her totalityof function larger than those of any other being in10

Repeated

Factors,

93,

exalted her position in the scale of life is the most earth ; therefore our and her Era, vol. i., ch. i. sovereign one," Woman I expect that Woman will be the last Meredith's Pilgrim Script: 12 Cf. George Ordeal The Feverel, i (1859). of Richard thing civilised by Man," the history of the theory is given. Sociology, 207, where 13 Cf. Pure "

the

1

"

Animal. Gener., IV. iii. 'l^S ^7^. 111 of plants: "The Allen leaf wrote In a similar strain Grant 18 again 323. the flower is but a sort of afterthought," The lutionist Evois after all the real plant, and is followed who also holds that the ch. iv. Ward by Thomas, at Large, hand and brain is such an " afterthought," Sex and Society, of the human development 14

De

15

112

314',

225, 17

253.

Psychic Factors, 87.


FEMINISM

152 evolutionistis it absurd

belittleanythingbecause it is a late He now finds in the product in the evolution of the cosmos.^^ animal kingdom, and in the vegetable, even instances, many what he calls the lowest w here the is a male species," among minute and inconspicuous fertiliser," solelydevoted to this purpose, it is accomplished, in some and perishingwhen species than sacs, like testicles, even they are littlemore containingspermatozoa; while in plants(besidesagain referringto hemp and the like)he treats the pistils and stamens the true individuals, as and refers to the fact that the stamens wither after shedding their pollen,whereas the pistils developingtheir ovules go on (320). This last,of course, is purely fanciful,while as for the former cases (exceptthat of hemp, which, however, is not a low and is itself entirely their peculiarity is that species, exceptional) all of them are specimensof degeneration.Cirripeds, sembling though retheir be to moUusks, are by embryology proved erate degencrustaceans.^* It is true that female spidersare not degenerate animals,but the male spidersare, they (likethe drones of having found anythingto do but to impregnatetheir bees) never So also degenerate females. all the males {e.g., those of mosare quitoes) which live ephemerally, having lost even the organ for these in of food.^" To animals as among the lowest taking speak forms of life may mislead (and Ward was misled),because it of the beginning their development, suggests that they are near the and are of the human (or like) ancestry species. among branch or twig, They are, instead,at the end of an offspringing line of development,any more and have nothingto do with our than has hemp. Reference to them, therefore,is utterly less worthin the study of human sociology.All parasitesare degenerate,^^ and the males, having stillless to do than the females, The cirripeds not the only have generally are degeneratedmore. example. In the bopyrus (a parasitein prawns and other isapoda) the male is a parasite upon the female, and carried on her the bonella (of the gepyrea) the In a marine worm, abdomen. an

to

"

"

"

imitates here the pre-evoin his Psychic Factors, 61, 89, cf. 209, actually belittled intellect,treating it as thus dent Schopenhauer, who merely an acciSociology, 476. ; cf. also Pure Lankester, Degeneration: a Chapter in Darwinism, republished in 19 So E. Ray Ward's The Advancement ignorance, or oversight, of this is shown of Science, 29-30. cirriped'sdevelopment being ** normal " and of the by his speaking of the female " from her as difference perfectly natural and normal," Pure male's enormous Sociology, 3H, iii. the sexes only in the imago are 20 In the ephemeridae both ephemeral, but of course 18 Ward lutionist

"

"

_

"

"

.

state, a

as

in

all the

other

instances.

In

no

animal

.

,

is its whole

....

existence

confined

to

day. 21

Grant end

Allen

remarks

very

"

propos:

"

Parasites, whether

reproductive sacs, mechanisms Evolutionist ai Large, cfa.xiii. On of eggs or seeds," The E. S. Talbot's Degeneracy, 12-13. see

always

by becoming

mere

animal or vegetable, for the simple elaboration the degeneracy of parasites


VIEWS

OF

LEADING

FEMINISTS

153

the size of the female,and lives in her extreme worms, cases, like the cestodes or tapethe male disappears from existence,the speciesbeing themselves, many are hermaphrodite, hermaphrodite. In the cirripedia and Darwin therefore called the remainingmales merely complemental." Almost anythingimaginablecan be found in cite the range of natural history. Ward and his followers never the not infrequentcases of lower animals in which the males are largerthan the females. They overlook such oppositecases as the male carries the female about in which the bitharzia parasite, with him in a gynsecophoriccanal,' formed of folds of the skin";^^ also an amphipod crustacean, of which the male, twice his legs; also the size of a female, carries her about between with the male, after combat certain beetles in India, of which

male is only a hundredth oviduct.^^ In still more

"

"

'

others, carries off the whether

in

positionof

a

triumphantlyon his back ^* it is hardlypossible dignityor indignity, female

"

to tell.

it is true, there are speciesin which the male has degenStill, erated into inconspicuousness, performing no other function than that of fertilising the female. But the ridiculousness of Ward's what that he treats theory is, happens at the end of certain lines of one-sided and abnormal development as the normal condition The male in the beginning! element," he says, began as a ^" which and for about he a simple fertiliser," long period," of proof,it remained and still is throughoffers not a word out in of the lower orders of beings (rather, has become many certain degeneratebeings)only such (314,cf.322) ; and in comparison with the female was (and as he conceives it still to be and ephemthe spiders)very diminutive in size,and frail, eral among last he such This carries to extreme an as (375,cf.328). the primordialfertilising miniature to speak of as a agent throughout speck of existence." ^" This, of course, is true, still, of the male animals the all (and plants), even higher zoon spermatothe with female ovum (or ovule),as (or pollen)compared himself adduces Ward (324). He actuallyconfounds the male in the female and animals, primitivestate,with their own sperms "

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

22

Cunningham,

"

Sexual

Dimorphism,

Geddes

"

278-80, 307.

Evolution Thomson, of Sex, ch. VI. " 3. 2* Cunningham, op. cit.,27:, 254-5. of distinct in Psyche Factors: "The earliest form So 25322. of a fertile individual [the female] supplemented by an accessory 23

"

and

the next is a summary of the doctrine. page Brown Antoinette from the Blackwell, drawing same " The of the cirriped, without had written: male mouth nutritive or a gans, orsource, is a mere speck in comparison with the larger organism of the female," The have been This hint to Ward, Sexes also p. 144. a throughout Nature, 52. as may did not Blackwell But Mrs. generalise it or

Here adjunct," 86. Already in 326.

26

and

bisexuality consisted fertilisingagent

187s

on


FEMINISM

154

And then again it is only the male animal which and germs ! ^' is thus confounded with its own sperm/^ while the female animal is treated as a fullyformed organism,already developed or evolved.^^ The female animal (or vegetable)he treats as the "main trunk" (314),"descendingunchanged from the asexual, ture to which the male is added as a miniaor condition," presexual, or organism,"at firstattached to her, and when organ detached {cf.323, 373), whollyunlike the primary [thefemale] ing one," the changebeing whollyin the male," the female remain"

"

"

"

"

"

unchanged."^"

It is pure imagof evidence. all this there is not a particle ination obtained what Ward's induction from on by hasty part, has been observed in certain low forms of life, the degeneracyof which But he holds it; and he of course he has overlooked. knows that in the higherspecies the males are not only like the This shows that to them. females,but in many cases are superior than the females. the males have changed more Hence Ward's of Brooks's which he theory, quotes (322,cf.309), acceptance that the male is the variable and the female the conservative sex. The fact is,all that is true in Ward's pressed theory was alreadyexBrooks.^^ had Yet of course the female to develop by in order to differentiateinto specific and change first, tinguish trunks,disamcEbic form in which all life began. from the original Her variation at that time, however, precededthe appearance of the male, and cannot be compared with his subsequentvariation. When the inferior male appearedon the scene and was detached then Eve from Adam, reversed), from her (like must so Ward '^ it he t o state she went on hold, though neglects developing For

"

"

" he speaks of his having shown the birth of the male sequent us being, long subthat of the true of a minute organism [the female], in the form spermolder germ-plasm," 338. supplement the much plasm, " 28 At character of a formless first the male had the of sperm mass cells,*'375. " 29 This miniature organism [the male] at first parasitic was the primaryupon Darwin's organism [the female] , then complemental [remember to the term, confined cirripeds]to it and carried about in a sac provided for the purpose [on the female]. Its This fertilising or simplestform was [itself] a sac filled with spermatozoa. organ miniature the primitive form of what sac was subsequently developed into the sperm

27

Thus

to to

.

.

.

.

male

sex," 373-4. 373. Further:

"

As

322,

primal, ancestral being the organism

the

female

is the

.

balance wheel of the whole machinery. unchanged," 325, cf. 322 bot. ; "the female which remained sex practicallyunchanged," 374. proper, " is the originating and the female 31 Brooks: The male element the perpetuating is conservative, the male cell progressive. Heredity, or adherence factor; the ovum to variation and adaptation, through the male type, is brought about by the ovum; ment; eleis the essential, the male cell the secondary factor in heredity," and the ovum The Law Ward himself falls back upon of Heredity 84-5. this, and belies his whole "the branch" theory in the following* passage: In the higher animals is twofold, consisting of^two representable as double, approximate or contiguous complementary trunks, an active, positive,and progressive male trunk, representing biologicalvariation and adaptation, and a passive, negative, and female conservative trunk, representing heredity," Psychic Factors, 208, cf. 179-80. 32 We he says the female must that when trunk remained assume unchanged, he so during the process of projecting and ejecting the male, merely that it remained means although, again, how it could remain unchanged while performing such a remarkable understand so readily as Ward change, we cannot thought he did. 30

The

.

trunk, she stands


FEMINISM

IS6

that much, but absolutely not stop when these male made, it stopped when he made the female, and sacs were sperm from God's then the female's creation of the male began,differing only in being slow. And when the female's creation of the male Ward in the case of man, must man, say, and stopped,as finally

containingspermatozoa ! ^^ or not nothing ! God's creation did

cles

"

say, "could

does

that

statement

"further

that of

developno other

to

contrary

which

even

"

"

their women

his, as, for the males," that is,their

battles among !

creator

^^

size and

their Also

he less fit,

were

of

statements

developed"

is rectly diinstance,the

(370),althoughthis

further"

strength(375) beyond

their addiction to the chase, for cites as (another) cause of their

of physicalstrength.'^ acquiringsuperiority Yet why, if the female could develop without the male

could

not

develop without

the male

were

the

more

the

operationhave

been

ity, activ-

own

the female's

variable,and

since

pointedto).Ward

the

aid

aid,

if {especially

various does

male's

not

methods tell us.

for He

evolution,of the female

the development, or : altogether that all the words his times to at seem fact, imply present after that created such without males, then, were as species any males were detached from the females (who a long wait, minikin and under trunk of the the the influence of the were species), like the respecfemale selection developed,or evolved,to become tive females of their species.*"Of course this is too ludicrous overlooks in

But what his real view was, it might for him to have maintained. have he been difficult for himself to describe.*^ At all events the drove used sexual selection into natural ground. Darwin selection

to

for the

development or evolution of both the mostly along parallel lines,vdth species,

account

and females of all differences due to their different behaviour, such as the some species,which is explained, greater strengthof the males in some inter alia,by their greater addiction to the chase and to warmales

37

sperm ss 39

Thus

he

speaks of

"

the

development

of

a

of an testicle," 374, organism out Cf. 336, also Dynamic Sociology^ i. 613. Pure Sociology, 352, following Lippert. sac,

or

"

male organism of an organ!

out

of

this

formless

female which 40 "The existed the beginning, continues from but sex, unchanged; which did not the male exist at the beginning, makes its appearance sex, at a certain has a certain history and stage, and develoiament," 314. 41 Especially is this difficult because of his speaking on of a *' law that the p. 319 is the separation of the sexes," since his whole longer a type has lived, the wider to be that they were and that the theory seems widely separated in the beginning time the male has for booming like the female, and longer the types live, the more therefore the more But her, cf. 328. closelyhe may resemble perhaps this refers to has overtaken what the female; for then the male in happens after the male on, goes her and her: cf. 369, where to surpass to depart from set of Ward's one statements, he says that in the human the sexes has been ing widenspecies " the difference between during the past ages and is greater in civilised than in savage peoples."


VIEWS fare

*^

and

OF

LEADING

FEMINISTS

157

he used sexual selection

for by the female to account could not, in his opinion,otherwise be accounted for. But Ward natural selection, at times, not uses at all, or only in the case of the females (for if he used it of the tion would it not be enough in most males, cases ?) ; and sexual selecof the by the female (under which he includes the battling for the resemblances of the males males!) he uses to account with their respectivefemales, where such no explanationis ;

those

differences which

needed.

Darwin

used sexual selection with

the moderation

ting befit-

of his work, scientist; and if he devoted to it a largeportion of the because of its great importance,but because not was in universalised it. Ward standing notwithit, great diiificultyproving that the continued existence of under-sized male spiders, a

this

and

shows that of males of a similar sort in several other species, the females do not always preferand select and elevate and create males equal and similar to themselves fact for which Ward a "

account, except by sayingthat "there

of course are tions" exceprule his to (328). This fact,indeed,which disproveshis vival theory,is used as its very base,being treated as an occasional surfrom, and proof of, the primitivecondition of universal female superiority, although not one word is offered to prove that it is a survival and not a case of degeneracy. Yet Ward has also another rule,likewise with exceptions, but cannot

with

exceptionsfor which explanationby very

this

refers

once

explanationsare means "

the fact that

to

as

offered,among

them

of sexual the male

selection. For Ward fertiliser [i.e., simplythe

male] is a product of reproduction by the organism [thefemale], inherits the generalqualities of the organism it naturally i.e., of his mother! needed? The What is then, (374). more, very "

"

second male would resemble the female in all but his distinctive masculine thus to characters, or at least the males would come resemble their mothers through this law of heredityalone; or since stillmore their sisters, to resemble quicklywould they come their sisters also inherit from their fathers ! ** Now speciesare inferior to their then, if the males in some females,this needs to be accounted for by somethingstronger than

by

this

law

same

for the 42 Also by their combats treated by Darwin ; but it is not sexual

females. selection

This is sexual selection, and by the female, and never was so

was

so

treated

by Darwin. "

facts, that the offspring inherits its qualities from both he speaks of two has acquired such when only one parent [t.e.,acquired!] alike," and "that Sociology, ii. 615; and qualities,the offspring will only inherit half of them," Dynamic 43

Thus

parents

this he calls a the very from the daughters sexes

"

universal

first,the would

law sons

inherit be

wouid immediately

of nature," i. 612, as also in Pure Sociology,326. Then inherit half of the greatness would of their mothers, and half of the diminutiveness of their fathers, and the two less equal in sizel or more


FEMINISM

158

which is not absolute (as by a theory of heredity, degenerationthrough easy feeding,etc.),preciselyas their win's needs to be accounted for (by Darin other species superiority female's lace's Walthe sexual selection of on part, or by theory the law

of

theory of the natural selection of smaller and less obtrusive females,or by Brooks's theoryof the inherent greater variability of the male, etc, etc.),or as their other differences need to be accounted for (as by Geddes's and Thomson's theory of female and male anabolism katabolism).Ward, however, starts by

positingan

"

"

enormous

of the

females

same

diiference between

speciesas

the

the

males

and

primary fact,for which explainstheir present of the theorywhich

the planation ex-

close is not needed; and then win Darin resemblance most speciesby means evidence used to explaintheir differences ! As he has no for his alleged paratively primary fact,except the present existence of comwhich of all of few male inferiority, specimens very and as there is for by degeneration, evidence for the inheritance of many thousandfold more qualities accounts from both the father and the mother, which sufficiently between the sexes, the utter preposterousfor the resemblances of Ward's theoryis apparent. ness This idea of sexual selection by the females makes a strong and it said that Darwin be the the feminists to was ; appeal may is his prophet. Whatever of modern feminism,and Ward originator it woman! he to man now owes have, superiority may Therefore is reallyhis suis his creator! Woman woman perior ** be superiorto its creator.*' cannot for the creature ; the condition as that of treats Ward original Accordingly always he calls " the long prethe male ; which female superiority over vailing gynascarchy(or gynaecocracy)of the animal world," *' " " its "thelyarchy or thelyocracy."The female, though he means " the ruling at the beginningof her career, was even woman sex" this but (337),althoughhe pointsto nothingas indicating her who should mates her selection of be (her dictation of and her her of her guardianship (353 fathers), young " " These matters or were mother-rule," matriarchy," 3 39). 340, the male showed and therefore left to the to which indifference, female the former innately, and the latter because of his ignorance of his connection with the young. But Ward takes the former that the female governed " the life of the as indicating " horde (370); and the latter he without proof extended to the assertions that she "meted to the men" out justice (347),and are

accounted sufSciently

"

"

Cf. the implication agrainstCompte this stated We shall presently see 48 Pure Sociology, 328, 336. 44

45

in Dynamic Sociology, i. 131. by Eliza B. Gamble.


VIEWS "

that she

OF

LEADING

FEMINISTS

159

held the

to a strict rein,and held the male aspirants without saying for what.*' This origaccountability" inal (335) superiority of the female sex in general,and even in the human species,he everywhere treats as the perfectlynatural ** condition allude the male superiorwhile he cannot to ; existing ity in the human abnormal it as specieswithout characterising and supra-norultra-normal, (322), or "at least extra-normal,*** mal i t so(334), or treating merely as (296) and apparent called,"and therefore denying it altogether as a mere enon," phenomand sham a sort bearing the stamp of spuriousness of make-believe, of unsubstantial an airy play,or sport of nature character" admits He as sex-equality (331). hardly even where anyand it to as "partial" (326), obtaining, only referring he will speaking of "something like sex equality"(327). Yet tolerate if confined the usual expression of male superiority,' such as superior to certain acquired secondary sexual qualities ornamentation in birds and superior strengthof body and intellect in men, fail does he males.^ not to to the fewhich, add, the males owe This limited male superiority, however, he treats as an *^ of ornamentation or over-development," because the amount normal of strengthpossessedby the female is the longing beamount and the male's extra amount is due simply to the species, his greater power of variability(322),and is a mere male to efflorescence tainly cerproduced by the female's aesthetic taste it intended "unwhere not male and, supremacy" (331) exists, As he started out with the notion that by Nature.^^ the male sex in generalis an afterthought of Nature, so now it exists,was where he concludes that male superiority, never "

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

" in fact, that woman first statement in this most vital originally was was, " But there is no of choosing and rejecting her mates the ruling sex." is the ruling sex in saying that the choosing sex unless this sex rules; which sense is elsewhere had sex is the implication, and explicitlyexpressed. (" As the female in the most vital matters [why the plural?], it thus far always exercised supremacy would the dominant in primitive hordes," 338. sex might be supposed that woman prove world below in all the serious and essential affairs of the animal Throughout man, method of establishing life, the female is still supreme," 331.) This is an underhand rule established. Female is used without reservation be otherwise cannot what any

47

The

respect

"

"

"

"

"

on

p. 336. 315, 323,

"

.

.

he talks simply of "female "The female superiority," 317. and inherently superiorsex," and in the human is really the favourite species not " Sociology, ii. 616. naturally inferior," Dynamic 49 Psychic Factors, 88. to think there is something disparaging in saying of any somehow He seems 50 330. sexual character," as in Dynamic simply a secondary male superiority that it is Sociology, ii. 617, cf. i. 613, 649; Psychic Factors, 89, 150; Pure Sociology, 335-6, 493. sexual character, because a primary it superiority in strength, etc., was For him, female thus uses primary " and had priority in time, according to his unproved theory. He to sexual differences,in a novel manner. secondary," with reference that in our the male is "over-developed," race As Ward says SI33I1 375" cf. 320. Oilman, supplementing this by maintaining that of his disciples,Mrs. shall find one we over-sexed," is woman sense be said to have been cannot in "It intended* any by Again: 52334. Sociology, ii. 617. Nature," Dynamic *8

cf. 364:

or

"

"

"

"

_

.

.

,


FEMINISM

i6o

this he allows an importanteffect; for he agrees with Darwin unreality of the male beyond the female has re-acted that this advance inheritance by her of his and the female, on through the partial ing qualities helpedto raise her also (331-2),the creature thus help"

intended

''

by Nature,

and

its creator

to re-create

evolved in our ancestors alreadyexisted in the earliest was

375-6) ; only then then

woman

retained the

was

a

reality.Yet

to

" of " male superiority this much before they became human, and so

specimensof

not

was

so

great

nearlyequal in

being

in their "

it "

even

!

recognisesthat

Ward Still,

is not

so

as

our

(332-4,338,

race

since become, man," ^* and they

it has

strengthto

This the selection of their mates.^* discovered which Bachof en and McLennan

hands

own

"

matriarchate

and among archaeology savages (338-9), and which was a probably very long stage in the historyof did not know and society (340). It lasted as long as men man the condition and it that they were fathers, was possible only that the continuance of ignorance(344, cf.340), as men during then indifferent to offspring were they did not know to be theirs. that the children When it was learnt are a joint product of the from

in

its remnants "

"

"

"

"

"

"

and

man

the

woman," "

whereupon the male's long indifference

"

importantresults that would reversed the whole social naturallyfollow (344). It literally social revolution (341), producinga profound (376) ; system for it substituted the for androcracy preceding gynaecocracy. Paternityimpliedpower over the child," first of all implying and interest in the child ; with the mother led to equal authority in discovering between the sexes a comparison of physical : strength his paternityand accompanyingauthority, ered also discovman his power, which at that stage meant simplyphysicalstrength and [cf.336]. He began to learn the economic value of woman his superiorpower to exert in the direction of exactingnot only favours but services from her" of (345). Hence the subjection for themselves for men now not women; fought among only women's momentary favours,but for permanent possession of the themselves women (351), and then, to obviate this turbulence, sold and the women, and instituted marriage,which they bought the ownership of women recognises justas agrarianlaws recognise the ownershipof land.^^ Enslavingwomen (351,352, 376), ceased, "

then

it is easy

to

"

see

the

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

stole away

from

them

the right of sexual selection that " of a nd the female alone sex segis palladium (336),and, among

they "

"

53370,

although

B*

337.

larger and stronger 338, 370. 376.

5b

Dynamic

on

p.

338 the than

"

is that I females

statement

the

the

human

males

then

"were

siderably con-

"

Sociology, i. 617, 618, 630, 637, cf. 649; also cf. Pure

Sociology,355, 376.


VIEWS

OF

LEADING

FEMINISTS

i6i

all the animals,began to exercise it themselves,therebybringing "" about " a completerevolution in all the sexual relations," and nature's method, in which the mother is the queen."" subverting For man's selection is different from woman's. Woman's (the telligen infemale's in general)was of the largerand stronger and more But men males. choose smaller and weaker women, and in placeof intelligence spect preferbeauty of form.^* In this last rein have women they produced some improvement (and rei n in female acters themselves, men some flexly secondarycharcf.364), " the whole, have the same unreality, ; which, however, on and male that sexual acters charartificiality,spuriousness," secondary " " have (363) female efflorescence (364). Thus a mere Ward of sexual selection for the explanareturns to Darwin's use tion but differences it is sexual of between the sexes, selection now the and in human all the the And male, speciesonly. by ity superiorof man the greater size of his brain,Ward over even woman, for by man's treatment holds to be amply accounted of woman,"* be taken wherefore he holds that their present differences cannot " '" relative merits," here agreeingwith as a criterion of their true the pre-evolutionist he admits the labours Mill,^^notwithstanding " the at to of gestation some are extent, of the intellectual, expense, of the physical, are strengthof women," and their as theycertainly to givethe condition in that periodhas done " much weak physical "^ But males." man's is the superiority due, not to advantage to his advance (for we have seen Ward assert that the male could which in our not improve without the female's sexual selection, woman's in all but to degeneration specieshas been withdrawn), under man's sexual selection and abuse.** but aestheticqualities of this idea of degeneration did not make It is a pityWard use where he found it in for the male inferiority earlier,to account the process were tells us that if among low species.'He even us be reduced to the to continue longenough,women might ultimately " and become sponding complemental females correpositionof parasites " in the males Darwin's to complemental cirripeds (363). since such midgetsof women could is an absurdity, This of course relative in size Great not bear full-sizedmale children. inferiority is where there larval an of the female is possible intervening only exist in any viviparous se anistage; and therefore it could never "'

"

62

Sociology, i. 6is. Sociology, 353. 399363, 372, 376-7, 396,. Sociology, 11. 616. Dynamic 371-2, Dynamic Sociology, i. 646, cf. 653, Above, p. 50. Sociology, i. 646, 649. Dynamic

63

lb., i. 646, Pure

Dynamic

57 58

Pure

..

69 60 61

,

,

.

11.

,.

,

"

"

,

616; Applied Sociology, 232.

Sociology, 37". 372. 377.


i62

FEMINISM

mal.

But

of this absurdityought to have opened his eyes to the fact that the small size of the male cirripeds for by such a process of degeneration be accounted can as is here for future human female. the imagined beyond If, then, the greater degenerationof the male cirripeds of the the female cirripeds proves the natural superiority the cirripeds(and who can doubt it?),the greater female among Ward's

statement

of woman vance) (ifit exists) (or rather man's greater addegeneration spects) recan equallyprove the natural superiority (in some of man. The use is unscientific. of denunciatory terms If men in to are nothingcan be gained superior women, any way unnatural." If it is a product of evolution, by denouncingthe fact as "

be otherwise

it cannot

make

to

"

this admission

natural.

Ward

himself

seems

times at least that the patriarchate of the process that had begun in the

at

"

"

the natural

was

than

sequence

were discoveryof paternity (345). If.the discoveryof paternity a

would

mistake, Ward

discovery,it is

justified.As

difficultto

how

see

he

he believes it to be

a

find fault with the

can

true duct con-

" of it to which it naturally use fault should lie with the animals that have not made the

of the The

led.

be

beingswho

made

"

the

discoveryand that consequentlyact

perfect of it,beingimdisregard this throughignorance.Again borderingupon making

the "

adds

**

and afterthought,"

had

not

what does

"

does

But

this

as

natural than what some

the

at more

to

have

nature

its

unnatural it

or

she

of this is an idea that and what she her peculiarly action, unforeseen

of the mouth i s natural evolution, justas

is the less It cannot

common.

of

the bottom

later in

comes

one

overshot

done

Nor

is

woman

waywardly or under some is absurd,especially (to repeat)in

evolutionist. What before. what went

an

And

is first, have

last,she may

again of

over

having some which doingsomethingunnaturally

intended."

Nature

duress.

:

instances The idea is

few

"

man's dominion nature where seems

admission.Ward mark."

with

in nature any be seriously maintained common

less that

naturallyholds

in many ought naturallyto hold in species and that it is unnatural if it does not. other species, What

goes on because

unique. And

if you species,

and there be

ants, is

bees, for instance,or among

among it is

like,and natural

so

there may

arrhenocracyin the other.

a

And

be

unnatural

in thelyocracy

few, or in

not

even

in

most

only one,

the one species its exist of at one state may naturally stage development,and the other at another : in the human speciesandrocracymay naturally follow gynsecocracy (ifthe latter ever existed). What is,is,and else beingotherwise, is not changedby something its nature or by "i

Dynamic

as

as

Sociology, i. 648.

some


FEMINISM

i64

have thus acted in ignortrians. Ward, however, allows that men ance of sin the of of what they were doing ingratitude great informed them of it. mits He aduntil he were committing, they have acted their could otherwise : that men not ignorance) (in suffer who blame and of least all not to they are present men, But he implies that undo.'" from it as much, he says, as women less those of make men now a change,they will be to blame vice. do follow his adthem who, havingbeen enlightened not by him, For our whole social system, because produced under the " " " Under the regime unnatural androcentric system, is wrong. " there could be no proper family" he tells us, of gynjecocracy," " the primitive (351) ; and familywas an unnatural androcentric "

"

"

"

'^ society." Marriage he

pairing, to any as to man," as applicable prostitution, which becomes natural and harmless in proportion as it is more is one form man of it." Our hufullytolerated and recognised," '* all its formal in as marriage," marriage, distinguished of the husband in the various kinds,consists in the proprietorship ^^ looks upon it as essentially wife." Hence Ward a selfish male for he about the institution; children,who are forgetsaltogether he rarelymentions.^* its primary object, but whom Man has, according to the sexes to Ward, shaped all the facts relating pretty " mind." He has much after his own equality inimposed upon woman of education,and of dress,inequality of duties,inequality be changed: women of rights.All these thingsmust inequality excrescence

upon

"

treats

''^

other animal

as

mere

and

"

"

"

"

"

"

be educated like men, and have " the same 642-55). Even modesty,"a purely {ib., rightsas men " much of its human has outlived and " this usefulness," quality, " " of absurdities and irrationalities is now a serious obstacle mass must

dress like men,

act

like men,

Sociology, i. 656-7. of seals on a Yet he here compares rookery early polygamy with " a harem This seems dominion of an old bull." some to admit patriarchism even among down he tones the admission its naturalness 1 But by denying animals, and hence told that of the females bjr the male seal ; " for, although we are tyrannical treatment he never abuses jures inthe bull does sometimes gently [I] bite his refractory cows, or of females for men, brutal treatment being reserved them," the so-called brutal " is the female maltreatm-ent of the male, as in the Apparently only 347. the male often sacrifices his life and of spiders, where perishes at his post," case sometimes do unnaturally. 323, naturallyl as women 12 Dynamic Sociology, i. 617-18. In Dynamic 13 Pure Sociology, 357-8. Sociology, it is treated as a form of the kind of marriage known as polyandry, i. 622-4, 628-9. of those who 7i Dynamic was one see cannot 617. Ward Sociology, i._ any proper and a woman the day before and the day difference in the relationship between a man after their wedding. Pure Sociology, 397, 75 Pure Sociology, i. 633. Sociology, 356, cf. Dynamic 76 He does once, in this connection, allude to them, in Dynamic Sociology, i. 604. of filial piety, ib., ii. 443-4. In Elsewhere he objects to exaggerated instruction birth-rate '\ is treated the diminished for Sociology, 324, as no cause Applied the surest possiblemark of increasing intelligence,"whereby mankind alarm," it being the tyranny of the biologic law." from emancipate themselves 77 Dynantic Sociology,i. 616, 70

Dynamic

^1

353. under the

"

"

**

**

"

"

"


VIEWS to

OF

165

FEMINISTS

LEADING

the progress of rational development" (ib., ever, 639). Here, howWard

made the women distinction. Primitive men do all the work. do all the work Modern at least in theory, men, and i i themselves, "support" the women {ib., 618). This last does not execute itselfsuccessfully, doned. and cannot, and must be abanhuman But we must not go back to the primitive state, when work for must the them. We to men women compelled go " back to a stillearlier stage, that of all animals,among the whom labour of procuringsubsistence is performed for the most part by each individual for itself, the male and the female doing an equal share of the labour of life." Thus " the true progress of society must naturally completethe cycleof changes,and againmake both '' It is sexes producers,as in the animal and presocial stages." at the end to find that at the beginning, strange for us now among rule ! It the lower animals, equality the is still was strangerto find this modellingupon the lower animals recommended by an admirer of artificiality, and especially by one who a few pages further on the it is positively admirers and asserts that of nature objurgates ards shameful for scientific men to go back to brute creation for stand" excellence and models of social institutions {ib., of human in cannot But false theory we a expect consistency. 662-3). In the future recommendation. However this be, it is Ward's be free and equal.'" Therefore must the sexes they must both support themselves and do all other thingsalike. And differently tors, progeni(as conceived by him) from animals and from our own in the be future selectors of each must both the human sexes " the beginningof which he be other : there must amphiclexis," " " finds in romantic love,^"in placeof both the earlier gyneclexis " " (361); and consequently and the later and present androclexis racy, androcand to oust the prevailing gynseocracy is not to be revived but both are to giveway to a compound and hermaphroditic " " " and woman shall be both man gynandrocraticstage, in which makes

a

"

"on

themselves,"of course the planeof the though it is,really, free

to

rule

This, perhaps the

most

higherplane" (373),

a

animals.

lower

theory in

philosophyof probablyby no one been

remarkable

the

invented by a sane man, has acceptedin its entirety. Rather, certain parts of it,as advanced its absurdities in The Forum, where in the first brief exposition acceptedby the femnot revealed,have been unquestioningly were

historyever

This, apparently,is 78 lb., i. 652, cf. 661. "wide departure,"655. a society has made 79 sexes

"

the .,

condition," from

normal ,

of man. will be the enoblement of woman freedom "The Civilisation demands will be the regenerationof humanity.

Pure Sociology, 396, 401-2, 406. The modemness Finck's first his of own, 392, ignoring covery also Pearson's Ethic of Freethought (p. 401), so

'

^

which

our

,.^ The equalityof ,,the this revolution," ib., ,_,

of this love

,

he

claims

as

a

dis:


i66

FEMINISM

inists

such of the female

all-inclusiveness of the male through her sexual sex, her creatorship the unnaturalness and ingratitude of the latter'spresent selection, "

the

as

and primacy and superiority

and its unnatural uniqueness species, here.^^ But it happened that almost contemporaneouslywith EHza Burt Gamble evolved a Ward, and perhaps independently, rather in placingfemale similar theory,differing somewhat premacy suat the end instead of at the beginningof the cosmic

dominacy

in the

process. Miss Gamble

human

of Woman, in New York so earlyas the 1886 [priorto any of Ward's this subject] on publications year belief that the she became with the impressed theoryof evolution evidence going to show furnishes much that the female among all the orders of life, man included,represents a higherstage of than the mentions male" (pp. v.-vi.).She never development though Ward, who returns the compliment by never mentioningher, alit is unlikely theyshould have been ignorantof each other's Evolution in 1893,^^^ but says in the Preface that

publishedher book.

The

"

Instead, she takes Darwin, Geddes

and Thomson, W^al" for her she calls them ; but treats others, guides,"as them peculiarly. For whatever they say which she can utihze in her theory, she takes for gospeltruth ; but whatever disagrees with her theory,she sets down She trine to "prejudice." accepts the docof the greater variability of man, but deduces from it that does not represent a higher development, but the contrary, man because of greater reversion to lower types (37-9,42). She harps of man's organisation"(177),such "the imperfections much on to colour-blindness (46-9),and on woman's as his greater liability works.

lace,and

"

finer and

complex organisation, comparativelyfree from such her durance, as imperfections"(68, cf.66), "greaterpowers of enkeener insight (66),and other higherfaculties {yj, her "finer intuition" (67-8) and her "finer ties sensibili80) ^^ her altruism his egoand does she with contrast ; especially more

"

"

"

"

"

for instance, Frances of the Male in Swiney in an article on The Evolution in asserting that life Westminster and April, 1905, follows Ward Review, March there is sex differentiation, but only one sex, the female," begins as female," 276, that race," 454. is and remains the human Perhaps independently 278, and that woman Th. H. Montgomery,^in an article on mention of Ward) The no (at least he makes Sex^ in the Proceedings of the American Morphological Superiority of the Female the conclusion Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 190A, vol. 43, pp. 365-80, reached the standpoint of morphological adfemale is clearly the superior, from vancement the that in the invertebrates and the lower vertebrates, and still superior, but in a inclined to judge the greater he was less degree, in the higher vertebrates," because be a condition to of the reproductive organs of more embryological advancement morphological importance than greater bodily size." in Science and Sexes second History, has been 81a A edition, with the title The published recently, too late to be used here. finer " sensibilityis a greater insensibilityto pain, and this and 82 76. Woman's characteristics under Miss of endurance her ^greater power hardships are Gamble and of lower organisms. of lower races does not seem to know 31

Thus,

*'

The

*'

*'

"

"

"

"

"

"


VIEWS

OF

FEMINISTS

LEADING

167

ism,'' wherefore "

male"

she claims that also sociologyprovides evidence that the female organisation is superiorto that of the female in The because doing most of the (87). general,

procreativefunction, highlyspecialised ation organispossesses the more ** and Even represents the higherstage of development." the progressiveprinciple is confided to the female organisation (170) through her selection of the males. Because of sexual selection, the is female the primary cause as proved by Darwin, of the very characters man's which over through superiority has been gained; and as the creature may woman not surpass its creator in excellence, it is difficultto understand the process by which man through sexual selection has become superior to woman" which should have led her to (29). The difficulty, doubt the process, is enhanced for her by the belief that all the male's secondarysexual characters are developedby the female's "

"

"

"

"

"

.

^

sexual

.

.

selection of them such as his courage, energy, altruism (whatever of it he has),etc. ; all which she further believes to be stilldependent on the will or desire of the female (65,cf.62). Rather she concludes that her that the female is guides show ply the primary unit of creation,and that the male functions are simin mankind the supplementaryor complementary" (31) ! Man's peculiar reversal of this relationship same as in cirripeds reversed. A needs itselfto be beginningis againbeingmade ; for Pericles and the later philosophers tic altruisnow as in Greece under more are once coming to the fore,alongwith hetairprinciples ism (349). The dawn of "the intellectual and moral age" is have been debased by marriage (171), breaking (68). Women "

"

"

"

"

than

which

no

slaveryis

more

duced degrading (174),they being re"

slaves (264) ; and if civilisationhas In the present intense of it (176). in spite advanced, it has been for and to return to freedom an equality, attempt struggle and liberty, and of justice natural principles the earlier and more Wives made and mothers must be to advance," must so (7S). of the and be absolutely free, oppositesex for whollyindependent that of support" (171). This is the great complaint, the means that The demand shall is, they are supported. women support themselves ; for only then can they be free in marriage. But how they are to support themselves, this authoress does not tell. She but permitthem to do so. Yet to think it sufficientif men seems them to do so, with her as with the rest of the of course permitting without acknowledghelpingthem to do so ment. feminists,means

therebyto

"

sexual "

"

"

"

"

83 84

57-62, 74, 92, 107-8, 121, 131, 135, 167-8, 175, 209, 12-13, have seen, Mrs. Farnham. So already,as we II, cf. 35.

371,

332, 342,

348.


FEMINISM

i68

article in The Forum, Grant of Ward's the publication tory of the inferences from the natural histhe absurdity Allen saw Place in Woman's Nature, relied on, and wrote an answer, for the in May, 1889 (pp. which was same magazine published running into the other extreme, 258-63). Here, for a moment " in man the males are the race,"the females he maintained that " being merely the sex told off to recruit and reproduce it." " " of who inherit much There are women, to be sure,"he admits follow male avocations of these preferto and some male faculty, ; fail themselves for most the but in so doingthey ; they part unsex He followed their rnaternal functions." to perform satisfactorily Review of the next October in an article this up in The Fortnightly in which he Woman the of Plain Words Question, on tested prothat borne n ot be to hold it that as a slight we any [men] " essential manhood," so women should impugn our ought one ward, afterfour Yet in their only femininity." years equallyto glory Who Woman in 1^3,Grant Allen wrote Did, a novel.The human in which he went back on these views, and denounced riage mar" *' woman." In man's assertion of over an as supremacy self herthis romance, however, the heroine was not allowed to unsex in her feminine duty of motherhood, and, in ; but she gloried under presof her maternal functioning, the of want success fact, ent if it be such. conditions,is the theme of the fiction or satire, to sacrificeherself in Claimingequalitywith men, she was willing behalf of her sistersby making way, like Winkelried, for liberty.*" herself to slavery in marriage,and to man She would not subject " the function of maternity the best privilege to be yet, recognising would "a she into free union on of her sex" enter (p. 165), " " and ethical principles(91,for she was of the one philosophical " with the man of women, of her choice. intellectual type 139) soul at her death would of the world, whose To such a reformer " " to exist for ever cease (269),and whose God was a " dumb, blind Caprice,governingthe universe " (157, 193),it was ful shamewith than him live she moment loved to a man a longer (53), toward herself, since each should or to expect other conduct of him " embrace and follow every instinct of pure love,"which is " the strive " for the other's sake voice " of that dumb God ! and " never that panted for birth to deny any love,to strangle any impulse," She was in them."' to be independent and to resolved,therefore,

Upon

"

"

"

edition. P. 53, of the Tauchnitz such pioneering, which he admits would also recommends Forel require much courage," The Sexual Question^525. 87 206, cf. 74. treats marriage as a The author, in this connection,^ of monopoly This is an entire misuse cf. 80. of the term, 211-12, a woman a 207, man, by " of a class or kind. is possessionof all,or most, of the individuals To Monopoly of, a single article is not to monopolise it. Only a polygamous to have sole use or own, of his domain. be said to monopolise the women Sultan may 85

...

86

"

"

"


OF

VIEWS

FEMINISTS

LEADING

169

"

firstof if women to be free,they must are that all be independent," it is the dependence of women since " has allowed men and ethically; ** laws for them, socially to make and she would continue thus to do after her marriage-replacing visits from her lover,who union, livingon by herself,receiving should likewise live by himself,each and every one in his or her own house, without a servant (83-4). Such wastefulness is curious in a socialist, such had been the doctrine and the although

support herself

; for

"

Godwin, who and his wife, Mary practiceof one of the earliest, Wollstonecraft,for a time kept separate domiciles,cohabitation having been one of his pet aversions and therefore contrary to his dren Yet each is to be the other's {yj, cf.82), the chilprinciples.** to belong to both, and their support to be shared equally(91). But how, in general, the male mate, thus separated from his female had in supportchildren share that know the he to to friend,was ing were begottenby him, is not stated ; althoughin this case, of and her union with a man the woman stainless," was course, was, like Tobias's with his wife, not for lust,but for companionshipand the union for this purpose, like Bebel's acStill, count procreation."" is treated of unions for gratification, as purelya privateafabout to arrive, the woman air.*^ When, however, the child was had to cease her work, and her male companionhad to step in, learn now that the woman's take charge,and support her."^ We tions, was self-support only a temporary subservience to present condi"

since

yet

as

"

no

other

existed for way of each earningher own

be free livelihood." As

women

to

except the wasteful way intermediate condition,"before reachingthe final stage, it an "

"

might perhaps happen

that the

for the most part be made father,"such " a firststep " But " in the end, no be secured for each woman

of certain classes would independentat maturityeach by her " of the daughbeing the endowment ter." doubt, completeindependencewould by the civilised state, or, in other women

'* its annexes man-made institutions,"165, cf, 58, are of of found the innumerable customs one living is, course, among Separate South Malabar husband and wife do not live together, a peoples. Thus So also among the Syntongs in visits his wife at her family home. husband and his wife at Timnab. Instead of and among early Arabs: cf. Samson some reformers always go backward. our

88

Marriage and

19.

89

90

TsWt, VIII.

84,

220.

tive primibut

the

Assam, ing, advanc-

7"

should be friends like any others that they dear, very makes passible between men dear friends, with the only kind of friendship that nature of the utmost Here was a personal matter privacy; a matter which and women," 48. herself and Alan; a matter which earth save it was the grosson concerned on nobody est else to make inquiry or hold any opinion. They two any impertinence for any one concerned, the whole was chose to be friends; and there, so far as the rest of the world them took place between was wholly a subject for their own What sideration," conthing ended. 87. For Bebel see above, ii. 43 " a author here admits prime antithesis the male, active and aggressive; 92 The passive, and receptive,"98-9. Yet the whole plot of his the female, sedentary, and story disregards this prime antithesis! 91

It

was

proposed simply

"

"

"


FEMINISM

lyo

who do the hard work of the words, by the whole body of men world, and who would collectively guarantee every necessary and of the community equally. In that way luxury to every woman

perfectlibertyof choice and action be secured for should so women ; and she [theheroine]held it justthat women the mothers of the community fulfil in be provided for, because selves themthe men the state as importantand necessary a function as alone could

be well,too, that the mothers should be free So of any sort. to perform that function without pre-occupation free A to world would order things" (88-90). free world a It would

do.

who would have to yes, but hardlyso to men, and yet would have no more say in the matter

women,

support the

those scheme whom they supported. The after the the to be thus comes women are out at all, end, since, who do the hard work of the world," and supportedby the men, the their dependence would again put into the hands of men making laws for them, grasp, of power, which they would rightly "^ and ethically." The doorway has been enlargedby the socially women,

than

of the whole impracticability

"

"

dependence of

woman

one

of all women we

Mrs.

come

on

where

out

Oilman,

on

in

abstruse and natural history,and more

one

all men in

we

being replacedby

man

; and

with

this irrelevant difference,

went.***

Women and work on theoretical. She, too, has

her

seems

the dependence

to look

upon

other

Economics,^^ is a

penchant

animals

our

as

perhaps impressedby their greater numbers; superiors, often takes them for models, althoughto the rest of us the

for

for

she

more

to be our differ from brutes,the greater would seem progress in evolution. In human physiologywe have alreadynoticed her in denying sexual difference to the brains of men and error we

idea of reciprocity. Emerence feminists have M. Lemonche no ginia (Vir" his authority over who right man assumes cannot see by what , " has Nature that he given to man greater physical strength in order to protect the companion which tined shall make of it [woman] [Ji'c]she has desuse but the service other return shall see for him," but requires no Mrs. (which we has already performed) sentiments of using her high moral and Oilman sayingwoman ' virtue " to raise to her level Woman's New Era man : The Era, 8. essential difference,on account 94 Yet to a socialist this is an of the new altruism of share power with the weak to the strong and of men and with women. So Pearson, leave the childless women while he would to support have the childthemselves, would bearing women independent of father or husband (of the individual) and to be supported by (and be dependent on) the state, Ethic of Freethought, 418, 428-9, Chances " " But he expects that the hard work of Death, i. 242, 244, 251. of the world will not " " be left to the men necessarily alone, ii. 50, apparently the childless women taking part in it, but the child-bearing women being exempted, 251; and insured by the state against motherhood, 252-3, although the former not fore whereare likelyto be many, 239: the main of the (independent!) child-bearing women will fall upon support men. " " So again Charles would Zueblin economic for married independence get women " by having the state require that marriage, and subsequently on the birth of each upon child, the father " should " take out an insurance viding policy[and pay the premiums] proannuities for wife and children," The Effect on Women of Econormc ence, IndependAmerican Journal of Sociology, March, 1909. 83

But

the

Lebliclc) woman," says

...

oa

Boston, 1898, 5th ed.,

1911.


FEMINISM

172

to tion has been carried to an excessive degree,disadvantageous the race (32,33, 37), though no proof is offered of this except ladies and oriental odalesques the effeteness of certain upper-class

would to be the true sequence seem the lower animals, where the sexes that among engage in the sarne occupations,they do so because they are alike; and so far as in different (a secondary,if have become mankind their occupations To

(cf.45-6).

not

a

the rest of

us

it is because sexual difference), tertiary,

natures

Mrs.

primary sexual of gesprolongation tation their

different (throughthe and lactation and the development of the menses). But and in this,too, followingWard'' furthermore Oilman have

become

"

animals, finds a reversal of what is said to be very common among male is decked and out the selects animals the female that among for attractive purposes, colours and tail-feathers, in ornamental and the male does the is over-adorned while with us the female

selecting;all

which

is treated

as

"

"peculiar" and

strange.'"^

should itselfbe reversed,Mrs. this reversal of ornamentation but she wishes the Oilman does not go so far as to recommend;

That

selective power to be restored to women, expectingall sorts of There is little basis for anything here. benefits therefrom.'^ Among animals, when two lions fightand the lioness goes off with she is hardlythe selector : she could perforcedo noththe victor, ing "

"

else.

The

cows

in

a

herd

of

ruminants

have

nothingto

do

is determined in the combats tween beWhen drums the males. and several females a partridge in the lot he the call,it is he who answer picks out the ones Nor bee select the drone likes best. does the queen that flies alone her.^ and overtakes We need bother not selves, ourhighest therefore, about the reversal of sex-selection. Men by

with

choosing the bull,who

ing by consenting (or their parents courtcourting and women for within the circles or to consenting them) select, open admire most them, those who on various accounts they among admire them. Economic most those who motives naturally his Forum article," in which," she says, " was clearly shown the of the female sex," 171. Also Rosa of woman into "a 8854-5, Mayreder considers the evolution 95; 140. " " of the natural order of things," A Survey to be a subversion type ot the beautiful of the Woman Problem, 126. 97

She

refers

to

biological supremacy

is peculiar. " Men," she says, ** who One hood not reason are equal to ^ood fatherunder such conditions, will have chance to become fathers, and will die with no 186. The conditions general pity instead of living with general condemnation," new contribute half to the support that the father must of the children and not at all to are of the mother; the support he must merely be equal to her in earning capacity. As the less severe than it is under that test is to be much seem present conditions, it would fatherhood would only be eased under the new. 99

92.

Gilman all this: see Yet the ** competition " knows 1 Mrs. iio-ii. different from combat in other activities, there spoken of, is very or " ** of course, female in ornament used Darwin, spoken of on p. 55, it was exerted. to suppose only where he had reason

of the males in the competition sexual selection


VIEWS into

OF

play in

LEADING

FEMINISTS

173

be eliminated, while the economic regimecontinues, onlyby reducingall incomes to a level and abolishing all classes, by doingwhich the gain,as we have seen, would be small compared with the harm done by such socialism. But Mrs. Gilman is a socialist, cording and has no fear. Acto her, the economic difference has been carried furthest by man (8, 74), and the sex-distinction has gone furthest in is superior, because woman (43). As a creature of sex, woman in our species the female has been left to be female and nothing is more else ; ^ but man human, since he alone can engage in all which Mrs. considers to be all work, human Gilman work, of it has come to be wrongly except child-bearing ; wherefore much The considered masculine,"though it is justas much feminine.^ differentiations served their purpose in their day. The sextwo difference demanding care of the children firstproduced love and altruism in the female,and made her superiorto the male.'* But then her economic dependence on the male producedaltruism also in him, and raised him againto her level (124-30,131-5). This work is now needed (122, done, and the differences are no longer should abolish them and return 136) ; wherefore the human species of pre-human creatures" (72),growto "the healthful equality ing natural again (306),especially the women becoming more activities." This, in fact,is human, by engagingin all human the woman's has movement set in done : (122),along with being "the labour movement" (138). The process begins with the economic relation, by the restoration of economic freedom to the because the economic difference This female is possible (173). lack of faculty in women due to any or not natural,or was of sex inherent disability having the same (9),young women come

an

economic

age ; and

these

can

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

desire "to men (71),the same young of their own, at least for a while" ! (152) ; but it is have a career have kept women back who due to the selfishness of men, {cf. did." Now do what themselves that 262), not allowingthem to

energiesand

ambition"

as

to think of women as being " accustomed Mrs. Jacobi had written of men Common Sense applied to Woman Suffrage, 99. and else," nothing having sex, Mrs. Bear cannot do as do as a bear which is nothing a he-bear can There 351. In human society alone the he can do anything and the she nothing": well or better. For the error above. York see Times, Feb. 26, 1914. report of a lecture in The New 2

So

53.

"

"

"

has tended largely to expand the past subjection of woman "That 4 Cf. Pearson: instincts, I cannot deny; but may it not be that this very subjection has man's "selfish trained her to think rather of others than of herself, so woman, in itself so chastened to the world," Ethic of as a blessing than a curse have acted more that after all it may

Freethought, 378. Jacobi, op. ctt., 100. 6 Cf. Mrs. a

enslaved

Man

the

female,

"

,

,

her her

,

range,

,

,_

j

64; forbade

"

,.

-

specialisation, 67;

free

productive expression, 117, 118, her desire to expand, 70; Most enlarged activities which have developed intelligence in him, 19s. and forbidden to women, allowed to men 51, only attributes,"indeed, "were to their primitive ancesas tors," being still allowed to women old channels same denied

smothered and human " the

.

60; restricted

"

the

"

120.

"


FEMINISM

174

to come forward : longerselfish, theywill allow women all activities, ery, crafts,and trades, all growth in science,discovwill to be should as women, opened government, religion," be few generations will set them abreast of the a (62) ; and of the sexual difference will cease with the age." The excess men

are

no

"

"

"

"

'

economic.

And

then

woman,

raised to man's level him up to her level on

on

the

nomic eco-

the sexual, line,after having drawn will bear no grudge for her long but temporary subjection, sessing posfull knowledge of its "sociological necessity"(129,cf. 134-7)Here we have a woman-made philosophyof history perhaps the first (for Eliza W. Farnham's is not worth considering), and it is interesting. It is mainly inductive, going from the past trend of alleged Mrs. Gilman admits that events to the future. in in and roamed woods the primitive which the women men ages after a littleprogress up and independence, comparativeequality "

"

from utter brutishness into mere or barbarism, formed savagery almost stationary incalculable of duration; that the period into civilisation, subjected began when men progress which rose it ; and that civilisationhas been made as she conceives by women, f or of their sake the started the men. industries, Women, indeed, is that Her explanation children (126),but men perfectedthem. with work and content liked therefore remained women it,but disliked work and therefore invented labour-saving men ments improveneeded the spur of their passion (132); adding that men for them and for women, with consequent willingness to work throughthem for their children : love,she quotes, makes the world the world men go round go round, or, as she amends, has made remember i s curious when that the we (133). The explanation of the species members are representedas keeping labour-disliking from labouringat the most members the labour-liking productive an

that, accordingto Mrs. Gilman, women jobs,notwithstanding might justas well have laboured at them all along; wherein she selfish as to be not so much reallymakes out the male members be should this there However a be, why change now? stupid. less reached the end of their inventions? or become changed their nature stupidas well as less selfish? or have women " ? Gilman know that it Mrs. dislike work and begun to we says because we is time to change,principally are changing" (137). she says " the period of Then, recoveringfrom this ineptitude, economic dependenceis drawing to a close,because its women's racial usefulness is wearing out" (137-8). She thus attributes the need of a change to the process having gone too far : the difHave

7 J34J

men

cf. above,

p.

S3i

and

for its

error

see

pp.

27-8


VIEWS

OF

LEADING

FEMINISTS

175

ferentiation of the sexes has become excessive,wherefore it must be exchanged for another relation, of equahty and independence, will end. Other civilisations, she notes, have thus come or the race themselves not to an end, through adapting ; but ours, she opines, will not, but will go on much further,because it will make the " The time has come," she repeats, " when it is change (140-4) and be economically better for the world that women independent, therefore they are becoming so" (316). Yet she has said that such times arrived before,and women did not become so; then what guarantee is there that at present the movement of change, though entered upon, will be carried through? As a fact,such of change were in the past and proceeded movements commenced certain lengths, the civilisations went and only stopped because backward. Now, if the differentiation of the sexes, largerin the human ing speciesthan in other animals,and necessary for liftmankind into itsposition of superiority other animals,has over at times become excessive and consequently the correction injurious, would and bringit back to a to be to lessen that excess seem useful degree, which would not to abolish the differencealtogether, back mankind of other Mrs. the condition the animals. to bring Gilman confuses us. She treats all the human differentiation of the sexes, so different from their status in other animals,as peculiar, abnormal, and excessive,merely in comparison with other in lifting the human animals,in spiteof its serviceability species above other animals ; and then againshe finds an excessive, because of in mankind it amount and in time at one injurious, comparing one placewith mankind at other times or in other places. This last excess is the only one that,accordingto her own principles, would need to be corrected,since it alone has done harm ; whereas above the brutes,has done the other,which has raised mankind and would therefore to call for preservation. seem good, There is another wider basis of induction,employed by Mrs. conclusion. She notes that Gilman, which leads to the same " the lowest animals,such as and crustaceans," rotifers, insects, among but illustrated most the to familiarly us by spidersand them bees, the female is superiorto the male, the males among and more treated (shealso quotes ignominiously beingmuch worse than human the cirripedand spiderstories) females have ever of the poor been (130-1,134-5). Against this brutal treatment males by their superiorfemales she makes no protest, probably because it is " natural." By the way, if the females of these speciesformed a commonwealth, would Mrs. Gilman and other maintain that they ought to admit the suffragists naturalising arachnidan beings, or to males, because of their beingcirripedian .


176

FEMINISM

equalityin

the vote?

Then

come

the

higher animals,especially

which the two sexes, she alleges, the birds and mammalia, among she says, " the are equal and treat each other as such. In general, for the main duration of life on earth. female has been dominant She has been easilyequal [to the male] always up to our own race."

*

Lastlyin

the

upward

sequence

comes

the human

livingin

in

which, after it left the condition of brutes male became, and stillis,superior to the female.*

species,

hordes, the

What, then,is

and bringback equality progression, of the sexes ? or could this be done without reducingthe race to the civilisation? This is the necessary condition, primitive destroying inference at least if men to give up their higher industries are

produce a

to

and

reversal of this

sink back to the level of to show the same are

women

be said,if so, it may level selves themwork and to

; but not

capacityfor latter is Mrs. Oilman's claim,wherefore up " and women she speaks of the new relation between men a as The one higher relation" than the old sexuo-economic (142). restrictions being taken off,women like to are a released flyup spring {cf.317). This might happen if the restrictions were women

to

merely

men.

man-made a

thin

The

and veneer

recentlyimposed,and of

underneath really, same capacityas men. is only recent, is sometimes implied in the early speaks of the women

disuse,had

women

the

That the subjection of women by Mrs. Oilman, as when she German tribes within two thousand years, and even diate of our immein colonial days within two ancestors hundred years, as " " " " and free in comparativeequality comparatively (46,147) ; althoughher whole philosophyis that it began in primevalages. Its root, the mother's care of her offspring, is said to date back, " " ^" our and in progenitors, perhapsto the later reptiles among ; our speciesman's enslavingand feedingof the female is carried " back to " the earliest beginnings times (60), (64) in prehistoric " all astray,"they have " laboured up tosince which, though gether " " ^^ Not word is a through slow and awful ages." in Nature that offered has not created the occasion for the proof economic relation peculiar to the human species, perhaps,if she for the very benefit which Mrs. Oilman pointsout be providential, All that Mrs. Oilman does is to laugh at as produced thereby.^'' "

Forum article,171. 13s; cf. Ward's have already seen, above, pp. 51, 52. The of this we falsityof her explanation would The later reptiles 10 17s. seem to be those now livingl the proem, 11 See p. iv. nature's plan for 12 throughout the past ages, " was This," the slaveryof women the [human] race," says a follower, Gertrude preserving and humanising and civilising article on The Education and Sex Equality, in Annals S. Martin, in am of of Women Social Science, Nov., 1914, p. 45. Nature the American Academy of Political ana may, of course, discard time what has been serviceable But at one at another. need we of one a race proof when biologicalchange is supposed. The enslavement by another 8

"

"


VIEWS

OF

LEADING

FEMINISTS

177

the

position(for she calls it "amusing") that "the function of for economic maternityunfits a woman production" (17). Of but only that that course nobody has said this thus absolutely, function does at certain times unfit her, and in generallessens her capacity, compared with man's, for economic production, especially of the strenuous kind required by modern nerve-racking methods.^' Mrs. Gilman would only kick againstthe pricks,if she should deny this. Therefore she says nothingfurther on the subject, referringto the arduous labours of except occasionally in the past in those restricted sphereswhich some of them women leave. are now tryingto Nor is Mrs. Oilman's statement about the excessiveness of the differentiation between men and women either accurate or borne out by facts. She treats all women since the dawn of historyas that in because parasitic, dependent(62,cf.118),notwithstanding " " " " overworked (169-70); spiteof their dependence they are and yet in proof of such extreme treated as general parasitism, wives cite she the of idle and can cases (141), daughters only whom male parasites also be the rich (170),among may among " " is found. The term used, as alreadyhinted, in dependent the literal of being supportedby another without two senses of not receiving and a metaphorical, wages any work of one's own, for the work one does or the articles one or a fixed price duces; prois and the disreputeproperlyattachingto the former falselycast over the latter. Parasitism is undoubtedlyon the increase,due to expanding wealth; and it is increasingmore for women. due to the growing kindness of men women, among the opposite of And' this growing kindness is indicative of exactly the between ing indicatexcessive differentiation going on sexes, an which is takingplacenow instead a rapprochement, as it took placein other civilisationswhen they reached their climax. Mrs. which was refers to the Persian civilisation, Gilman very curiously differentiated the older than Greek, as having a more "highly " of Persian the and men as having womanly sexuality," yet speaks did, in fact, feebleness" (72-3). The Greeks under Alexander this women.^* Yet to liken the Persian men precisely movement is of assimilation,which has led other civilisationsinto decline, in This movement what Mrs. Gilman is recommending for us. rate birtho ff of the been followed by a falling our day has already and classes who have carried it furthest. those peoples among "

has not yet Still,nature longer useful, and civilised peoples have given it up. the negroes equal to the whites. enacted, often at the behest of women, to regulate all sorts of laws are IS Wherefore different from the case of men. and children (note the connection) the labour of women earlier: see Xenophon, Hellenica, III. iv. 19. Even 1* Quintus Curtius, III. 25.

is no made

,

,

,

,


FEMINISM

178 Yet of

"

has

is the

men

birth-rate." ^^ decreasing excessive delicacyof some

dependence began) pathological maternityand a since civilisation

existed

(which actingcause steadily

on

women

that

has the face to say it is the economic

Gilman

Mrs.

of

a

In detail she notes

such

factors

as

the

produced by idleness,which

women

child-bearing dangerous the detraction from the charms wherefore it is of by child-bearing, society-women caused avoided the increasing weight of care upon men, which leads them to defer marriageand to dread the burden of children,especially isation, civiladvanced of in cities ; " all which are developments renders

"

^"

"

but and

men

worked were

are

no

women

hard

essential to the economic relation between the women than were the earlier conditions when more

home,

at

help rather

a

freelythe human

were

than

a

mother

human

creature,"says Mrs.

woman,

the peasant woman, overworked, the more

is not

(182). Her examples of dependent women

are

who bore children easily, " The more burden to their parents. mingles in the natural industries of a

strong, and

Gilman,

"

as

in the

of the savage everywherewho

case

working-woman rightlyshe fulfilsthese functions good, but they are all the industries the

"

of fathers husbands, and not the independent or wage-earninglabours or work recommended. She cites the goodness of women's now clearlymarked off from man's work, as a reason why women's work should no longerbe distinguished from man's work ! To fads and recent some fancies,found only in certain circles in small of the world (compared with the whole), she parts very of some attaches quiteundue importance. The objection women fathers and husbands and the custom of some to asking for money, of their and wives our [inparts country]giving daughters " a definite allowance, a separate bank account, something which " they can play is all their own," is cited as exhibiting the spirit of personal independence[save the mark!] in women to-day," and as "sure proof that a change has come" (152). Further " of to-day,"the " Gibson new women proof is found in the " " the Evelinas to girls for instance,who are declared far superior " and Arabellas of the last century (148-9),althoughit was those " " of earlier times reared large families and perwho women mitted civilised races and to expand to colonise distant regions, while our almost like are gorgeouslydevelopedathletic women "

"

under "

the direction and

care

"

IB i6g. Here the strange she is followed that statement by Mrs. Hale, who makes feminism civilisation that has points to the utter stagnation that has overtaken every limited [to child-bearing and household labours] the activities of women, whether the so What Women Greek Oriental Mohammedan," Want, i66, as if those civilisations or Roman, or did not advance when they did so, and decline when they no longer did so! 10 of life," Mrs. Wharton It takes a yeaf, a whole her heroine out represents year, of the Country, 184. lachrimosely lamenting, in The Custom as "

'*

1745-6,

169, 192-3;

92-3,

169.


i8o

FEMINISM

ism, of

this

course,

of husband

and

would difficulty

wife would

they reallyearned. forward,

Mrs.

But

Oilman

the

not

be the

without

describes

since the incomes

occur,

without

same

regard

unduly puttingher the future

scientific

to

what

socialism

households

as

ducted con-

industries

as principles now are, being enlargedand systematized.Cooking, for instance,is no than weaving or spinning, more a family function and like them on

same

will be

banished

for, she

says

from

the home, and be conducted on a large scale,either on the ground floor of immense apartment houses, in a central buildingin the midst of cottages.^^All houseor work wiirbe specialised, other women being set free to do other the productivepower of the world (245) ; work, thus increasing than it does the education

elsewhere, a

husband." of children

"

a

house

not need a wife any more the So, too, upbringingof babies and this will be done collectively, socially,

^^

"

does

with great gain,since by specialists, forth fine children, but not bringing

some

of

women

are

capableof properly,

educatingthem women by (283),whose work, like other original labour,is a higherfunction,being collective, social, while is merely an individual, animal human, child-bearing personal, function "Even be kittens (74, 194, 183, cf. 105). may mothers," says Mrs. Oilman.^" Women, as human beings,it is the implied,have wider functions.^^ All this is but extendirig schools the o f of to infants care principle largepublic (286), her and the do t o mother, an giving ousting opportunity something which

can

else.

But

be better done

whether

other

and

men

women

will desire to have

children

So Bebel, above, ii. Similarly Lily Braun, Die Frauenfrage, 196-8. 207. the Pueblo Gallichan points out the prior existence of such abodes among and Indians in America primitive peoples living under mother-right; and thinks of living: The it noteworthy that it is women who are again desiring such a way now She overlooks Condition in Primitive that the idea of Women was Society, 143. originated by male socialists. 19 The Home, New York, 1903, p. loi. " 20 Mother In a lecture, reported in the papers, February, 1914. Cf, Weininger: it love is an instinctive and and animals in natural degree high a as possess impulse, that of human beings," Sex and Character, 226, higher, he might have said, than as Mrs. Gilman is extolling. And ternal matrue ones yet, of course, some women_, the very mother has affection no animal mother has as the human (or can have, and "Before all other author on an ought to have). things in life," wfote anonymous York Modern Women in the London reprint, Saturday Review (p. 303 of the New virtue of unselfishness in women; and this is just the one 1868), "maternity demands time." th" tendency inists femwhich have least at the present Accordingly women among " is to rank maternal love ") (which ever nothing in return gives, and asks into oneby below marital love (which is reciprocal) of souls fused two an pure Woman and the Republic, 312. a quotation in Mrs. Johnson's see impassioned love": In which the Bible, because Noyes, who preceded by the communist got it from they were isms, Socialmaternity came only after the fall; repeated in his History of American " animal Mill, or his wife, spoke derogatively of maternity as an 633. Also function, Dissertations, iii. 109. with wider functions, " to be found in certain classes to-day,'* 21 It is of these women " *' imitation mothers that Saleeby says, when they become (no longer mammalia) or is here half mothers, Favorinus quoted implied (see above, i. non.), who as by to look a tabby-cat in the face," Parenthood and Saleeby, they " should be ashamed Race Culture, 313-14 18

41.

240-2,

Mrs. Creek

"

"

"

^

"

"


VIEWS that

then

OF

LEADING

i8i

FEMINISTS

be reared at their expense by others,is not questioned if be the whether is borne the to or state, they by ; expense not overdo the thing,or perhaps (by preventivemeasures) may entirelyabandon it,is likewise left out of view. Mrs. Oilman does not share the "absurd fear that then will be needed " either bribe or punishment to force women pendence to true marriage with inde(91), because to say otherwise is to belie the praise "we adoringlysing to the power of love" (300), and she has made sex-union can plainto herself that a lasting monogamous " exist without bribe and purchase (115). That there will be sexbe pretty sure ; of course at a time,we unions, monogamous may " " but how and true lasting they will be, is another matter. Love will be of the economic pure," she tells us, because purified motive (300,304) ; but whether it will be purified of the sensual motive dren does marriage without chil(or "pure" marriage mean and to prove this her argument seems ?),is the main question, of sex-attracto run tion," follows : The immediatelyactingcause as she recognises, is sex-distinction. The more widely the the more sexes are differentiated, forcibly they are attracted to each other (31). Here she agrees with the apostleof romantic desires the distinction Mr. Finck love, ; who, however, on that account be increased.^" to be increased in order that the attraction may creased But Mrs. Oilman wishes the opposite. The distinction is to be deattraction will be decreased. then the Love will and then give way to friendship, which, she says, is a higher force, in the sense of belongingto a later race-development (305) a which Mr. Finck would he not with holds that statement agree, as the new romantic love is the latest development.^'Thus sexinter-human relation is to be friendship,which is rather an are

to

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

intef-sexual is to " stand beside than an (142) : woman If the scheme of his soul." ^* the comrade to be man as were such fullycarried out, and if it could be, we might expect some and would be companions with one another, result. Men women love

"

"

"

Personal

The litical oppositehe calls the "poPrimitive Love and Stories: Love "* fall m is unlike, not with what love with what is like them," 66. and women Men his theory, he was he invented 23 Not ignorant of the altogether correctly. When Romantic erotic literature. love is a late development toward the culminating late Greek of luxury. It period of civilisation,and in its decline, accompanying the refinement existed in the last periods of the Greco-Roman civilisation,though it may perhaps The mistake is made in his Bros, by Emil Lucka same reach a higher pitchin ours. York, 1915. .His highest love, supposed to be only recently English translation. New precedes and attends the downgrade evolved, is nothing but the unproductive love which of civilization. " had written: We shall then [when adWoUstonecraft [women] So Mary mitted 24 237. into " rational fellowship, instead of slavish obedience "] love them by men This is better than affection," Vindication, ch. IX. end. true talkiiigabout with " also expected that women would then tend their own gurity."Mary WoUstonecraft 22

Primitive

Love

and

virago movement," 175-6,

children.

Beauty^175-6.

542,

290.

Similarlyin


1

FEMINISM

82

as

men

with

are

accordingto the

with

women

differ from supposition,

little desire in

awaken

to

and

men,

of rut, as among some and Australia,^"and

They would,

women.

each

other

little^"

so

as

them, except possiblyonly at a season tribes of America, India, aboriginal

of the

primitivemother-age; " of duty,or under would or produce children only from a sense of like the socialised people state compulsion, Paraguay, where the half waked be hour before the rising married had to an couples free love would produce no more time. Among such creatures than it does among disturbance aijimals; and marriage,being but to the of friends,of no earthlyconcern comradeship nothing no law, no contract, no anybody else,would need no ceremony, know that this scheme be carried cannot anything. But we through, because, as of

as

Mr.

women."

the masculine

likelyin

was

Finck ^*

the

says, of

Yet

"

there

the are

elimination

constant some

few

men

and

thousandth already suited for it,and perhaps a hundred the human in the female the most of species, portion part of advanced races (140),those nearest to decline,have something made of the sort in mind. If,then,any nation's institutions were to this minute or abandoned, and accommodated minority, over, continue and will while other women to be, sexuallydifferent are, women

"

"

from

and

men

of sexual

also

of mankind and

objectsto them of sexual attraction (and and consequentlythe great majority repulsion), unsuited to such freedom of intercourse (of pairing would such there be soon parting), irregularities ruin that nation,causingwomen would ultimately

therefore

are

also of

disorders as meanwhile to be the greatest sufferers. and Labour Mrs. Schreiner in her book on Woman (London, likewise shows fondness for She finds her 1 ) naturalising. 191 model birds,assertingthat in certain of their especially among which abandon their young of as soon as species(all fledged) has attained its highestaesthetic, and one almost sex might say intellectual, development on earth, a point of development to has yet reached, which human and which represents the race no haunts humanity realisation of the highestsexual ideal which (5,cf.193). Here she is merely expanding upon the naturalist real genuine marriage can be Brehm, who had written that and

"

"

"

had their way," says Finck, " men and would in course women of tlie lowest savages, tlie condition differing only in their organs of generation," Primitive Love and Love Stories^ 66. 26 History of Hitman Marriage, 28-30. Cf. Westermarck, He refers especially of Death, ii. 104-5. to the survival 27 So Pearson, Chances of it in the Walpurgisnacht orgies and May-day licentiousness,21, 2Sft. Cf. the reviling of in Ben character act. IV., sc. i,: "You Johnson's Epicoene, or the Silent Woman, a ill May-day." Cf. above, p. 88n. of noise and tumult, begot on an sons and Personal Love 28 Romantic Beauty, 191, cf. 253. 25

"

of time

If the

revert

viragoes to


VIEWS

OF.

found only among

birds."

male

forms

LEADING

FEMINISTS

183

^*

She has also much about the more in rearingthe of animals doing work which we consider in the female, and about inherent young the female form exceedingthe male in size and strengthand often in predatoryinstinct in the great majorityof species the on earth (4, cf.76n.,192) ; all which is intended to prepare us for a new looks mixing of the sexes in our species,but wherein she overthe concomitant the difiference that in these animals female spends littleenergy in developing the eggs and none, or no than in the the male, more rearing young, while in the human speciesthe female does spend much energy in these occupations, from which the male is free. She is attracted, furthermore, especially she takes animals and plants, to the study of parasitic as them for the prototypes of what would be the case with women but for the protest made againstsuch a condition by the present which will be said in the next chapfeminist movement; of more ter. She even Mrs. who wishes to women Gilman, goes beyond human become again,for she wishes them to be virile.^" Both these feminists think the world is wrong and has been wrong; but Mrs. Gilman, with a littlewavering,thinks it has been wrong ilising left the savage state, all through its periodof civsince mankind it Mrs. to while Schreiner thinks itself, began go wrong in centuries three about our wrong age, having gone only ago their close. Here Mrs. Schreiner also in older civilisations toward than Mrs. correct is more Gilman, who is often confused of the upper and lower between the past and present behaviour to the earlycondition of undiiferclasses. Both wish to return ner of the sexes. entiated equality Marriage, then, for Mrs. Schrei"a fellowshipof comrades" (269), and also, will become between will be the sexes woman's the new conceptionof love "wholly of an affection between equals" (271); for what the to matter. Here man's conceptionof it will be, does not seem tion again is the ideal of friendshipin the placeof love. The objecof be diminution sex-attractiveness that there may possibly a the hard manual labour to the past,when she meets by referring for men's love (236). She did not unfit them of the women in

some

low

"

"

"

"

"

"

referred Brehm's Bird-life, Enirlish translation, London, 1874, p. 283. Brehm of the parties (with several known till the death of one tions, excepto its continuance speedy consolation with little proof of its generality), hardly to the widow's and in Shakespeare's (see p._ 200), like Anne with the slayer of her husband and taking up even Martin cited birds as animals that ** have III. More correctly Aime Richard Yet the constancy of some birds, such as true parental affection." family, no no held up as a model of old been to mandoves, to a single mate, has from or As for others, Higof Alexandria, Stromata, II. 23. ind, as noted, e.g., by Clement an model; extravagant by the hornbill of his setting mate ginson thinks the treatment " has kindly provided various types of bird-households to suit all Nature but adds that iv. 129-32. varieties of taste," Works, n., 245, 246, 247, 271. 30 So, frequently:65, 80, 83, 86, 90, 91, 178 and 29

only

Eigeons


FEMINISM

i84

had sepand women that in the past referred to, men arate work, whereas her ideal is of their working side by side,as virile compared with shall see ; and if in the past women were we still virile the then men were more our compared with our women, plated. contemand, too, their love was not of the high order now men, that the free and independent And againstthe objection " will be t o not women willing marry, she urges that there is no need of man's comradeship ground for supposingthat woman's would be diminished" (247-8). On the contrary, she says, "it " that is now toward the man is a movement of the woman going " " union of the closer toward sexes (265,cf.272, 289). But on, the closer union is of greater companionshipin work and in play, equal,common, promiscuous,Hke that of many friends toward friends,ever changing;not the exclusive love of lovers, many made Indeed, Mrs. Schreiner depictsa permanent in wedlock. to be childare coming condition when only a portionof women bearers, and then only for half-a-dozen years (70, cf. 60-3). dently Because women to do what has hitherto been men's work, eviare labour made as light peculiar they are to have their own like the and them be of to most are sterile, as working possible, female bees. And the alleviation may very well go on to excess, devoted to raceas here ; for in the case supposedthe few women for few unlike the a (very queen-bee,who propagation years makes than up for the other females) could hardly have more three or four children apiece. This would be systematised raceto her views her own suicide. If Mrs. Schreiner should convert But the rest of the to be. soon cease country, England would world would not stop on that account, and the British isleswould be occupiedby another race, with virile men and with women soon overlooks

to be women. willing Against such

within the si

Another

Character,

woman

"

"

amatemal movement

amaternalist, because

despite his opposition

an

to

the

she calls them, from raises her voice in pro-

views,'* as Ellen

Key

apaternalist, Otto Weininger, woman's and 71 movement, "

in

his

to

granting the

Sex

and

than to children and franchise to be classed women (any more imbeciles), ^39, may the feminists on (and the feminist W. L. George bases feminism Weininger's Feminist Intentions, Atlantic Monthly, Dec, 1913, p. 721), since he, theory of the sexes, which is also a solution of the man one question too, has a solution of the woman His is that men should refrain from and I sexual intercourse with women have of which moral et the race we no duty, 346. Men go, for the continuance such intercourse is immoral; and it is immoral, because in it a should refrain, because of a woman instead of an This is but a misapplimakes end, 337. man use as a means cation of Kant's well-known ethical principle. Kant himself never so applied it, and if lead to the condemnation of kissing, and this application were even correct, it would for allowing them others in exchange to use of hand-shaking. We have a right to use into servitude. We hire servants, though we In ought not to force any one us. may sexual matters Kant's Weininger s errors, standing out in principle only forbids rape. with of those still to be described (especially Mrs. Gallichan's), some strong contrast of the age, by himself described, 329-30, of the aberrations but without instances are excessive his apprehending that they mainly belong to the culminating period of an civilisation. among

"

?uestion

"


VIEWS

OF

LEADING

FEMINISTS

185

Almost alone among the feminists she laysstress upon the unlikeness of men and women, and wishes their different functions

test.

and occupations to be respected, emphasisingthe duty of motherhood the woman's on though sayingnothing part. Still, about any natural equality of the sexes, she insists upon the need " of the abolition, both sides, of every external privilege," and on " the establishment of their completeequality in legalrightand ^^ freedom." For for the personal her, as rest, the main object of the woman is to make the wife " of age,"freeing movement her from her husband's guardianship, and making her " legally " his equal,"or settingup both free and equal,"as absolutely much for his benefit as for hers (41,217, no). over, Woman, more" " is to have every human right as well without as within marriage (141),and, furthermore,she needs to be emancipated, not merely "as a human being,"but "as a woman" (56). Ellen Key perceives the error of the recent change in the woman from

demanding equal rights,to demanding equal and with actual sameness functions,similar application, men the danger of the increasing disinclination (181). She recognises of women for maternity, its and of encouragement by the amaternal of those whom she regards as the theory (172-3) "ultra" "extreme" feminists (127, 222, cf. 158), such as or Mrs. Oilman and Rosa Mayreder (and she would probablyhave included Mrs. Schreiner but for the asynchronism); and nothing could be better than her denunciation of their philosophy(17693). In her opinionit is not necessary for law to limit the choice of labour,as nature does that herself (182); for nature originally and women, made the division of labour between men principally with a view to woman's function of motherhood on (186) ; and division the whole," and the of labour upon a higherplane," which hitherto remain the same that has must as existed,"since it is necessary for the higherends of culture that woman shall fulfil what is in an ever her exalted most more perfectmanner of the and the new task, bearing rearing generation (187,cf. have of those feminists who would 215). Hence the error side with with side them in women working by men, compete and would o utside the this lack of home home, repair occupations and social institutions for the care housekeeping by co-operative outside which and work of children (41-2); is an competition and to the men, the evil both to the women latter's lessening labour for what into enter to employing matrimony, paid ability "to lose that should be the labour of love,and causingwoman and receives it character by which she giveshappinessto man movement,

"

"

"

"

"

32

p. 213

of The

Woman

Movement,

1909,

English translation,New

York,

1912.


FEMINISM

i86 from

him"

she says, should

(124, 106, 126). Women, "

as

strength;above long preparationand (42-3). So far Ellen Key which

be

ployed em-

their powers are possibleloss in time and all,in those fields where the work requiresno

only in industrial fields of work with the least productiveas possible, the

does dexterity

where

not

suffer "

epithetof a arrogates {cf.181) ; but hardlyso

she

deserves the

by interruptions" "

moderate

inist fem-

will

consider we She has demanded follow her to the end. two things:that the wife shall be free and equal with her husband, and therefore independentof him, and that she shall not be employed in work unsuitable to the function of maternity,at least during the years properlydevoted to that function. These two demands and she recognises there is no remedy are incompatible, " " under the present economic (124). These objectscan system " be realised only under another possibleideal of the future," when ests, interproduction is determined no longerby capitalistic but by social-political interests" (42). Ellen Key also is a but her socialism is the kind usuallydenominated state socialist, socialism ; and what she says about it is confined to the treatment of women. Women who have not children are to be employed her

when

we

"

(by the

state to

or

otherwise)in

them, but

the fields

who

women

have

the state"

alreadydescribed children

propriat ap-

as

be

to

are

"

munerated re-

(43). Societyby "recompensing her full a equivalentfor selfgive assessment supportinglabour" (163). The plan is of "a paternity the of chilmaintenance dren societyas a contribution to upon and a compensationof motherhood the state by (i49-5on.), the honour and oblation that the the service of mother receiving service" (218). This will "restore, state now givesto military the arrangement which is alreadyfound in upon a higherplane, the arrangement the lower stages of civilisation, which nature herself created : that mother and child are most closelybound that they together, above all,form the family,in which together, the father enters free [or not] through the mother's or his own ^^ will." For then marriagewill signify only the livingtogether mon [themating] of two peopleupon the ground of love and the comMaternal in law of children. take the parenthood rightwill the father will continue to placeof paternalright,but in reality retain all the influence upon the children which he personally is able to exert, justas has hitherto been the case with the mother (iSon.). In fact,marriage will then be a wholly perfunctory by

the vocation

of mother

"

thus

will

"

"

"

"

"

.^3

which

Through nature

his knowledge that he accords only to human

is the

father, she

beings, for' them

should have alone to make

said,

a

use

of.

"

knowledge


i88

FEMINISM

better

the direction of affairs than they. Men, though are supportingchildren in general, supposed to be willingto give

rightto

having any children they call their own, returning to the mother-right can (and paternitythe of on higher plane primitivetimes, though ignorance) and have raised women, the efforts principally to which of men the elevation which consists in forgetting the means was whereby from remain different attained. And to women are although and therefore attractive to men, it is expectedthat this sysmen, tem to all of promiscuitywill work smoothly and satisfactorily up all

rightsover

them, and

to renounce

"

"

concerned ! and the children who have a mother but whose father will be the state, are to be as well broughtup as children are now ualism who have a real father to boot! Surely if our present individd, deux must give way to somethingelse,it will not be to the state that makes the exchange will itself give way to or "this, those which do not. if not also a paternalist, A maternalist, is the physiologist Forel, whose comprehensivework on The Sexual Question contains but also some wise In suggestions, many very deleterious matter. and a return it he advocates an approach toward free love,'" to and of the matronymic period. of the practices excesses many He considers " the most advantageousform of marriage for the of free monogamy future to be a kind [withper(eventually missive] relative to the polygamy), accompanied by obligations of children and to the children procreated.Polyanprocreation dry should only have an accessory rightto existence in certain in or exceptionalcases" (182). His principle, pathological have alreadyseen.^' we agreement with Bebel's (and Pearson's), Penal justice has only More fullyexpressed,it is given thus : sexual in the rightto intervene [in the where province] cases the risk of being injured individuals or societyare injured,or run taken. He does (401). The latter provisois too lightly think a third party [thechild]is injured, not providedthe law of certain a obligations, mostly pecuniary sort, upon its puts "

"

"

"

"

unassociated parents. For he admits that of the principal one tasks of man's sexual moralitywill always be to restrain his erotic polygamous desires,for the simple reason that they are especially apt to injurethe rightsand the welfare of others (455) ; wherefore it is the duty of the state to penalisesuch offences. Or if undesired children were always avoided,by the which he describes of use common measures, anti-conceptional and recommends (althoughthat part of his work is omitted in the "

88 37

Pp. 371, 377, 384-5, S2Si of Rebman's Above, ii. 43.

edition

of C. F. Marshall's

translation.


VIEWS

'

OF

LEADING

FEMINISTS

189

American edition,under our laws of freedom of the press!),he does not sufficiently consider what risk of injurywould be involved In one to the nation that falls into these ways. placehe says: "If the objection is raised that this [obligation of caringfor the children every one is free to procreate] would lead immoral people dren to avoid [by anti-conceptional of chilmeasures] the procreation varied sexual pleasure, I replythat this so as to enjoy more for would be beneficial; this anti-social class of individuals would be ehminated by sterility" (387). But immoralityof this sort anti-social selfishness is in nine cases out of ten an acquired this point habit,which is not transmitted by heredity, so that from of view there is no need of eliminating such persons, and harm be done, because they may have other good transmissible may of education,to which Forel's own qualities.This is a matter doctrine may contribute, and it lies beyond the domain of heredity. Forel here says puts him, for the nonce, What in the class of have quoted him as speakwe superficial prattlers of whom ing.^* "

"

"

"

along the irrepressible George Bernard Shaw, his entitled to amusing play GettingMarried, tirades against the licentiousness of marriage and the intolwho for life to a man commit erableness of tyinga woman may under the of The murder and Old Maid's Right to caption ; the rightto bear a child, that Motherhood asserts perhapsthe is not one that should have sacred of all woman's most rights,*^ such with the obligasaddled attached it to as being tion any condition And now comes in Preface who the "

"

^^

"

*"

"

"

to be the servant

of

a

man,

except in the interest of

race

fare"; wel-

which would have provided and in spiteof this proviso, he did shut his not him with a very plainreason, eyes to it from of the fact that every all but the eugenicpointof view, and in spite

rightwithout exceptionis subjectto conditions,expresses his the takingof a husband the questionwhy to answer entire inability certain women, who dislike the should be imposed on domestic habits of men, etc., as the price of their rightto maternity" (153-4, 148). Reversely,of course, though Mr. "

"

"

28n. and Superman. edition. Cf. Man of Brentano's another be honoured suffers vicariously. But then The may woman 122. 40 P Mrs. deed Lady now does a noble her husband e.g., the former vicariously when " " choice he between must is double-edged. The for better, for worse The Scott the case be, or getting neither. dishonour Probably as or may getting either honour the expectationthat their own the former, on choose would honest women most in marriage, that As for licentiousness out well. Cf. above, p. 124. choice would turn except by the parties concerned, and their physicians. hardly be touched can that women have rights of their own not possessed here concedes that Shaw 41 Note have Then rights peculiarly theirs,not men here mentioned. besides the one by men, besides the one corresponding to the one here mentioned. Where, possessedby women, then, is the equality of the sexes? 38

Above,

39

Pp.

p.

"

,,

122-8

"


FEMINISM

I90

Shaw to overlook seems it,a bachelor must have the rightof fatherhood without the obligation with a wife of being saddled he may like: he might contract with v/hose domestic ways not one

or

for

women

more

clause about

twins),pay raise

of trained nurses, advantage,if he

a

child from each (with a contingency them, take the issue,and, with the help familyof motherless Children,with the a

likes,of having

and Evidentlythe state has a right, pie here; which is justwhat it has

them

all of

duty,to

the

put

age.*^

same

fingerin the

a

everywhere. Keeping

done

marriage,however, Mr. Shaw would get rid of its free divorce, at the desire of substance of perfectly by means either party, without as anybody askingwhy, easy, as cheap, and as private" as the marriage itself (203). "To impose a continuance of marriage on peoplewho have ceased to desire to be married he thinks as bad as would be to impose marriage on them against their will in the first place; while divorce by the the

form

of

"

"

"

of either party he thinks no worse than is refusal by one be free to discard the party in the first place (181). Each must other when tired of him or her (182). A woman, then, might action

one day, conceive,and divorce the next marry child without even the illegitimacy which Ellen

have

day, and

a

would

Key mise.*^ legitithat is matrimoniallyinclined woman discarded by her husband, Mr. Shaw says nothingabout alimony; but he has in mind another dispenseswith arrangement which that. old friend, the economic This is our independence of be achieved for them under the to state socialism, women, by after liberalism emancipates them politically (173,183). "Until the central horror of the dependence of women is done on men In the

away

with

"

of the

case

(he

the

means

for that of all

all

dependence

of

individual

on

vidual, indi-

be done possibly

with), away familylife will never be decent (164),and have shall to maintain marriageas slavery (182) ; for the we sexual relations may be made decent and honourable [only]by ** men." o f Yet if they making women economically independent then may be decent,he offers no reason for supposingthey will be decent. It is the indecencyof loveless marriagethat shocks these modern prudes: for the indecencies committed by lovers under no until

then, he says,

on

cannot

"

"

"

"

"

Cf. above, p. 132 below. Shaw would get the same promiscuity even more directly. " What we need," he in SociologicalPapers, 1904, p. 75, " is freedom for people who says have never seen each other before and never intend to see one another again, to produce children under certain public conditions, without loss of honour," Every great man might then liave innumerable would children; for eugenic women to him, as come breeders bring their to a famous marcs His time, indeed, might be so stallion,to have children by him. much that he would occupied in this way, soon cease to be a great man. above, p. i22n.; who also speaks of "the pure 44204. Cf. Pearson gratificationof sexual appetite," Ethic of Freethought, 406. 42

43


VIEWS

OF

FEMINISTS

LEADING

191

restraint they have no shown by the fact that

Their refinement is also sensibility. not only Shaw, but Grant Allen before in a in requiring the bride to giveher consent him, see indelicacy in A fine this live to pubHc ceremony.*'' societymay grow too world.*" But in general,says our coarse iconoclast, until we abolish poverty it is impossible of any to push rational measures "

kind

very

far

"

(202).

then, wait.

Let us,

the core of much of the latter-day (a few years ago it would have been called Hn-deand echoed by women. The siecle)feminism, sounded by men canker gnawing there is the over refinement of feeling, running into sentimentality, that accompaniesexcessive luxury. Feeling is to be the guide,and nobody is to be compelledto do what he or she dislikes. I am avoidable not to inflict painon another,if possibly but all is inflict another at events not to pain on me, much ; less myself on myself. Hence I am gation not to be bound, if any obliIn freeing no longerpleasesme. myselfI may inflictpain i s restored the other but on consistency by grantingthe party; same permissionto him or her, if he or she happened first to if theywill desire the release. I will let every one else be selfish, rule the of the be selfish. This is let me new morality. golden Each one is to live his or her own life,and let others live theirs. self. Each is to develophis Each is to look after his or her own Each each her each, the world is to own personality. or if any bargainonce entered consist of eaches ! Thus in general, there must be some in any way distasteful, way of upon becomes talk is else not so peoplenow one free,but gettingout of it, to be sure, while they last ; enslaved. are obligations, Obligations In the last remarks

we

have

fingeron

our

"

"

"

"

"

be dissolvable must some by incurring slight obligation if nated nomithis be penalty,mostly of a pecuniarynature, especially understood. If the one in the bond, or generally party but every

breaks

contract, the other

the

party is liberated. Hence

every

be unloosed contract, can marriage, being regarded as a mere is and the other desires the one when willing, by the one party breaking and the other denouncing it. Or, if only the one is from an agreement that has become irksome, anxious to withdraw that have been promsatisfy obligations ised ordered the and toward or the assumed, state, to by other, which, however, need not be forthcoming, third parties(theoffspring), be must not allowed to hold the other,though unwilling,

providedhe

45

The

Gibbon, 46

Yet

or

she will

Who Did, 85. They both probably got the idea from the carping and Fall, ch. xxix. n. 15. Forel into their opposites. For every know, qualitiestend to run we as " accidental result of libidinous indulgence the no whether or birth and every and respect," The Sexual by societywith honour be "looked should upon

Woman Decline

,

"

pregnancy

Question, 417

.

.

^

"

,

"


FEMINISM

192 her

him

in

bondage by denying the release. The yoke of duty is no longerpressed down and : duty belonged to the old morality, is now discarded.*^ Uppermost now of the is the sense agreeable, and the desire to avoid present pain, these form the cornerstone of the new morality.**The old belief that marriage is a social duty for the procreationof children,the perpetuationof the family,the increase and improvement of society,and the safetyof one's country, no longer holds. In its placemarriage is to be a union of friends, of children is the procreation to which only incidental (and perhaps accidental), a commingling of souls,it is described as being,though we all know that there is to remain one thing from the old, the commingling of bodies, legalised duringthe continuance of the connubial state,tilldivorcp comminglings. separates the partiesfor other unions and more in ancient old Rome, the Again as conjugium is being abandoned for a mere concubitus.^^ If these unions for pleasure, instead of it is difficultto see harlotry, duty,are anythingelse than legalised the distinction."" That love alone sanctifies sexual intercourse, is course, absolutelyfalse. What sanctifies (and sanctions)sexual interis the acceptance by both parties, before all the world, of the certain permanent obligations toward each other and toward fore offspringthat are to be produced. Without such acceptance bethe more all the world of these obligations, the partieslove indecent is their sexual intercourse. each other, the more Just view. the oppositeis the new tion According to it,the marital relabe enjoyableto both parties, must or (so it is maintained)it or

"

"

" W. L. George: Thus Duty is in a bad way, and I, for one, think that we should for acting without to be merely an excuse well rid of duty; for it appears to me the deed is worthy," The Break-up of the Family^ Harper's Magazine, considering whether reconsider one must the question July, 1916, pp. 256-7. In other words, every for himself every time. will need a new 48 article,p. 259, The marriage service," says George in the same of duty toward the sense the to be shall have to swear agreeable." How clause: we lost, is well shown pressed exby a sentiment against personal gratificationis now public over There is a riile forbidding midshipmen to by the Secretary of the Navy. from colleges a similar rule, nothing preventing them just as there is in most marry, A shipman midtliey have passed beyond the age of probation. marrying a little later, when been the rule and properly expelled, Secretainr Daniels, after having broken York Times, March (.e.g..The New 20, getting him reinstated, is reported in the papers " her If I were middy in love with a girl, I would a marry 1915) as saying: young his country, and let nothing like that [the navy, I would if it broke up the whole navy. the corollary and the girl I loved.^' Of course stand between his -oath of obedience] me and fell in love with other, anceased to love her such a sentiment to is. that if he ever all society: he if it broke and the other divorce up he would the one marry stand between of future generations let such a little thing as the welfare would not

47

be

"

"

_

him 49

and

his

love.

new

Marriage

unions, says

George, the feminists

ib. 722.

"

would

,

base

exclusively upon '

,

love,

"

Mrs. of marriage, John liaisons,hardly deserving the name Professor Nitz, When Martin characterises 210. says them, Feminism, pleasure," " of having the responsibility and consequence is sought for its own sake, without nothing else than a form of children, matrimony loses its entire purpose, and becomes monogamic prostitution." BO

"

Scarcely

more

than

"


VIEWS

OF

LEADING

FEMINISTS

193

ought to cease."^ The same principlewould apply also to the the instant parentaland filialrelations: they, too, should cease to be overlooked they become disagreeable, although this seems for the moment."^ for the But, principle appliedto the marital at best a flimsyand whollyunproved biological relation, theory is invoked in excuse, that gladnessis necessary for the procreation of fine

This oifspring."^

liberty(and

of

stuff is

the as libertinism) as the decay of all the

that it is as old The latest exponent

held up

now "

new

to

the lovers of

ethics,"in ignorance

ancient civilisations.^^* new moralityof love " " is Mrs. W. M. Gallichan (C. G. Hartley) in her book The Truth About Woman (London, 1913). Another opponent of asexuality(268is likewise a follower of Ward, with whom she she agrees in 70), she outdoes saying that the female is the race" (292), and whom of the female's biological by maintainingthat by reason "

of this

"

bond there exists no of "Sexual Cf. also Christabel Pankhurst: intercourse, where and spiritualsympathy, is beneath is forbidden human dignity. Such intercourse herself than other sin/' Plain Facts about more a strictly hy Nature any Great Evil, 35. be sure, there is no sexual intercourse B2 To here, but living together is an intimate intercourse which other people against their will, any ought not to be imposed upon ffl

love

.

.

.

.

.

.

husbands and wives. than It is a hardship to compel to live with parents upon children If they prefer others, why should they not adopt them, they do not love. have nothing more and their own And children need turn to the state? over grown love is a natural to do with impulse that they do not love. For, of course, parents between children be commanded at least no and than between cannot more parents who husband and wife. Godwin, long before our present-day dilettanti treated marriage his theory, held that in a state of equality [of only as friendship, and acted upon and is of the sexes] it will be a question of no who importance, to know property of each individual child. It is aristocracy,self-love,and the parent family pride that teach it at present. I ought to prefer no to set a value human us other, being to anupon because that being is my but because, for reasons father, my wife, or my son, all understandings, that which to being is entitled to preference," equally appear Political Justice, VIII. viii. This is only carryingout the principle to the bitter end. '* 63 If Weininger's law " of sexual be correct, then attraction the mating of the males and most sexually complementary each attract females, who other, might give "the best results," 5ejr and Character, 29-30, do not 36. But their characters change with every of passion; nor is this corollary of his law change W. (which is what L. feminism above on: i84n.) so plain as his law itself. George bases modem p. Weininger himself, in a note, admits that 'for the breeders, whose specialpurposes is to modify object often natural The tendencies, will often disregard this law." " best results above referred those which imitative of the parents. most are to, are If the parents themselves do deserve not their to be imitated, these results from passionate mating are not desirable. The esa of this new have leading advocates the best intentions, morality, of course, and believe they are offering to the world ceived desomething fine and noble. They are by the fact that they are aiming at the happiness of everybody ; which tainly ceris unobjectionable. But they place happiness in freedom from constraint, and extend this to women if men as already had it. Herein they err, as they do not perceive that in allowing this to others they are that claiming it for themselves, and else is the definition of selfishness. nothing The socialists have tions; equally good intenbut intentions do not always realise their intent. Mr. Blease that there asserts is no the laxity of morals analogy between and at the fall of Rome this new ment, movebecause of the loftiness of its purpose, the purity of its motive, the emphasis which it lays upon the dignityof motherhood and the solemn duty of the women to maintain the purity and vigour of the race," The Emancipation of English fVomen, 226. But have that the emancipation of the Roman we no reason to suppose women was likewise done with not good intentions, although we know that the results were sirable. undemore

"

"

"

S4

F.

114

of

the

work

to

be cited.


FEMINISM

194

began the firstproductiveoperations is woman's nature of human society(22-3, 124, 144), man's being destructive,^^ the constructive, overlooking especially in that in the periodsof civilisationproper, men, spiteof their anabolism,^^and because

women

constructive than greater destructiveness,have been far more the of this,and because the female sex was women ; and by reason

species original(49-50, quotingWard), and also in the human in the dominant force took the lead (44,249), and women were the early mother-age (139-40, cf. 153, 169-70, 173), therefore the female is not now, as Ward held,the passivesex,^^but woman is still and forever the predominant sex,^^and all progress has rested and does rest on her (44,cf.238, 251, 261). This is due first is natural and what view that what came to the erroneous conventional is applied followed is unnatural,artificial, or ; which the sexes to the relation between (16,21-2, 25, 34, 125, 140, 183, Gallichan had a rightto say was what all Mrs. although 206), " that there been has reversal of the she also does say a early in human its o f the and the female, species," ment replacesuperiority " ^" the of male." she the cannot Here, too, superiority by keep consistency;for the intermediarystage of sexual equality the animals in the marshe treats as the best,findingit among riages of birds,which, like Mrs. Schreiner,she placesabove ours, in the contractural marriages of the later mankind and among and Romans, which she recommends as Egyptians,Babylonians, 65

22,

42,

5411., here

relying

on

Geddes

and

Thomson.

in 383, and in her later work. The Position of Woman Primitive to the New York (the references are Society, London, edition, published 1914 the title of The under Age of Mother-Power) Similarly Earl Barnes treats 246. 60

22,

24.

124,

13s,

247,

262,

,

its destroyers, Woman's of life and men Place in the New the conservers as Acad, of Pol. and Soc, Science, Nov., 1914, p. 10. of the Amer. Civilisation,Annals She outdoes Mrs. Gilman 57 son., still is the even by asserting that woman 250-3. of the male, though not to be desired, 66, 252-7, openly as were as pursuer 309, 317, " Woman is not over-sexed," but "wrongly authoress now sexed," 265. The 352. commits also the same It is only fallacy as Mrs. Gilman, above, p. 178, explaining: under the fully established patriarchal system, with its unequal development of the of weakness to women," that motherhood is a source 264, although the weakness sexes, motherhood did not the patriarchal system of not exist when being able to undertake at its height (was that was fully established "), cf. 280, but has always appeared when began to break down, cf. 197. system 68 Pp. v., viii.,67, likewise 257, 383. cf. 68, 251, 267, 291, 384, 385. " Mrs. Gallichan the spider and cirriped and quotes stories, and treats the latter as a delightful case blow knock-down to the tlieory of the natural a superiority of the male,*' and as the true origin of the sexes," the female showing creating the male as her assistant, *' his sole function being her impregnation," 52-3, 73, 74. Men the place of women in the leadership, cf- 144-5* "usurped" 59249, 247. that all revolutions She overlooks the point of 168, 171, 206. usurpations from are their heirs), and view of the displaced(and treated are as by impartial onlookers such, or are justified, according to the results. Time, also, legitimises,the acquiescence of the conquered proving the fitness^ of the conquerors. Furthermore, in denouncing she forgets her own the later development of male that there statement superiority, be no can upward change which is not in accord with the laws of Nature," 48. Her had started and been inferior always and everywhere position is, that if the female outlook would be hopeless, 49; cf. the later work, 7-8, Yet the to the male, woman's fact that the female started superiorand has been excelled would by men, to seem women's of (again) reaching equality still more make chances desperate: cf. above, women

as

*'

"

**

"

"

p.

54.


196

FEMINISM "

this is to be accomwhatever means plished for Mrs. into the enter Gallichan does not (256) ; Men and women details of socialism.^^ work "togetheras must " " side by side with the lovers and comrades (68) : the mother father " both " in the home and in the largerhome of the state " (175). They must co-operate in the framing of laws (352) : the franchise is treated as a matter that women of to have are interest both the of Law love in the must race course. regulate in the interest of the race, by and of the individual (240)

gained by

women

"

by

"

"

(340-1, accepting marriage (349,cf.338), preferablymonogamy children and bidding forand for the (348), 352), requiringprovision degeneratesfrom reproducingtheir like (345-6,355, cf. 257), because of the prenatalrightof every child to be well born (17, 256) ; and in the interest of the individual, by permitting idea of shame without or delinquency," divorce, any "* relief from misfortune which is also in the a merely as ; "

"

"

interest of the race,

is an unfit the unfit wife or husband basis here comes in the unproved biological parent (355) and be givengladlyto be givenwell (263,342, cf.345). life must " The fundamental ideal moralityis that principleof the new love and marriage must always coincide,and, therefore, when love ceases the bond should be broken.*^ Mrs. Gallichan admits

because

"

"

"

in practice, to keep difficulty from advocates, degeneratinginto for, accordingto her, the ; some

"

""

be left open to go out is removed, she seems

of

it is open

motherhood," which she she reprofree love, which bates door of marriage itself must

free

"

(256). Free love to think,by requiring even responsibility for temporary unions {cf.191). These are not to be forbidden (even to the alreadymarried?),but are to be regulatedby requiring that birth of the be premust every child,without exception, ceded else abortion of form contract [or employed?] by some which, though not necessarily bindingthe mother and father to each other,will place on both alike the obligation of adequate as

to enter

"

fulfilment of the duties to their child." Yet in the same breath " mothers and children must she says that both be safe-guarded, in recognition of their work for the state, protection for mothers for equal work, and opening of all occupations, 282-9: else polyg;amy Her where outnumber be remarked, has written husband, it may 278. women men, in exculpation of polygamy, a book Graham's 64 354. She divorce is with approval Cunningham saying that quotes the charter of woman's freedomj"357; and again in her later book, 178. 65 350. of an unreal The enforced contmuance marriage is really the grossest form of immorality, harmful dren," not only to the individuals concerned, but to the chiltolerable only for the sake of the children already begotten, but even 353, and " " it to be required by the state, for only the parents to stand strong enough so, not "can in a marriage without love," 358. safely remain motherhood" with "free love" 66349, 250, cf. 338; yet on p. 305 she joins "free she accepts. as part of Ellen Key's doctrine, which 63

She

suggests

264; equal

wages

"

"


VIEWS

OF

LEADING

FEMINISTS

whether in legalmarriageor outside," since

197

"

the same act of love is because it in out of or good or just performed " marriage (as though in every case the moralityof an act were not determined and therefore,if the by the circumstances!); " make cannot parents adequate provisionfor their child, the state must wide and fitting scheme of insurance step in with some of childhood" (348). Thus, even when there is a child,there will be littledifference, at least so far as any poor but healthy is concerned, between this arrangement and free love,and woman when there is no child (as there need not be),no difference at all. At all events, " a woman's natural rightis her rightto be a "^ if she wants mother," to, and also,though this is not said,to have sexual intercourse with men when she wants to.'* the scheme likewise does not work out sistently, Socially, quite conthan function be to more as an seems equal assignedto " " the female. It is woman, not man," says Mrs. Gallichan, who fix the standard in sex " ; *" for " hers is the supreme must sibility responcannot

be

bad

"

"

in

creatingand moulding life : she is no longerto be ^" man's help-mate,but man is to be her agent, her helper." of her renewed economic indepenWoman, therefore,by means dence, ^^ of selection in is to regainher primitive free power the love the incumbent on her,as duty being (256), predominant in reproduction, choose a fitting father for her children to sex (18), and to guide her choice by the man's fitness alone,not, as it is,by his capacityand power for work and protection now (255). Fitness for what, if it is not for work and protection? bullishness?" And for this,of course, ask: is it mere we may Shaw all be reduced to and m ust women perceived, too, as men, the same income, though Mrs. Gallichan says nothingabout such in her view, must be the same socialism. Morality,of course, the must and that of both men for sexes prevail, beingthe (240), (theover-emphasison chastity only natural one, that of women "

"

"

"

"

"

"

So in the later work, 345. have child whenever she wants, without a For body anycertainly if a woman may whenever she wants, without have sexual intercourse with a man she may objectingr, anybody objecting. But then, by the principle of the single standard, any man whenever he wants with any (and can (willing) woman sexual intercourse have may of their anybody objecting. Such a simple reductio ad absurdum find one), without of these reformers. to the logicalminds to occur promises does not seem 09 257, repeated in the later work, 345. in the great things of life the responsible sex and are not men Women 70 384. 87 68

that 71

really matter," 292, cf. 251. According to the later work, her transitional! Houghton, criticising H. G. Wells's Cf. Bernard independent, choosing the best men economically

socialistic argument about those with " a fine, vigorous, able men, "If well and they chose good, but attractive personality : and of abilitywould, under socialism, entail no particular is that, as want the probability ' with necessarily combined fine, vigorous, a hardship, and as abilityis by no means somewhat latter the quality reminiscent,by-the-bye, of attractive personality,' and find acceptance would alone in the ladies' eyes," brute,' Nietzsche's big blond Review, Sept.,1908, p. 246. Socialism through BiologicalSpectacles, Westminster 72

women,

"

"

'

"

"


198

FEMINISM

and

them in the false modesty) having been imposed upon the guiding principleof property;'* patriarchal regime, under whereas does

woman's

Nature "

believer

114,

motives

than

of

marriage

(368-9), But

we

enough

added

that

(256) 385)

because

"

well

in.

as

even

go

"

to

with

should

[women] Gallichan

be

its result

but

to

protected

be side out-

all

founding

of

do

with

away

other

mating on prostitution

believe.

well

may of this,which

Be it only becoming nauseous. to be given them emancipation of women their natural superiority(67,cf.263, also 6, 27,

of

is

"

for the benefit of

is intended

We

love and

anything,

all such

Mrs.

from

intercourse

of

The

far

nor

Chastity,according to this race-building (374,

motherhood

why

is

as

ashamed

not

may

avers, as

be

This

^^

love, she

"

"

man's,

to

factor in

passionas 381), is defiled only by sexual love {cf.215, 342, 374), and

should

ashamed."

so.*^*

be

superior

is not

the supreme

c/. 100, women

it to

require

in

character

moral

free them

must

[men]

men as

well

as

well

as

as

rimer, Ebenezer

Elliott: "

Well

of the

us

the democratic

corn-

"

forge

But

women.

ourselves," says

It reminds

(292, cf, 216, 279, 385). voiced by analogous positionof the socialists,

of

set

our

no

fetters tyrants

into

swords,

free."

It is, she in her later book, 238-^), 255, 357. says 254, its should firmly this truth: the virtue of chastity owes grasp of ownership has been The the seed-plot of our moral sense property." the basis." not kinship, was code." Even of fatherhood "property, Mrs. Gallichan uncertain voice. On this subject speaks with 74: Cf. no 258-61. them but by in the first place forced "This false ideal of chastity was [women], upon been ness blindaccentuated and backed has by woman's own long habit it has been up Thus freedom, women seeking to bind and fear. are to-day, in their new-found restrained which have them. In the past t/hey in the same bonds of denial men up standard the doctrine of a different of purity for the sexes* have over-readily imbibed from ness in revolt a indeed, they are only just emerging period of bitterthey are now this matter. made into puritans, and in relation Men ing aristo women are women of their faith to enforce Is this malice in the strength men. or puritanism on Women "must and be it is foolishness," In any 326 mon comcase revenge? come_ out than to This, I believe, is a better solution women common men. bring among In other Mrs. Gallichan women's would level," 381. words, to prefer that men up demoralise instead of men should them trying to moralise now more. women men, any be remarked, is repudiated by Christabel All who Pankhurst, this, it may comes near from the other side, and who writes as if she were commissioned to to Weininger sent repreIt is very often said to women that their ideas of chastity are the sex. the have result of past subjection. the satisfaction Supposing that were -so, then women them that their subjection has brought at least of knowing gain a one gain great surrender the when The days of their subjection are over. they will not mastery which either by nature of self and or by training women have, they will not yield sex, about Great Facts a Evil, 135. up," Flam there is nothing Tuttle: in sex in the racial instincts Cf. Mrs. "To-day nor 75317. of being ashamed,* to be ashamed to be ashamed The of, except of Awakening disclaims Tuttle Mrs. Woman, likewise, of course, desire, in feminism, to 135. any establish free lovci 149. 73

171,

important origin to

cf. 189, 226, 238, "that

women

"

"

"

"

*

"


VII.

CHAPTER WOMEN

AND

WORK

In

the men primitivetimes,as stillamong backward peoples, ^ and else the hunters while sat were women or about," fighters, the industrialists. Industries were were women; originated by but women their work, and so did not developit did not specialise liberated from the tasks of hunting and highly. Men, when "

to which at first fell into idleness, they stilloften revert.^ fighting, This is what now happens upon an attempt to civilise generally result of the with barbarians, greater degradation.'But either under the influence of slaveryor because of fortuitous aptitude that account throve and exancient peoples,who in some on panded Ellis took and survived,men, remarks, gradually as up of women, the occupations them, and developedthem specialised * Division of labour was in an extroardinary not pracdegree." tised ^ undifferentiated the condition because of of by women maternityand of the avocations grouped about it: itis a masculine due to man's militancy, because the habits characteristic, primarily subordination and organisation, and needs of war and enjoined the slaves the whose labours to same they applied they superintended, "

and

their captainsof

then

easilybecome

to

advanced,

own

labours.^

Commanders

industry. In those

of armies

therefore, peoples,

while

men

have

who

left progeny) by

forever bound (thoseof them women, their maternal labours,have remained sta-

in Fison's and Howitt's Kamilaroi According to an oft-quoted passage and Kumai, Cf. Tacitus, Germania, 15, 17, 22. I watch When 2 Cf. Pearson : of Southern to-day the peasant woman Germany or of Norway toiling in the house or fields,while the male looks on, then I do not think 1

206.

"

downtrodden slave of the^other. She appears to me the bearer of a civilisation which he has not yet attained. She may be a fossil of the raojjier-age,but stratum barbarism he is a fossil of a lower and simple," Chances of Death, ii. pure Yet this does not keep him from speaking of the in the subjection of women 49. civilised lands of to-day, 96, although, again, he would Mill's throw overboard most work the subject, i. 232. on IVoman's Share in Primiiive 3 Cf. Mason, Culture^ 238; hence greater difficulty in civilisingthe men, 274. and WoinaHy 11. ^ Man of labour were B If a catalog of the primitiveforms would be made, each woman found did one," Mrs. things, while a man doing at least half-a-dozen Gallichan, The Position of Woman in Primitive Society, 2S7. "Male 6 Thomas: concerted enterprizes have [from the beginning] demanded tion acand had to turn out to women's men industries, gave ; wherefore, when game " on them, Sex and Society, they brought greater and better organising force to bear 144, cf. 145-6, 230-1, 293. the

one

a

to

^

"

"

'*

"

"

199

"


FEMINISM

200

tionary. The historyof peoples,is always one comparison with

that of

women's of

work,

among

the

most

civilised

in increasinginferiority continually

men.

At present, among ourselves,men's industries have been driving of business the domestic industries of women, and, throwing at home, are and them of with o ut children, employment women, them of factorywork, converting into the lower rounds calling them them in side by side with men, into wage-earners, placing left in the home left in comwith men. Those are parative competition idleness. This is not a new phenomenon. Men have different times since the race invaded women's industries at have found, women began; and, after intervals of various length, drove women had assignedto them, other industries. Men or from from pastoral from agriculture, house-building, occupations, from pottery,from basket-making, from spinningand weaving, from sweeping and cleaningand washing and from the even of of food for the table, did so by the superiority preparation their work, and have reduced women to be only their helpersand employes,under their guidance,to manipulatetheir machines in the small details fitted to female capacity.As long as this outside is confined to their earlyadolescence, wage-earninglabour of women before they marry, no harm is appreciable.When it extends, and when an effort is made to extend it,to the whole lifetime of women, o f vocation as mothers, it disregardful their threatens the continuance of the race which permitsthis condition be a perpetual, settled state. We ; and such cannot are now in such periodof transition, and are stillin an nearly one more unsettled state, before things shake down into another stable pends equilibrium.A problem is before us, and upon its solution dethe questionwhether the equilibriumshall be restored in which may then continue its advance,or shall not be reour cycle, stored until our cycleshall have come be to its end and a new one beginning. The solution,it would seem, must be the old and natural one, of women havingnew work within the reach of their with their maternal function, abilities, and such as they compatible can of their children, without perform at home, in the company Then competitionwith men. again will they be in a state, no of fancied but of recognised longer independence, dependenceon out

"

men.

This

of them do not like. The littletaste of they some it might seem, as has competitionwith men, unsatisfactory whetted their appetite.Instead of desiringto bring women's work to the home, and leavingwork abroad to men, they wish the "

present tendencies

"

to go

further,and all work

to be

thrown

open


WOMEN and

to women,

AND

all occupations to be

WORK

201

entered freelyand habitually distinction of recognition any as

by men, without of sex. than I loathe The thing I loathe in this world more Anna Howard is sex distinction." ' Shaw, anythingelse,"says Preparationfor doing without it,then,must be given to girlsthe be alike. Boys, of course, to boys : their education must same as be educated for the function of maternity cannot ; and therefore if be for their not education either, girlsneed were specialised, also, analogy would requirethe boys'education to be specialised which is to be prevented at all hazards.^ Exultingly,because thousands of women this free opto-dayare raising portunit cry for and the training that would fitthem for freedom," it is expected that such is to be the order of the future,it beingforgotten that there are to-dayhalf a thousand million women the on in the whom few but thousands earth, among a are a drop ocean.^" Somehow, also,in this new epiceneworld of labour the functions are tively: instincsexexpected to accomplishthemselves it is will take of care said, nature, that;notwithstanding that while instinctive attraction may bringthe sexes son reatogether, and science may prevent the ordinaryresults. This obliteration of sex in industryis one of the chief features It requiresthat no generalisations in feminism. from past experience about men's work and women's work shall be respected. There is," publiclydeclares an American lady, no young man's work woman's and no work is work for : everything who can do it,and the humanity of the future will recogany one nise this." ^^ in the higherbranches is the openingfor Especially women desired;for, as we have seen, the hard labour of the by

women

as

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

'

'

'

may

be left to men.^^

Even

before Mill's final work on the " and women Emily Davies denied the theory that men subject, the human unit are complementalbeings, togetherforming ; desired

world

"

IVoman Suffrage as an Educator, an address delivered Jan. 13, 1910. in its woman's S. Martin, The college is instinctivelyright," says Gertrude the specialneeds of women,' " Edwcation of to meet steady refusal to introduce courses Am. Acad. Pol. and Soc. Science, Nov., 1914. P- 43Women and Sex Equality, Annals 9 Mrs. 68. Gallichan, The Truth about Woman, but thousands small like England, a few are a 10 Even in any large country, there existing. And it is questionable twelve odd million women ten or minority among this demand. thousand women in England a whether entertaining to-day there are Yet venturous is another the teaching of the admatter. seeking of employment Temporary few is working confusingly in the masses. York Times. Mabel Powers, reported in The New April 13, 1914. 11 Miss said Emma alone from those ^positions exclude her [woman]," 12 Hardinge, We where mere physical force and the habits, practice, and knowledge resulting from of Woman, Boston, 1859, p. 6. physical force, are needed," The Place and Misston " " Gail Hamilton, is unsuited to her All wearing physical labour," likewise wrote "lift from her shoulder that belongs to his," the burden must 1." Man J woman Woman's Wrongs, 208 (her work, in " fields which she alone can reap," 207, being Even that the intellectual work of supervising and "other higher" than his. 206). is contested, as also the right is unsuited to the capacity of women, physical work in such occupations. of men to object to being supervised by women 7

8

"

"

'

"


FEMINISM

202

the substantially

marriage of

man

a

education

same

and

sympathisingwith

and

sexes

;

idealised the

in different

engaged

occupations

other's diificuhies and successes ; and should that women as well as men perform all human ^^* that is of and In this anything lovely good report." each

"

demanded duties

woman

for both the

"

Schreiner has put herself in the lead. She proclaims for the present we take all labour for [women] our province,"and she cites the judge'sseat, the legislator's the chemist's chair,the statesman's closet,the merchant's office, is closed door the astronomer's there tower : no laboratory, do not intend force open to we der (though one might wonfore why they do not enter and occupy those alreadyopen betrying to force others); and all this as an experiment, Mrs.

matter

that

"

"

"

for to

"

actingin

us

our

us, and

through us,

will

nature

deficiencies in the field of human

our

powers."*'

All past better than

mercilesslyexpose and reveal to us toil, be cast to the winds, as

experienceis to chaff,althoughthis is the subjectthat than any other experimentedwith. Only more last century, for instance, an experimentwas tried

if it were no has probablybeen

in the recently, of employing women

in coal mines, halfby side with men naked of the heat; and it was found to brutalise all account on law. concerned ; wherefore it was Is this law to be stopped by and the experimenttriedover repealed, again? Oh, no, that is

menial

only a

side

affair!

It is the

higherdepartmentsthat

are

to be

Well, Mrs. Schreiner notices that in like medicine, woman has intellectual professions, frequently her side and taken into them, and broken place beagain again in these fields of labour, showing therebynot only the men

experimentedwith

"

"

"

now.

inclination in these aptitude,but passionateand determined directions" (231). On the contrary, the historyof those experiments shows ever recurringlassitude on the part of the entered those professions than they for they no sooner women; dropped them: one or two generationshave always sufficed. lectual Still, we [women] seek to enter the non-sexual fields of intelunable with because we to see to-day, and physical are toil, "

12aThe Woman

Higher Education

of Women,

16-17;

131;

"9;

36-

"What such work GalUchan: So Mrs. 172-3, cf. 202, 203. to find out. be women's do better than men] is, it must can purpose [which women for them be open this is possible to be decided,all fields of activity must But before " well be a time of what may First there must Truth about Woman, 68. to enter," The *' do is as cannot or what can women to be dangerous experiments,*'285. For prove Schreiner: Hale, re-echoing Mrs. Similarly Mrs. yet unproved," 502, cf. 314, 290. " limitations their true what have learnt At least until, by free experiment, all women " ever WhatWomen Want, 181. all labour for their province," What be, they demand may said Orations will do," Curtis, not from they their sex doing, incapacitateswomen of child-bearing overlooked that the capacity for work and He Addresses, i. 202. This little overthat of childless women. sight is different from and child-rearing women is generally made by those who wish to experiment with this matter. 13

and

Labour,


FEMINISM

204

by experimentation.Still,in risky cases, experimentationis practisedin corpore vile,and unless England and the United them States consider themselves to take care such, it behooves and not imperiltheir existence. It might be nice if Australia and Zealand would New^ experiment with socialism and feminism; but

even

least

at

if a

they were century

should have to wait to be so obliging, we before success could be proved, though a

periodmight expose failure. Upon this generaland fundamental

shorter

demand of feminism, follow is its immediate corollaries. One complement. If it be right(and this is claimed as if the experimentwere already should enter that women all tried and turned out successfully) fair it should is that all of start only occupations alongside men, with equal equipment. Therefore to all institutions which pare prebe admitted. for the world's work, women must men Women made not to be relegated to institutions of their own, are themselves for themselves how such by (they recognise poor would be allowed to enter those of men. It be) : they must and brought who have made the professions matters not that men, all its in to tablished departments technology present excellence,have esinstitutions for propagating their work, and have chosen of the sex which developedthe work : to confine them to members members that liberty, in the opinionof some of the other sex, stituti was wrongly exercised,and should not be continued: the infounded for men be opened to women: must by men i f it is an No do the feminists more injustice they are not. when than the socialists care for liberty, it stands in their way. animates them: it is for the good of all A high moral purpose be allowed,and be prepared,to labour.^^ that women, too, must It is only old laws and customs, they claim,that preserve the old wherefore inequality; they demand abrogationof the laws and because And in backward men are disregardof the customs. their demand the desire,^'women carryingout vote, that they do for themselves rather it that or they may order men may The first woman to do it for them. of the suffragemovement " " women's last century only demanded rights that they should be permittedto do all that they can of what is permittedto men. several

"

"

demand Convention in 1850, Harriet K. api)eared early. At the Worcester " We ask for no medical but we ask physician,-said: separate college, for women We ask that equal medical advantages with those enjoyed by men. medical nature colleges may be opened to mind, not to sex, that the whole of human may aid in promoting the well-being of humanity," Proceedings, 47-8. More moderately, L. of both sexes in all our A. Hine, a man, the union schools, the amalgamasuggested of women tion of male and female in collegiateadacademies, the equa\ particii^ation vantages, IB

This

Hunt,

a

.

.

.

.

.

.

"

58. Their dilatoriness, according to Katherine in Germany too furious to think," Feminism 18

"

Anthony,is and

apt

to

Scandinavia, 132,

make

the

feminists


AND

WOMEN

WORK

205

Now

that most of those allegedrightshave been obtained,and little has come of the feminists is of them, the present demand that those rightsmust should be put into execution, and women be prepared and do. not made Men must to do what men must only let them do it all,but men help them to do it all. That would then be abandoning work which they alone women which do for work do without them, does not can men can The be them. alone test by which stay libertymay rightfully is invoked most ployment restrained,publicutility, hurriedly.The emof all in scientificlabours would at first sightseem to But be better than the employment of half the human species. it is overlooked that nature has alreadyconfined half the human of other speciesis not to the point) to species(itstreatment and ance the most one employment, importantof all for the continuisation of the race and for the maintenance and extension of civilmuch it would, on second thought,seem more ; wherefore natural that the other half of the speciesshould have special be sex employments, from which the specialised rightfully may least be invited at enter. not to excluded, or demand is for equal pay for allegedequal Work. Another

simply have not the same earning-poweras men, except of singleoccupation givingpleasure.By acting,dancing, sumption singing,and by the writing of novels (thesemostly for conmuch and as can earn as men; by by women), women better in other not can mentioned, they givingpleasure ways, from the financial point sometimes one a splendid gain a living, of givingpleasureis itself the power of view ; and in iharriage conditioned asset, and properlyso, as it is generally a principal and and health vitality, a quick mind, tact, and by a good figure, deservingto be transmitted kindliness,all of which are qualities have already as we In all other branches of labour women, on. When constitution. their physiological are handicappedby seen, it was at first only in the driven into wage-earning, were women could find employment, kinds of work lowest and lightest they with whom lower wages than the men they and onlyby accepting well do all almost in Men could equally occupations competed. wherefore other all that women thingsbesides, did, and could do other the determined thingsthey could do, men's wages were by weak were capableonly ones, who except in the case of some restricted while by their being women, of working with women; nature own (letalone custom, which variouslyrespectedtheir another for employunderbid one ment nature) to fewer occupations,

Women in the

more

they

did the received more than

men,

and

were

support from

able male

both and relatives,

to

do

so

because be-


FEMINISM

2o6

It less in the way of a familydependenton them. often have aged to say that working women does not aid matters for sisters or brothers to provide for ; " parents and younger

theyhad

cause

have

men

these

with wives and

do women, relatives to support justas much as children to boot : the difference stillexists. Some sick husbands

again,have

women,

them;

on

but

these

and

special problem. proper be deranged for thenx cannot in general, had women men,

shall not " scab a

ent depend-

constitute

exceptional cases, the of o f position generality

are

The

than

fatherless children

or

a

women

lesser effiof women's ciency forbidden to take less pay standing they could not have got employment at all. Undertrades-unions of men this,some prescribethat women be employed at a lower wage, which they denounce as and while the cupation ocappearinggallant, game," preserve Because

been

to themselves.^*

There

exists,in

about connection,considerable difficulty

this

and generalisations,

much

variableness in

applying working at the same number of hours a day,may ferently have been difsort of job,the same in earnest, may prepared,may be differently accomplish and different qualities, different different amounts require may absent themselves for other sickness or reasons overseeing, may making

correct

them.

Different

and differently

sets

or

persons,

docked

ox

persons,

of pay

trouble differently, cause may from the sources of supply, be replaceable differently may their be differently tools at at doing odd but or repairing apt

may

though

incidental jobs,may extra-hard tasks or fitfor

be

reliable differently

for emergency diftime,and may be ferently at

an

pinch for work over promotion to higherplaces. Some at a

ter persons are betsuited for some tasks and others for others,and the numbers of these may differ without regardto the demand for them in the that the of labourers may be respectiveemployments,so supply

greater while the supplyis smaller in

one

trade and in another

the

So

C. Strachan's frequently in Grace Equal Pay for Equal Work, New York, cites a few instances, 120-1, and that most asserts teachers have women of the other relatives is being dependents,127; the old order changing, the burden shifted to the daughters, 207. Similarly Miss Lina E. Gano, quoted 491, 493-4, and Miss Elizabeth M. Jeliile,501. A man's children will support him in his old age, but the woman's will be gone when she needs parents Bois help: so Elizabeth Du 17

She

1910.

Peck,

506, 508-9.

Cf. also

52,

119,

447,

476, 512,

535.

See the opinion of certain unionists objecting to the employment of women at by the government lower rates: If this is allowed to continue, the first thing know it will be allowed you the union," quoted in Miss to enter Strachan's book, 338, cf. 26-7, 108, 117, 469, 549. have been the telegraphers and Especially shrewd the In the latter printers. Edith trade, says Abbott, women admitted are to now the unions the same on terms as they pay the Same dues, and receive the same men, benefits: but this is all done to to scale, not protect the wage to women encourage the enter trade. As of fact, a matter a comparatively small percentage of the who work in printing offices belong to the union. women A woman is not worth as much who works all-around as a man as printer, and to join the union an and mand dethe same is to invite discharge," Women rate of wages vn Industry, New York, 18

"

"

'

'

1909.

pp.

260-1.


WOMEN

AND

WORK

207

while the demand is greater. This affects the state of the labour-market, which is also affected by the " genteel" of certain occupations, stocking ness renderingthem attractive and overin the differences well-known them; and it causes wages in the different trades. But different sets of workpeopleare subject ferent to similar differences of supply and demand, producingdiffor Some in these sets the same trade. of the wages above-mentioned factors may modelled conceivablybe altered in a resocial state; but others of them natural and unchangeable. are All these thingsare more taken into account or less rightly and the for by employers, by employerscompete employes; with another for employes, and employes compete with one another for employers. Employers take inferior or for various one of the reasons less desirable workpeople into inferior positions, of less them the same nominally positions, expect or, giving them, and of course givethem lower wages, this beingthe reason for employing them. the discrimination They further make sometimes the wages by choosingone set of employesand fitting alike to them, and sometimes by offeringdifferent wages to the in our different sets of persons that apply. Thus country, in count spiteof all the talk and legislation againstdiscrimination on ac" " in of colour, coloured hotels some help are employed and restaurants and white in others,and the former generally be roughly described as the for what would at a lower rate talk In spite, work. same too, of againstdiscrimination between ship the sexes, the very ladies of the upper classes who professfriendfor their working sisters,will give better wages to male and male cooks called called butlers waiters to chefs,than to female will also and waitresses more as cooks, they plain pay " ladies' tailors." And dress-makers or made by men for gowns for not they are givingunequal pay for equal they act rightly; work, but they are givingunequal pay for different work, and are takinginto consideration the various circumstances that affect

supply be

smaller

the case.^^ than governesses, and tutors teaching,especially, get more obtain highersalaries schools and colleges in private men generally In tuition, of work. obviously, for the same amount than women, and the be the time the same same subjects although spent is w ith and of different work of the different, women men taught, the scholars,however effect upon impalpableat the time this In

her work already cited, 313-15. follows Mrs. Sidney Webb and The Economic of Men Women, in the Wages Journal, are paid less, not for Dec., 1891, pp. 649, 657) in admitting that generally women It seems to me Cf. Gail Hamilton: that the similar work, but for inferior work. is the low work paid to women of the low wages they produce," great and simple cause 19

iThe

So

Edith

Abbott

in

Alleged Differences

"

Woman's

Wrongs,

121.


FEMINISM

2o8

tion, discrebe. Private employerscan use their own difference may do so. however, and the and generally Large corporations, In be them it would the government must enact generalrules. and and coloured men, or men invidious to employ white men at different wages side by side in the same cording acpositions, women, if the underFor instance, ground their sex. should employ as ticket-choppers York railwayin New at others, white men of the stations and coloured men at some from them without regard to the traffic, as getting nearly as if it should in the the or run same work; employ possible long in others, ticket-sellersin some of its booths and women men as unfair with similar indiscrimination of service, it would seem than the coloured men, the men the white men to pay more or found equally than the women, more as long as they all were since the finer in shades of distinction satisfactory a rough way, could not here be invoked.^" of So it is that in most positions civil the in New service men and women But our are same. paid from male York and female to City public-school 1912 1900 in the teachers were The discrimination seems, paid differently. been there somewhat for while too great, to have circumstances, than enough male applicants, there was were more a deficiency of female ; and yet, from another pointof view, here as elsewhere throughoutour country our male teachers are not paid enough the practisebeing to to fill the professionwith professionals, teach only temporarilywhile preparing who men accept young themselves for other better-paying lous professions,with the anomaresult that more women (thoughthe proportionis not large) than men this profession their life-work.^^ But apart assume as from the ill-adaptedness of the rates, a hullabaloo was raised and indignity to the women ing over teachers, in their beinjustice for forced to accept less pay ination Yet the discrimequal work. had the good effect of attracting into the teachingforce of this citymore men (smallas was their number) than previously, and so of stemming somewhat the tendencyof effeminisation, not but of of and of which of the only publicopinion, boys, men, effeminate character is so pronounced in our country, inisation effeman and their which our female teachers friends would do than better to praise,since they approve The to it, deny.^'' method of making the discrimination, however, was wrong; to

their colour

or

"

"

for

men

and

women

were

examined

togetherand

appointedal-

Strachan's in Miss G. McAdoo book, 23, 404. So in Miss Straclian's book, 52, 337, 342, 351, 450. 22 Tile (English) several years ago might have Report of the Mosely Commission cf. Miss Strachan. helped to open our eyes to this condition, but for wilful blindness: Fiske and Chadivick are better authorities in this matAlso Adnirals ter op. cit.,81-9. Strachan. than Miss 20 21

Cf. W.


WOMEN

AND

WORK

209

classes,at the capriceof the Board of ternatelyto the same justice, of inEducation; all which begat an unnecessary appearance when sometimes the absurd predicamentwas especially of female less a presented superintendent receiving pay than of the male teachers she supervised.The proper method some would have been to regulatethat the lower mixed classes,for children under thirteen years of age, should be taught chiefly and the upper classes should be divided,and while by women, the girlswere taught by women mostly,the boys should be who be subjectedto higher should taught exclusively by men, their department there should be only requirements; and over male superintendents. Then the pay could be determined by teachers the market rates, high enough to obtain efficientwomen for their appropriate teachers (professionals) for work and men in for theirs; which case the higher rates necessary obtaining would of the men occasion no injustice, except to appearance the squint-eyed, than when similar differences are more any shown in the pay-rolls But in 1912 the good schools. of private for both sexes, at an was quenched by fixingthe rates the same intermediate figure, with the effect that the raise for women has and the attracted stillmore the diminution to women profession, for the men has repelled male applicants, the numbers lessening and of the male teachers obtainable. lowering the efficiency i n and our Similarly, women nurses hospitalservice,men being

paid alike,and the common this professionhas women, them

pay at a figureattractive mostly to been overstocked with women, jecting sub-

their male patients to much indecency. And stilldesire the suffragein order to obtain yet women in the State of New "equal pay for equal work," even York. " This means that they desire work for to be equal pay equal thrust by law not upon the State's employes,since these have it already but in all privateemployments. Now, this is not it is to demand equality reallyto demand equality, inequality the inof some than they deserve,while others gettingmore made less are to than they deserve. It is disconversely tinctly get demand for a new f or a the female that privilege sex, of being raised by law to a higherposition than they can attain their efforts. Instead of the own by instituting much-heralded with women, it puts the women equal competitionof men on a basis of publicassistance,so that they shall be favoured in the It is precisely competitionwith men. analogous to the procedure of the socialists, who would require equalpay for equal work" of work, equal pay for equal pay for equal amount hours of work is the equal (which only way that work can be and

"

"

"

"

"

"


FEMINISM

2IO

tween of the market is to be ignored) bemeasured if the higgling all persons, the weak and the strong, the inefficient and the to demand of the socialists extends absolutely efficient. This The well to all fine to women feminists,however, conas men. as Yet to that exalone in comparisonwith men. it to women tent follow blindly. they are socialists. The woman-suffragists them in of socialism, hundred of a Probably not one approves yet they all cry out for this article of the socialistcreed. and Still another demand is that women, being equal to men like be the must ultra most even permittedto (in view) men, tage labour under equal and similar conditions. When only advanis to be obtained,there is plainsailing.When disadvantage is involved, a quandary arises. So with laws forbiddingoverwork and night-work to female operatives. As preventinghardship, they are desired ; but they interfere with the earning-capacity of women, and so the consistent feminist must them.^' oppose The be restrained consistent feminist cannot even by moral ments scruples. Thus, as it is not customary for industrial establishbetween male employes whose to discriminate relations "

"

with

women

are

pure

alreadyin

otherwise,so

or

suffrageState of

the

woman-

State Industrial Commission Washington, before in the relation of investigating recentlyengaged wages of to morals, againstthe opinion of the male graph telea manager who said that it was the duty of employersto company weed and women out of the listof employesgirls moral," imwho were and insisted that employersowed this to the respectable the

"

"

in their

women

members of the Commission, service,"two women, have that to maintained the reported employer had "

are

right to

be

concerned

about

the

moralityor immorality of girland women employes, providedthey performed their tasks and efficiently," protested that the employer had no rightto exercise any control over the conduct of employes out of working hours." "* The principlecarried out would not permit ladies to morals of into the their It is another illustration inquire servant-girls. of the levelling-down action of the singlestandard-ofadvocated by feminists. It is preparatory for moralityprinciple no

"

the

condition hoped-for

men

and

women

shall work

side

faction the woman's rights advocates who have among of Labour Defence, which laws for the special opposes as protection of women unjustifiableand injudicious tutelage. The feminist weekly edited by Dora Marsden and Mary review, The Freewoman, Gawthorpe, supported this attitude. In its pages warned women were clear choice between they had "to make a of protection and the harsh the comforts responsibilitiesof freedom." In Germany started out also, the women by demanding no special favours; but they have had to of "the abandon this position on double burden account of domestic worlc and in Germany wage-earning": see Katherine Anthony's Feminism and Scandinavia. 191-2 24 In New York The Times, October 24, 1913. 2S In formed

England

a

League

is there_

when

for

a

Freedom

_


FEMINISM

212

isted exother sort.^* Free promiscuity of some taken by promiscuity not the earningsof men so when were great as, or no taken the have but since men greater than, those of women; lead in industrial productionthat simple state has been changed hood for a more complex condition both of marriage(in which father(from which fatherhood playsits part) and of prostitution

is absent). Prostitution,like marriage itself,is caused by the but pleasure-givin everything of women ing lower earning-capacity which lower caused are nierely by wages, occupations: it is not it has of the On women condition. of that wages a consequence

influence,both to raise them, mutuallyneutralising of of the supply of female workers, in case by takingoff some of those who in the case and practiseit only professionals, of extra means an to depress them, by offering occasionally, the is fixed by law above support.^^ If the minimum wage a

double

and

earning-capacityof of

throwing them

to

them

but

it will of employment and

out

the

very of earning-capacity women

only

women,

many

have

the

effect

leavingnothingopen

For avoided. thing sought in general, though it admits of to

the

be

provemen im-

At the than is fixed by nature men. pleasureto men, they mostlyhave their same time, by furnishing have for while men to pay pleasuresgiven to them by men, that of

lower

fewer

so occupations, their as women are glutting support themselves, What of these depressestheir wages. saves them, is the taking of them off the labour market or wholly either by prostitution the them by marriage,or partially by by fathers, support given brothers, admirers, and lovers, while this very partialsupport of them of some of the the wages keeps down, by competition,

theirs.

Restricted

by

their

incompetenceto

requiredto

far

unfortunates world has

times

so

have always been

hard

government

who

efforts. The hard upon at Unprotected females " that they could not exist,and so were Where not.

is

females

support but their

no

own

"

"

strong and may

provides protection, singleself-supporting exist,and the few who have exceptional

that prostitutionin civilised societies is but a remnant 28 Pearson has shown of the which primitive promiscuity practised in the mother-age, a remnant tlie father-age has been able altogether to get rid of: The Chances never of Death, ii. logn., 150-1, Gallichan also once that "it is possible 172-3, 17^-S, 203, 227n., cf. 4^. Mrs. says that prostitution may be a relic of this early freedom," The Truth about woman, but more she treats it as "a survival of the patriarchal idea of the I son.; commonly *' of result of monogamic not woman,'* a property value 282-3, marriage," and survival of primitive sexual oldest a licence," 362; and yet again she calls it "the profession in the world," 363. 29 Mrs. Gallichan: of the reserve fund "It is because thus established [by prostitution] that their honest wages suffer,"op, cit.,282. This authoress has studied prostitution and choose not recognises that many they are women jDrostitution, closely, * driven into it," 363. She agrees with Lippert that the principal motives ness, idleare " she all, the love of iinery/ 365. And frivolity,and, above despises the fanaticism of " the belief in the efficacyof economic reform," since " the economic factor is by no the only factor," 363. means "

"

"

"

_


WOMEN talent

AND

WORK

213

not happy. Only are geniusprosper, but the generality all relation between reward and earnsocialism,by disregarding desired ; and that,as we ing-power,can placethem on the equality have seen, would substitute for prostitution, also for marriage, as the promiscuity of a minimum the agitation of free love. Meanwhile intended is only helpingto increase for the purpose wage A in the evil. few years ago Chicago at a publichearingladies induced by leading applauded when a young working girlwas questionsto say that if she did not receive certain wages (something be in would dollar she over a a day), justified going on in generalthe growing freedom the street." And of conversation before the publicand in private, has the this subject, on o f license. Prostitution effect,by suggestion, increasingsecret is not so easy to disposeof as these peoplethink. Like Proteus, it changes its forms; and, struck down in one, like John Barley rises Free take it love the placeof paid love.^" Corn, again. may reformers These women interfere with the earningsof promay fessional harlots only to find they, have lost their own daughters.*^ is to encourage Obviously the best way to combat prostitution its rival, merited marriage; in which aspect polygamy often receives unpraise.^^And to encourage marriageis also to helpkeep and improve the lot of those women who cannot up the wages fittedfor have lost their not or or are husbands, marriage, marry, to some since marriage does still, extent, though not as much take women off the labour market. Yet marriage as were desirable, itself can be best encouragedonlyby keepingup the wages in comparison with those of women. Here is a vicious of men or

"

of sets in the way is one of the obstacles nature in highlycivilisedstates. social advancement Young men, looking forward to marriage,demand high pay in order that theymay make savingsand as an earnest of their future earnings:young expecting marriage, need not look ahead or save. women, " " to the young Treating also is done by the young men women, the of former for and decreasing increasingthe need money

circle,which

the exchange: feminists to be willing to make seem e.g., Floyd Dell, World Builders, cf. 87, 88, 104. are already greatlj; responsible for goody-goody men, 31 Women, along with some this subject, that the distinction is not faults in the legislation on of the one " white observed between prostitution itself and an abuse of prostitution,the term " both. The enslavement of girls to prostitution, being laxly used to cover slavery should be stamped of the greatest magnitude, which lessly. ruthout to repeat, is a crime prostitution itself. But it is entirely different from (also the Jews in many 32 For peoples, such as the Mohammedans polygamous from prostitution,and are women utterly indifferent climes) guard only their own with them. and lecherous and most Slavery of women to the fate of other women, are generally attendants also, and are hardly praiseworthy substitutes for concubinage minds to a some freely practiced evil does not appear prostitution. It is curious how bad as one partiallythough not wholly suppressed,an open and flagrant evil so bad as one kept out of sight. not so 30

Women

Some

as


FEMINISM

214 that of

the latter.

in the different men on a footing,just as wage young married and partially when they go out to supportedwomen, with and with marother women labour,compete unfairlyboth ried sometimes be be dened burto men. Young women, sure, may with parents and other relatives to support, and widows with children;but, as we have seen, men are equallyexposed to this burden and normallyhave the other burden besides. Therefore the competition with of less-burdened and individual women market

Young

therefore,compete

women,

with

men family-supporting bringsdown the wages of men, and so unfair keeps many of them from marrying. This adds more with the family-supporting competitionof individual men men, and belies the original distinction between as men porters family-sup-

and

women

as

individuals,depriving men,

for their extends, of this justification

as

higher wages.

far The

as

it

evil

therefore growing,the destinyseems shall any to be that no men and all,men well as women, shall be family-supporters, more as individuals. And be mere this,unprevented by self-supporting into existence,valued the few children that shall continue to come for their rarity, spellsthe end of the nation that has got itself into this inextricable scrape. in which such a nation finds itself (and as yet The difficulty its beginning)evidentlyis enhanced we are only near by any and to raise their effort to encourage the employment of women and salaries toward with those of men. equality Marriage wages of vocations of is one the women by which they earn a living. Mill spoke of it as " the one vocation in which there is nobody to compete with them," which they have all to themselves, " " " and for which " the majorityof women to are always likely false the feel a preference.^^ Notwithstanding sentimentality that is now backing up feminism by denouncing marriage for is mostly an)rthing except what is called pure love,but which all the care of the home littleelse than sensual attraction,^* and of livelihood, of of the children she bears is a worthy means the ashamed. But need be she which no more woman earns in other of has the some or earning, already, prospect tion, occupahas she to take up this one. It is not the less inducement For men with men. so marriageis not a money-making, but a a man money-spendingarrangement. The more earns, the more he longsto spend it in this way: he has to spare and the more 83 S4

The Subjection of Women, E.g., " The fact that so many

93.

in order to improve their marry with the idea that " independence the ground that " fewer would on women marry York the New Press, Feb. 21, 1910, quoted by

women

material condition^ is hateful to our of women would marriage improve because of necessity": editorial in Miss Strachan, op. cit.,437.

"

are

led

ideals," along

to


AND

WOMEN

WORK

215

-

he wants the children she will bear to him and the a wife and home woman a earns, together. The more they will compose the more she will have to give up if she marries and goes in for without which marriage is but a free-love union or domesticity, do women enter the inter-sexual pseudo-friendship.The more at the preparation and the harder they work higherprofessions therefor,the less fitted are they for motherhood; but the harder do men and prepare themselves,the better fitted are they work and the successful for fatherhood: it is the unsuccessful men, The inviting, that do not marry. therefore,of women women, their pay, and equalising into what have been men's professions, and disparaging more capableof self-support, helpingto make women

capacityof men, can only impede marriage,check tomatic propagation,and court ultimate disaster.^^ Accordingly,sympof women in by men to take of degeneracyis this calling to lie their places;yet it is going on at such a pace as to seem the

in the

path

"

cago ChiIndeed, Professor Dewey thinks York, when it progressivethan New

of progress.

proved

itself

more

school system, because York itselfthere she was the fittestone for the place." female school and prisonsuperintendents are drawing salaries of five thousand a year and the like. Compare such a woman with a man The woman amount. to be fit for earningthe same have devoted her life to the profession, such a placemust and therefore she is unmarried (unlessher marriage had been brief and unfruitful) ; and as she is still devotingher life to it,she has not time for domestic for the intimate not duties,and especially of children of her own, and she can care hardly be tempted into givingup such a salaryunless she receives a proposal from with at least twice as much. But a man with a man ready, a salary of five thousand may perfectlywell be married alwill only spur him on contracts or any marriage he now still the with to earn rare one an heiress,and even except more,

placed a

at the head

woman

of its immense ''

In New

the recent equalisation of salaries of male and female school-teachers in New On York in a letter which appeared in The New Times, May_ 22, 1912, John Martin, of Education, wrote : of the Board The member whole incident illuminates the a revolution. Men teachers in elementary schools must woman's riage marpostpone the reduced salaries,if not forgo that blessingaltogether. On condition that on single they, like their colleagues, the girl bachelors, can spend summers they remain and But in Europe beguile winter evenings with grand opera. only the few among win the obligations of them who can promotion, if reasonably prudent, will assume At the same time, the women teachers, habituated to the luxury which' their home. a that the suitors for their salaries permit, will naturally demand greatly increased incomes hiffher than formerly satisfied these ladies, hands shall wait until they earn The effect will inevitably be * the sacrifice of net before to marry. they consent and Teachers, both men for the individual.' being especially fond the race women, should make the best parents trained in their management, in the of children, and which law tends them both from to withdraw It is a baleful community. hood." parent35

York,

"

.

.

.

_

36

Quoted

approvingly by Miss

Strachan, op. cit.,83.


2i6

FEMINISM

then he will wish to keep up his end. High salaries, thus,of of the classes of persons conducive to perpetuation are men, to their extinction. capable of earning them, and of women, which is in the wrong the is tion." direcSurely progression praised of the feminist movement in America, in 1850,a woman advocate of equal for men, and of the equal to women as opportunities " of girls of boys for every post of usefulness and as preparation t hat ships, profit they might choose,"said : " The newspaper press, clerkand book-keeping, different officesof governnot to mention ment (whose duties are principally would, if they were writing), equallyopen to our daughters,afford them an opportunityof well-paidand congenialemployment, would relieve them from the necessity of marriage or want, and therebyadd dignityand their character." ^* People prepare their sons to make energy to their way in the world that they may be able to marry ; and now peopleare advised to prepare their daughtersto make their way in the world, equallyindependent, that they may need to not marry! To educate boys to be men, is to help perpetuate the is to helpbringit to a stop.'* to be like men, race ; to educate girls in the is sufficient to the of the sexes distinction nature Surely for justifya discrimination in the preparationof the young the present-daydecay-foretheir life-work,and to condemn shadowing denial of discrimination.*" Assist young vance to admen themselves in the world, and in all probability are you leadingthem to marriage and the rearingof a family:help a boy and you are helping a girl,and are providing for the to advance themselves in the world, future. Assist young women and in all probability you are leadingthem away from marriage from the and rearingof a family:help a girland you help her Near

at the

the commencement

Worcester

convention labour for

The this subject is truly amazing. New York 87 The blindness Press, in its on the equalisation editorial of Feb. 21, 1910, already cited, calls this argument a^inst " of pay not only " reactionary," but " short-sighted I A Catholic priest,J. F. Delany, " that the effect of the success of this agitawrites: I recall reading somewhere tion the women teachers as to would be to confer such a degree of independence upon from deter them marriage. That I believe to be rot; insanely amusing rot, but rot Even if it were I cannot but think it a piece of singular good all the same. so, from of the fortune that would keep them linking their lives with those of some on being the lords of creation," in Miss Strachan*5 superior sex who plume themselves Some of the writers in this book show men op. cit.,481. so insanely chivalrous as to believe that, if anything, women ought to be better paid for their work, 374, 455, herself seconds, 116-17. They think 484; which opinion the authoress only of uie of the race; and yet they pride themselves individual,never on being far-sighted1 88 Mrs. Abby H. Price, Proceedings, 23, cf, 34-5. so See also on this subject Mrs. John Martin, Feminism, 223-4. Clarke: 40 Cf. The and the development of the race depends upon progress of the sexes," Sex in Education, i6t. appropriate, and not on the identical, education Law On the danger to the general good Similarly Brooks, The of Heredity, 273. of mankind from equalisation of the sexes, see also Adele Crepaz, The Emancipation and its Probable of Women Consequences, English translation,London, 1893, pp. 51-67. "

"

**


WOMEN

AND

WORK

217

a alone, and are shuttingyour eyes to the future.*^ Found of the collegefor males, and you are aidingthe advancement Found race. a collegefor females,and you are abettingracesuicide. Already the statisticsof some female colleges of our show that barelyone-half of the graduatesmarry ; that of these a fifth have no children ; and that the remaining fortyper cent. the whole so (of number) have a trifleover two children apiece, that,if half of these be boys, every hundred female graduates leave behind them in the next generation about forty-four daughters.*^ At this rate (which in reality is stilllower, since some of the children are to die before reachingmaturity)the sure bands class from which these highly educated women and their husaction by the other highly is doomed come (but for possible educated who to men women) non-collegiate speedy marry male diminution and gradualextinction. But, though our college result has the show somewhat better (it on a whole, graduates, been reckoned half as good again), it is by no means satisfactory from the point of view of future generations.And for this female colleges the existence of so many poor showing by the men is also to a great extent responsible, as they subtract so otherwise eligible partners. Things being so in the green many When the feminist goal is leaf,what will they be in the sere?

reached

educated and as many as women men are young young in in but only colleges post-graduatedepartments and in business schools for all the professions, the birth-rate in the upper the classes may be expectedto sink to vanishingpoint.*^ not

doctor in the nineteenth (the modern 41 Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman century In her Autobiographical Sketches entitled Pioneer Agnodice), is a good example. of nine Profession to Women, Work she tells us she was one Opening the Medical m of having "been born of a one advantage" diildren. and. rejoiced in the "great " come she deliberately chose ed.). Yet to be(p. i of Everyman's large family ^roup barrier between and all ordinary marthus place a strong me riage," a physician and entered therefore She never even an extraordinary marriage (whatever 23. of her sisters, who followed her in tliat might be), but adopted a daughter; and two and of them in the medical one the woman's profession, likewise rights movement, the advanced females of a talented and each adopted a daughter. Thus did not marry ceased to propagate their line. family, successful in their careers, York The New and Times, Aug. 29, article by ll^r. Mrs. in 42 See John Martin an made the subject. on 1915, whicli cites all the investigationsthat have been marriage and the size of families 43 Mill actually took this restraining influence upon and have all occupations opened should receive the franchise why women a reason as and if the opening of II. xiii. " 2, and IV. vii. " 3; Political Economy, to them. will the preparation of such influence, much more exerts an occupations to women his philosophy in days pre-Darwinian it. Having worked out for them them exert between the correlation discouraging nothing about and pre-Galtonian, Mill knew breeding from the incapable and encouraging it from the capable. Instead, he had an breeding, and showed no apprehension of any danger indiscriminate antipathy to much the referred far. to were For, though from passages under-breeding going too that he extended concerned mostly with tbe labouringclasses, the following shows " Little improvement," he wrote, be expected classes. can his views to the upper feelings as in morality until the producing large families is regarded with the same But while the aristocracy and the clergy other physical excess. drunkenness or any of this kind of incontinence, what be expected can to set the example foremost are "

"

"

from

and

the have

poor! them

"

foot-note can

set

an

in II. xiii. I

example

to

i.

those

How those who can support who cannot support them

large families and

yet

have


2i8

FEMINISM

ment anticipated by the persons who started the moveMrs. the pioneersof the highereducation of women." Emma Willard, perhaps the very first leader in America, had no experienceof this sort duringthe earlydays of her seminary

This

was

not

"

"

for young

ladies.** It was,

in

truth,her intention

and

purpose She better wives and mothers." *^ notion the and her followers to still seem have, probably had, them better husbands of men makes that as the highereducation to turn

out

her

pupilsto

be

"

fathers,the higher education

and

effect. But education

of

men

makes

this is

better

chemists,engineers, militaryand

a

of

will have

women

false

argument.

The

a

responding cor-

higher

teachers,clergymen,physicians, naval

men, officers, lawyers,states-

in the

If it helpsmen on world, it makes them better of better providers. But fathers and husbands only in the sense mothers are not the providersof the family. women as wives and better proHence a highereducation that helpsto make women viders, encroaches the men's sphere. It is useless unless it on is put into execution,and then the woman, being a provider, she be wife or not. This has not time to be a mother, whether is precisely the chief social difference between men and women (a direct result from their primary as well as their secondary sexual differences) that providingfor the family does not interfere with the man's occupation husband and father,but it as does interfere with the woman's occupationas mother and hence with her proper wife. Hence the good done to occupationas education follow in does not the of women. men case by higher Nor is the highereducation of women to enable them necessary to teach their children ; for apart from religion, ners morals, and manetc.

(which,far from mothers colleges),

are beingspecialised, apt to be neglected in teach their children only the veriest elements of the various branches of knowledge,professional ers teachThe do the to rest. is not education beingemployed higher needed in motherhood, and, being in the way, it tends to keep

out of motherhood.

women

results meanwhile are to the produced,contributing such as wastefulness and unfairness. nists femiOur grand finale, of that like educatinggirlsjust boys, speak they may take Other

he

them,

did not because

attempt

explain. As well say the rich ought not to have automobiles, example to the poor. Besides, the having small an intelligence,does not indicate continence, but only any

to

they might

set

people of carefulness. ' Madam, you are making a grand experiment 44 " An English traveller said to me: educating girls too highly, and that they will not be but I fear you are here; experienced any difficultyof this sort," quoted willing to marry.' But I have never This was in 1830. Naturally the effect did in J. Lord's Life of Emma Willard, 107. families, among

.

not

.

appear

.

so

soon.

She included "domestic Lord's Life, 43, 51-2. to-day. 70-2, which, however, is mostly omitted 45

'

science

in her

curriculum, "6.


FEMINISM

220

they have been put (mostlyby the colleges by men, or from money made for the young woman? To tinue conby men) one of superiority to encourage girls endowing female educational institutes, Is not the endowment

to go as

which

footingon of

women's

through them,

to

offer to

openingsas to men many because of their greater

them

in favour

questionmust in favour

of

of the female not

be too

workers

women "

in

some

much

as

cases

pay to

even

and

prefer

dociUty, is not that to above the male sex? sex "

answered. hastily

It is to

discriminate Yet this discriminate

and the ones least likely (even when married) to rear any children; while it discriminates against the marrying and child-bearing kind of women, by discriminating their husbands. It thus down also their capacity against pulls children and Or take a more to rear perpetuate the race. the field of diplomacy,into which instance, from particular is rarelysent on an feminists desire women to press.** A man embassy unless he has a wife : there are alreadynearlyas many ambassadresses share in all the as ambassadors, arid the women If women honours and emoluments. become dors ambassato were some

women

too, they would their husbands could

"

probablybe unmarried,

or

at

all events

not share in their honours : their husbands dren, would probablypreferto stay at home and look after the chilif there were The last century exhibited the ridiculous any.

of spectacle

a

Prince

perfectlyin

Consort; but

the

nature

of

her function positionof a queen consort: while to be dignified, onerous sufficiently that of a king father or official impregnatoris too slight to be Fortunatelyfor the Englishthe positionof worthy of a man. of royal families were absolute is exceptional.If women queen the succession of to have the same males, and if women as right to become were prime ministers,ambassadors, bishops,and fill other high offices equallywith men, to the exclusion of men, time they share in all the honours and emoluments at the same that fillthem,*^it is plain of those offices as consorts to the men human

relations is the of queen mother is

in an article on The Other Side in The Nation, London, 48 E.g,^ Laura Aberconway alone to such being admitted complains of the "injustice" of men May 31, 1913, occupations as are offered by thti state and the church, instancing diplomacy. As for to become women to positionsin the church, be it here said that for_ priestesses entrance founded religions were the province of feminism, if new is entirely within holding Christian ministers is extraordinary, seeto become But for women ing its central idea. founded of this religion profess to believe that it was by God that the holders of the Trinity with his coming to earth and on his departureleaving another member instruction they forbade women to speak in the church under whose (/. Cor., disciples, XIV. /. Tim., II. 11-12, cf. Rev., II. 20). It only shows how in an age ready 34-5, will play with things they pretend to for degeneracy people, and especially women, hold sacred. Catholic Church excludes nists even Roman women as 'f" The consorts,and if the femiCatholics would should attack that one-sidedness, nobody but Roman object. celibate woman, and every male holds,means a where monogamy Every celibate man, all to the corresponding celibate female institution celibate institution requires some _

"


WOMEN that

AND

WORK

221

would be in a favoured position at least tillour present kind of marriageceases, and with it the civilised race. Cato of old said that women, when they become men's equals, ^* would and words have often been rebe their superiors his peated.'*^ ; Their truth seems to be proved by the fact that have been able to discover an age when women were sociologists and and b ut when were men are an superior superior, not age both were an equal,showing that the intermediate stage age when of unstable equilibrium, was one throughwhich the transition was for two to keep the rapid. It is, in fact,impossible powers balance even The ideal of man-and-woman between themselves. rule is impracticable. The feminists themselves 6ften run advocate it the other side. to They subserviencyto through of course, thinkingit chivalrous to do so.^^ But chivalry, women, is consistent only with recognition of the inferiority of woman's with position, being an endeavour to even up their condition men's. If it is to continue when the equality of women with them favoured i t elevates is to a more men proclaimed, position, women

"

aimed destroyingthe very equality Thorough feminists,however,

at. are

fair

enough

to

wish

to

prevent this one-sidedness on the other side,and in order to obtain perfectequality, without out or favour, and withprivilege the wastefulness that

women

shall have

above objectedto their all men's duties as well as

scheme, require all men's

rights,

forfeit either by marriage. Women, therefore, have taken up a profession, who to continue in it after are the wife as men do, marrying,just being as independentof the husband as the husband of the wife, and contributing equallywith the of the children the husband to mon they have in comsupport ^^ it is the will for that woman earn always supposed as ; the man.^* Husband and wife are to go each to his much as and her work in the morning,and meet again in the evening.^^ shall not

and

prejudice of

the race by withdrawing from parenthood men and of talent. women failure to provide sufficiently for the celibate women, celibate priesta hood always fosters prostitution. "Public celibacy," says Draper, "is private wickedness," Science and Religion, 262. Conflict between BO In Livy, XXXIV. 361 E.g., Schiller of his Lady puts into the mouth Milford, in Kabale und Liebe, Act II., Scene i.: " Wir Frauenzimmer konnen zwischen Herrschen nur und Dienen " wahlen." This," says J. W. P. in A Remonstrant View of Woman Suffrage, p. 38, "is the age of the tyranny of the weak the strong. As surely as women over have half of the politicalpower, than half." they will have more 52 ".^.. Edward R. Oilman: "Let us give a 'square deal' also to women, who are entitled to all our the right of man's rightsand, to my mind, to two more: sympathy and of man's protection," in Miss Strachan's Cf. above, p. 2i6n. op. cit.,544. 53 of illustration," says Christabel By way take the case Pankhurst, '' we may of husband and wife who both are doctors, or actors, or industrial workers. Each earns an independent income, and both should contribute equally to the maintenance of the family. Plain Facts about Great Evil, 121. a 54 But cf. above, p, 124, 180-1. and what follows is not a recent demand 55 This of Mrs. Gilman and her followers In 1859 Miss Emma only: it appeared early in the woman movement. Hardinge

Also, through

"


FEMINISM

222

and women, married and unmarried, are to During the day men side by side,without distinction of sex or status ; work together, and women still to enjoy themselves and at even-tide men are with husband but the unside by side, now married, wife, and among friend with friend {ami avec amie), as the case may be. This companionship in recreation has already been noticed."* sistent Companionship in work is no less insisted upon by the conWherever

feminists. wherever

women

creeps in and women

an

work,

men

work, men exception) men

work

must

not

are

in

bear

to

(always there

except

"

work; and

must

women

and

tasks

tend

children,

their

beyond physical engage at strength,though they may join in supervisingstrong men in their speciallabours, as men join supervisingweak may in their labours. With these women special exceptions and not

are

to

"

the

even

been

of the

work

"'

demanded

father

with

the

children

has

sometimes

is always complete side-by-sideness

insisted of its nor ciations. interfere, Marriage present assoany If their professional take them of one engagements the other will remain her occupation. Thus, in at his or "

is not

on.^*

away,

to

this ultra

theory,the wife of an ambassador, being a lawyer or physicianor a professor settled in some city,will remain when her

husband

will remain

to

new

position,as well

gets such

a

post.

for

as

Hereby

the husband fairness and

will be restored and, accordingto sexes perfected. If their professionalengagements

the

feminists,be

separate them do

his

to

if his wife

equalitybetween the

off

goes

a

"

and

long

is to get a divorce,and reunite if circumstances

they make

feel

new

lonely,all they connubial

again bring

them

have

to

unions, perhaps

together. Thus tainable. always be main-

of men and women will side-by-sideness As for child-bearing, deter it,if it occurs, will no more from her professional married labours than any other woman a And be assigned child-rearingmay indisposition.'^ temporary the

Mission and the Place in htt Inspirational Address of Woman, on p. ii, husband forth to his occupation, and so : the liow "The morning comes goes both meet wife. The hours of the day roll by, and when evening comes, terms." .

56

.

.

Above,

pp.

pictured

does on

the

equal

:38-9.

"We would have and God Stanton: what Elizabeth men women Cady for each other, always together, in counsel, be, companions they should and and children, we department of industry. If they have home government, every need Children the watchful and wise teaching care would them have stay there. Convention in iSso, in a letter to the Worcester of fathers well as of mothers." as Similarly L. A. Hine (a man), ib., 56.^ Proceedings, p. 53. K. 5fi So- at Abby H. Price and Harriet Convention, Mrs. the Hunt, Worcester of Mrs. Hardinge, frequently in the work op. cit.,6; and Proceedings 24, 4S; Emma Mrs. intended 67

.

Schreiner, 6!)

Sex

The and

231,

etc.

objection drawn

from

127,

174,

Society, 313.

.

.

this matter

is, in fact, treated

by Thomas

as

"trivial,"


WOMEN to "

who will specialists, or by the state.*^

With this scheme For married women

be

AND

paid for

WORK their services

223

by

the parents ^"

all feminists are at present in accord. have husbands their to support them, and is not contemplated with competition with unmarried women and these now pleasureby these, monopolise the stage. Thus there was not discussion in the New long ago some unsavoury not

"

York public school system as to the rightof a married school teacher to have a year off for the purpose of bearingand caring for a child; with whom all her unmarried not colleaguessympathised,"

for at not

of

married and outsiders stood up although some ones in not and women, discriminating this respect between men least not againstwomen,"^ overlookingthat the man would need such an interruption But the objection of his duties. the unmarried doubt women was no a prejudicedue to the

continuance of old conditions ; for when the new comes in, era they will perceivethat it is no longer the duty of the husband therefore the wife must to support the wife, and lose her not

When children 60 Emma Hardinge in the passage above quoted to say; on goes " to better arrive, either the mother continues forth, since there are women many go than the mother," be employed, who qualifiedto train, teach, and guide tjieyoung may the mother if she is qualified this office of teacher, proto do so, undertake or may, fessionally. *'

She then does it still on she professionally an equalitywith her husband: herself as teacher, nurse, and physician, to her children." 61 In also the latter case, the mother be paid by the state for the time she may her profession during pregnancy loses from and for a while after bearing. Miss led the women 62 Even teachers' revolt against discrimination Strachan, who on in her book the side of men could Work teachers, and who Equal Pay for Equal on for a difference between unmarried the married and the woman's no reason see held that "considerations who of family responsibilities have no place wages, 7, 122; " denounced in the fixing of salary schedules," ii8, cf. 35; and who the family wage " " intrusion the extent to is an necessitating inquiry into one's private life,which as the men that victory over teachers has almost of violating the Constitution,"8; now female been to sing a different tune teachers; for against married seems over won, demand and to have declared that she is reported to have objected to that woman's " take her place._The unmarried to that woman should woman resign and allow an much her unmarried sister," married teacher does not need the money so as woman it is reThe shoe pinches diiferently when moved in the New York Sun, March 9, 1913. it foot. In justice to Miss Strachan, however, another's to one's from own *' Besides, the married woman that she added good reason: should be noted a very be absent and and then now do justice to the school children teacher cannot every A One the other must suffer, and perhaps both. children. look after her own to or with her children so married woman's long as she has a husband place is at home married teacher in the in question had a able to support the family." The woman fragist, Miss Strachan, be it added, though a sufschool with a salary of $3000 a year. same when she needs it, but limited to the woman'sjlace-at-homeargument uses esting of her recent Since the revelation marriage it will be interwomen. happily married views. her ultimate to follow up for taking teacher being dismissed of a married woman 63 Thus in another case child without bear a of absence properly reporting, at a meeting of the to leave " tained mainwoman) Rodman (she is a married Miss " Henrietta Political Union Woman's " for bearing a child, a woman tfacher should instead of being dismissed that allows teacher increase Board of Education a an increase of salary. The receive an for one The year's experience. of Arts degree counts degree. of salary for a Bachelor who teacher who bears a child performs a social service as great as the woman The instead of a penalty." And another receive a reward obtains a degree, and she should " of Education miss to disIs it a rule of the Board raised a laugh by asking: woman York father? " Times, Oct. Reported in The New becomes teacher who a a man hires

20,

1913.


FEMINISM

224

of any merely temporary disability. If, in fact,the husband shall have any duty toward his wife, it will be if he can. for her, or to make to find a position Already one, the new form of nepotism has appeared of a publicofficialappointing

positionon

account

his wife

office in his control.'^*

to an

will again condition be introduced.Nature tions step in and block the plan,which does not recognisethe distincin human she has established beings at least,whatever in be her other never species.If there were arrangements may for if not and to be any women were children, organised ducing prounions for pleasurable children,marriagesbeing mere if Still,

this

new

"

intercourse,the plan might be carried

But

out.

women

are

children.

last without

so

their

By enfeebled, periodically education and apprenticeship of preparation If in youth they prepare for any other life-work. as hard as young men, they as women to be either broken are likely in health or let alone childstunted in child-bearing capacity, who are capableof doing women's rearingaptitude. The women work, are not capable also of doing men's work. ganism By their orthe ranks limited lower to to women are work, or special organised,and

societycannot

have we as organisation, in the especially years of

of work

more

for men's And

if

women

seen,

are

"

suitable to

Those

who themselves prepare in work, are handicapped their own proper work. the mothers children do come, confined for a are men.

full

ever

whether

time, and

other

be employed, the care women as their special work, which Some male animals no man, perform. may do so. A few male fishes see to the hatchingof the eggs spawned by the females ; the male sea-horses carry in a pouch the eggs obstetric frogs perform the whole of their mates ; the male labour of incubation;and male ostriches attend to their fledglings. But if any men ever regularlyperformed such work as the last-mentioned,that tribe or nation would end. Even soon of young

the

couvade

amount

they

or

women

children devolves on will as a rule,can or

was

to much.

too

much

Per

contra, when

to

permit women

adopting it to engage in professional that cannot obligations

any

race

certain work like men, as they assume without thereafter be laid down loss, in addition to their not is t here to improbableincapacity superinducedan unwillingness have children, who would interfere with their work.'^ More.

his newly wedded wife be his to the public) of $1500 a year. It was the ground of the appointee See The not being his wife. New York' Times, May More of Colorado has appointed his 6, 1913. recently a Governor wife Associate-Governor, keeping the salary in the family. Powers 65 In New York The Times, April 13, 1914, Miss Mabel approvingly quotes "wonder Stoner, of Pittsburgh, as follows; child," eleven years old, Winifred a "I have Presidents of the United States think we should two President and a a mr. 64

"

E.g.,

on

confidential

Long

Island

secretary allowed, but not on

*'

at

a

a

judge

appointed

salary (to be paid

by

"


WOMEN

AND

WORK

225

the boys are broughtup with the idea that they are to be better than women no as providersfor the home, they run a in this respect,and good chance of being no better than women in others too. with do not to be burdened care They also,then, of this question the determination children,or they relinquish the middle or upper Therefore classes of the to their wives. nation that takes up this new doomed to ultimate system, are to the extinction,leavingthe country to the lower classes less fit, and consequently abandoningit to decline. Says Spencer: Just as occasional gynaecomasty in men, which over,

as

"

can

be exercised

counted

is not strength, tellect masculine so attributes, exceptionally high inamong should under special productionby women, discipline,

only at

the cost

of masculine

"

ment be counted as trulyfeminine,if it entails decreased fulfilof the maternal functions. Only that mental energy is normally feminine which can co-exist with the productionand of of children. Obviouslya power nursing of the due number the women would of a society, mind which, if generalamong cluded inbe entail disappearance of the society, is a power not to ** in an estimate of the feminine nature as a social factor." their The individual development of women, And Saleeby: in and works of art thought higher education,their expression the carried which to at be cannot and practice, point safely in question will is compromised; else the race motherhood ever, whatsonecessarilydisappear and be replacedby any race "' of which continue to be mothers." the women Thus, of sufficient and for the very reason a physiological good for and functions,it is impossible difference in their structure not

"

hard

and

tinuously energiseso conas productivity, the and stillperform, sufficiently, indispensable in general, men work which they alone can do ; and every attempt to give women duce education and training and to inas in generalthe same men, is into the same as men, occupations them to enter as freely and wasteful,unfair, dangerous. futile, women

in

general to study

in

so

and intellectual, artistic,

to

industrial

it would be party, and political President. They ought to be of the same Mrs But not to have each ought apparently]. they married other, [to were if they better while President, the doors of the they are look after; and children to very many This child's prattle is cited here because be closed to the stork." should House Wliite easily the spirit of the times is caught up by a little girl,who how it shows reserved for men, that has usually been the work undertake women that when sees " adds: herself Something like this the Powers Miss in the way. children are business serious expression of the new woman's point more is bringing." A future Martha Cannon, herself a State-senator,of Utah, of Mrs. is the statement of view day there will be a law compelling people to have no more some the effect that to of this land can live as U*c] of children, and then the mothers than a certain amount Herald in the Annals of the Amer. the Salt Lake they ought to live," quoted from 1910, p. zo. Acad, of Soc. and Pol. Science, Supplement, May, "

66 67

cf. Principlesof Sociology, " 367. Study of Sociology, 441-2, Culture, 106. and Race Parenthood


226

FEMINISM

To

summarise this taatter: There is alone receive higherinstruction and

system in which

a

the

preparationfor professional wark, and they alone receive the familyinheritance,which is handed on as a familytrust: they are expectedto support their sisters and to marry them off,if this has not alreadybeen done by the father;and they are expectedthemselves to marry and stipsons

be the head of that she may his home As wives share their and the mother of his children. husbands' and the daughters property, the prospects of the sons are equal. In another system, generally growing out of the first the beginor (toward the end of the risingperiodof civilisation, ning

port, each

some

one,

other

woman,

culminatingpoint),the inheritance is divided equally the sons and the daughters, the daughtershave the prospect comes, inof marrying and sharing their husbands' professionalof its

among

and

the

sons

also have

the

prospect of marrying

women

have inherited property, and therebyof adding to their common fund: their prospects stillare equal. But now the sons no of their selves themnor even sisters, longerhave the duty supporting of marrying; and as the daughtersare still not prepared in the highereducation for professional labour, or only a beginning of this is made, those who do not marry and whose itance inher-

who

is not To

largeenough to support them,

are

system

a

disadvantage.

third system is desired to be inaugurated the feminists. Property shall continue to be divided

remedy this,a of the

at

"

and also the daughthe sons and the daughtersequally, ters and trained with the sons shall be educated to supequally port Here themselves in any and all professionallabours. the equal. And the intention prospects are supposed to be perfectly is that when marriage takes place,the wife shall continue her l abours no professional just as the husband does, the husband dren longerhaving any duty to support the wife, and toward the chilthe mother them the as having the same duty to support in every father has. The equality is to be kept up and continued in. As women comes respect. But here is where the difficulty have not the same labours that men capacityfor professional their if thrown efforts for all are on own have, they self-support through their lives,their prospects are not equalto those of men. something contributing Equalitycan be maintained only by the men This will the to the support of the women, despite theory. among

be

necessary unions. But

if there especially the as objectis to

be

children the

resultingfrom the between disparity

minimise children will be in the and the women, the earningsof the men and there will be a tendency to avoid women's having way, the sufificient to keep up race. them, at least in any numbers


FEMINISM

228

They will not, in the words of a man, consequences. shall be interfered with that the rights of living persons about superstition future

the

tolerate "

by any ^* effect on counting posterity," apparently actheir But choice not canimpertinencies." "

*"

times

approved as wise, when one reflects that civilisation does not end like a candle going out, but the process of its ending is a who wishes to be independent, The woman slow and prolongedagony. she gives let her be independentif she can; but when be

advice

untold

to

others,she should consult the welfare of all

"

to generations

Advice

come

as

that takes in less than

of the

well

of the present generation. as is the interest of the universality

foolishness. It need

not

be denied

that

women

can

do, at

a

pinch or

tionally, excep-

do (inthe domain of the secondary sex tions), funcwhat men be denied that women but it must do what do men can and at the same time do what they are specially constructed to do (in the domain of the primary sex function). It may very well be that in the rest of this century there shall be a great outcropping with feats performed and works achieved of female productivity,

by

in art,

women

ing science,politics, literature, finance,etc., rival-

of great men. performancesand achievements if This can to bring happen only there is a wide-spreadstriving with men all women into the arena of competition by education, if and But, e xercise, training, so, the women encouragement. who do enter into such competition (thosewith sound bodies and with loss of energy in the coming will die off, superiorbrains) advanced also. For leave practo men women generations tically the medium

"

"

ness. transmit their forwardprogeny, and therefore cannot be Some M rs. to sure Pankhurst),have {e.g., women, advanced after they have borne children;but they rear their and these cease to propagate. daughtersto be advanced women, will and will The intellectuals leave the world in to exist, cease Then the brutal men will again subdue the hands of the brutal. " and a new the brutal women, cycleof advance may begin, with the gradualemergence of a new set of intellectual men to be followed,perhaps,by a new set of intellectualising women for intellectual Would it be better the not cycle. again closing mit to continue their mastery, and for intelligent to submen women instead of leavingit to be done by to it,doing it gently, brutal men brutally? Then the race at least of intellectualisin be kept up, and the present cyclemay continue longer men may in the other than it would do case. no

"

"

88

The 69

J. M. National

Bacon,

Robertson in a criticism of a lecture by Ritchie Dec. 6, 1891. Reformer. Cf. above, li. Sgn, and Essay VIII.

on

here

Natural p.

i42n.

Rights, in


WOMEN For

AND

WORK

229

unrealisable dream of the two sexes b ut and side bound, unalways everywhere living by side,inseparable has be dreamt? Nature ever equal, undistinguished, made women and men ent dependdependenton men for subsistence, for children for both on women dependent on happiness, continuance and also for gladness(for the older we grow, the feel what a void the world would be without childhood more we and youthfulnessaround us), and children dependent on their When for the world. parents for existence and preparation you break one of these dependencies, the whole colligation you undo whole plan is deranged,and civilof interdependence isation : nature's suffers. No true advantage is gained by the proposed You millions of women add so many change. working at a may in almost celibate and childless, trade, industry,or profession, millions of almost celibate and childless men addition to so many in of who millions of wives of the men workers, so place many did the work did that kind of work, while the women at home What and had and attended to children. is the production you gain material things, of more what you lose is the proper of use be no doubt on which side the greater hapthem ; and there can piness lies. Only blindness to the loss givesa vision of gain.'" commodities and more children ; The choice lies between more and the present tendency,encouraged by the feminists,is to This materialism defeats its own commodities. obchoose more 70

from

why

L.

the

**

It is obvious that if large numbers of women into helpers in production, there will be an products without any corresponding increase in the mouths

Courtney:

H.

mere

should

consumers

converted are increase in the be fed," The to The petitio 772.

of Review, June, 1892, p. Women's Suffrage Question, Contemporary otherwise be consumers mere who enter industry, etc., would here is that women produce things for sale. (So Mrs. they do not not and producers, just because " Women nomics, Ecoand as non-productive consumers," half the world Oilman treats they do in the home, 20, 21, 187). 118, cf. 116, in spite of knowing the work their attention to the confine further complains that the opponents Courtney do not their carry caused by the displacement of labour, and troubles temporary the contrary, it is precisely forward to the gains that follow readjustment." On minds The who ones objection is due. follow readjustment to which the losses that would W. I. feminists. the ultimate effects, are to forward the minds their not do carry tion civilisaremain the highest if another civilisation can Certain it is that no Thomas: Sex and Society the intelligenceof its women, adds to the intelligence of its men not used, whereas now is that the intelligence of women This supposes "!i4 been used in their intelligencealways has likely that the way in truth it is more the fields of it in use and the proposed is the one, states civilised proper advancing this matter in past experience is the wrong one, for men reserved there and if it test a good Darwinian has set author up sufficientlylarge. The beine the myriads is that it has not, amidst wonder the effect expected, the have to taking the leadership in feminist state experiments, already resulted in a But barbarians. found only among being states feminist of the (what,these thinkers overlook) take into consideration when we IS the reason P'^'.VV!'."' """.n's intelligence" (i.e.,cultivating Jt equally and m the condition of women.-Apart .from the in Jowetfs paraphrase, in the intr.omade Plato in hint ""=. a A found in be to ^ is '^'^^'".yilr^: of th s argument origin the or w.B2;,tne g his translation to duction 8^^^^^^1 faculties available if a Of course, 153. cf Women of humanity," The the higher be no objection; but the higher service, there need in women engage, few

mass

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

eeSerally

we?e ^flocial Instead ?h"!worid Reason"plain Xsiological '"fl"""""^itH uZr men'?) LSr Sosa'^b! plaine? fn lliint .

service f^r excepfional we

must

not

expect

any

doubling.

Subjlction


FEMINISM

230

ject;for

give not only joy in

children

the present but and is blankness

safetyin

despair. future, and without them there doctrine in the of the there is truth Moreover, to the extent that the

trance wages," as interpretedby Henry George, the enof all women throughouttheir life-time (in marriage as well as in celibacy)into the trades,industries,and professions, and salaries so that the earningsof both the will depress wages the family) will be little larger to keep up parents (sufficient than would have been the earningsof the husband alone,'^in spite to the of the increased production. The surplus will accrue and women, will and land-owners. These, both men capitalists and in sordid and only be the onlygainers, a they alone, for way ; a purely selfish purpose, should advocate this feminist plank. of the working classes will gain little The and the women men much will lose and by comparison,till the upper materially, classes become weakened thrown, so by luxury that they may be over"

of

iron law

the world

and are

already in

go

to

smash

for another

half-way stage commencing

a

Shall

recovery. the process

We that

into the error already conceived ; or shall and make as is carelessly progress," begun in which back the worked state at to endeavour to women we go in the midst of their children at occupations not inconsistent home this result.

leads toward

we

go

on

"

"

minds it is difficultto understand far-seeing these alternati between how there can be any doubt or hesitancy It may be said that it is impossible to go back to the healthier earlier state. but This may least it is possible at to be, strive againstbeing carried further in the downward current. Likewise furthered by this feminist scheme justiceis no more than by the socialist scheme. It is no to keep women injustice in generalfrom of work the fields suited to them. not entering the upsetting of the natural and preferable Justicecannot demand scheme. That men should exclude women from occupations for which themselves show and themselves women fit,might prepare harsh. But for the occupations seem more generallyreserved to have not preparedthemselves, and have not shown women men, themselves fit not even and much less so compatibly absolutely, motherhood

with

?

To

all

"

their

with

prepare 71

them,

Cf. Ward also

in some Economic

function.

own

:

*'

and A

man

work,"_Psychic

keep

The

feminist

demand

preparingthem,

on

in

is for

men

to

expectationthat

the same when his wife and dren chilas working alone earns This effect is already apparent of Civilisation,279. in the article already cited from The Sidney Webb,

Factors Mrs.

occupations: see Journal, Dec, 1891,

this effect, but considered the independenc p. 645. ;"Mill admitted desirable as to be more than tions^ supremely equivalent. Dissertaan iii. 110, Political Economy, II. xiv. "4. answered the objecnon Emily Davies would be idle. The Higher tion Educawomen otilyby supposing that, if not making money, household since their former of Women, occupations had been invaded, 43"7 173-7, seek the reinstatement domestic for she did not of other employments. 109; 91-3, of

women

so

"


WOMEN

AND

WORK

231

them themselves fit, at the cost of unfitting even gerous for their own work. But if men refrain from making this danfor work experiment,and refrain from preparingwomen which all experience unsuitable for and reason them, prove to be in share in As t here is that. it women no is, certainly injustice all the advantagesand advances of civilisation. No new tion invenis made invited into the use of it. are by men, but women Look at the automobiles passing your door: there are more in them than men. At any recreation placeor pleasure women resort women For feminists to talk of injustice to abound. more is sheer nonsense. women, Nor are women for parasitism unless they to be condemned abandon their own work. The danger ahead of female parasitism is Mrs. this Schreiner's pet discovery.''^ Against great is now said to be fighting, movement by danger the woman's labour into all the fields of of women demanding the entrance side by side with men. Mrs. Schreiner admits, This movement, " has taken its rise almost exclusively tured, the wealthy,culamong and brain-labouring alone at the present classes,where of the day danger degeneration through dependence on the sex function exists" (123). This "female labour movement is,in endeavour the of section of the its ultimate essence, an on a part itself from inactivity and degeneration, and this even to save race cost of the most at the immediate fort heavy loss in material comit" the individuals and ease to (123-4). It is, composing who in noble that live should seek women ease indeed, might The questiononly is as to the kind of work to be sought. work. For parasitismis a great evil. Everybody, whether male or of being dependent on another for female, should be ashamed support without making an adequate return therefor. But when is made, there is nothingto be ashamed such a return of, and there is no parasitism.The idea taughtby the feminists that in it is shameful for a wife to be supinherently, itself, essentially, ported " Mrs. Gilman calls it,^' is revolting," by a husband an entirelyfalse idea, which simply overlooks the return she " sex function,"which, indeed, makes, or dwells only on the

they will

show

"

"

"

* The fine lady,' the human and female Woman she Labour, 75 ff. parasite which make its appearance can the most the suron face deadly microbe speaks of as the causes of deca^,parasitism of women is Among of the social system," 81. in general, under women Mrs. Gilman, however, treats present fundamental," 99. into parasites.Women and by men mostly), as made conditions (ever since savagery, of her error be seen The above, pp. 171, 177. cause may Economics, 62, 141, cf. 116. parasitism in view, such as is already exhibited in has real female Schreiner Mrs. and married couples, and is extending, Woman middle-class Labour, lom., so many object of animadversion discovery. It has been an by new it is not a But i9in. denunciation of women's No stronger shirking moralists and cynics for many years. than in Saturday Review one published in the London be found can of their work Women, pp. 281-90). (republishedin Modern 1868 and Economics, 17. 73 Women **

72

"

"

"


FEMINISM

232

alone is not sufficientin marriage. It is comparablewith the idea classes to be for the upper of the socialists that it is shameful the overlooks supported by the lower classes;which likewise classes make the upper or return (of leadership)which the upper classes cease to make an When adequate might make. "

return

the

to

lower

classes,their

state

truly shameful, and parasitismof men upon is

This is the all concerned. of the upper classes and unless corrected by reformation men, and replacementby another themselves,or by their overthrow set that does make an adequate return, it leads to the decline of civilisation. And to make when women cease an turn adequate reand for their support, their state is similarlyshameful harmful. This is the parasitismof women which, men, upon hastens the men, superimposed on the parasitismof men upon where decline of civilisation. In our the parasitismof country, the upper classes upon the lower classes is only justbeginning, the parasitismof women way. considerable headhas made men upon It is due partlyto the invasion of domestic labour by the to other countries,and factorysystem, which is common partly the for make here to to a men largeropportunities livingand of women, to the lesser number which, giving them a scarcity ing value, has made men compete for their favours by unduly reducAmerican husbands of should the return Our required them. demand from their wives, and require more their help, more American wives should demand where it is feasible. And more The has female labour movement to help their husbands. If the But it has pervertedits aim. at an opportune time. come of the upper women (and middle) classes,instead of desiring for their more work, why do they not pleasures,want money demand back the first of woman's labours and child-bearing and the various domestic duties that go therewith? child-rearing, this shirkingof their own It is more task than anything proper undue of leisure, amount women an else, that has given our and threatens to convert into Yet them it is precisely parasites. who the feministic women show little desire for this work: they their eyes to the flesh-pots of the outer world and yearn to turn and with man his labours his recreations. There share is but still ahead from there is parasitism danger ; greater danger labour. In abandoning ahead from this perversionof women's its attendant their own labours the household great task and labours of the past, or in not findingnew of their proper work have taken from them,^* and in to replacethat which men own harmful

to

"

"

"

"

"

74

Ida

What

Tarbell

be under of these may present conditions,is well in her The Business of Being a Woman.

some

explained by Miss


AND

WOMEN

trying

invade

to

support

them

women,

like

lose

more

who

remember feeds.

killed

men's and

the

than the the

will

who

would

gain.

They

goose

that

adage

which

laid

the

advises

233

men's

lessening

willingness

own

socialists,

they

thereby

work,

their

WORK

to

attend

act

golden not

like eggs.

to

bite

classes,

the

old

They the

to

children,

to

the

confound will

ability

hand

will

woman

should that


VIII.

CHAPTER WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

FOR

ARGUMENTS

THE

Because they wish to carry out these feministic views, more and have less ; because they think they are the equalsof men,

or

hurt are rightto be treated as such ; and because their feelings And the vote. desire not women so treated, some they are it in desire not (or,in they fully only municipal and provincial our country. State) matters, but in national affairs. Not only this,but they desire to take part in all branches of the government. Where exists a state church, they aspire,by legislative it also. Possessed of the franchise, they enactment, to enter with men in believe they can compel recognition of their equality all other pointsnot yet attained. then At all events, they can take an equal part with men in determiningtheir own and status

a

that

"

"

_

that of

the

relation between

the ment manageof children. They can then, equallywith men, control their environment. They will supplement the male factor with the female factor, and consummate the full complement of humanity. Their arguments for the suffrageare therefore of a threefold men

"

the

sexes,

and

In the

ascending order of importance,they are (i) and (3) sentimental,(2) the moral or rational (or a priori), utilitarian (or a posteriori). We brieflyexamine them may

nature.

this order. (i) The

sentimental

arguments.

"

Without

claimed, women

complain that they are treated as things; not as human beings,not as persons, not portion of the people,not as citizens : that they are held in the firstpointsin this complaintthe the statements made. Women simply are

the in

as political rights, by men as chattels,

mere

To

the

as

a

jection.^ sub-

flat denial of not treated as chattels and as mere from chattels, from things:they are distinguished from in the worth countries slaves, things, only even considering, though it be that they have been sometimes, and still are somewhere to some extent, treated in the way complained of. They 1

that mere

E.g., Mrs. 1850: she

has

thingl

no "

H. Is there

Abby "

part

or

replyis a

Price, addressing the Woman's Rights Convention is willing to be disfranchised here, who woman

a

...

lot in the

Proceedings,

government

33.

234

under

which

she

lives

"

that

Worcester, feel she is a

at

to


FEMINISM

236 And who

the government of this country has since been

run

by

men,

fact that men are people. The mere poHtical that and also human beingsand are peoplein a broad sense, broad sense, human beingsand are peoplein the same are women does not give the latter any rightto include themselves among The of the term.= signification political the peoplein the narrow human bemgs and who are equally is the case with children, same and equallypersons, equallypeoplein the broad sense of this term, And also. this term of but only in the incompletesense if political but activityis citizens and children too, are ; women, this matter included in this term, theyare not so completely."In those to that is plainenough but one is some difficulty, logical It does not speak well for the sincerityof who seek clearness.^ bling.* by verbal quibthat they urge their cause the woman suffragists alone

And

are

if women

its

are

held in

their complaintshould subjection,

be

Works, iv. 250. On Sense about Women, [women]," Common shall not include them as we of our the government, theory correctly it is to state impossible the contrary, excluding women. shall abundantly see, without another The form of the 5 For in the fallacy see fallacy recurs above, p. 30. *' grown-ups." It is overlooked that there not treated as that women are complaint and women. Boys grow kinds of grown-ups up men are two grown-up grown-up Women but girlsdo not grow and girls grow up into men. into men, up into women, that is, as growntreated as grown-ups up treated diiferently from girls, and so are are why they should And nothing is offered to show not men. as women, grown-up treated. are be treated as grown-up men ii. 4; see also 4 (or ii. 1), where 6 Cf. Aristotle, Politics,III. is mention of citizens. A attributed to Sieyes, and introduced in the women Frei^charrangement This constitutions of 1789 and 1791, divided citizens into the active and the non-active. abolished in words distinction was by a Decree of August 11-12, 1792, but left in fact. the people?" was the subject of much 7 The discussion, both question "Who are chusetts in this connection and with regard to the distribution of representation, in the MassaConvention of 1S53. The Constitutional Official Report of Debates shows that of them ascribing to it members held that the term has only- one meaning, one some ford (W. J. Bradto take part in government only that of all the adult males competent children and (H. W. all men, i. 212B), and others having it include women " rational creature," ii. 746; Kinsman every 204B, B. M. Morton 225A, A. P. Marvin it both these meanings. said W. B. Greene, i. 200B, 201A, ii. 726B) ; while others gave Thus F. T. Wallace pointed out that " we speak of the people in two senses," in " an actual sense," embracing every living soul in the commonwealth, and in " a legal or constitutional sense," covering only those who lowed are recognised as voters i. 207; folSimonds 210A. the by J. W. started with had Already O. P. Lord, who broad definition 170A-B, away, had admitted the narrow E. P. Hathone 174B; and now 228B, transition from sense making the same the broad 208B to the narrow nition defiaccepted both 229A; while B. F. Hallett, who had started out with the narrow of "people" 170A, 2igB, recognised that it is "a relative term," with varying both all the populationas application according to circumstances 219B, and means "the "the 221A people in repose," and only a part of them as people in action" [the Frencli distinction];followed by J. M. Earle 226B-227A. But those who even admit held, or laid emphasis on, only the broad definition,did not on that account the right of women to the suffrage. They said either that the legal voters represented all the rest, especiallytheir women 225A, (H. Wilson 196B, B. J. Giles 198A, Morton ii. ii. 746A, also at first Greene i. 2otA-B. later converted Hathaway 228B, Marvin of those (Wallacei. 207B, 208A, the guardians or trustees 726A), or that they were well explained Hathaway 229A, cf. ii. 728A, and cf. Earle i. 227A). W. J. Hubbard the Mayflower 555-6, cf. on the whole matter by reference to the conduct of the men Simonds 209B. , " 8 In English the word people " is also used in a general sense, like the Greek Of course under this sense of the women come the German man. on, Tiy, the French included adds in which women are strength to the This additional word. sense more by English-speaking is, apparently,used much illusion; and so this argument peoples than by others. "

"

"


SUFFRAGE

WOMAN aimed

rather

itself ; for

at

their treatment

ARGUMENTS in

237

than subjection,

simply are in the power of men. in the beginning, when mankind

women

at

the fact

They

may

have been so littlediffered from animals ; but since women have become different from other females by their long care of their offspring, have and since men the foundation of which may gone ahead and carried civilisation, have been laid by women, far beyond the capacity of the women who reproduce the species, themselves cannot alter the fact men not

established

by

by

natural

Strengthof

drawbacks, is needed

and If

nature.

mind

and

for the

for its preservative power

body, unhampered isation, of civil-

continuance

to defend

what

is

acquired.

excluded from the benefits of civilisation, they might justlycomplain,since they perform the essential task of bearingmen; but as this is not the case, theyhave no justground of complaintin simply not being admitted to functions which did and have never, but for infinitesimal excepnot they originate tions, few shown man-like save a performed or, specimens, any of in these for. The fact inferiority aptitude respects,moreover, chise, is recognised themselves,when they ask that the franby women that economic independence, that equality in all thingswith be givento them by men. As though men could really give men, what to women make receive, what they cannot they cannot their own, except in appearance, nature having withheld it from them ! Men When have not so behaved toward other men. tain cerhave grown classes of men strong enough to take part in have declared themselves so, and taken the government, they and required others to recogniseit. So our ancestors position, women

were

"

acted

toward

permissionto

England : they did manage did

their

own

not

ask

for

affairs:

independence or

they

did

manage

for their

declare

and they themselves independent, forced England to recognisethis established fact. England has since practically nies, recognisedthe independenceof her other coloown

affairs, they

men stateswaiting to be forced. And so in politics, have chise, frequentlyadmitted up-coming classes into the franwithout waitingto be forced; and so they have appeared hold. no longer theirs to withgive the franchise,though it was A downright giftof the franchise was made by the once

without

to

whites to the Southern blacks,since those blacks were not ready to take it,and could not reallyreceive it. Every gift of that sort is a mistake. sensitiveness of the women The is shown extreme suffragists is which used another and as an which complaint, argument, by This is the long-standing to have great weight with them. seems from the exclusion franchise women lamentation that by are Northern


FEMINISM

238 classed with

Even the trousered criminals. riet logicianMill indulgedin this negativeclassification." But HarMartineau had not hesitated to class children with idiots and

children,idiots,and

criminals (during" the season " the only fair exceptions" "

requires "

beings

;

added, if

the

^^

equal and

"

slaves,at

not

principle(and "

all human

third of

to

" of the latter) of sequestration as " democratic which to the principle," human of all politicalrepresentation the " fair " exceptions she might have least foreigners.It is,however, a curious

she

might be asked where she got it?)affecting and at least one beings,"which yet excepts some "

them; and

if it excepts

these,it may except others,with equal question at issue is,not whether women should be classed with children,idiots,and criminals, but whether be excluded from, or rather not be admitted to, the they ought to

fairness,and

the

franchise. political

Slaves because

are

not

is a distinct reason for each There case. admitted because they are not citizens ; foreigners, of another people; children, because members are

they they are undeveloped; idiots,because they are unintelligent; criminals,because they do not recognisethe rightsof others ; and shall see more because, as we fully later, they are women, its their and organism functioning)of deprived (by proper duties in addition to their own." capacity to perform political sion, classed with certain others in the excluare Thus, though women for the exclusions.^^ they are not classed with them in the reasons It is no indignityto children to be thus negatively tions time Curtis, Orahis speech in Parliament, May 29, 1867: also about the same niversary C. Stanton, in her address First Anand Addresses, i. 182, and Elizabeth at the of the American Equal Rights Association, New 15: Yorkj 1867, Proceedwgs, Edinaddress before Woman at in an followed Suffrage Meeting a by D. Masson and child who speaks man, woman, burgli, Jan. 12, 1871, and since by almost every Constitutional fail to appear York in the New the subject: for instance, it could not on and M. L. Towns, it was raked Convention of 1894, where by C. H. Moore up it has been used by Israel Zangwill, Revised Record, ii. 215, 417; also again in England To F. J. Hall Talked Hall, March 8, 1907, P- 3Out, Report of a speech at Exeter There York however, Times, Feb. 14, 1915. this seems were, a "shame," in The New free Cook "In Taylor wrote: in 1840, W. Thus precedents on the other side. every is established somewhere; constitution that has ever existed, a principle of exclusion do not propose that universal suffrage of what is called the wildest advocates even into the class of electors and reprebe admitted sentatives," females, infants, or the insane should And before, Natural sixty-five years History of. Civilization, ii. 126. the feeblest and fool," among or a child, a woman, mad-man, a a Paley liad cited and Political Philosophy, often belongs. Principles of Moral worst," to wliom property of classification by negaSometimes in science use is made Book tion, III., Part i., ch. i. Yet a lobster may differ treated as a class. invertebrates in zoology, where are as have less woman than does an amphioxus; and so a non-voting from more may a worm than with a voting philanthropist. with a non-voting criminal in common 10 Society in America, London, 1839, i. 200. Convention, 11 OfficialReport, i. 221A-B. Cf. Hallett, Massachusetts be of these several reasons 12 Of may a general principleincluding most course, have in detail, as things may found; but this does not hinder the diversity of reasons In the Virginia constitution time specificdifferences. and at the same a generic resemblance Mason: bates, by George cf. Elliot's De6, drawn of 1776 (Bill of Rights, sec. up 1776, and Vermont V. 387), followed by those of Pennsylvania 1776, Maryland " all men, having sufficient qualified as belonging to the right of suffrage was 9

In

'

'

"

"

_

1777,


WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

ARGUMENTS

239

classed with idiots and criminals,especially often these are as to be to womeij incompletehuman beings. And it is no indignity thus negatively whom and men classed with children,between In have seen, shows them to be intermediate. we as physiology, because the also excluded from they England, suffrage peers are have a compensatory share in the government ; ^^ and clergymen of the Church of England cannot sit in the House of Commons, theirs is another function and they have a Convocation of as their own.^* likewise have Women compensation in certain dren, privileges.In these they do not mind being classed with chillabour in do for Nor instance, protective as, legislation. they decline beingsaved first, alongwith children,in shipwrecks; and with children they claim for themselves immunity in war. Widows and orphans have long been ranked togetheras objects now deservingof charitable assistance ; nor would our suffragists also criminals Also women, children,and idiots, as separate them. their this sificatio clascannot sequestration(women during escape are exempt from service in the army and navy, and in the militia,and in the sheriff's posse comitatus. Here, too, do not object. Their objection, women therefore,is not to their their exclusion from something companions,but to the fact wish and catch to enter; at any that presents reason they they itself. There is,indeed, or there ought to be, a reason for everything; and in every case, under the generalreason, the reason calls for acceptance or peculiarto it is the one that principally "

refutation.^' evidence of permanent interest with, and attachment common This, to, the community." besides leaving out disqualifiedslaves and foreigners, and also paupers. We women, another which shall later dwell on is common reason to all but the first'two sets of excluded their sequestration). (even to criminals during Here it may be persons " Martineau herself alluded noted that Harriet to it. Her absurd democratic ciple, prinwhich requires the inclusion of all human allows the exclusion beings, she added, of none but But incapables," op. cit., i. 202. that women are sufficiently only by saying that no man can capable of politicalactivity she could maintain her own to represent has power interests,till she has been tried," 208. deny that woman the as Yet she herself half of humanity the bemg whom spoke of women over from the exercise half has of the right of the strongest," iii, 105. other power fairness in the exclusion_ of women, That there is no is purely a dictum of her desire and sentiment in the matter. It may he added expressing only her own own, for the exclusion of women be less pronounced that the strength of the reason may (wherefore their exclusion alone has become bate), a than in the other cases subject of defor women's exclusion this proving that the reason is insufficient. without Convention Constitutional of 1872-3 a couple of advocates 13 In the Pennsylvania of and J. M. Broomall) pointed to an suffirage (T. MacConnell inconsistency woman here and after a few to to come Englishmen in allowing brutal vote, while years and settled here, would forever be excluded from the Queen Victoria, if she came failed to note that neither Queen They Victoria franchise. Debates, i. 537-8, 55oB. could vote in their own her sons nor her husband grown-up country. nor used to be ineligible to elective offices. States clergymen of our 14 Also in many the subjection of women and the comparison between Stephen's 15 J. Fitzjames sophistical by Margaret L. Franklin is pronounced in her subjection of minors " particularly well refuted by Suffrage, p. 46, and to have been Case for Woman in her Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity (a replyto Stephen's work Lydia E. Becker " The subjection of the infant to the parent temporary title) as follows: of the same of two relation having inherently equal personal rights. accidental persons [!] is an **

*'

'*

"

"

"

"

"

'

"

"

"


FEMINISM

240

Analogous is the complaintthat

women

are

"

by

their exclusion

"

class by themselves,over This complaint class." another and superior as againstmen since the wide-spread adoj)tion has come to the fore especially This treatment of women of almost complete male suffrage.^^ of the assobecause is regarded, ciation not only again as ignominious, b ut cratic,^^ undemowith other inferior excluded classes,^^ as and and involving as necessarily leading inconsistency,^" in there is the words of Curtis, class to injustice, no because, be of citizens, and no single w ho intrusted with citizen, can safely ^^ of political the permanent and exclusive possession ; power and as actuallyhaving done so ; ^^ wherefore women, as forming need induction is be The also to a class, represented.^^ indulged has come and been in,that as one class after another of men up admitted to the franchise, the greatest class of all,all so finally from

the franchise

treated

as

a

"

"

"

is affirmed The subjection of women permanent inherently unequal rights." The rights of children

relation which a presupposes of adults are unequal and inherently of their conditions, while because of the inequality the children so are to be so only when the children become adults. The children, and they cease rights of women and oi men are unequal because of the inequality of their conditions, and because become The cannot to be so women never can of a cease men. statement is not proved by its always includes a difference, and its incorrectness comparison with facts. agreement 16 Cf. Mrs. Mrs. "one Jacobi, above, p. iin. Jacobi further says there is now makes Common Sense a political class out of a sex," great line of cleavage, which ** A class of people who not allowed be applied to Woman Suffrage, 210. to are persons," 25; a politicalclass below that of every man," 74; a class of aliens, 202; ** the only class of sane people " excluded " except the tribal Indians and the Chinese," This work, as its title indicates, tried to extend Paine's views to frage. suf211. woman But futily; for Paine's Common Sense intended the want to show was a work of right in the Englishpeople to rule the American people. The distinction between sovereign and subjects ne regarded as arbitrary, and conferring no rights; but he "male and with it the distinction between female," exi^ressly (in No. 2) contrasted Mrs. Jacobi overlooked. which, he says, is one of nature a little point which 17 which is denied the vote, is branded Every class," says Christabel Pankhurst, inferior class," Plain Facts about a Great Evil, 122. an as " 18 S. Josephine Baker: land has a right to call itself a democracy when it No is governed York i.e.,by men, in The New solely by a privileged class Times, Feb. to

be

and

"

"

*'

"

'*

"

"

"

"

*'

"

"

14,

I9i5._

19

their

So

in

1792

peers,

how

Hippel: can

women

As

estates

be

(Standee:

excluded?

classes) can only b,e represented by die biirgerltcheVerbesserung der

Ueber

Weiber, Werke, vi. 123. 20 Orations and Addresses, i.

193, cf, 218-ip. He quoted Buckle as saying "there is no instance on record class possessing of any without politicalpower abusing it." But Buckle, although Curtis himself dia ((232-5),would all men hardly have viewed as a class. Similarly in this connection W. G. Eliot: In a republic,an unrepresented class is the sure victim of injustice,"Woman's Work and Education in America, 1870, And York Jessie H. Childs, in The New "Never Times, Feb. 14, 1915: has it 4. found safe to allow any een class to hold power another class whose needs over were utterly different and sometimes opposed to the needs of the ruling class." Also, "It in the nature is not more of things, I take it, that a class fully, Higginson: obtain justice from the governing class," Common politicallysubjectcan Sense about Women, Works, iv. 342; "There never yet existed a race, nor class, nor a a sex, which noble enough to be trusted with politicalpower was another over class, or sex, or race," 318. Similarly Gail Hamilton, Woman's Wrongs, 92-3. 21 Anne G'Hagan: Men, legislating as a class for women as class,have done a ruling class has always done exactly what every they have discriminated against every had no Women? class which legal vote," Do Men represent (a leaflet published by a American the National Woman Suffrage Association). demand in the electorate and Schreiner: Women to share 22 Mrs. ultimately in " far as they differ from the male so the legislativeand executive, because they form to represent the interests of that class," Woman and Labour, class,and are bound a *'

E.

"

200.


WOMAN

SUFFR'AGE

ARGUMENTS

241

will be admitted.^* There is here a simpleerror, and the inferences do not follow. Women than not a class, are any more children are a class ; for,like children, they pervade all classes.^* if another class, children And, per contra, women are a class, are whom it would be unsafe and unjust,accordingto this argument, for the two classes of adults,amalgamated into one, to govern.

women,

class to

Individuals, too, may

pass from one pathological cases)not from the one

another,but (exceptin

the other. off the domination to

sex

And

weaker

of stronger wholes, have thrown ^** but became do classes whenever so ; they strong enough to become as strong as men not so cannot women are theycertainly now. Moreover, there is no need of this conclusion of the series of class successions ; for whenever a class of men (notall men, but scale and taken the franchise, some men) have risen in the political class have likewise: they have been of that the women profited emancipated with their fathers,husbands, brothers,and sons.^? One class may tyranniseover another class because its oppressive members. But the laws made laws do not affect its own by the male sex for the female sex affect the female members of the class

classes,as

"

imposed upon another class a man belongingto the imposing fall on women a tax imposed by men upon may any or on property when inherited by his wife or daughter,

classes that make

or

does

class ; but

man's

own

thern.^"

A

tax

affect the property of

not

Movement, Annals, Amer. Jane Addams, The Larger Aspects of the Woman's " Discrimination o" Pol. and Soc. Science, Nov., account 1-2. on 1914, pp. York is the last stronghold of class rule," in The New sex," writes W. G. Wilcox, at the outset This was Mill's fundamental of his work error on Times, Feb. 21, 1915. He The Subjection of Women. perceivedthe objection that while classes are arbitrary he only replied by trying artificial ranks, sex discrimination be natural; to which or may that all arbitrary distinctions nave to raise a presumption against this,by pointing out natural to those who benefited by them and even to those who ject subseemed were were the real disand then by trying to make that we know tinction out cannot to them, 20-4, the human the above, p. 50; for, under between see 38; for which sexes, able to see but the stronger man's been no reason influence of his wife, he had natural: sertations, Disto almost see everybody else seems cupidity for the distinction which too So also iii. 1 13-14, strongly. where, however, the distinction is drawn ** all men," and class apart from applies to women Blease all women a cluded extreats as classes of men. The been the same that have applied to excluded arguments 23

So

Acad.

187, 194"5. Emancipation of English Women, this effect, op. cit.,94 (from Essays on Smith 24 to Mrs. Jacobi quotes Goldwin irrelevant to her as as Questions of the Day, 208) ; but all his arguments appear *' in the spring, tra-la," 97. bloom the flowers which Subjection of Women, 24a C/. Mill himself. The 11, 1S-16. The she says : peculiarityof 25 All this is virtually admitted by Mrs. Jacobi when class of voters, that they are is, and it is unique for any new the position of women with the men whom with each other, but are so they live," among not homogeneous Addams's the underpinning of Miss by out And she knocks argument op. cit., 176. do not propose the franchise; to lower we In seeking the suffrage for women, saying: seeking for lateral,not vertical extension," 234. we are vention stated by H. H. Van at the Woman's Amringe Rights Con26 The was full argument be laid down It may in as an in 1850: indisputable axiom at Worcester safely be permitted to legislate for another people; no that no people can government, "

"

for a distinct city; and no employment for the other sex." But he spoilthis point by " the fact of man's being related to them by blood the iniquity of a partial legislation,"Proceedings, 40. and family interests, modifies Wrongs, 99-104. is made by Gail Hamilton, Woman's A similar admission nation

for

another

nation;

no

city for another

employment; and I will add, neither admitti];ig; In respect to women,

sex


FEMINISM

242

sister'sproperty,which he may inherit ; his wife's, or or mother's, as they treat do not treat the property of women wherefore men tween bedistinction class. And when a that of another nation,city, or be made, as for instance in labour legislation, must the sexes the laws for members of the enfranchised classes make the men classes of their own welfare their interest is as

for their own daughters,in whose great as in that of their sons." "

appeal to the contrast presented h working ardthat the fact educated, propertied, intelligent, by cannot uneducated,unwomen vote, while unintelligent, The vote. can tramp," says Mrs. propertied,loafing men Jacobi, who begs cold victuals in the kitchen may vote ; the Equallyplainis

the

error

of the

"

"

not." ^* universities may feeds him and endows who Now, if the Changes innumerable are rung upon this theme. education,propsuffragewere regulatedby either intelligence, erty, and the exclusion of or labour,the admission of such men But the suffrage is such women would be contrary to principle. ation, of these thingsare taken into considernot so some regulated: but the main thingwhich regulatesthe suffrageis something in shall later. At see our else,as we present, country at the questionis only that of admittingall womeij or least, none; of the for a proposition to enfranchise only women upper classes would be sure whose women to be defeated by the men not were be opposed by the political to be admitted; and, too, it would that believed its would benefited. Conbe more sequently party opponents i dle uneducated, unpropertied, women unintelligent, would be admitted, would match the men, and there would be no be uneducated and loss,because more gain. There might even least at the of ligence intelvoters more unpropertied question (waiving would and diligence) be added to the votingpopulation. heiress

It is

a certainly

poor

argument

that because

some

women

are

better than some therefore all women should vote! True, men, there is much that ought not to be in the existing system. It is that cripples and blind men who have to be helpedto the wrong and in the polls, supportedby publiccharity men paupers hands of others should be allowed to vote. The vote also is too soon, before they are thoroughly given to foreigners naturalised and also too before they are settled in to young soon ; men, life: at twenty-one they tnay manage their own property, but should before some more should be allowed to by years they go "

"

ZT

Ellen

race, and not call

makes

Key

another

variation:

another, there is a woman names? things by their proper

"As

loner

as

the

law

treats

women

as

one

question, The Woman Question, 70. Why As long as the law treats women one as sex, and men another, where sex-differencje is essential,the law will be doing only what as the facts in the case require of it. 28 Op. cit.,74. men

as


FEMINISM

244

The fad, in its extreme to'pass ; but its enormity form, is likely for slowness, and a trail of survivals may be left in its makes Also the historyof the past shows its immense wake. ness, seriousit has and it with to threatens as as be, been, fraught danger and the state that harbours it. to the race The woman unlike socialism,has had its principal movement, extension in the upper classes. There, idle women desire something excitement ; they say they wish to take to do, some more They complain,therefore,that they part in the world's work.

politics, except

its outskirts. They cannot enter the army and navy except to succour the wounded ; they cannot become service among women policemen, special except for some and children ; they cannot be miners, foundry-men,engineers,

cannot

enter

stokers,and

hundred

a

strengthand so

:

easy

candidates.

The

fact that

very

more

is adduced leisure, of voting, however, ballot into

as as

needing these

politics

vote,^^and talk gossipabout

women

(of the upper classes the lower?) have so much "

of

The argument in their favour.^^ shall see, involves much than more odd moments. The argument that

an

we

box

a

From But

at

of leisure should be allowed

women

give them

to

to

women hard-working

about

droppinga

exposed to dangers. being excluded.

mind

not

how

duty

the

^^

merely have

you

kinds of workers

other

one

or

do

occupations they appears

and

endurance

on

something to

conclusion is that men vote, if they desire admitted

are

men

who to

do

of leisure, to vote, like men do, is double-edged;for its proper

do

not

work

should

for

merely

so

for the fundamental

reason

not

this

which

be allowed reason.

admits

to

Such other

but even without regard to that, they would be admitted that it be for the practical would worth the not trouble to reason

men;

admitted still are to some dangerous industries, such as working with lead, this is because in the beginning before they were inadvertently admitted the known. danger was They are gradually being eliminated. be done 32 the way on to market,'' says Voting takes but a few minutes, and can Woman of the broadsides of the National Suffrage Association. one 33 The Woman, of leisure and with composed Emerence M. Lemonche: in her hour better fitted to look after the welfare of Humanity than Map, who, from mind, is much till night, is occupied but with matters of commerce," morning The New Era Woman's "Women of every Cf. Alice S. Blaclcwell; Era^ 86. leisure than [I] class have more take ten minutes their way to stop on to men They can [from their housework] market and vote twice a year find half an hour a day for the once or They can So also and other means of information," Objections Answered, 15-16. newspapers Francis A. Blackwell thinks the electorate will be improved in intelligence because have more An time than men for studying the details of proposed measures, women Electorate Some and North American of Men Women, Review, June, 1912, p. Sii. time for studying the science of politics, which have more they do not do; but women the details of politicsare This with them. learnt without in contact study, by coming insensibly, do not. learn politicsalmost men do, and women Cf. J. W. P. : " Men to of life do without effort, or detriment extra through their mode What men can their daily work, women can onl^ accomplish as an uncongenial task, at the cost of Also an much time needed for their especial cares," A Remonstrant View, 13. mous anonywhere carries him out and about The father's business woman: men, among must whilst the woman these public questions come study at every turn, up and and inform herself of these things," Rights of Men Women, 40-1. up 3X

They

etc.; but '*

*'

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

"

'

'

*

.

'

'

'

.

.


WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

ARGUMENTS

245

exclude them. few, and their influence They are comparatively of upon others is what counts most; and such influence women In wealth can exert also,if they go about it in the rightway. with in with i f who bored idleness earnest are are general, women in the world's affairs, the desire for participation there is plenty for them to do. Especially that work which lies nearest to their hand and child-bearing -rearing that is most importantfor the world, and these women o-f it. Some most are neglectful of too of course, cannot bear, perhaps in consequence women, because to study,perhaps strenuous they are earlyapplication them their disease contracted husbands, incapacitated by given by from other women. Stillthey can rear, or do other useful work. enter all the business and profeseven Exceptionalwomen sional may advise if But need to. not care occupations, they they mand to follow their example,and they ought not to deother women that a door should be flungopen to all simplybecause they themselves wish to enter. Human aflfairsare not regulated to fit "

"

exceptionalcases,

and

so

are

Custom

law cannot. exceptions,

"

may

admit

not especially

politicsregulated. said John Society,"

"

be governedonlyby generalrules." ^* The sentimental arguments appeal to men also. Men feel in abashed when upbraidedfor claimingsuperiority even a detail, and though concedingsuperiority in other things. As to women from the idea of charityhas been converted helpingothers to t hem the idea of which origletting helpthemselves,so chivalry, inally into to protect others,has become was perverted letting others protect themselves. The kindness which lets children is extended to women-: have what they want, even to their injury, the ballot, if women want they should have it. men, say many t hat There make way for women. men is,of Gallantryrequires in the of the limit nature of all these ideas to a case, course, since there are some kindness,chivalry, charity, things gallantry, the have concede which But sento the weak. no timent rightto strong is blind to fine definitions. Sentiment,however, may be aroused on both sides of a question, by keepingwithin the bounds and In the PennsylvaniaConstituof reason, tional by overflowing. of 1872-3 a member said he was in favour of Convention female suffragebecause his mother was a whereupon woman; I member it because another replied am opposed to my mother ^" because wife and is woman." further, a was a woman, my

Adams,

can

"

" Smith: Political rules must ix. 378; cf, vi. 476. Similarly Goldwin be general facts that political institutions disregard exceptions." "It is upon be founded." Essays on Questions of the Day, 205, 219. must SimilarlyGladstone, Likewise the feminist ^Wendell Phillips: "We Years, i. 142. Gleanings of Past not the exceptions," Shall Women society, for the masses, have legislate,we arrange So, too, the Romans, of their law, Digest, I iii. 3-6. the Right to Vote? 23. 55 Broomall and J. M'Murray, Debates, i. 541A.

54

WorUs,

general and


FEMINISM

246 (2) of

The

women

moral as

or

human

ratioml

(a priori)arguments. the same it are beings, is alleged,

"

The as

rights

those

of

free and equal is taken that all men for the statement are of Hence; human to deprivewomen as beings. applyingto all and their equal rightsto freedom independence is considered men;

unjust,and wrong This position seems

of

to

them

as

women,

many

inferior when and to some

they are men,

equal.

dent self-evi-

axiomatic.^"

or

premise in

fundamental

The

the

human

to treat

question.

Women

beings that

men

of have

this argument is have the course as

human

a

mere

same

beings.

But

begging rights as added

to

human

beings,are which which have alone, or mostly,and qualities women qualities added have and with these men alone, or mostly; qualities go added duties and rights. Also children have fewer and diiiferent qualitiesthan adults,and everybody recognisesthat they have fewer and different rights and duties ; yet they are human have not the rightsand beings.'^Evidently,then, just as men nol the duties that belong to women have as women women, the whether And as men. rightsand duties that belong to men well as to as suffrageis a rightor duty that belongsto women men (for all agree that it does not belongto children,hence not to all human beings),is justthe questionat issue.^' It is true that the doctrine of the equality of all men has been in in the form stated, languages which make the distinction, human But all all human to when to beings. applying applied beings,this doctrine referred to their condition in the state of it expressed in the late Roman Thus nature. was jurispruwhat

men

and

women

have

in

common

as

" W. Davis 36 E.g., Paulina We at the Worcester Convention, 1850: might say that the natural right of self-government is so clearly due to every human being alike,that it believe it is needs to prove "I Gail Hamilton: it,"Proceedings, 11-12. no_ argument have seldom, if ever, denied, that women abstractly [what does that mean?] an equal to vote," Woman's right with men Wrongs, to prove 75-6 (she therefore never attempts is based work it, although her whole on it,cf. 17 1-2, and is a reply to a certain Dr. that may be corrected Todd, who by legislation). did^deny it. Also she cites no wrong of the natural right of suffrage is one inherent rights of the Mary U. Ferrin : "The whole human C. Fowler race," Woman's Defence, 1869. Also Nathaniel Jr. does not consider but simply asserts that " the right to vote is a human argument necessary, York right," The Principle of Suffrage, New 1916, p. 55, cf. 47, 57, 59. Accordingly " he is unqualifiedly in favour of votes for women is a human simply because woman being," 45-6, cf. 55. He holds that men worked outside first,and so "accidentally" " the first to vote, and have accidentally" were kept the right to themselves through Forel goes even further: respect to precedenti 11-13, "The is, 36, 47, 56. tion emancipaof women is not intended to transform into men, but simply to give them women their human animal rights, I might say, their natural rights," The Sexual Question, By the latter, however, he refers rather to their sexual liberties. 504. 37 It will not do to say that they are incomplete human plete beings. They are not incomhuman beings. They are incomplete as adults, but as children they are complete; human children and are beings as well as adults. Emerence M. Lemonche 38 And when so speaks of " Woman's rights derived from the laws of Nature," The New Era Woman's Era, 6, the question merely is, what are from the laws of nature? these rights derived


WOMAN dence.^" well

ARGUMENTS

247

And

the Christians maintained that in the sightof God beingsare equal.*" These statements apply to children

all human as

SUFFRAGE

as

different.

to

and

women

In

to

the natural

But

men.

in civil

societythingsare

children may declare their independence whenever they are able to maintain it. In civil society Nations of years. they remain in tutelagefor a fixed number with in still of to the nature one state another, are, respect ; and maintain its independenceis held to be, with any nation that can its reference to free as, and equal with, every other as rights, nation. When nations or states combine into a largernation or of their independenceand equality.*^ state, they give up some when And certain persons enter into combination and form a so of their and equality inintroduce state, they give up some liberty, they of office. If they set up a monarchy or an aristocracy, concede to one to or they perpetualgreater powers (inequality) few lines of descent If of set a (heads families). they up a

republic, they grant election;but all who

state

only to individualstemporarilyby power thus combine and form the state, and all to

theytransmit

whom

their new selves status, remain equalamong themin their power their superiors.But others who of electing did not jointhem in the action of setting up the state, and all those to whom they have not transmitted their status, are excluded, and yet they retain equallyall their natural rights, except those which remain under the to enter or acquiescing state. Among these is resignedthe rightto in form and take part the government of a state, since they did not take part in forming this state or inherit or otherwise receive in its government, not having been able to do so, or participation unless they are able to do so. It stillnot being able to do so,

they must give up of the jurisdiction

in

"

who that have founded states ; and those men did take part in government, are freemen; their assignees, so or all men force become and when have powerful enough to in the government, be i nto to or invited, participation themselves, American But women state. it is a democracy. Such is our and in the state take did not establishing forming governpart was

only men and who,

" ab initio liberi nascuntur," Institutes,I. ii 2 ; homines 39 Jure naturali omnes homines Quod ad jus naturale attinet,omnes similarly again I. v. and Digest, I. i. 4. combined into one: Hobbes the two statements aequales sunt," Digest, L. xvii. 32. founders The of our state free," Leviathan, ch. 21. "All equally are by nature men " All men born Thus are omitted the "by nature." sometimes TheophilusParsons: equally free," The Essex Result, 1778, in Parsons s Parsons, p. 363, repeated 365. But the state of nature." itself is equivalent to "in "born" _

"

" Deus So Lactantius: omnibus vivendi posuit ditionem cunctis idem enim pater est, aequo

40

41

House

.

In

federal

our

of

system,

our

Representatives and

circumscribed

in

their

powers.

.

.

.

.

Nemo

jure

omnes

States, though in the

id est, pares

aequos,

omnes

.

election

apud

eum

servus

liberi sumus,"

Eandem voluit. dominus. est, nemo Institutiones Dimnae,

esse

equal in the Senate, President. They

of

are

are,

con-

Si V.

equal in the further, equally

not


FEMINISM

248 than

ment, any more state, whatever

children.

is said

about

it is that in the political the equalityof all men and their And

so

means liberty, complete(orpolitical) all writers on political science,when

in

government, brutes,women

were

or

men,

for the

equal to

men,

and

that

simple reason

women men

incompetentto play an equalpart

are

into the

force themselves

cannot

as

of

another,

one

were

not

the political state, and in

ticipants parkind man-

equallyfree and not equallyfree

not, and

carryingthem

government,

as

on.

have

men

petent com-

still

They done,

of kindness, can they by of citizenship, as services, equivalent

if admitted

by revolution; nor, duties,or perform the same

men

When

are

men

did

women

either civilisationor

to, make

are

as

And

women.

of

they speak women.

independentof

as

not

not

men,

were

and

and

civilised states

independent. In with

mean

men,

an

act

do."

men

theoryof rightis complex,and the questionbefore us is often discussed in the form of affirming or denyingthat the vote, in the the or franchise, reallythe participation or suffrage, the alternative allowed government, in governing, is a right,*^ it is thoughtthat all beingthat it is a duty.** For, if it is a right, if have it it but is women a duty, it is supposed that ought to ; will not lay claim to anythingso onerous, but will most women rather regardthe extension of it to their shoulders as an oppressive Indeed, if it is a rightof all adult human imposition.*^ beings,all adult human beings ought to have it,and the state well as in men, ever whatas ought to recognisethis rightin women be the consequences. But if it is not, it is somethingin the giftof the state, the state being composed of those who already The

"

"

The

bearing and

social rather than a politicalservice or here. 43 Most o" the woman suiTragistssimply maJce the affirmation. Occasionallythey in the New York Constitutional Smith Convention of 1894 Nelson rived deamplify. Thus the right to vote from the right of self-defence. Revised There, Record, ii. 554. the other side, a strong opponent, Elihu on suffrage is not a natural Root, said that of government," 521. right, but is simply a means Cf. Ritchie: the vote, is "a means of the government," to the working not created by the law," a prior right, but one Natural Rights, 255. Long ago Paley used the fact of the almost universal exclusion of women and as disproving that representation is a natural right,Principles of Moral Political Philosophy, VI. vii. foot-note 3. 44 Thus "We do not regard it [extending the suffrage] an advocate, W. G. Eliot: the granting of a privilege or concession of a right, but as a duty to be imposed. as Those Work tion and Educa[\yomen]only desire it who see its great iises,"Woman's in America, 1870, p. 4. W. And P. Goodelle: the suffrage is not a an opponent, natural right, but " a moral, if not a legal,duty imposed upon the individual citizen," for the benefit, or to gratify the wish, of the recipient,but solely for the benefit not Const. Conv.. of the state," Revised York Record, New 1894, ii. 525. would E. Beecher: A 415 Catherine women regard large majority of American the gift of the ballot, not as a privilege conferred, but as an act of oppression, forcing for which them to assume they are not equal and responsibilities belonging to men, be qualified. Woman of Work, 7. So the authoress cannot Suffrage and Woman's to us, for and Women: "The seems Rights of Men imposition of politicalduties "It [the granting of the ballot] P.: the height of imposition," 29; and J. W. our sex, the many of the thinking women is a needless imposition of the will of the few upon View Suffrage, 1 1. of Woman class,"A Remonstrant 42

duty, and

so

cannot

rearing of children

come

into the

is

a

comparison

"

*'

_

.

.

.

"

.

.

.


WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

ARGUMENTS

249

have

it when it,having firstappropriated they founded the state, havinginherited it from the founders,or havingcompelledor

or

induced

if it is the possessors to give it to them. And especially who be the should state those ful careor duty, alreadypossess it, not to impose it on those who are not capableof performing it. Yet littleis gained on either side by puttingthe questionin this way ; for the vote is coveted by many for their own persons advantage,and then is looked upon as a right; and it is also truly regarded as a duty by those who have it. As a duty, it should it is possible for it to not be extended too widely; and as a right, be, if not a natural,yet a political, rightof men, and at least not if there be any Such a political right of women. certainly, natural or political the the i s rights, right (and duty) to bear and to fightfor one's country. This belongsto men, and arms The vote is also a power, and as such it can be a not to women. rightbelongingto, and duty incumbent on, only those who can wield it. The question before us is properlythe deeper one, a

as a power, rightor as a duty or not, and certainly the suffrage to not. women or belongs Further, the questionis sometimes supposed to be stillmore thoroughlygone into if if be denied that there are any natural and if it be held that all rights conferred by the state, are rights, in any particular wherefore the questionis one of expecase diency, whether it be better for the peopleof the state that it be conferred on women But again littleis to be gainedby not. or It is impossible," said enteringinto this disputeon either side. the natural to to to vote, except Higginson, deny right women *" exclude natural which all Some have acon cepted grounds right." the challenge, and have denied all natural right. This is not Higginson'salternative is simply uncalled for. necessary: Higginson himself,althoughhe agreed with Antisthenes that the

whether,

a

as

"

"

"

of women the same," admitted that their are be different.*'' But then their rights,"which may correlative with their duties,may be different. For there is, are close connection between of course, a rightand duty, and also What it is one's duty to do, one has these and ability.** between virtues "

duties

of

and

men

"

"

Sense

46

Common

47

lb., 78, 7T.

about

Women,

Works,

iv. 250.

feminist in consequence makes Forel, who some his Sexual Question, though he identifies " absolute right " to be weaker with " the right of the stronger,"359, and though he acknowledges women inferior, 368, yet he speaks of " the natural and even intellectually rights of than men, " being properly " treated as the equal and as the two alike, 385, and of woman sexes " and women with being endowed absolute of man," equality companion 455, of men division of duties," 459; also of women having "duties of rights," but with "a equal with sexual differences)," 504; and again of men and of men (in accordance to those " " differences in their brought up with absolutely equal rights,"but with being women and of sex differences individualityindicate," 518. Many of the as life tasks, such 4a

This

incongruous

is not

recognised by the

statements.

In


FEMINISM

250 a

rightto

But

have

duties in

part

limited

are

duties

rightsto

such

recognisedas to

it is

government:

depends, therefore, on ability not to perform the duties involved ability

The and

action,

an

therefore suffrageis

involves

in the vote.

rights,then

the

questionis the

one

stated,determinative

of

political rights;

but

natural

the claimants

one's duties.

of

one's

taking

duties.

abilityto

mere

"

rightto and

ability ;

limited.^"

so

a

*"

one's

likewise

are

has

: one

It

vote, but

If there be

no

expediency just

it,too,

rests

the

on

for

of it can as participation, capacity, in the to admit, expedient incapable. large numbers, And if there be natural rights,yet, because civil and political the suffragemay not be, and in rightsdiffer from natural rights, fact is not, a questionof natural rightsat all, but only a question of political right.^^And because political rightsare different in different human some beings,according to their abilities, being in different and this and of men one obviously voting women, eigners being-recognisedto be different in adults and children, in forin and natives, criminals and good men, in idiots and sane it remains the is whether vote a a question political men, right It is not even for quire into us appropriatefor women. necessary whether it is a political or rightappropriatefor all men only for some it would be decide that it is to although men, easy priate approonly for competent men ; which, however, would leave over who new a are question as to those men competent. As for determined be this can women, question only by examining whether in governing,is on the whole the vote, or participation or ability, never

be

within

their

competency, and whether

be

much

its extension the

to them

would

before.

same as advantageousor not, very have frage never suffragists argued to prove that the sufis a natural right,or any kind of a right,belonging to women as always restingon the false premise that it is women, a rightof all human beings,and never attemptingeven to prove that it is a rightof all adult human beings,but always takingthis "

Woman

for self-evident.

have

men

a

But

this is far from

political rightto

the

self-evident.

suffrage(which

may

Even

if all

very

well

and women in common; but some of their duties diverge, duties of men are, of course, when these diverge, their rights also diverge. To and speak, then, of all their rights (or equal in every being the same respect, absolutely equal), is an and his transcendental inverted this and tained main49 Kant followers, such as Emerson, abilities extend duties what I ought to do, I can do. But this to our that our after much duties, set up by mankind is merely because our experience,are already abilities. E.g., if a child is ill,the parents* duty is, not to cure it, but adapted to our it. to cure to do all they can *' is the principle, the necessary tion condi50 Capacity," said Guizot in this connection, of right, quoted by Lieber, Political Ethics, ed. of 1889, li. 270. advocate of woman 61 Thus suffrage, Ritchie, denies natural rights, in his even an the subject. work on

absurdity.

"

"


FEMINISM

252

The has not yet been put to any serious test. argumentationof the woman is,rather,to slur over this point,and their suffragists have graduallybeen procedure,in the countries where all men conceded the rightto vote, is to make a sudden jump off the end all human of this induction to the ultimate limit that beingshave a rightto vote, and then they use this as a principlefor the deduction

that

women,

because

they

are

human

beings,have

a

rightto vote, althoughthey do not apply it to children,who are folequallyhuman beings. Thus an unauthorised inference is lowed and they who commit these application, ! themselves their two absurdities pride on logic " natural has been defined the rightone to be Again, a right " ^* has to do what is to his advantage ; and if anythingis certain,

by

an

inconsistent

it is certain that

no

one

has

a

natural

right(at least

in the

sense

a moral right)to do what may tend, in its ultimate effect, he lives and therefore to be harmful to the community in which "** is for this reason if It to himself or to his descendants. that,even of natural natural t he of admit the existence we rights, right stillbe proved only by the argument to the suffrage women can " " of expediency. The natural right is used, as we have term in have the state properlyas any righta person may seen, more " " of nature the Roman to all animals a was right common "" In that state every one has the right, definition of it. or liberty do whatever he and t o (for right libertyare closelyallied), moral or pleases.But this is not a moral right. A moral right, is that of doing whatever one pleasesthat is not injurious liberty, and child has To this every one to any one. woman, man, be given why any one natural right,because no reason can a should not have it; for all are equal in this respect. Now, on natural rightsare given up, in exchange enteringa civil state some for some civil rights.Thus, for instance,the natural new change rightto avenge an injuryis handed over to the state, in exfor the state's protection comes beagainstinjury,which now the citizen's right.Suffrage, in the form of takingpart

of

"

"

"

then, if you will,be a natural right governingsociety, may and it in everybody be a civil right, not everybody; yet may being abandoned, or being such as ought to be abandoned, by the weak in exchange for protection by the strong. The strong, natural of their indeed, gave up some rightslikewise,for the in in

of natural rights,in his Editorial de Nemours, of the early advocates one Daire's ed. of the Physiocrats, Part prefixed to Quesnay's Le Droit Natureh definition was: the right a man has to the things proT)er I., p. 19. Quesnay's own ib., p, 41. for his enjoyment, Men 64a Cf. Burke: right to what is not reasonable, too] have no [and women is not for their benefit," Works, iii. 313. to what or OB Institutes,I. ii.,Digest, I. i. 3. B4

Dupont

Discourse

"

"


WOMAN

protectionof

SUFFRAGE

ARGUMENTS

253

tribute by others;but they themselves conto the protection of others, and therefore they retain the natural rightof takingpart in government. But the weak who do not contribute protection to others,and yet get it from others, they have given up, or should give up, the natural right to take part in government. Thus the civil rightto take part in government belongsonly to the strong, or, in other words, to the competent, those who can perform the duties involved in taking part in government; and this becomes a political right when it is accorded The to them. others,though they have lost a natural right,are not deprived of civil liberty, provided their moral liberty, natural right,to do whatever is not injurious, or is respected.To this civil libertyevery has a one natural right, he far its contributes to does so as or preservation, not violate it ; and to the extent that,deservingit,he is denied it, he suffers wrong, is more less in a state of slavery, and has a or and to amend the if he to In addition right complain state, can. to this, political the rightevery liberty has been defined as in the state has, to do whatever is not prohibitedby laws to man "" which he has given his consent meaning laws in the making of which he had taken part; or, more briefly, political liberty in publicaffairs.^^ consists in the right to participate To be without this liberty does not, in any measure, constitute slavery, and is not in itself a wrong. "^^^ It is a wrong only if one set of have the same or as good qualifications persons are excluded who for admission as another set who are admitted. For this liberty to the precedingliberty, and (really power "^) is merely a means the is The indifferent. if that be obtained, means question is civil is be what to best obtained means liberty always, by by

themselves

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Theophilus Parsons. The Essex Result, in Parsons's Parsons, 366. de Rayneval, Institutions du Droit de la Nature et des Gens, 2d ed., Cf, Gerard civil Lord Russell John gives the definitions compendiously: Paris, 1803, p. 27, of doin^ what forbidden is not by law; personal [or moral] liberty liberty power the right to share in govof doing what is harmless ; politicalliberty ernment, power The and Constitution, London, 1866, p. 68. English Government 57a Replying to Mill's contention about women being in subjection (in slavery), A. his private or civil A man's are V. Dicey writes : concerns rights as to his own rights, and should be limited only, according to Mill, by respect to the equal rights to matters individual with reference which But the rights of an of all his neighbours. the state, are public or politicalrights, or, in other words, duties primariljrconcern 56 57

"

"

"

"

or

functions

to

be

'

exercised

by the

possessor,

in

not

accordance

with

his

own

wish

fore primarily at least with a view to the interest of the state, and therein any even according to Mill's doctrine, be limited or extended way may, Civil rights ought, according of the community. conduces to the welfare which politicalrights this law has hardly to Mill, to be governed by his law of liberty. To A himself, is a totally person's claim, in short, to govern application. any others. The deprivation of civil rights his claim to govern different thing from of non-possession to political rights may, dividual, inan to slavery. The amount may trifling consequence," Woman Suffrage, Quarterly Review, be of the most Jan. 1909, pp. 286"7. The be free by permission. be free in this sense. rest may 58 Only the powerful can have, they have nothing to complain of. If permitted all the liberty they can or

interest, but

.

.

...

.

.

.

.


FEMINISM

2541 how

wide

some, one

and person

it beinggrantedthat political liberty, considerable, libertyor power, beyond that of political extension

an

or

small

of

class,is essential.

if

a

set

of

sons per-

they, on the whole, are (women) of the necessary not politically competent, it is,in consequence individuals to a few no affairs, injustice roughness of human also excluded. be that who are they them, competent, may among Nor is it derogatoryto the set as a whole, that they may be said not to be politically free, since this is merely another phrase for saying that they have not the political franchise,and is in and recognitionof the fact that they are weaker than men in the power if which fact ought to be recognised, of men; are is to give every one it exists. Finally, the definition of justice his due ; ^'' and therefore before complainingthat exclusion from the franchise is an injustice it must be proved that to women, the franchise is their due; which, again, can be done only by that in for i t ficial beneare a showing they qualified exercising way to the state. of this contention about the rightof women The error to the shown be also the of the error suffragemay by consequences that flow from its admission. Two such consequences would The that then first and ensue. at all times it is is, everywhere should be admitted to the franchise, and that rightthat women what the consequences. they ought to be admitted, no matter This would be as true in Mexico it is in the United as States, and it would have been as true five hundred in England years ago it is to-day. Yet most as woman suffragists acquiesce in the o f women's exclusion when and where their inclusion is rightness or was impracticable. They avow, too, that the suffrageis only a conventional right,obtainable by gift,after which it would be when they ask to have this rightgiven to them.^" a political right, If woman have shown great stupidity in suffrageis just,women being so long about findingit out;" for justiceis eternal, the in the past as in the future. same But if the suffrageis to be judged by utilityalone, then women have good reason for not sooner puttingin their claim; for utility from changes age to age, and all they have to contend for,is that now conditions have made it useful for women to have the suffrage. The second consequence is more important. It is,that if the franchise is a rightbelongingto women well as to men as on be

59

I.

1.

"

I,

Justitiaest constans Digest, I. i. 10.

Cf. Mrs.

excluded

And

et perpetua

because

voluntas

jus

suum

cuique trihuendi," Institutes

Price's "Give our us rights inalienable,''(above, p. contradiction in terms. 61 Cf. H. Alriclu in the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention, eo

585B.

'

24n.), which 1872-3, Debates

is

'

a

i.


WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

ARGUMENTS

255

the ground that all the alleged" rightsof men " are rightsof human beings(atleast of all adult human beings), there beingno difference between the rights of men and women then all of ;

will be

women

and

rights

also; and rightsof men therefore reciprocal,

further, because rights there is no difference Then the terms women.

duties are between the duties of men and " " *' " male and female ought to be struck out not only from the constitution but from any and all laws, and also from the customs of the people (and to be stillmore all children consistent, should be treated as adults,or in no where differently way they can be treated alike). It is probablethat in that case women would lose incomparablymore than they could gain,since all the

protectivelegislation interests governingthe special and

the

working

statute

books

women

(and

and

still desired

even

of

ried mar-

of

children), alreadyon of the suffragist by most

themselves (as objectsto be attained by their votes), would have to be abandoned. It is certain that the vast majority of women would not desire such a change,and probablymost of the suffragist women themselves,although a few have inadverte asked for it,"^^nd one two or purposelydemanded it;"3 and it would be unjust for men to impose it upon them. stillto have the benefit of speciallaws after If,then,women are obtainingthe suffrage,even temporarilytill complete physical well as economic equality of the sexes as be attained, it must be women

Thus

Maria should

L. be

Woman's at the Worcester in 1850: Rights Convention without regard to sex, either in the governers the govor erned/' In the Pennsylvania Constitutional Proceedings, 75. Convention of 1872-3 the principal advocate there of woman suffrage, asked for "equality of all BroomaIl,_ human beings both before the law and in the making of the law," Debates, i. 553B; but the meaning of before the law." probably he overlooked G. Similarly Mrs. Anna have come that there is no Spencer says women to see that can be framed argument for equality before the law for all classes of men that does not also apply with equal force to both sexes," The Logical Basi^ of Woman Suffrage, in Supplement to Annals of the Amer. Acad, of Pol. and Soc. Science, May, igio, p. 11. In truth, if there be equality behind the law, consistency requires that there should be equality before the Men law. have desired both: women are really desirous only of the former, although So again, recently the Executive Committee they often talk differently. of the Feminist New at the house of Henrietta Alliance, in a meeting Rodman, York, wrote a letter asking President Wilson his influence to obtain an i8th amendment to use to the United States Constitution to the effect that civil or no politicalright should be denied of sex"; reported in The New York to any on account Times, April 13, person the "simple rule: whatever would be the husband's or 1514. Mill himself laid down wife's if they were their [i.e.each one's] exclusive control not married, should be under This would free the husband 86. from all during marriage," Subjection of Women, financial responsibilityabout his wife. would 63 So Elsie Clews Parsons cease neglecting "the legal rights of men,*' and would for crime, for exinequalitiesbefore the law in responsibility give up men's ample, for breach in matters of property of promise, and (damages alimony, or any Feminism and women) Conventionality, Annals of the legal obligation to support " Such Amer. Acad, of Pol, and Soc. Science, Nov., 1914, p. 47n. consistency as this," It would be a brutal interpretationof M. Dodge, " is rare. anti, Mrs. Arthur an says woman's body of legislation,which protects woman rights to insist that the hard-won and the vote because she is the potential mother, be abolished given to woman in number Rights, in the same of the exchange," Woman Suffrage opposed to Woman's of Mrs. John Martin the words Woman would, m Annals, p. 90. (at an anti-suffrage " of politics," meeting in New York, Jan. 9, 1913)* be selling her birthrightfor a mess 62

**

All

law

Varney

made

'*

"

*'

"

"


FEMINISM

256

only because the suffrageis not human beings,but because it is

rightbelongingto

a

accorded

to

them

women

as

for utilitarian

purposes."*

the rightof women to vote is often derived from particular, other generalprinciples, and this deductive argument is often two fathers, to us Americans, because our forethought to apply especially besides adopting in their Declaration of Independence of the equalityof all men the principle (upon their creation,i.e., in the state of nature), adopted these two ginning at the beprinciples their justification of our national existence,and based them ; whereupon their extension to women was soon upon and carried over Condorcet not to Europe by long afterward back Martineau. Harriet America These to brought by again In

the principles, at bottom

of the tyranny of taxation same, of government of the injustice of the governed; which representation without consent and consent, it is held, cannot be obtained without the suffrage."^ Both these principles older than our much are revolutionary of the equalancestors. They both depend,not on the principle ity of all human beingsin the natural state, but on the principle in the civil state, of all the men of the equality, who take part in government. Far from including all women, they could not be extended all until all men, to even men roughly and rudely understood, became sufficiently equal,through the extension of and especially of fire-arms,to claim equality and to proarms, claim are

without

it.

Until

then, and

freemen,and that could arise in

by

all

had along,the principle

been applied them ; *^ and the only question freemen? disputewas, how many were before the democratic condition was reached, these principles established by the men were of arms who could profit

to all

Long

the

and representation,

them to

and

who

confined

gatheredin parliament,to act as

the a

to

folk-mote

help to

the

or

sent

king

tives representaand

also

to

restraint upon him and upon the lords. Already maintained then it was that the king could not levy a tax except it was him to as granted by those men ("ortheir representatives) who would otherwise refuse to pay it;nor could he enact a law serve

as

a

64 It might be urged that,although the suffrage is a natural right belonging to human be other natural beings, there may rights belonging to women as But no women. made this distinction,and to make suffragist has ever woman it would give away their

whole rational argument. If there is any natural ri^htwomen as it is possess women, that of being protected by men. But the suffrage is intended as a of dispensing means with this protection by enabling them to protect themselves, and therefore with this

right. " is pronounced " the basic argument 66 This for woman suffrage by Mrs. C. C. Catt in her little pamphlet on Woman Suffrage and its Basic Argument, New York, 1907. " The lord may 66 Cf. Coke; tax his villain, high or low; but it is against the franchises of the land for freemen but by their own to be taxed in parliament," consent cited by Bancroft, History of the United States, v. 286.


WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

257

tives) by those men (or their representaif held who were it to powerful enough they had withdisobey their consent. As maintained ancestors, by our revolutionary these principles had previously been formulated by the English revolutionists of the seventeenth century, and may be found in the writingsof Harrington,Sydney, Milton,Locke, and

except

as

Somers, the

it was

ARGUMENTS

and

consented

to

also of the Irish dissidents

beginningof the

not eighteenth,

Molyneux and Swift

forgetsuch

at

in

Tory at Bolingbroke now opposition they were repeated ; and of course by the English sympathiserswith the Americans, for example Chatham and Camden, and especially by the radicals of those and Granville Sharp. Many of days, such as Price, Priestley, to

a

these latter extended them to all men,""" as for instance was done, his English associates,by Franklin ; " but while yet amongst drew from them the idea that women, to be taxed and none ever have is had the it logically rivable deto ruled, franchise, nor political " from of definition which the term freeman," was any At the very time they they were precise.'* they used when tionists not only the Englishrevoluurged and relied on these principles, and statesmen, but our forefathers excluded from own the franchise even of whom some men, paid at least small many whom and all and of were ruled; taxes, though they had as in doing so, m inds as we saw no have, they logical inconsistency meant.** simply because they knew what their principles They "

WildAlso some of the earlier revolutionists,the levellers,such as Rainborow,^ and Reade, in 1647, as reported in The Clarke Papers, published by the Camden the phrase used (Wildman person"; but the conSociety, 1 89 1, i. 300-56. text every he had in mind shows only men.) 67 In Works, Sparks's 1766 he had approved the exclusion of all but the propertied, of his stay in England, ed., iv. 221, 224; but after a couple more ii;t1768, he years and that " every of the commonalty asserted man (excepting infants, insane persons, criminals) is, of common right, and by the laws of God, a freeman, and entitled to the of liberty. free enjoyment Liberty, or freedom, consists in having an actual share frame the laws," ii. 372, cf. 489. If he did not except in the appointment of those who included under the term he did not consider them it was clearly because women, " In defining that properly applies here used. only to liberty" in the sense man as went In 1783, in a conversation too far. reported "political liberty," he inadvertently views as expressed almost the same by Baynes in Romilly*s Memoirs, i. 447, Franklin in universal suffrage," but having only men those of the early writing, advocating these, in which exceptions he again did mind, and also admitting exceptions even among included because not in the universal; yet his words now mention women they were not exclude liable to undue minors, servants, and others, who are that he would were influence." Jersey, confined the 68 Thus early State constitutions,all except that of New our (and South Carolina to male inhabitants," or to all freemen suffrage either to all *' free white man "), having certain qualifications,and in the latter the term every " " woman. did not mean man other revolutionary in his speech of March 69 Sumner 7, 1866, quoted Otis and if they were to the suffrage to be recognised fathers as proving the right of negroes of Otis to prove that quoting x. 296ff. Higginson quoted Sumner's as freemen. Works Sense about Women, Works, iv. 260, failing to the same right. Common have women could be no Otis question about women becoming freemen. and that there was see for all men who the politicalliberty he claimed regarded claimed for women never be free (fully, which includes to For women free. politically), they themselves as collectivelyas well as individually. Women of men, be be independent must may being free politically.Aa * free civilly, morally, personally, naturally, without 6Ga

man,

.

.

.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

.


FEMINISM

2S8

but by be inalienable, all natural rightsto be such; for they knew no means perfectly surrendered well that some natural rightsare on enteringcivil societyfor the purpose of preservingthe rest. And certain ferently natural rightsthey allowed to be alienable or inalienable dif-

did,indeed,claim

in men,

natural

some

children,and

rightsto

; and

women

even

among

men

while inalienable in those who some rights, claimed and could maintain them, to be alienable in those who in those who consented were especially willingto let them go natural

they admitted

"

to

be

slaves,and

while

they

ruled

and

in those

even

servants.'"

were

taxed

by

to

men

who '

If

willingto

we

whose

be

servants, ourselves to be have not we government

were

allowed

consent, having taken part in their election,we should be slaves,' of them. cried many This was an exaggerated but of the feelings proud and opinion,expressingnot a truth, unwillingto be reduced to dependenceon independentmen, men other men; who, however, did not expect the same feelingin in their their women and children, And rightly servants. nor men in did who those it not were they expect independent. any except will consent A freeman to submission to other men only when he takes part in the body which chooses their headship. If women formed who felt herself woman a community by themselves,every the equal of the others would probably have the same But do not sentiment with regard to other women. women toward because they know have this feeling they men, naturally in the power of men. It can be produced in them are only false by artificially arguments. and their English prototypes, Our forefathers, revolutionary fallen into abeyance,which limited held a third principle, now that some human those other two, by recognising cluding beings,in-

given our

not

some

even

in soine other

at

men

respects,or

with qualification political of

matter

least

to

fact,

no

one

physical and

times, however on

equal they may all be the whole, do not reach equality in

those who

form

the state.

This

was

all subject at free with absolute are fulness, as we of men but the powers in limitations to our powers; than those of women, men the whole, being greater on and Woman^ 39s) than (and also wildness: cf. Ellis,Man

can

be

economic

the average, on freedom greater in general can women possibly possess. " distributed into 70 The people, said Harrington, meaning the male population,are for if attain to liberty,that is, to freemen, or citizens,and servants, while such, they live of themselves, they are freemen or citizens,"Oceana, ed. of I747, P- 83. This made law (in the modern by the Roman was analog of the distribution of persons and accordance with the law of nations) into free persons slaves, Institutes,I. iii., not, and that of Digest, I. V. 3, with the difference that the condition of the slave was of excitement, in a moment efforts. John Adams, the servant is, terminable by his own "There but two in sorts of men reverted are to the Roman division,writing in 1774: definition of freemen is one is bound who The and slaves. the world, freemen very far, too by no law to which he has not consented," Works, iv. 28. Here he also went for Massachusetts in 1779 his draft of a constitution tained conThus and later withdrew. qualificationfor male voters, ib. 23s, 243. 246, 264, (cf.479). a property

general, attain

a


FEMINISM

26o

the

liable

and

laws

same

condition: they

that

brought into

be

to

the

to

never

were

taxes

same

as

the

subjectto EngUsh in

laws to special to be subjected England,yet they were be imposed upon to liable to specialtaxes made did

who

others

impose

not

imposed them againstthis want who

estabhshed

and

of

government

for and

laws

make

they could

a

It

benefit.

for their own that virtual representation

of

them

impose

their

taxes

by

themselves, but

upon

same

others

upon even

the

to be

and

upon

own

was

they in

belled, re-

which

themselves, at

to dependent laws and taxes extendingthe same virtual representation." them They persons, and so gainingfor virtual of even inconsistent in holdingslaves outside resentati repwere But also. freemen and perhaps in so treating some

the

time

same

have

those mistakes male

populationinto

will of their

abandoned,

own

not

old division of the

rectified. The

since been

and

freemen

into those with is now will of their own,

servants,

and those without a only here, but in other

a

or

cause countries,beprogressive let alone other employes,

in these countries even servants, or workingmen, have shown, by their combinations, that they in our the case This was have a will of their own. especially and the land could turn to country formerly,when every man in employment,he become a freeman ; wherefore, if he remained Hence it had to be treated with the same respect as a freeman. was

the

duced introsuffragewas had littleapplication first. Here, as the principle (in the only ones of men, who were thoughtof),our people

that

case

in

our

country

universal

male

** such phrase as virtual representation was he said no Otis went too far when therefore if there such constitution," as were no in law thing as known or ever in his speech of Feb. 5 and 6, 1866, at all. (Quoted by Sumner virtual representation virtual representation himself admitted in the case But Sumner even Works, X. 160. representation is an idea which, in of the slaves, 188, cf. 196-7, also 302). Virtual is necessary in laws or constitutions,but which in has occasion to appear truth, never in invoking a prinmistake of the English at the time was, not The ciple politicalscience. applying a^ true principle,maintaining as they that does not exist, but in wrongly virtually represented in the British parliament, when, as were did that the Americans " See not. Freeman Cf. by Bancroft, History, v. 280-1. fact, they were a _c^uoted Works have also Mackintosh, to (cabinet ed.), iii. 567; where, however, he seems followed been cognizant only of the position taken by Otis and those who him, and that others did take the other tion not of this distincposition. The aware application himself frage the sufwilling to extend was explained by R. H. L.ee, though he was widowed to all propertied unmarried writing to his widowed sister, or women, had It [the direct representation who complained of being taxed unrepresented: considered not of women] might have been as so seeing that the reprenecessary, sentatives suffer the tax themselves, as their immediate constituents, must imposed in exact it could not taxed, and that therefore proportion as does all other property be supposed that taxes would be laid where the public good did not demand it. and When of British taxation, we did so with much [men] complained we reason, is great difference there between and that of the unrepresented[women our case their and The Parliament others] in this country. English nor representatives wise. a [=r constituents] would farthing of the tax they imposed on us, but quite otherpay been exonerated the Their would have \n exact to proportion property end burthens and taxes without ours. Oppression, therefore, without they laid on to have been fate, had submitted British our we reason or public necessity would usurpation." Letter to Mrs. H. Corbin, March 7, 1778 (Balla^h's Letters of Richard Henry Lee, i. 392-3).

75

"

"

_

**

_

.

.

.


WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

261

ARGUMENTS

which is true whatever its application forgetthe principle, it far that the other went too side, so we on happened and fell into the error of admittingto the franchise many who do not deserve to be dependents and imperfectcitizens, well there. But the principle remains applicable to women, as '" of troublesome and the fact that,throughdisregard to children ; as it has been extended too widely in the case distinctions, of men, is not a good reason why we should go stillfurther in The induction this erroneous course by admittingall women. some that, because, in violation of the principle, dependents have been admitted, a whole new set of dependentsshould be admitted,is only to proceedfrom a small error to a largeone.''' be briefly and to be used as slogans, must Principles, expressed, often stated No Such is the ation taxso are principle ambiguously. without This, to repeat,had its originin representation." England ; and there it is plainthat these generalwords could have two widely different meanings. They could mean (i) that there should be no taxation of the peopleby the king and his officers and accordingas it was, Authorised by the repreunless it was, sentatives of the people in parliament; for otherwise the king would be autocratic and all the peoplehis slaves. Or they could came

to

; and

"

mean

(2) that in the

no

individual should be taxed

parliamentwhich

authorised

unless he the tax

by

were some

sented repreber mem-

for whom (or againstwhom) he had voted. Which of these tory had is wholly a historical question, the words and hismeanings decides for the first. As a fact,the parliament and the people behind it,in every portionof the kingdom inhabited by freemen, to it that no taxation was saw permittedwithout their representation in the matter. This simplywas the meaning the inventors of the meaning they intended to convey the phrase attributed to it when they invented it. What theyhad in mind was laid down un"

I

Thus it Constitutional

in the Massachusetts recalled,in slightlydifferent terms, by Simonds Convention of 1853: idea of sovereignty is, that those rightfully "My stand in the relation of independent in the community, and not that of it,who possess to the conclusion, then, that the female dependent. I necessarily come portion of comof dependence, that they never in this condition munity and are never ought, can, I derive this view from possessing sovereign power. rightfully,to be considered as exercises the reflection,that whoever in himself /be to that sovereign power, must extent of independent. I lind that a large proportion of the community is made up Are these and children receptacles of power, these to be are young persons. proper considered Not a I learn as part of the sovereignty of the Commonwealth? as so, institutions." the principles of democratic Oj^cial Report, i. 210A. be too often reiterated: the Fathers did not believe in universal suffrage 77 It cannot of the whole population. They were frage not_so foolish. Absolutely universal male sufthose who are practicallyforeigners, as wc (including even are finding to our through the competition of irresponsiblepoliticiansfor voters cost) has grown up It has no basis but interest,sentiment, and imperfect and of capitalistsfor labourers. A wide suffrage certainly is better than a narrow reasoning. one, provided tlie people is capable of a wide suffrage is better than are capable of it; and the people which But the fact that to some extent is not. of a thing is better tlian more a people which for supposingthat most, or all, is best. sound reason less, IS not On a the contrary, there always is a mean, beyond which deterioration takes place. Cf. above, pp. 70-1. 76

was

"

"


262

FEMINISM

the Petition of Right addressed to Charles I. in There, basingthemselves upon a law enacted in the time of " inherited this freedom, that Edward III.,they claimed to have aid, they should not be compelledto contribute to any tax, tallage,

ambiguouslyin 1628.

charge not

other

like

set

by

"

in

parliament ; should be and they prayed that therefore no man compelledto such like charge, make tax, or loan,benevolence, or yield any gift, without common consent by act of parliament."What the representati in parliament whether it was wide at the time was another question, not then discussed, or was althoughit narrow, or

common

consent

"

"

"

for discussion on several occasions,and the has been variouslyaltered without any attendant representation second alteration in the incidence of taxation. The meaning, the woman which is the one suffragists adopt,was, apparently, it dreamt of by the inventors, and not for a long while was never of But sometimes the liberal ever thought by any sane men. writers put the principle in the singular, of any one, instead of the " peoplein general(thathe, instead of they,"should not be taxed and then the second meaning seemed to without representation), be expressed. It was ing probablyin this way that the second meanThen the who than arose more a radicals, was suggested. this second advanced as an later, meaning afterthought, century afterward

came

up

of history, and perverting it,by takingadvantageof disregardful the fact that this meaning might be read into the indefinite words of the slogan. And now in their ignorance our woman suffragists, of history, of those are repeatingthis mistaken interpretation words of that those words unconscious,some them, apparently could ever that the new have meant anythingelse. It is possible tributed meaning dug out and introduced by the radicals may have con"

aid the extension of the franchise to lower and lower classes of men why the error should be ; but this is no good reason continued aid its extension sidewise, at one to spring,to all other good reasons, entertained by as there are women, especially for excludingwomen. the radicals themselves,''^^ This other and later meaning was into those words because it not put originally, If the body of men in parnot necessary there. was represented liament the rest of the community only,exempting to tax were then theywould have been tyrants,like the kingwhose themselves, acts theycomplained of,and the rest of the community would have been their slaves. not their intention. But this was The sented repreof the with the rest people, body taxed themselves,along and theytaxed the rest as they taxed themselves,except for some lapsesfrom the theory,due to differences of classes.'''*'A disto

7Ta

See,

77b For

e.g.,

the

some

old

Price in note from class threw off some

quotations

landowning

23

of

in tlie next the burden

cliapter. of

taxation

upon


WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

ARGUMENTS

263

to be sure, was left between the actually tinction, representedand of but it the invidious not one was actuallyunrepresented, of oppression master and slave,and was provocative onlyas some

the

left at the mercy of other classes of men, class of men was occasion for unjusttaxation that does not exist between men an and women, because men and women do not form different classes. the distinction, as Now, no class being left out of the franchise, is of is Such of the littlemoment. the state case regardstaxation, in England. But with us in America, where whole our ment governis representative, the principle in its original sense hardly to have any application. We have representation and we seems have taxation,and, in a generalway, there can be no question about our having the one without the other. Perhaps this is the since we wish reason why the second meaning has obtruded itself, to supplysome the to words. But the true sense meaning should "

be

soughtin history. Thus, in the meaning in which the principle was originally the term used in its all-inclusive understood, representationwas "

and the

"

taxation without at least some such as virtual representation, kind of representation, or the representation of some treated who are only as the actually persons and the legislators themselves are treated. Then it represented true of every individual that he (or she) was not was even taxed without being at least virtually And represented. only in the nature itself was when virtual representation of even it employed to mean taxation at all. was no thingsimpracticable, in actual American At the time of our revolution, representation with common for both counthe British parliament, tries, legislation there was, not advisable, and, with diverse legislation, was therefore taxation of the and could be, no virtual representation ; in which only the British Americans by the British parliament, not to be was actuallyand virtually represented, people were alternative existed: tolerated. But in their case an requisitions could have continued to be placedon the Americans, to be levied With in their own regard,now, to women's representation, way. likewise the their actual representation inadvisable, being is at hand, and their virtual representation is the reverse: case be formed into an imperium there is no alternative, as they cannot if their were in imperio,and exempt, almost every man property of his family, his property to some and woman would turn over Yet as now used by the woman littlewould be left to tax. sense,

statement

meant

No

has acquiredthe sense of No the principle taxation suffragists, which is somethingwe have seen without actual representation; of tyranny has been alleviated by the industrialists. But this recrudescence the new resistance of the lower classes and by their successive enfranchisement.


264

FEMINISM

introduced

wrongly too,

radicals,through

the

by as

we

since it is not true. Many persons without actual representation: taxed so reside in the or property country in see,

may

be taxed who own foreigners

and

are are

and misunderstanding,

a

must

citizens ovvningproperty where side, they do not rethe criminals. So also are insane,so so infants,so women, the questionis again, whether actual have to they ought

question,so and

and representation;

of them some are required determine does the not If answer. taxes, pay, based on the aristocratic principle that propwere representation erty is the thing represented the property-owner and merely casts the vote to the property, then the vote, in the pertaining and

to

the

fact that

do pay,

of the property-owners qua property-owners, would cally, logiand all those who pened hapconsistently, rightlybelong to their to own whatever or and, too, property, sex, age

hands

wherever several

they owned votes,

as

property, the

was

own,

the

that

one

person

England requirethat persons

case

until

might

cast

recently;and

further should have a of votes in proportionto the amount of property they is done, roughly,and in a roundabout in Prussia. as way, Even have children, then, that own property, would

consistencywould number

so

in

rightto

only in their case the vote would be cast for them by their guardians(in addition to their own votes); or else their property could not be justlytaxed! And so, too, where allowed women to own are property only under guardianship, it would be their guardianswho would cast the vote resenting repvote

their in

property. This also has been the

countries.

some

have

;

been

In

some

permittedto choose

others,women proxies.

their

status

of

women

property-owners In others

as still,

in England formerly, they could vote directly.Only there,and in almost all countries maintainingthis originally feudal principle, that property itself was rarelyaccorded to women, so voters

women

any

question. anywhere

were

But

and

hardly affected the decision of of representation tains principle hardly ob-

rare,

that

and

where

it

does, some

have more others,accordingto the location and amount of their property. Where it has been abandoned, men have only vote and children have no one Its vote. apiece,and women has been taken the democratic of personal place by principle that the vote represents, not property, but a perrepresentation, son, and not every person, but the person who takes part, or is capable,or belongsto a class who are capable,of takingpart, in government, in ruling.''* These counare, in some persons votes

78

When

the time

our

of the

any

more;

men

than

government revolution

was

it

was

founded, this subject maintained

was

that taxation

in the transition stai^e. and representation were

At

in-


WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

ARGUMENTS

265

men tries,

classes;but in others (among ourselves only of some especially), they are jnen of all classes that are citizens. Men citizens not only are capableof takingpart in ruling, wherefore they have the vote, but they are often called upon and forced to take part in ruling, in protecting, in defending. Their personal services are requiredby the government: This is a tax to which all men and (with a few exceptions)are equallyliable, from This which all women (withoutexception)are exempt. is the personaltaxation with which representation is now more have can closelyconnected; and in accordance with it a man is the also are the as only one vote.'* Property thingprotected, of

the agents that protect. Men as offerers and needers of protection are titled equal,and therefore enthat in their powers they to one vote each, notwithstanding because the greater powers of those are enormously different, who possess them are employed and rewarded otherwise by greater influence,and by promotion to higher offices. The is enormously (and of women) that is prelected property of men unequal; but the greater it is, the greater is the protectionit of protection receives,and the recipiency givesno titleto a vote, and much less to votes. Voting property simplyhave no fitting connection.*" Women property-owners are excluded from the franchise because their property-owning, a benefit received, earns in for them no rightto the vote. Women generalare excluded, not because they are not persons or not citizens, but because they not are political capableof rulingor of persons, or persons being called upon to take part in defending,and so of being full (active) about which reason for excludingthem citizens;*^ will be said in the next chapter. more persons

women.

Men

are

"

House of Representatives in their letter, drawn separable. (So the Massachusetts up Adams's Works, i. 17s; Adams, to Lord Camden, Jan. 29, 1768, in Samuel and Adams himself, ii. 302.) This was again, quoting Camden interpreted both ways: not it meant not represented, but also that only that nobody should be taxed who was Franklin not taxed. nobody should be (actually) represented (should vote) who was ing to break and Jefferson led the way down this latter restriction Jefferson by extendthe idea of taxation to cover personal service in the militia or in other political So late as 1824 he still had to raise his voice against the representation of ways. Since then we have ed,, vii. 357. property instead of persons," Works, Washington

by Samuel

"

"

neither taxation to What representation nor representation to taxation. half of the old principle? is there in trying to revive onlj; and 79 Cf. Rossiter Johnson, The Blank-Cartridge Ballot, 5 ; Mrs. Johnson, Woman Yet do not hesitate to demand York, 1909, we 75"76. the Republic, 2d ed.. New pp. who Youths below the age cannot vote. men of personal service of young And drafted and it happens that into the army navy. are so, if ever twenty-one Cross service,this will not ipso facto entitle them be drafted into the Red to women the vote. and power together because feudal days property and voting went 80 In property able to possess that could property not be went together. Only the powerful were a Power sign of power. was always hidden; and the possession of such property was The possession of such property meant, too, mostly, that the principal consideration. member of the of a family belonging to the conquering race a the head was one that be. powers look upon suffrage as all-important, democracy has appeared for those who SI Hence, than aristocracy. Thus Mrs. Kate Trimble Woolsey lias to women less favourable confined

consistency

"

^

"


266

FEMINISM

" for the alleged" injustice of franchise though they pay taxes, or

As

from the excludingwomen of requiringthem to pay that has been taxes though they are not actuallyrepresented, refuted the considerations. But the by sufficiently preceding To it admits of be must bered rememsubject amplification. repeat, and their property are protectedby the governthat women ment the who uphold the government), wherefore men (and by of their property they are to the extent tribute, justlyrequired to conit being after all not so much they as their property that makes the contribution. If specialtaxes were imposed upon them their property, different from those imposed on men or or men's property, and liable to be higher,this would be unjust,and it would have that virtual not mean even they representation. this is not

But

with

condition

a

in any

representative government, Furthermore, it should

the

by

property men

that

"

men

their

civilised country, in any

owned

now

by their fathers givethem a great

discontent

by or

for

a

try coun-

plained. already ex-

reason

be

remembered that most of has been given to them women husbands The fact principally.*^

deal,does

entitle them being withheld not

to all ; and

something only shows that much has been given.** too and, anything,proves greed,*' Before women the of No out taxation withcan u se rightly principle (actual)representation," they ought to become propertied their in their own exertions: they should not own right,by but should be a dependen sham, acquire a real,economic inmerely given for instance, Our forefathers, thus propertied were when their demanded exertions, to be exempt from own they by and at the discretion, taxation of their property for the benefit, of over

if

"

book Women; a the title: Republicsversus anonymously published under out with that meted Contrasting the Treatment in Aristocracies accorded Women to in Democracies, New to them should that women York, 1903, in which she concludes work few women but very against republics. It is overlooked that aristocracy admits brotherless and widows (only unmarried acting as guardians) daughters of rich men, to political of land. and excludes from the ownership the majority even power, written

Men,

inherit from But and from their wives. their mothers, even whom the property is generally a man. comes 83 This Case against subject is amplified by A. E. Wright in his Unexpurgaied '* Woman's which the Woman The Suffrage, 42-50. revenues," he observes, very derived Suffrage Societies devote to man's vilification are to a preponderating extent funds which from he earned concludes that it is and gave He grateful unto woman," 47. "who flock to the banner of Women's women Freedom," 52. E.g., Elizabeth *' in a survey R. Pennell, who of men's Man, left to himself, free to Utopias writes: be generous than nature at no risk of personal discomfort, has done less for woman and circumstances Woman working together," The Question in Utopia, Lippincott's she says_ of Plato's Her Magazine, April, 1^04, p. 455. to be, as complaint seems will not it will secure in her favour: her no scheme, that sex count privilege,win her no "Nature and circumstances" in the other passage does not i)raise,"451-2. 82

the

of

course,

from original

**

"

"

"

to

seem

include

men

I

If she is to be voteless," says F. H. Barrow, " let her also be propertiless," The Political Responsibility of Women, Westminster It Review, Sept., 1908, p. 251. is a male advocate of woman in despair of suffrage who speaks thus, and if women, be getting the vote, adopted his view, and it were ever put into effect,they would in spite of their faces. cutting off their noses 84

"


FEMINISM

268

people;'^ the meaning of which is determined taken in the sense of the the people" (of course by that of found in this to mean, political -people)alreadydiscussed and with out The same comes equal plainness connection, men only. of the

the consent

**

itself. All governments from the consent of the people governed; *^ derive their powers but some derive them fraudulently, by seizingthe upper hand by the

from

of

form

the

statement

lucky stroke and then using the advantage of positionto keep it,playingoff one portionof the peopleagainstanother, and thus forcingtheir divided consent, and others derive them openly and frankly from the people,seeking and restingupon their consent honestlyobtained and scrupulouslyascertained. These latter are governments by governments by consent, the former the only justgovforce i^*^ and the governments by consent are ernments all the only governments justlyestablished. But governments, the justand unjustalike,can derive their powers have the populationwho and only from those among power, the Political these are political people."^ only men power," is in that which the state man having says Locke, power every some

"

"

"

"

Petition of divers well-affected delivered the Humble Persons the 6th day of 88 So and Other Works, 3d ed., July, 1659, (drawn up by Harrington, in the latter's Oceana exercise of all justauthority over free people ought (under a 1747. P- 542): "The consent.' This [the general consent] is the God) to arise from their own Sydney: ground of all just governments,'* Discourses, ch. I. sec. x,, cf. II. xxi., xxx., xxxi. end; also the heading of I. xx.: **A11 just magistraticalpower is from the people." Locke: The of the people ment, consent the only title of all lawful governments, Of GovernPreface^cf. "34, and Of Civil Government, ""22, 104, 112, 192, 198. John Adams: It is certain, in theory, is the that the only moral foundation of government of the people," Works, consent of the govix. similarly i. 193; so with "consent erned," 375, of the subject," ii. 2isn., iv. 108, common consent," iv. 403; cf. " The people alone have an incontestable, unalienable, and indefeasible right to institute government," in his proposed constitution for Massachusetts, cf. 223, aiS. 1779, iv. 225, basis of our The is the right of the people to make Washington: politicalsystem and alter their constitutions Farewell to of government," Works^ Sparks's Address. So our themselves said. Thus ed., X. 222. that of Pennsylvania early constitutions of government derived from and founded the authority 1776: on "Just forms of the people only"; North Carolina "All is created and rived de1776: politicalpower from the peopleonly"; Maryland 1776 and New Hampshire 1784: "All government of right originates from the people, is founded on consent, and instituted for the Delaware All just authority is derived from the people, general good"; 1792: *'

"

'

.

.

.

**

"

"

.

.

.

...

And with their consent." the reason given in the constitutions of was "All is inherent 1820: in the people." It, too, is Kentucky 1792 and Maine power ancient doctrine: an nos "Leges nulla alia ex causa tenent, quam quod judicio populi sunt," Digest, I. iii. 32. receptae " 89 obedientium est," II. 59. Cf, Livy: Imperium, cuius vis omnis in consensu is the division made 90 Such I, xi, II. i., iv., xxxi. (Locke by Sydney, Discourses. called the second larly "governments " 192.) Simiby constraint," Of Civil Government, Examination Matthew Further Robinson, Present American of our Measures, refers to the way sent, Bath, 1776, p. 189. The "by force" they obtain the people's conthan to the way their force, as all governments they use rather the people's use force. Sydney and Locke said much about the different kind of rule, natural, of men their children, and little about the same in connection with over who are women, This was because they were mostly left out of consideration. combating Filmer, who derived from Yet Locke governmental patriarchal power. touched it in power upon Of Civil Government, " 82, already quoted, above, p. 85n. " " if the plural 81 Or the only ones means are authorisation,then men who powers the government authorise the only ones to act for them, as men can are who have the to if they choose, permit women act politically.They take part; but to power may, they can get no authorisation from women. and

established

^

^


WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

ARGUMENTS

269

of nature, has givenup into the hands of the society, and therein to the governors."^^ this when Therefore, principlewas

pealed ap-

to

by

ancestors, who, to repeat,knew the meaning of their principles, it was clearlyunderstood that women, children, and idiots all but sane would be men excepted. So evident this to them, that they did not deem was it necessary to express it. Yet Jeffersonhimself later showed that he so understood what he wrote. In fact,nobody has put the matter more cisely con" than he did in this one sentence However : pregnant our

"

nature

may

infants and

"

by

mental

the weaker

or

have marked physicaldisqualifications for the rather than the sex protection,

of government, yet direction,

among

the

men

who

either pay

or

fightfor their country, no line of rightcan be drawn." ^^ themselves stillallow,and must To-day the women allow (for the principle taken absolutely would lead to all sorts of absurdities that children and idiots are to be excepted,and claim that ^*), themselves admit their claim. not to be, and are they some men Further is therefore needed to show why some human reason ings beto it under and some are come not, and mere appealto such an The exceptionable principle itself, principle proves nothing.^^ in the mouths of its supporters, did not claim to be absolutely, but onlygenerally, of men true ; or else the government by God would not be justunless God first got men's consent. Evidently it is within the range of possibility that a government even by a few men their without most men over previous consent, may be such is not a just;only likelyto be just. The government Of Civil Government, " 171. Cf. above, p. 2$gn. Works, Ford's ed., x. 303. good ladies [in America], I trust, have been too wise he saw women politics,"ib., V. 9 (from Paris, where 92

Further be quoted: "Our may wrinkle their foreheads with meddling with public affairs), * allots the internal employment to his female he is at his ease, Man, the first moment fore himself," Washington ed., ix. 396. Ten years bepartner, and takes the external on his death another for excluding women he added who, to prevent reason depravation of morals, and ambiguity of issue, could not mix promiscuously in the above political meetings of men," ib., vii. z^: cf. Bentham, p. ion. 64 For of them see Wright's Unexpurgated Case, 42. some 95 Lincoln, whose suffragists,employed a authority is often cjuoted by the woman ment slightlydifferent form of the principle with equal inconsistency. Thus in an announceof his politicalviews, J^une13, 1836, published in the Sangamon Journal, he wrote: I go for all sharing the privilegesof the government who assist in bearing its burdens. Consequently, I go for admitting all whites to the right of suffrage who i)ay taxes or bear arms (by no means ed., i. 15, excluding females)," Works, Tandy-Thomas Why of whom of government, did he exclude bore the burdens when some he negro men, admitted those fat that time very few) white women who at best paid taxes on property The added of being a given them by men? clause, however, has every appearance bit of humour, and as such may be capped by his verses Adam and on Eve, ending: *' The Woman sh" was taken Adam's under From arm, So she must be protected From injuries and harm." Ib., 290. "No one ever thought more deeply on the subject [of woman suffrage! than Lincoln York did," writes a woman suffragist,Th, W. Hotchkiss, in The New Times, Feb. 14, which nothing else on the 191$. On the contrary, Lincoln's collected utterances, among thought on this subject at all. He was subject has been discovered, show that he never more occupied with much important matters. QZ

to

"

"

**


FEMINISM

270 has principle

has

and likelyapplication,

been

mostly applied, beinggoverned and still more plainlyof one country by another or peoplebeing governed by another people or the government of another limited people.^^To-day we have departed from the unancestors' principle, and even from the form form of our in which they held it,by governingthe Filipinos, the ground on of and there is no themselves that they are incapable governing ; to

evidence

the

most

of one class of men,

that

cases

one

American

or

more

woman

classes of

in

a

men

thousand

who

appeals

would, on against the rule of women by men principle her for the the tion liberaimmediate vote franchise,cast receiving hood likeliof that Malayan race."^ Yet there is manifold more of the American justly, peoplegoverning the Filipinopeople unthan of American American justly, unmen women governing for the reason, that do not women alreadyexplained, form a class or distinct body, and their interests are inextricably bound For this principle this reason, up with those of men. tacit consent, just as its counterpart covers virtual repcovers resentatio since for the one for the other it is requiredthat as the unfranchised be governed only by laws by which those who take part in making them themselves are governed,^* except that in where the laws matters here, naturallymust be different for the two if those affecting empting exsexes, only females are privileges, them from duties imposed upon or giving them men, their consent be specialprotectionnot accorded to men, may to

this

96 "All without the consent of the governed, is the very government, C/. Swift: definition of slavery," Drapier^s Letters, Works, ed. of 1776, x. 99, cf. but lie 132, 215; referred to the injustice of one nation binding another, iii. 150 land (England binding Irethe case he had in mind)'; and therefore, within a single nation, he spoke of was the dissenters, in England, as having liberty,though they were excluded from the civil offices,iii. 155, and he himself would have excluded them from the suffrage, xvi. 126-7, cf. iii. 258. Jefferson would subscribe not to the latter views; yet wlien he wrote that " and every body of men every man, on earth, possess the right of self-government," Works, Washington ed., vii. 496, cf. vi. 480, it is evident he did not extend this to Men women. cannot can, women govern. 97 would salve their conscience Perhaps they with the thought that the Filipino men would not respect this principle with regard to their women, and therefore do not deserve it respected with to have regard to themselves. If so, American could men that as American do not respect this principle with regard to the Filipino women argue they do not deserve to have it respected with regard to themselves. men, There would end to the argument be no this recriminatory shane. m Are that all women we sure respect the rights of children, and are they to lose their own riehts if they do not? 98 1 his full form was expressed by Hamilton, who, although he wrote like Swift, and tranklin, Adams simply of non-representation being slavery. Works, Lodge's ed i also wrote thus: When S, any peopleare ruled by laws, in framing which they have no part, that are to bind them, to all intents and purposes without, in the same manner, the binding legislators themselves, they are, in the strictest sense, But slaves," 77 when they are all subject to the same be absurd laws, it would to say that the ones are slaves and tlie others not. "One is thing pretty clear," said James Mill, "that all those individuals whose interests are indisputably included in those of other individuals [who have the franchise],may be struck off [from the franchise] without inconvenience [without reducing them In this light may to slavery]. be viewed all children, up to a certain interests are involved in those of their parents. age, whose In this light also be women the interest of regarded, almost may all of whom is involved either in that of their fathers or in that of their husbands," Government, sect, viii.


WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

ARGUMENTS

271

taken

for laws

granted. If sometimes, in some respects,those special not to are as be, as unjust, being exactly they ought is imperfect,then women have a right to everythinghuman of and the will more them, complain they complain,the sooner but stillthey have not a good reason to they get them rectified; complain of their disfranchisement,unless the present system works worse, not merely for them in some of detail, but matters for the state at large, which includes their generalinterests, than the franchise. would work the system of their possessing The to the question also, has no direct application principle, before us. of consent. i s not a necessary means Representation Persons enfranchised still give their consent not to the may under which degrees they live. There are many government of consent, from that exacted under compulsionto that voluntarily proffered.The principledoes not say what degree of all consent is required. It seems to cover short of actual of and and is the correlative the of dissent, so right expatriation of revolution: those who discontented because of unjust are withdraw treatment, may or, if there is any prospect of success, All who revolt. remain, or acquiesce,give their consent; may though it does not follow that the government over them is just. The rightof expatriation appliesto individuals, singly; that of i f least of force. of not at to a majority, numbers, revolution,only No individual deserves to be listened to, who says : ' This government does not pleaseme, I do not give my consent, therefore the positionactually it is not a just government.' This was to the taken by Harriet Martineau, and offered as a model " be complete," The of America. women acquiescencemust " "' for do not she wrote : I, acquiesce." But suppose one, tacit conunfranchised persons get togetherand abandon sent, many consent, that their proclaimingthat they do not voluntarily that it is has been forced from consent them, only an appearance, will be it that and never real, not a reality, true, voluntary, is their desire immediately until the suffragebe granted them: to be granted? Suppose it were, yet on the occasion of some other desired objectnot obtained,the same bine might compersons and discontented their and no are longergive they again say consent

The she dismissed as acquiescence of other women 99 Society in Ameriqa, i. 204. not were nothing but tne degradation of the injured party." The negroes proving already degraded enough to acquiesce in it; yet de^aded by their slavery, as they were in slavery. So some been further have degraded by their bad treatment they may at the hands of some but they are treatment be degraded by bad men; women may their acquiescence in which is simply an not degraded by their non-enfranchisement, introduced of their physical weakness. Slavery was by a positive acknowledgment Women were never disfranchised, originally,in assault upon the liberty of persons. to history, by any positive act: they were of the states known most merely negatively **

left out

vfhen

men

instituted

government.


FEMINISM

272

the government:

their desire need to this occasion as well as on the other? for if it be granted on had to be granted on that other occasion merely because it was which desire of theirs,without a they denied consent, so must must this;that is,all desires accompanied by denial of consent is absurd. be granted; which it would be Evidently,however, that wise to grant the desire,in either case, if the combination consent

threatens

to

discontent

were

why

would

not

powerful enough

to

upset the

ernment gov-

be stable if for not grantingit. No government can the mass of its subjects, whose rely,are support it must upon Yet the questionmay call for a majorityof discontented. not affect only a section of the people. It the whole people:it may is evident that such a section of the people has not a rightto it (toplead for it is something else),unless a majority demand of the section desire it. Even if a majorityof them do make demand if a majorityof Quakers demand to be excused a {e.g., from still i t is their an militaryservice), open questionwhether demand deserves to be granted,or how. But if only a minority of them make it (not only for themselves, but for all the rest of its the sect),it hardly deserves to be listened to, except on merits,academically.In Great Britain to-dayare two demands for emancipation the one coming from Ireland,the other from The demand Rule is known Irish for Home to be from women. of the a majorityof the Irish people,at least outside a corner it But it were ity, not: island. were only a minorsuppose suppose who third of Home Rule. the Irish desired people, say a Evidentlyit would be absurd, nay, it would be wrong, for the Rule to Ireland ; for then it would British peopleto grant Home be imposbe grantingto a minoritywhat they want, but would ing do in the what So number not want. a they larger upon there is evidence that in which of case woman every suffrage, desire it: if the British men only a minority of women grant ity the suffrage, to British women they will be grantingto a minorwhat of women a they want, but will be imposing upon it This would not do want. of what women they majority be rightfor the British men to do.'^ Just this,however, is not of our States have done, in American what some men some "

of this. According to Heber Hart, Woman Suffrage a is good evidence 1 There " of in the years 1890 to 1906 the total number National London, Danger 1912, p. 64, only 193,618, although associations signatures to petitionsin favour of the suffrage was had been active tor a much longer period. On the other for the promotion of the cause of the suffrage was presented a petition against the extension hand, in March, 1909, of a million women, than a quarter although no organisation with the signatures of more been in existence for the purpose of opposto the public had ing generally known until July, 1908." According to H. Owen, Woman of the franchise the extension that less than canvassings have pretty well shown one woman some Adrift, 115-17, of woman suffrage. in six is in favor


WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

ARGUMENTS

273

imposing the duty

of the suffrageupon sulting conall,without even it. And if of them desired women see a majority that cannot aware they now, get all the States to adopt it,the would suffragists by federal enactment impose it upon every whether the o f and of women State,regardless majorityof men in any State desired it or not. So littledo they respecttheir own : so littlecan a false principle principle (or a true principle falsely the

to

taken) be respected. The improprietyof thus imposing the suffrageupon a majority of women who may not want it,is not admitted by the woman if only one even suffragists. They maintain that if any women, the vote, she has a rightto it (as a human want woman, being, how do matter no etc.),and the fact that other women, many, does not deprive those not want it (do not perceivetheir right), who do of their right that it would be to exclude preposterous "

"

"

those who do wish to vote because others do not wish to the woman do not care the Hence to have suffragists themselves,to find out how questionsubmitted to the women of them desire the suffrage.^Yet this questionwas once many submitted of Massachusetts,in 1895,and of 575,to the women in that State, 23,065 took the trouble to vote, adult women 000 voted of whom for, and 861 against. This has been 22,204 hailed as a great victoryby the women as suffragists, showing interested in the subjectat all,a who that of the women are desire the suffrage.*It is also contended that,as vast proportion vote.^

W. Davis, majority of women

Worcester ^yonlan*sRights Convention, 1850: "If some exercise this right, this is no not ground for talcingit "If from those who there is only one would," Proceedings, 12. woman Higginson: claims the right to vote, she ought to have it," Common in the nation who Sense about Curtis: If a majority of women did not wish the vote, "is Women, Works, iv. 347. for depriving one who is taxed that a reason of her equal representation? " woman Orations and Addresses, i. 200, cf. 236. They should not be asked, he further says, " it and women should be assumed that men wish to enjoy their natural F. rights," 199. Fraser in the New of 1894: "If there is one woman York_ Constitutional Convention desires to give expression to her judgment at the within the confines of this State who the living issues of the day, it is manifest ballot-box, upon injustice to deprive her of the right," Revised sometimes told that the are Record^ ii. 502. Mrs. Jacobi:' "We thousands do want who the suffrage must wait until [out of the millions] of women those indifferent or even be converted [millions] who are now from their hostile, can " '* We declare that theory is preposterous," Common Sense position. applied to Anna H. Shaw: number Woman The of women who Suffrage, 230. want the has no bearing on our question," Equal Suffrage, Annals, Amer. Acad, of suffrage Pol. and Soc. Science, Nov., 1914, p. 95. 3 In made an was attempt to get a million signatures of women to a petition to 1910 obtained. Woman Congress, and but 163,438 were suffragistshave actively opposed in New projects for submitting the question to the votes of women York, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Indiana, and recently (remembering the fiasco of the previous vote to the in Massachusetts. be mentioned in text) S. Blackwell: "On the only occasion when the government 4 C/. Alice took an the subject (in Massachusetts, in 1895), the official, referendum women on among of suffrage 25 to one," Objections Answered, 15. women's in favour vote was She from the Woman's Journal, Aug. i, 1908, the admission that " most quotes women are the suffrage question," accompanied on as by the statement, in which yet indifferent " of those who to be found, that t^e any livelyinterest in it perfect satisfaction seems in favour." the great majority are either way, Paulina

2

or

a

at the

would

_

.

.

.

.

.

.


FEMINISM

274 in the

referendum, when

referred

questionis

a

the

to

men

of

a

country, the majorityof those who vote is decisive,so it ought of women.^ men to be in the referendum Unfortunately, give referendum in ity, actualclaim t he force this to some by so treating where mistake. In electing it is obvious officials, an though other has to be filled, there is no the impending vacancy way dum than to observe the majorityof those voting. But in the referenof

which proposition,

a

the

majorityof

the few

because

of

who

all the troubling

only those who

purpose of those

who

are

vote

a

who

ought not to

to

its passage,

the power

have

vote

all those who

matters,

against.'Especiallyin

decide, only those who

to

passed, only a

againstit. In fact, questionought ever to be asked out

come

be

to

decisive of

be

a

case

are

not

where

for, the

to form a decision,but merely to find the number hold a certain opinionfor the guidance of others

is not

againstthe idle

to

for such

considered

be

to

are

rest

to

desire it

may

need

not

ought

polls."In such

to the

to come

an

electorate

does

known

of

remainder

as questionaire

that

it should

express

those

undertaken

who in

be counted In such

refrain.

urally Massachusetts,nat-

interested except those who ardently left to be decided by questionwere the figures of every one her opinion, would be requiring women, Certainly very different,and the result might be the reverse. few

very

desired the

were

women

vote.

If the

if the

alone, majorityof women preferto be governed by men than by men their desire should prevail, and women, cially espeif a majorityof men This is the proper way so desire also. the replyso often made to put the question,and it answers by the suffragists that any woman who does not wish to vote need not do so. Voting is not to be forced upon any woman against her will,but the suffrage(the duty to vote) may be laid upon her. The Do question is not the personalone you desire to rather

'

vote,

or

not ?

'

but

the

universal

'

one

Do

you

desire

all,or

no,

'

The suffragists to have the vote ? women are apt to treat it in the former way, and therefore theycomplainof the selfishness of the antis for holdingthat women should be kept from voting to vote, as if the vote were because they themselves do not want a which be denied benot to to some ought sugar-plum merely "

"

it were conceded Blackwell that the matter again: " If, in the case of women, be decided by majority rule, then it ought to be decided, as other questions about tlie decided, by the wish of the majority of those caring enough are put to men Want All the Women Yorlc, igii (quoted from It, New matter to vote it. When upon Case for Woman L. Franklin's of Suffrage, 133, who speaks of this as " one Margaret the good points made." and cast a blank be allowed the others should to come 6 But ballot; for otherwise not be secret. voting would detained by sickness or absence, should wish to vote for but are those who 7 Therefore be allowed to vote by proxy. 5

Miss

ought

to


FEMINISM

2/6 that what

ment:

if they be have, especially

should should

have

very the

And

badly,they only

proper

whether suffrage,

then

they

it would

it,is,whether

for all that they should

and

be better for them

want

women.

the of this questionabout it when and where they want

determinant

have

of persons

number

any

and

there

it.

tack: they complain are taking a new suffragists that a majorityof them to show that in demanding of women to the want to vote (that a majority of them do not consent also that they will use it intelligently as present order of things), and efficiently ponents (the third pointabout to be considered),their oplate the

Of

put upon

when

men "

franchise.

Men

States Senate "

vote

on

it never

their was

idea

"

necessary

to

^^

before

admitted

was

the United to

enfranchised,"says a Nowhere," says Charles A. Beard,

adopted of allowingthe

issue."

own

was

men

never

thus

never

were

task which

a

class of

new

a

Committee.^^

the absurd

was

them

imposing upon

are

In the

of

cases

ask whether

a

disfranchised

to

classes of men, wanted

new

majorityof them

and well known it. Much truer did want undisputedthat a " is it to say, with Mrs. before has A. J. George, that never it been proposed to extend the franchise to a new the electorate, are majority of whom acknowledged to be either indifferent or ^* The admission of women to the franchise is opposed to it." in kind from the different admission of any class of something and involves different methods But and arguments. of men, in this case in others,it is those who as course, are alreadyin and these in the present case that are the are only men of the admission others of if but the affected judges judgesare ; dates by the desires of those to be admitted (whetherthey are candiit or were not), only natural that they should find out, of those desirous to be admitted. by countingthem, the number The women themselves seem to be realising the propriety of this ; for theynow are bendingtheir energiesto meet it,making frantic efforts to convert, not so much other women. And they as men, themselves are making the count, in their own and able favourway, themselves to in a secret not unbiased vote, where the who desire the suffragewill have to take the trouble of women the

for the suffrage,

simplereason majorityof them

that it

was

"

"

"

12 IS

On The

Woman

League New

Suffrage, Report, Jan. 8, igi6.

Common

for Woman York Times.

Man

and

the Franchise See

Suffrage, 1912). March

(a leaflet published by the New also

a

letter

by Mrs.

Raymond

York Brown

Men's in The

7, 1913. Woman Suffrage, 7. During the process of extending the franchise to classes of men lower in England, it was claimed sometimes by the opponents that the rural labourers who then e.g., in 1877-8 were being admitted did not want the vote. But the advocates said this was never no matter: nied they dethe statement Thus of fact. that occasion on Gladstone, Gleanings, i. 186. 14

Woman's

Rights

vs.

"

"


WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

ARGUMENTS

277

and castinga ballot,but in a house-to-house canvass, where the active leaders take the trouble, and all the women do not decline to say they want who out of politeness to vote, or counted on after a few minutes' talk consent to signa paper, are after much their side. Thus factitious a agitation majorityis, in truth the of acquirperhaps,beingacquired, although difificulty ing it only shows how littlespontaneous it is. As for the second question,about the use to be made of the vote if obtained by been considered when this kind of questionhas generally women, of men the question of enfranchisement has been up before the bad and public, the opponents usually fearing cpnsequences, if not altogether the advocates expecting, good results,yet the avoidance of greater evils if the desire for admission not were complied with. It may be said that this way of arguing the has always been employed when the questionof enmatter franchiseme This not done, was was passedupon intelligently. notably,some fiftyyears ago, when the recentlyemancipated slaves in the Southern States were franchiseme enfranchised;and their enhas there turned out a fiasco. and rational arguments Thus the upshot of all these moral is the same resulted from the sentimental arguments, a priori, as that the only decisive argument adducible in favour of woman It is just suffrageis the one which remains to be examined. if it is their due; and it is not unthe suffrage, to give women just the if their due. And it from is it to withhold not them, whether questionwhether it is their due or not, and consequently tion they have a rightto it or not, depends mostly on a considerafrom their having of the results that are likelyto accrue it: whether these would, on the whole, as far as we foresee, can be better for society(for all,and not for the present merely, continue to be, the rebut for the future),than are, or would sults from their not having it. Women sire de(3) The utilitarian (a posteriori) arguments. the vote because of the good they expect to do with it,and they say they ought to have it for the sake of this good.^^ Here the form of the argument is sound, and the questionis Most of the feminists proper whether the premiss is correct. less cut and dried system which they wish to have a more or introduce,and for which the suffragein the hands of women

coming

"

Cobbe: "I think we bound Power are to seek it [woman's and a very in the first place, as a means, of doing great means, social duty of contributingto the virtue and happinessof mankind. "ur good, fulfilling to promote the virtue and happiness of our bound to do all we can fellow We are instrument [whether appropriate or must and therefore accept and seize every we men, York, 1882, not?], including the suffrage, for the purpose," Duties of Women, New VI. Lecture E.

15

g.,

Miss

Frances

emancipation], political .

.

.


FEMINISM

278

beginning.^"In particular, among and to aim at equal wages the equalities they seek, they seem morals socialistic demands. Their two quasi system equal has been weighed,and found wanting. Its adoption,however, is of women's certain as a consequence by no means having the small of and fewer it is set still only a women, vote; for men, who have put forward these views; and whether a majorityeven will accept them, is problematical. of women Just as we have if the lower that follows under socialism it seen by no means of the government and of all the classes are put in possession for the purpose of distributing the product of production, means do and would this would do all the last, equallyamong all,they and promise; so good things which their leaders recommend serve

may

a

as

and

means

a

"

"

it does where

that if

follow

not

women

they will carry they majority, and desires of the leaders in the woman are

in

get the

vote out

even

in

states

the recommendations movement.

Thus

of the two case demands, this is even great specified For of doubtful. it is not apparent that any great number will vote to enlargethe occupations of happilymarried women and enhance their the of at unmarried to women pay, expense husbands and consequently is their own loss ; nor to their own it evident that these experiencedwomen will desire to give their the fathers their sons, and to allow same daughters indulgences It is possible, fore, theresubjectthem to the same responsibilities. be that these two evils may not brought great prospective if women be about even do get the suffrage.Still,it cannot it because doubted that the grantingof the suffrageto women, falls in with this line of thought,would give a powerful impetus it it to the feminist movement, lending greater prestige, inspiring with greater hope, and thus possiblyto some extent increasing in the

of the Parliamentanr vote is recognized and Women, Marriage of the movement," feminist Motherhood "The suffrage as Mrs. true regards woman Snowden: 257. of woman's freedom," The short a only a very step, in the direction step; and Feminist "The W. L. George: Movement, giving of the vote is but an affair 139. GalliMrs. -of outposts," Feminist Intentions, Atlantic Monthly, Dea, 1913, p. 724. " chan : The fight for the parliamentary suffrage is but as the vestibule to progress, for attaining the possession of the vote than a more condition^ being no necessary in Primitive Society, ^. far larger and fundamental ends." Position of Woman more of its branches, Mrs. Hale: "Feminism is a tree, and woman suffrage merely one " What Women Want, 86, cf. 184, 209. " to Lady According 17 York Tribune of Oct. 10, 1913, appeared this: In the New for women suffrage fight are equal wages Ramsay, the two great issues in the woman Ramsay for equal service and equal standing in morality. To obtain these rights,Lady be allowed must said, women to vote." Cf. Mrs. Pankhurst, Speech at Hartford, Nov. Verbatim According to R. L. Owen, U. S. Senator from Report, pp. 28, 32. 13, 1913. justifying this change of Oklahoma, " equal pay for equal work is the first great reason Soc. Acad, of Pol. and of the Amer. governmental policy," Supplement to Annals should have the why they [women] Science, May, 1910, p. 7. " One of the reasons economically independent," Whitlock, " is that they should become vole," says Brand Society Women in Democracy, address Feb. 24, 1910, published by the Equal Franchise York of New City, p. 5. IS

Elizabeth

S.

by all thoughtful

Chesser:

women

as

"The

only one

winning phase


WOMAN its

SUFFRAGE

accomplishment. Woman

ARGUMENTS

suffrageis things,and

from

not

279

for necessary it is advocated

ing sav-

for these feministic as the purpose of procuring them, we safer without it. It are do no good, and it may do much harm. can Other advocates of votes for women who are not all-around feminists work in order that women take for the cause may in turn determiningquestionsthat come part may up, whatever that out to be the opinionsof the majority of them, in trust it will be better to have everythingdecided by men and women than by men alone.^^ The leaders in the suffrage movement together, affirm that women, because of their differences from men, with certain definite questionsthat affect concerned are especially and that affect children,in whose women welfare,they allege, interested than women are more men are. Questionsaffecting us

women

called

social

employment both

for

equal work,^" and the sochildren are their questions affecting

principally equal pay

are

are

question;

^^

in factories and school affairs; and questionsaffecting the liquortraffic, ings, gambling,and sanitarysurround-

because of their reflex action on the family and the home. claim also to be especially interested in charities and Women correction last

of

criminals,civic beauty,and

mostly in the

literature.

also,it is said,are

Women,

althoughthis

be

not

"

Women

denied

withheld

All these

of the streets.^^ we

to be

seems

they should Pankhurst: 18 Mrs. of their sex, so that

publiclibraries the for providinglight ers, the cleanpar excellence "

circulating departmentand

things

are

working

Mrs.

Gilman,^^and

the controlling

fore there-

cleaning

only municipal, or,

in

our

to win the politicalenfranchisement better administration We of laws. have the vote. We going merely to say we are that by means of the vote we can bring about better but for the community a as whole," Verbatim Report

are

get better laws

may

by

from

...

and

.

.

.

get the vote through all this to get the vote, so conditions not only for ourselves of Hartford Speech, 34. 19 As Convention, H. W. Palmer long ago as 1873 in the Pennsylvania Constitutional for equal work," Debates vote meant i. 576A. also mensaid the He equal wages tioned the right to vote would for women, several other things which of most procure without their voting, just as this one which have already been obtained has been in the In spite of this last,the National York Woman New Suffrage publicschool system. York Women issues in New want the Vote, in which a broadside. Why Association it is need the ballot to secure Teachers and to influence the management said: just wages Yet teachers, male and female, for this very of public schools." that they are reason interested parties,ought, if anything, not to have the vote on school questions. A prominent is now a woman trying to form a union of the public society woman, suffragist, York City. She is thinking only of the welfare of the teachers, school teachers of New of the children confided to their care, nor of that of the public not at all of the welfare them. who pay of the social evil, according to Christabel 20 The cure Pankhurst, is ** chastity for the latter for enforcing the former. Plain Facts and votes for women," about a men the latter is of first importance, and Great Evil, 7, 46, 47, 58, 136, cf. 113; wherefore the sole cure, [even if it does not obtain the result?] 31, cf. 45, 113. is treated as In this she is supported by her mother, Mrs. Pankhurstj op. cit.,33-4. Women, and Economics, 246. 21 225, 22 Women, indeed, are the cleaners on a small scale, as they have done everything of their symbols from having been one else on small scale, the broom the matriarchal a of Death, ii. g, 23, 29-30) ; but on through witchcraft (see Pearson, Chances days down the cleaners the scavengers are and large scale, and in heavy work, men a streetare

working

not

to

.

.

.

"

"

"

'

"


FEMINISM

28o

the affairs of municipal gov"All ernment," York New President of the Woman the one-time says refrain, ** are only SuffrageAssociation, and it is a constant house-keepingon a large scale." ^^ Yet the largenessof the and that scale might suggest that it is beyond woman*s capacity, Dame this is the reason she has not taken part in such work.^* " but she excellent at a slop or was a puddle," Partingtonwas " with a tempest." she meddled not successful when the fact if women But even to this capacity, were attaining and wish affairs interested in that they are to take municipal in should seek to in is reason them, no participate why they part arise over national affairs and help decide the questionswhich of the tariff, the treatment trusts,"finance,currency, banking,

country, State,

matters.

"

"

"

armaments,

pretence of

international

relations,etc., in which

takinginterest.

Yet

the

no

with offers for nothing'shortof suffrage in the highestoffices of

they are

and clamour municipalsuffrage, on a perfectequalitywith men of nation. At the reorganisation

of the

they make

not

our

content

federal

government

in 1787,Madison that,in order to keep the States from with the collection of debts,and interfering issuingpaper-money, " " the federal head unrighteousnesses," performingcertain other advocated

should local

negativein all cases whatsoever on the On hearingof this,Jefferson [State]legislatures."^** rehended repnot comthe scheme on the ground that the patch was mensurate his criticism prevailed.So with the hole,"^^ and be armed

with

a

"

the inventors of machinery for the purpose, as well, also, as the builders of laundries: "the city's cleaning," says Mrs. Gilman,_ is his [man's] side, is depictedin a broadWhat is desired by the woman suffragists, work," op. cit.,247. Woman frage SufAmerican addressed the Male To Citizens, issued by the National wto are in uniform bossing the men Association, on which is pictured a woman sweeping the streets. So also 23 Mrs. Raymond Brown, reported in the Patchoeue Argus, Nov. 18, xeio. the broadside More "Government is public house-keeping. just referred to: qualifykeeping houseat ingly Irving Putnam: least, is to a great extent "Municipal government, New York "True on a large scale," in The politics," Times, March 21, 1915. and different connection), is domestics," Parenthood Saleeby (but in a somewhat says Race this (" government is political the first to say Culture, 38, cf. 330. Among national housekeeping") Theodore Parker address in an at the Music was economy He Hall, Boston, March, Suffrage, i. 280. 1853, quoted in The History of Woman added that it is also " politicalmorality national ethics," and that women have not their households the have done generally managed badly as men so state, implying that their admission would to rule the state improve it. 24 On difference produced by size, Olivia Howard Dunbar the contrary, ignoring the_ " that women, while accepting the duties at home so passionately urged upon suggests that if she is competent house to keep one clean, she is competent her," should add of uncared-for to supervise thousands houses," The City'sHousekeepers, Harper's Bazar, Churchman Hewitt thinks that if men (tailors and bakers) Similarly Emma June, 1909. should and bake, women Woman sew superintend vast business enterprizes," The New Man." in her Relation Westminster to the "New Review, March, 1897, t. *., if men women's small work, enlarging it, women should invade men's invade large work "and But one make it small). soon suffragistat least sees the fallacy here. L. Margaret Franklin, criticising this in her bibliography, The Case for Woman Suffrage, 216, says: Men is precisely the point at issue. do not sew The vastness, of course, and bake on scale, and so the parallelis lost." a small and sweepers, and managers

'*

"

"

"

"

*'

"

"

25

26

Writings. 1. 285, Works, Washington

ed.,ii. 153-


WOMAN the

281

ARGUMENTS

SUFFRAGE

national franchise to women in order that they do questionable may good with the State franchise,is, to say the least,to provide a patch which, on pretext of mending a the whole garment."^^ hole,will " cover In some like England,it is difficultto separate local countries, but in our from national interference; government country our Here State system might provide exactlythe separationneeded. the State franchise of women would be much less dangerousthan their national franchise. As yet this is practically all that we have, since the federal Congressmen elected by the aid of

givingthe

women's

votes

are

but

appreciableinfluence

few, and

exert

women

by

their votes little in consequence

national affairs. Yet, of an error in our system, which will be commented later,there on be an extension of the State suffragethroughoutmany cannot States -without women's more participation being prominent also in the national electorate.^^ This is a great pity. If all our States could have their suffrageextended to women without the this might go women ipso factoacquiringthe federal suffrage, and while franchise the State to satisfy a long way were them, on

everywhere granted to them, they might be kept from having reversely,fear of now, any of the national franchise;whereas ing national franchise may keep them from obtainin States where it might be well at the State franchise even least to experimentwith it. in State and municipalaffairs it is difficultto see how Even the results the women's the women's votes are goingto accomplish of their aims are really leaders expect, as most beyond the reach will The votes women's not abolish war, of legislation. certainly capitaland labour. Equal or the troubles between or prostitution, for allegedequal work by law be introduced among may pay but of the employes government; government, in our country to fix the wages and has no rightor power paid to men at least,

their

having the

by privateemployers.

women

think that

workers

women

need

The

seem suffragists

woman

the vote

to

to

alleviate their humble

affairs that may be improved to national country, having reference, in our which may Here is one be taken for few and far between. women's votes, are " would never It is a safe and easy assertion to say that this country what it is worth. who had an buy and consume its tariff walls raised so high, had the women have seen who produce and sell "; for the equal weight in the councils of the nation with the men interested in raising the prices of products, but are producers and earners, as men, interested in lowering the prices of goods. are spenders and consumers, as women, PoUhcal Duties The Note that this of Mothers. G. Porritt in a leaflet on So Annie for it does not apply in England, and it may applies only here and now; argument and women become here after the feminists have their way producers not apply even 27

Arguments Dy

and 28

earners.

They

may

there,

on

some

occasions,

have,

or

appear

to

have, the balance

of power.

who fear Already their influence is great enough to influence presidential candidates that they re-elected Mr. Wilson in November, their displeasure. It is maintained 191 6, *' of the war." out Thus he has kept us already the feminine element doing so because nation with the weakening virus of pacifism. is inoculating our


FEMINISM

282

of that

ber hand, they grosslyexaggerate the numand, on the other hand, they forget employes,^'

this,on

For

lot.

women

the

gained their long possessedthe ballot. to caused some legislation

labourers

men

they have

one

have

not

desired

though object,al-

labourers, by

Men

be passed regulating their votes, have these in all but advantages wromen the conditions of labour ; female If woman suffragewill add some labourers have shared. female also add side of the labourers, it will to the voters the gain to the where to the side of the employers,and voters Indeed, the will be, it would be difficultto say. workers women

number

of

is four

workers

women

interested

women

or

in

keeping

five times

wages

of

the number

of

the

down

larger than

keepingdown the wages of men workers. the cause of men's Manhood wages suffrageis by no means Men's were higher wages wages. being higher than women's interested in

men

Nor have had the vote. when no workmen wages of raising been the cause of the suffrage the acquisitions by men the last It is true that during sixtyor seventy years their wages. have during and it is true that men have been rising, men's wages rope these years been winning more representation in Eupolitical for they alreadypossessed at least, nearlyall they could have than

women's

"

here.

has not the latter process There are plentyof economic the rise of men's for wages But

been

the

reasons

and

cause

mer. of the for-

explainingand of

counting ac-

women's

wages also without have women's women for risen, too; ing possesswages connection the two between the suffrage. If there is any phenomena, it is that the rise of men's wages (which began long before

in

given them pohtical power ; and

America)

has

"

opportunityfor obtainingand

the rise of women's has exertingmore wages the obtain them But to aspiration political given except in power. be controlled by votes. The cannot state offices, political wages states that tries to regulatewages only faces disaster. Modern learnt this this have getting to be forwar (althoughduring they seem much that has been learnt), and althoughthe capitalists have the greatest representationin most legislatures, they have direct But lower by legislation. even if given up tryingto wages In letters States. They speak of eight million women in the United wage-earners In The York New Times in February, ipi5, this assertion was repeated nine times. Edward Toal, the issues of March and Bronson 21 two Genung 7 and antis, Minnie pointed out the error of 1910, vol. iv. and a special report therein, quoting the Census of June, 1914, to the effect that the eight million in question are ten all females over " " of age less supporting gainfully occupied not necessarily self-supporting,much years than two million are under others; and of these more to be entitled to the age, and not vote with woman in domestic than a third are more even suffrage, and of the remainder service or occupied at home, so that the total number outside of women workers the home is a_ trifle over is to be compared with twenty odd million men three million; which situation. (voters) in the same 29

_

in

"


284

FEMINISM

retain their

the exclusion of

superiority onlyby

women

in

general

from the franchise.^'' for Hence it is much to work for public-spirited women saner who reforms with the men particular directly, collaborating desire the same and helpingto win over measures others,than the indirect course of first obtainingthe franchise to pursue for other women as well, which may jeopardisetheir primary objects.Mrs. Pankhurst says of the English divorce law, it is bad that in her opinionit alone would justify so a rebellion on ^* the part of women." so Well, if that were (which it is not),it is possible had militated that if women againstthat law, they could have amendment its with one-tenth the amount of got agitation they have wasted in the effort to get the suffrage.In from the last resort, women must by men, get what they want "

"

"

men's

permission. If they get certain desired rights (as to hold real estate), it must be by men's grant. If they get the be men's Hence the latter is i t concession. must suffrage, by for the former. not the proper who means Evidentlythe men would yieldup so littleapparent a rightas that of the suffrage, would of themselves respect the more obvious more willingly should call their attention or rights, improvements,to which women and if they are not justenough to do the latter, they ; if they were flattered and not likely to do the former,^^ are or cajoledinto doing it,they would not observe it. Women, after confide in men the laws ; then why not conto execute all,must fide '" in them ardent them ? The suffrage, said one to make '*

"

in opposition to the have the good men backed 82 Now we by the good women up bad men. and women in opposition to tile bad men Then siiall have the good men we So Miss Emily P. Bissell, and women. This will not be a gain on the side of goodness. A Talk to Women the Suffrage Question, 7; cf. Mrs. A. J. George, Woman's Rights on Woman side outinfluence, while they remain vs. Suffrage, 5, The superiority of women's politicsand act in a non-partisan spirit,is well described by Mrs. Barclay Hazard Women best serve the State, published by the can in her address, Oct. 30, 1907, How York State Association New Suffrage. opposed to Woman Verbatim ss Speech at Hartford, Nov. Report, 30. 13, 1913, " be forced Catherine E. Beecher : 34 Cf. Miss They [men] cannot by the weaker It [the relief of evils] must be sought, then, as the gift of to resign their power. sex deem that we unjust and If, then, there are laws and customs justice and benevolence. mode would be to petition the law-makers to oppressive, the short and common-sense Instead of this the plea change these laws according to the rules of justice and mercy. * to make trust you laws; give us the ballot, and we will take better care is, We cannot will do.* of ourselves than you have done or Now, any class of men who, after such would give the ballot to woman, an implication of their intelligenceand justice,would for which the ballot is sought. most surely be those most ready to redress any wrongs mode and ask for the thing needed, Why should we not rather take the shorter and surer instead of the circuitous and uncertain mode involved in the ballot? " Woman Suffrage Woman's and setts Profession, 1^-18,cf, 191-2. Similarly A. P. Marvin, in the MassachuConstitutional Convention of 1855,Report of Debates, ii. 749-50, 751-2. *' 35 Cf. Hart: If women are really believe that men persistentlyunjust to them, or amenable to their influence,how can insufficiently they really believe in the possibility of obtaining their wish in this respect [of the suffrage]? And would the plea for not the necessityof the suffrage be proved to be ill-founded by the very fact of its success? " Woman Suffrage a National Danger, 59. " Child If Mrs. could her husband, her son, her 36 Cf. Mrs. not trust Johnson: brother, or best friend to look after her interests,she certainlycould not trust the car-


WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

ARGUMENTS

285

is a necessity to get her property and other advocate,^' to woman it could these rights, rights. If the suffrageitself were among be got v^^ithout first being had! not This dilemma never sented prein itself the cases of the lower classes of men as they for they did not merely ask for the grew up to political power; franchise: they threatened to take it. of experience the questionof advantage By the demonstration of cannot or woman disadvantage suffrage yet be determined either way. Nowhere are women a on political equalitywith in to it in men near nation,althoughthey come any independent of In the the small Scandinavian countries. some provinces, States, in which they have been given colonies,and American than municipalor social the full suffrage, they decide littlemore has been and the too recent to throw there,too, questions, grant much lighton the question.^*In the United States there is much bandying to and fro of claims that great social improvements have been made in the States with woman suffrageand of the counter-claims that other States with only male suffrage are just to be reachable,so as advanced; and no decision seems closely do they run.^" The criterion itself is disputable. neck-and-neck For often complain that male instance,the woman suffragists mals, the sanitaryconditions of anilegislators pass laws regulating of swine, but will not make for comeven missions appropriations of babies.'"' It is overto inquire into the treatment looked, that the inspection of animals is intended by the women for the the health o f of people,including ultimately protection and children, do not yet wish to class women while men women with sows in the upbringas needinggovernmentalsupervision who their ballots cast rying out of her wish, as expressed by her vote, to the men and the Republic, ?7. by her side," Woman of 1872-3, Debates, 37 J. H. Campbell, in the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention ii 558-9. unfavourable Where 38 Of Women sit in woman an suffrage in Finland account, Parliament, by Edith Sellars, appeared in The Nineteenth Century and After, July,1912. of the aid rendered It was of to the bloodless revolution granted because by women ; and

it is said the

Czar

favoured the measure because it is his interest to have the Men lose the vote when they are soldiers,women 170. double and men poll tax, 167. The socialist party alone has gained, 174. never; pay rather at a discount them in this our [Finnish women] Babies, indeed, are among Female suicide and criminality are increasing, 180. day," 1 79. 39 Events of 1914 in Colorado have revealed transpiring in the spring and autumn of woman there after twenty that conditions suffrage are more years disgraceful than in West State in the Union Virginia. There, too, when trouble arose and except any likelihood of redress through rebellion, the women there was some congregated in great to appeal to Washington and induced for federal troops. numbers the governor This fragists sufbaby-act of crying to others for help has been much applaudedby other woman and held up as proof of the^advantage of having women take part in public affairs; but, while it stopped the shedding of blood, it put off, and has probably destroyed all chance of reaching, a just settleinent of the fundamental difficulties. As for conditions in general _in this State, Judge Lindsey is reported to have said in the winter of behind Massachusetts in spite of [woman] We are twenty years 1914-15: suffrage," March York Times, quoted in The New 21, 1915. 40 Cf. a leaflet published by the National Woman SuffrageAssociation,entitled Pigs Boys; also another, Bees, Clams, and Children. versus 1905

Finnish

parliament weak,

*'

"

p.


286

FEMINISM

For constructive of their young. advocates can point to various measures,

ing

nature women

best the socialistic

at legislation,

of a questionable advantage,regardingthe status

and

of

and

children,and

of them

most

some

adopted in

States

of

which

in the States now suffrage ing possessonlymanhood ; and even of them were woman adopted before the suffragesome the slimmest national legislation, advent of that suffrage.Even on

have

authorisation the When

"

in the

white

slave

the franchise is

the

novelty

wears

has Constitution, "

traffic and

to

all

novelty,almost

a

and

off,more

enacted to repress prevent child-labour. been

vote; but

women

and

stay away,

more

as

the electorate

districts men whose women but if their with them take them the to women polls, agree leave them home. In Australia at so Henry I. they disagree, certain classes of the Stimson reports James Bryce as saying ' voted their women while the women commonwealth en masse, becomes

irregular.In

rural

"

"

"

'

of other districts and of other classes did not vote at all. As a no result,while the suffrageproduced substantially change in the

condition of the women interfered themselves, it very radically with the due proportionaterepresentation of the various localities "" and classes of citizens in the government." It looks as if the experienceof New hundred to be Jersey a years ago were

repeated.*^ If

of treated as equal to men, sit to all offices. Already women course they are to be eligible in some and them of tion recommendalegislatures, one urges as a that women less interested than men in business and are " " in persons : will not get by a woman more laws," she says, will affect without her seeinghow the individual." *^ This, they women

are

to

vote

however, is only men's

and

to

be

in politics, objectionto women that they look to immediate without takingultimate conresults, sequences into The account. sufficiently strange phenomenon is frequentlywitnessed in this connection,that women suffragists find all sorts

common

excellences in superlative though they are unwillingto admit present inferiorities which they must

men,

the

of

women

any

admit

different from inferiorities. Or

they explain as

Knickerbocker The Press, Albany, N. Y., July 26, 1915. Ed. D. Cope, load up wagons with their women In Wyoming," men to says their own drive them to the polls to vote ticket,as I have had opportunity of seeing in that territory. If they wished to vote otherwise, they might stay at home," The The Blank-Cartridge Relation of the Sexes to Government, 9: cf. R. Johnson, Ballot, 6. A policeman at a Cooper Union "Do I Suffrage meeting is reported to have said: wife and believe in woman four daughters. If I suffrage? Sure I do. There's my of my own house, I could get all I wanted had five votes in my to deliver right out the Suffrage Question, 4). district on (from Emily P. Bissell, A Talk to Women influence" is increased men's "indirect by woman Thus suffrage1 State Senator, in The York 43 Helen New Ring Robinson, a Colorado Times, Nov. 41

In

42

"

''

...

"

23.

1913-


SUFFRAGE

WOMAN due to men's

past

under

the

still remain,

new

of

treatment or in any and chastity, when

exercise

to

by the

has

"

corrected.

suffrage," says admitted

been

: even

new

have

acknowledged to the

class which

any

of women,

wise affectable

defects to be

regarded as

287

appear and think they will disexcellences will treatment; but women's these apparentlybeing due to the past

treatment

none

ARGUMENTS

been

so

Women

their

modesty produced,are are

better

pared pre-

"

Ida Husted Harper, than Here to the electorate." **

selves themfew women againonly the comparatively alreadyexercising in political mind. sands Thoumatters are evidentlyhad in of women," says Mrs. Jacobi,are on all sides admitted to *' whence fitted for the functions of citizenship be intellectually ; "

it is inferred Yet

even

the

on

do

women

that to the franchise

not

should

questionssupposed to

for it is notorious

how

questionsand

other

on

interest in

much

show

few

of them

be

be their

concern especial voting,where they can

turn

out

to

vote

fitted to pass on the these be the ones most of claims are put forward known. Still,all sorts

great thingswomen than

in the

of any

case

Women,

going to

are

as

class of

is well

men

do

with ever

;

school

on

questionsconcerningchildren

whether not

millions !

admitted

*'

and

"

subjectsis as

to

the

their votes greater admitted rate. to the electo"

goingto put an end to war.*^ thinkingthe iirst thing they will do

known,

are

is reportedas it is will be to abolish the system of party government, because The sale of of have made who liquor, course, men parties.*' to disappear. is to be stopped; and gambling and prostitution are the cause recommends abettor even male One by propounding " " in low of interest their account that women, rents, might on ! *' however, for the introduction of the single-tax Generally, vote that are to be improved, to repeat, it is municipalmatters One

woman

Woman herself? North American Shaw looks forward to the happy time Howard And Anna his cases side " his intellectual equal, and in many shall stand by man's when woman look, intellectual and moral superior, and often, as statesmen, who are broader in their outSuffrage as an Educator, an more splendid in their grasp, than men," Woman delivered address Jan. 13, 1910. Sense Common 45 etc., 212, 213. of Berkeley, California, complained that only the Mayor 46 ". g., in April, 1913, cared enough to vote on question of providing voters a out of 8000 about women 1500 New L. Duff in The playground facilities for the children: so a letter of Mrs. Wm. *i

Would

Review,

Woman

March,

1904,

Suffrage benefit the State, and p. 374.

"

"

York

Times,

April 28,

1913-

Women Mead has written a pamphlet with the title: What might E. g., Lucia Ames Mary Austin of the War System, New York, 1912. do with the Ballot: the Abolition " a right to abolish have a right to a voice in the government claims that women And holds that Vance Thompson modify it," Love and the Soul Maker, 168. war or them in her [woman's] day, if she wants stopped, they do not matter, because wars will be stopped," Woman, 7. York Times, March Steel, in The New 48 Mrs. Flora Annie 14, 1914. Women's Votes to Women might do with the Ballot. Needed: What 49 B. C. Marsh, Woman American ciation, Landlords' Suffrage AssoGreed, published by the National thwart York. New SimiUrly the single-tax philanthropist Joseph Fels, according to Mary Fels in her biography of him, op. cit.,215"16. 47

...

"


288

FEMINISM abuses abolished.

and

certain

ardent social worker, after

An

of delinquencies

male

ing enumerat-

magistratesin enforcinglaws

"

children,asserts that if the mothers and teachers voted affecting of these thingswould occur." "'' She in New York City,none if women voted in overlooks the other thingsthat might occur

the United States. The questionof the expediencyof woman suffrageis really, the same for women for men. We and ought to be actually, as box in littleworld. do this It would all in the same are women little of what for of them to no some a gain they envy good in men, if their country were in the race with other to fall behind the feminine countries because element would of the weakness bring into the guidance and administration of affairs. In the ferers. calamities that would would be the greatest sufwomen ensue, The do realise the not women sufficiently suffragist in entrusting their fate would run danger they or their posterity to the decision of other women. They talk too littleof women, if like themselves. and too much of woman, all as were alike,and were The for each question is wholly an objectiveone; interest in it (the individual woman's person'ssubjective single is but molecule in mountain. is The a a vote) question practically the same for a woman for a man. asks: The man as ' Shall I be ruled by all other men and all women ? ' and the ' asks : Shall I be ruled by all men and woman all other ' ? and the difference between the two women askings is insmall. And there is no good reason finitesimally (for sentiment is not a good reason) why a woman's and opinion about all men all other women should be materially different from a man's opinion about all other men and all women ; for the individual should subtract himself or herself as not affecting the answer.'^ There is one form in which the argument from expediency shades into the sentimental argument. This is the recommendation of the extended because of its fluence suffrage allegedbeneficial in" themselves. After all,"says Mrs. Jacobi, upon women " '^ the most importanteffect of suffrageis psychological." The be is to for school the a suffrage training improvement of the female mind.^' It would widen their point of view, enlarge their horizon, cure their pettiness, increase their public spirit, make them better instructors of their children, and consequently, 60 Florence issued by the 51

Kelley, Pursuasion associatiqn. Cf. above, pp. 274-5.

or

f p. Responsibility

Common Sense" The etc., 180. thoughtful leaders psychological, pation of English Women, 189. 52"

most

.

63

"

toward

'

3,

a

Political

Equality Leaflet

same

Votes for women,' perfection," in The

"

.

suffrage movement, its says Blease, is "to primarily a thing of mind," The Emanci.

writes Stella Adler, New York Times, Feb.

"

is only 14, 1915.

one

bridge

to

carry

women


WOMAN says Mrs.

Oilman,

they win

SUFFRAGE "

it would

expect, would

for them

it

ARGUMENTS

289

improve the human stock.'* Especially, them and give self-respect, thereby

respect from

In full the argument men.'" It is thus: maintained seems that exclusion from the run franchise is degrading, and to this degradinginfluence some of more

to

the

acknowledged inferiorities of

women

as

they actuallyare,

ascribed. The conclusion is drawn that, per contra, the admission of women have an to the franchise would elevating influence upon them, would soon bring them up to the level of men in these points, while they would retain undiminished the pointsin which they are equal or superiorto men. Hence their admission would ultimatelyraise the standard of the electorate. of Most the details of this argument have already been touched upon, and the likelihood of their correctness shown to be untenable. The argument, moreover, what it offers assumes if to prove ; for only women clusion ought to be admitted, can their exbe degrading.^^* The line of thought is also exsame tended it being asserted that classes of men to men, have been degraded by exclusion and improved by subsequent admission. and yet not be applicable This might be true of men, to women, are

it certainly is not applicable It does, too, put to children. the cart before the horse; for, as has alreadybeen remarked, it is rather the degradation, or backwardness, of certain classes and organisation), of men that has excluded (theirwant of arms that has them, than their exclusion degraded them. Still,for of being in all ways all men to have the opportunity equal to all other men, it is helpfulthat they should all have political equality. for is needful But political not such an givingwomen equality as

since women opportunity, requirements.To political

cannot

become

equal to

men

even

in

from the suffrage exclude some men from have it,perhaps dififerent the who is to stamp them as men from the suffrageis contrary to fact. But to exclude women merely to recognisethe fact of their difference from men. Woman States Suffrage of the United on 54 At a Hearing before the Committee Report thereof, p. 14. Senate, Washington, 1904, In the same York Times, Sept. 15, 1915. Ida Husted 55 So Harper, in The New Clemett had written: "The Thoma selfof the same Feb. 21 year, Annie will amply them and dignity of liaving a voice in the government repay learning how to vote.* " for the few hours they will have to spend [women] Thus Blease: "To 55a a suppressed premiss. deprive them [women] Or it rests on is to invest them with an inferioritywhich injures of the power to control government their own character no less than that of men." op. ctt,, 199 (leading them, for instance, than men, He has asserted that 204). Why? into willingness to accept lower wages in natural 198. If this were capacity the equals of men," true, the women are be difficultto account for their deprivation (only then it would might be true consequence As it is not true, the conwhich they have equally with men). of a power sequence Much to their character follow. rather, bad consequences need not and that follow from as politicallymen's would treating them equals (by admitting of men in a false position (and if it be putting them to the franchise), since it would them have the evil consequences to raised their wages equality with men's, it would we have already examined). newspaper,

respect

'

"


FEMINISM

290 Women

have

part of Nor can

women.

the respect of men, when increase cannot They

they perform rightlythe it by tryingto ape men. self-respect by pretendingto be

they increase their own they are not. And as they are not men, they do not need the same have.^^ As horizon,the same pointof view, that men for the improvement of their children,the males among them if instructors them would be more over men improved put men when them from females. they reach the age which distinguishes what

It is not

boys

to

necessary be men.

to

make

like

women

men

in order

to

teach

Of all the arguments, this from expediency (except in the last form) is the least made use of by the suffragist and women, it seems least. The which to appeal to them seem arguments the sentimental first,as though to have the greatest weight,are be human cannot women beings unless they be permitted to act like men.^^ Then the rational,the claim that they have a right that it is right and to the vote, and justthey should have it, " whatever would do with it. Simple justiceis all we they " No other consideration than justice women ask," says one.^^ has any placein this discussion," Because of its says another.^^ that it confident do cannot however, many are justice, harm, at least not Its opponents might equally well argue ultimately.^^ that because it is wrong and unjust,it cannot do good, either in Roberts sional Coolidge: "It is important to note that voting, with the occainterest in political campaigns and large public questions, affords just the connection which with the larger world the domestic Are Women needs/* Why So, woman Does she? Would it improve The latter is the her domesticity, or lessen it? 361. desire of the feminist, with all the danger it threatens to the people that permits it. such stuff as this: The "most i57 Or woman suffragist leaders seek the francbise of all because mark they look upon the "vote as a symbol of deep spiritualthings and the hallof their individuality the symbol to them of eternal things (or ), Mrs. SnowS. Chesser: "The is vote den, The Feminist Movement, 147-8, 167. Cf. Elizabeth Also Blease has adopted this talk, and only a symbol," op. cit.,254. speaks of the of social worth," op cit., 189. a symbol parliamentary franchise as R. C. Talbot-Perkins, President of Kings County tion, 58 Mrs. Woman Suffrage AssociaNew York in The Times, Feb. 14, 191 5. So Helen Sumner Results N. Stevens, ih. B9 Wm. says in her Equal Suffrage: The " It is not pretended, of course, that of an Investigation in Colorado, New York, 1909: such a study [of the influence of woman suffrage upon politicaland social life] can affect in any the right of women How to the ballot." women are likely to way York has no bearing on vote," says an editorial in The New American, Feb. 8, 1915, their right to vote, which is so self-evident that its demonstration seems superfluous." Steenrod in The York "Whether it New Times, Feb. 21, 1915: Similarly Elizabeth would would the state and stir up society], is beside the mark. not or [tend to weaken It is a question primarily of common the Report of the justice and fair play." And so Committee United States Senate of Woman Chairman), Jan. Suffrage (C. S. Thomas, " The issue is not of benefit to the nation, but of justice to womankind." 8, 1916: one is justice, and 60 " What Seward, justice always benefits," F. W. Jr., they demand in The New York Times. Feb. Gail Hamilton: It is natural that iqi6. Cf. 14. and therefore be good," should the consequence have part in government, must woman Woman's unnatural, and all things unnatural Wrongs, 158-9 (and the opnosite is are and hurtful," 93). And ever whatto women N. C. Fowler, Jr,, would grant the vote wrong if tremendous and dred harm transient or temporary might even lasting a hunensue, it is right, it will in the end good, The prove years, being confident that because Principle of Suffrage, New York, 1916, pp. 47"58. B6

Cf. Mary

"

"

**

"

"


FEMINISM

292

this prospect fillstheir hearts with elation. Already one of them exults in the historic appeal of one of the two great political Tell us Club of Denver what will : partiesto the Women's ^" endear is the women." to not our a This, however, party in instance: it has States.*' become western our general single Here the three kinds of arguments for woman suffragehave "

"

"

,

been

treated

in

the

ascending order

of

their

real

importance.

They have, however, been treated in the descendingorder of the importance attached

Effort has ocwomen. casionally by most the arguments for woman's political emancipationnot so much on their rights,as on their duties ; *' which, of course, do not go beyond their abilities. But at bottom it is the feelingof offended dignityat exclusion from the right for participathat underlies this demand to be equal with tion men, in the world's work and guidancejustso far,and no further, than their strength(which is sufficientto drop a ballot) will carry them. if They can now go into all industries and professions, they like,and stay out of them also,as they please; and so they if they like,and stay out as much be able to go into politics must as they please. Whether they vote or not, is to be their own Whatever the reasons, not to be denied them by men. concern, and whatever the consequences, that is nobody'sbusiness,as long confronted with the apotheosis as are any of them wish it. We of Independence and of License."^ 'Do as please,'and you watchwords. Do as we the present are Only the doing please,' be positive, not must negative:it must not interfere with other been

made

to

them

to

rest

"

'

Annie G. Porritt, Votes and Babies, 5. *' candidate for In the equal suffrage States," writes Ida Husted Harper, " every and before the various explains his policies,^ organisations of women, a high office goes York makes Times, possible effort to win their favourable opinion," in The New every George Creel, Sept. 15, ipiS. "The procedure in all the equal suffrage States," says " similar. A state federation of women's is very convention, will clubs, at its annual it wishes wish. Bills discuss what in the way of legislation,and it does what not mands, bills are framed the deto meet or already in the field are indorsed condemned, new and of a legislativecommittee that is then everything is placed in the hands virtually an unpaid lobby. This committee, with an elastic membership of from ten attends every session of the legislature. The progress of bills is watched, to seventy-five, of them is lost or is taken to see that none of trouble, hidden, and in the event care Reveres send out a warning these Paul that rains down of telegrams from scores every the heads of the State on of recalcitrant legislators,"What Women done Have quarter "urith the Vote? 2. 08 H. Stacy, A Century of Women's Rights, in Forecasts of the Coming g., Enid sibility Century, ed. by Edw. Carpenter, London, 1897, and F. H. Barrow, The Political ResponWestminster of Women, Review, Sept., 1908. Miss Franklin, in her The Case "This is an often not for Woman Suffrage, p. 79, remarks; interestingpoint, and one made." " their own should have the same 69 Women to make right as men mistakes," according Ross Weeks, and be " equally free to work to Anna out their own according salvation^" York Frederic to Caroline Times, Feb. 14, 1915. the Great Brockel, both in The New would have left all his subjects to go to heaven but he was way; or^ hell their own strict about their going the right way These (his way) in this world. suffragistwomen, whether in this world apparently, do not care women go the right way provided even, they be allowed to go their own way. 66

67


WOMAN

people's

doing.

must

one

sociahsts), or

at

least

have than

equally

SUFFRAGE

Every more

one

can

free.

do

(or

power

another.

ARGUMENTS

Men

and

what even

women

293

any

one

can

do.

wealth,

more

all "

must

say

be

No the

equal,


IX.

CHAPTER

existed

suffragehaving never

Woman

AGAINST

ARGUMENT

THE

SUFFRAGE

WOMAN

on

a

largescale

the all its effects,

for of

sufficient to note Their principal advocates. its arguments have all proof is on This ought to be sufficient. But to drive been met and refuted. if.the as the nail in harder, it will be well to treat the matter be were the other side, as it would burden of proof were on a

lengthof

time

or

burden

established fact,and suffragealreadya generally

woman

why it should againstit,of if it had

be, even

not

course,

of the

some

if it

greater evils. What

were.

is that it would

good would

The not

work

to

show

principalargument well that,even it,it would lead to "

results claimed for be or not be under

other

stances, circum-

and so the argument to be proved directly; show the probableevil effect of woman suffragecan best proceed the of nature true suffrageand the perverseness of by showing never

can

extendingit to The

women.

arguments

idea that so, and

the all depend ultimately on suffrage It is because believe of are equals men. they they think the true state of the case is wrongly for

woman

the

women

because

that there men, to the franchise.

who feel hurt at not being vote, which one of them says is " ^ and equality," the symbol of freedom they believe to be theirs because they do not see the reason by right, why they should not have it if all men have it. They are misled by the democratic that all men are equal,which is obviouslyfalse in most principle

judged by admitted

respects and

can

are

women

The

be maintained

only in

particular sense,

some

in

stillthink themselves included. with men to have any Now, for the claim of woman's equality it must be equalityin political bearingon the questionof suffrage, admitted It This is overlooked. is by all but a few respects. in some extreme are feminists,that women thingsdifferent from is into an argument times turned This admission at men. even in favour of woman : if they were alike,it would not suffrage

which

matter 1

these

so

women

men much; being different,

Christabel Pankhurst, Plain Facts

about

a

294

Great

cannot Evil,

122.

properlyrepresent


AGAINST

WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

them

295

and cannot for them ; ^ an rightlylegislate argument hardlyconclusive as it stands,since it would equallyapply,with and evident falseness, if men of children. Certainly to the case "

women

were

as

and

men

the

in all respects alike, they would and there would be no women,

the including

and

ones

treatingmen

and

the fact that

others

and

that

women.

women

men

The

The

is differently

women

men

equal, shows

others.

are

distinguished excluding for reason onlypossible be

not

for

reason

their difference.

Now,

are different, though on the whole superior in some respects, and in

fact that

their

superiorities may

sum

up

both sides,is nothingto the point.^'' All depends on the and inferioritiesthat fall to the shares of particular superiorities whether each, they be relevant to the subjectin hand.' in the respect which has most Men are superior to do with government force, is a matter of force. Government It is not it is power. mere Men, possessing force,made governopinion, ment. is an affair of men. Government Hence men only are in it. This from the proper participants force," as argument even

on

"

k

"

it has

been

called,is generallypooh-poohed by

generallydo should

is

at the bottom were

When So

2

women H.

H.

it

seriously.This is

They

women.

why men do.^ as some It women especially seriously,* of the question ." the disturbingportion of humanity. originally started industryand produced property, men

take

not

Men

take

not

no

reason

it

Van

Amringe

at the Common

Woman's 1850, Rights Convention, Worcester, Mrs. Sense about iv. 62, 307; Women, Works, Sense" Jacpbi, 'Common applied to Woman Suffrage, 226; Alice S. Blackwell, Objections Answered, S. Josephine Baker, and Jessie H. New Childs, in The 2-3; York Times, Feb. 14, 1915, and Mrs. Ernest Thompson Seton, ib., Feb. 21, " 1915. Says Annie The G., Porritt in her leaflet on The Political Duties of Mothers: modern suffragist is far more anti sister in asserting that the emphatic than her is the home, and place of the women and of men that the work and functions different. women are It is upon these two facts that she bases her claim to vote." 2a Hence the absurdity of the position taken admits the claim of by Blease, who for equality with men women in politics because, as he pufts it, woman is in the total of her faculties the equal of man," sum The Emancipation of English Womenj " of equal worth," 185, cf. 198; or 223. " 3 Cf. Goldwin Smith; follow to be superior, it does not Supposing woman even that the field of her superiority is public life," Essays on Questions of the Day, 200,

Proceedings,

Higginson,

40;

'

'

_

*'

cf.

217.

As

did not examine its full bearings, and moreover was restricted woman and Liberty, ii. 546-7. suffrage. Democracy useful as Florence He soldier in the Crimea no was so Nightingale- in common says vention ConYork Constitutional which he was preceded by Curtis in the New argument in the Pennsylof 1867 {Orations and Addresses, i. 209-10), and by Broomall vania This Constitutional Convention of 1872-3, Debates, i. S51A. is the fallacy 4

for instance

only advocating

pointed

out

a

above,

Lecky, who

very

p.

242. "

It is not that women and true should be Catherine E. Eeecher: are his equalsin in every not They certainly are the equals of men respect. as the in government of both which is the final resort family and physical power, this fact that she is placed as a subordinate both in to it is owing And the state. Profession, 183, cf. 177-8. Suffrage and Woman's the family and the state," Woman effect later. will be quoted to the same Other women the term ever superiority signifiesmight. Who6 In the province of law, says Austin, his wishes, is the superior of that other, so to comply with oblige another can of Jurisprudence Determined, London, 1832, far as the abilityreaches," The Province Thus treated .5

"

p.

19-


FEMINISM

296

of women.' the rescue Even into their their productions they got women from other men. them likewise had to defend sion Aggrespower, engenderedprotection.Men therefore needed many means to increase their force,and they not onlyimproved their weapons and organisedthemselves. of attack and defence, but combined seized it. Other

the

then

men

to

came

and

when first,

needed not againstanimals,but only against organisation, of the was men, beginning government; and the first subjects but the other men subdued. At first, not only the women, were the men in some admitted women to their councils possibly, places,' this for have evidences of seen some we primitive ; among of women for executingthe tribes;but, if so, as the incapacity behests of the councils became more cluded expronounced,the men the women, selves themis t he or women (which equallylikely) dropped out. Elsewhere, and probablymostwheres, men established governments without we consultingtheir women: have historical knowledge of this in the founding of our own states is not mere at Plymouth). Determination {e.g., opinion desire : it is will-power, and requiresstrength.Government or thus due both to the depredating instincts of men, and to their was defensive interests. Force was the means both of the_depredation This

and

Such activities developed men's intelligence, of the defence. their organising slaved especially capacity.The men they en-

they put

and,

men,

among

work, and therebyindustrywas

to

as

we

that of women, men

could not

showed Thus government But it was the not

Government,

among but bad

far

so

to

the men

good,and

due originally goodness of women was

as

beneficent,was

the badness

to

that made made

of

men.

government.

by the

goodness of

had to existingand combining,good men resist them." are Unfortunatelynot only good men and the not only bad men governed, among governors Bad

men.

combine

men.

not

men's

itselfleast.

men

other

who

would

or

developedalso passed seen, industryin time surleft in those employments which were of invade,or in which the superiority

have

the

men

made

and

entered

into governments

problem of good government

Attack those

and

who

defence, attack

moreover,

must

also

as

is to weed are

well out

the the bad as

compounded: inextricably

defend, and those whose

Pearson's division of men those who sets: 7 We at this stage into two have seen abided with their mothers remained wild like their fathers, and hunted, and those who latter at home became had fend agriculturists. The to deand sisters, and helping them Where warlike the former. as and became as they did not, their women, so small, and ultimately vanished, except in out-of-the-way places. those tribes remained See above, p. y; and n. lo. 8 Among the men who stayed with the women. Juris Naturae ei Gentium, II. vi, Si I94_i6,Cf. Burke, " So Heinecoius, Elementa of political parties. Works, i. 526.


AGAINST main

pbjectis to

WOMAN

297

find it advisable to attack. Many of bad men their have never set up repression as governments main object, but to-daythis is the avowed objectof all civilised stillthe governments. To-day great majorityof criminals are bad There are plentyof bad women, men. too ; but women are in their own way, with less exhibition of force,with less courage, less venturesomeness, and generally inciters or tools of men; as for many of their virtuous criminal acts of men, as well as many done and with the help of women. at the instigation acts, are But the active,responsible, and punishablecriminals are mostly mates men: they,it is said, constitute ninety-five per cent, of the inof our prisons.^"This is sometimes used as an argument be admitted should the franchise to : the comparawhy women tively small number of female convicts is adduced as showing much the moral of women, and as auguring how superiority intrusted better they would do, if the management of thingswere them.^^ It is, however, precisely to the reason why women in the government. It should not be admitted into participation takes men to subdue men and keep them in order.^^ Government of any comnot made at first by all the men was munity and it. coming together establishing It was made by the clever and the who could sway the strength men by strong men, At first no doubt individuals entered the contest, of other men. each on his own formed, and footing;but in time classes were classes controlled the government by their collective strength, so weaker members of a strong class took part in governthat even ment, in a weak class were while stronger men excluded. The the determiningfactor at a time when was possessionof arms not plentiful of the better sort were arms enough to be acquired of the for the arms possession by everybody; and gave power of land reciprocally of land, and the possession acquisition gave of arms, in the case of those who had for the acquisition power 10

In

may

rising period of civilisation or guardian, who and a woman participatein

a

a

man

is not punished by the state, but still, responsible by the state. And crime, the blame and the punishment fali

woman

is held

father, husband,

by her when

the

defend

SUFFRAGE

a

and the man rightly so. increase the moral and lawS. Blackwcll : Alice 11 Thus Equal suffrage would abiding vote very largely, while increasing the vicious and criminal vote very little,*' better than will certainly do much Women Objections Answered^ 7. Consequently Woman's "Woman New Era The Era, 37. M. Lemonche, they [men]," Emerence New York has done," says James F. Brittingham, in The than man do worse cannot "couldn't of things when be any vote women the condition Times, Feb. 14, 1915; the world now make," Stella Carolyn Calkins, ib.; "could men than the mess worse than (a woman), ib. Cf. it is at present," B. Peters mess possibly be in a worse Parker above, p. 28on. Theodore " W. because Henry Hayden, alone men be governed by men, says Men. must 12 The is placed upon cause beobligation to govern men. man, to govern possess power the decrees of government. Man always to enforce alone has the power man and when the actual woman attemj^tsto assume has been and will be the real power, she is wholly unable an to digshe assumes obligation which in government, power York Times, Feb. 28, 1915. charge," in The New

principallyon

"

"

,"

.

.

^

,

.

.

.

.


298

FEMINISM

strengthenough

to

wield the

acquired;

when

arms

weaklings

for

retain the possessionof land. As civilisation advances, mined become the metals are more abundantly,and small arms the for lower classes to them; whereupon cheap enough procure could

not

and the

enough they also acquire intelligence

when

they too,

their power, On the other

concentrate

to

force

to

combine

into control

their way

of

in the shape hand, large weapons expensive to be owned by individuals,and

government.

of

become too artillery Hence land- and other propbe can managed onlyby the state. erty-owner the class last be at to cease always only havingpower. has always been an essential factor,but of course, Intelligence,

do nothingof itself, can plane or story. Intelligence force alone, without it can only give direction to force. And idiot playsno part to guide it,is nothing:a muscular intelligence in the state because his force fritters itself away, being used for determinate however, in one person or no Intelligence, purpose. another

on

in

a

few

persons

may

often

the force of other

command

men.

It

indiis,then, through their force that it operates. Intelligent in the early days of every dividuals and classes,as especially the priesthood, have always been powerful, but civilisation-cycle only,by their monopoly of science,as using advice,warning,and

persuasionto

direct the

force

endowed originally

of others.

their

If

of life had

with, or manner for this purpose, similar, or equal intelligence

they would in the

as

have

done.

Karl

Pearson

ousted

them

have

retained but for

Although has

also from

a

a

few

to

been

developed,

that

of

prominent positionat

men,

least

scattered

exceptions,they the first priesthood, surpassed by men,

formed

women

shown, they were this

occupation, whereupon those of degeneratedinto witches, attemptingto hold persisted,

them who communication buried

doubt

priesthood; which,

nowhere who

no

had

women

only

the infernal

with

the powers

of

earth

or

the dead

and

gods. and bickerings rulingclass,contests for leadership the of distribution often carried on over booty were by such would themselves, contests it fightingamongst although frown to because require little intelligence upon, they would weaken the class over againstother classes,and the tribe over other tribes. Hence the combination of fighting had against men to keep order within their own which completed the territory; of government. But there might be strugglesfor the purpose possessionof the government itself. Now, it appears that men were to perceive long ago in possessionof sufficient intelligence in would be this small (for bands) that instead of very plain faction which the t o see was fighting result stronger,the same Even

"

within

the


FEMINISM

300 like ours countries,

and our States still, western ing labouroriginally and foreigners have even been offered the franchise as men their inducement to an coming, so much were they needed by those who settled there first;and in the neighbouringStates in the East the rulingclasses have found likewise to it necessary extend

as

an

at

the franchise home. But even

in

our

so

and peaceful,

inducement

everythinghas

happy land

in Rhode

Island,which

after the Revolution

was

known electorate,a rebellion,

their labourers

to

for two or small by a

ruled Dorr's

War,

to

three and

stay been

not

ations generuneven

to necessary compel a revision of the constitution and to gain the admission of the greater part of the male population.What was going on in America, by attractingemigration from abroad, induced

greater democratisation the electorate there all men practically few

of

fewest

The in

some

force case

have

most

Europe and led to the widening of countries happened that in many

been

admitted

needed,

even

women

to the

West, have

process has often gone too far even countries too many have men of momentum of the movement.

when, in

franchise

our

was

So it

too.

States,beginningin the

our

and

in

as

franchise where

been where

been This

; and

women

admitted. confined to

in

a

were

men

:

admitted, through was notably the

in the North gave the political emancipatedslaves in the South, only with

country,a party

to the

newly confusion at first and causing much ending with of the weakly organisable disfranchisement practical negroes there by the stronglyorganisedwhites,who, being the stronger, submit to the weaker, with complete disregardof would not the the

result of

it is the case, to some extent, everywhere, almost the in affairs of perfectly impossibility human normally,through numbers.

But

wherever universal conforming practiceto theory. It occurs have seen, the cripples male suffrage is adopted. For, as we and claim for admission, those dependent on publiccharityhave no till they are have foreigners nor thoroughlyidentified with the and of their completelydetached from their adoption country with the theory,also native state. Not in agreement strictly have been admitted to the franchise,althoughstronger weaik men of agreeout so excluded, and yet not altogether women are ment, it comes often fight, when after all,since weak men can "

But

it has ever been thus, in general, which the disagreement is only that of practice of trivial exceptions. able to take account is rough and never classes became When new recognition, strong enough to demand have members their weak admitted, as we were also seen, and since in the strong classes alreadyin possession also not inaptly, to

and

blows, better than strong

women.


AGAINST

WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

301

their weaker consulted, (but not all too weak) members were while the strong members of weak classes were stillexcluded. And so, for the very reason that the minorityof incompetent men be excluded,the minorityof competent women cannot be cannot included and in weak white the are included,justas, men South, coloured excluded. admissions these men are Moreover, strong of comparatively weak made because it is not worth men are while to exclude them, as they do little harm. Ordinarily, divided on the the to laws of weak are according probability, both sides of a question in about the same proportionsas are the strong,except possibly o f ity on questions war, where the timidof the weak may incline them more to peace ; but on all other questionsthe difference between weakness and strength(in the same race or class,or in the same sex) does not enter among the the presence in determinants of opinion. Hence of weak men the franchise is not apt to change the relative positionof forces that come the oppositesides of most of the questions on up for and decision, Not

so,

not

in materially

however, would

to the franchise.

any. be the case, if

women

were

admitted the whole,

Women are as numerous as men on Their votes and in some countries more numerous. might on be thrown some questions mostly on one side,because sex does the vote),and want affect opinion(and for this reason women had a majoritydue to the women's then the side which votes the would reallybe the weaker. Thus, with woman suffrage, of heads would no longerprove on which side the greater count this result would be confused, of obtaining force lay,the method of employing it defeated. and the purpose Naturallyit would side and all would be on the one never happen that all men ^^ if that could happen,there would be plain the other : on women would of giving the suffrageto a nd dream nobody sailing, The arises from the mixture, and trouble women. difficulty of the result is from inability how much to know would come and how much On ordinaryoccasions, to men. due to women in countries alreadyaccustomed to submitting to the especially the difference between man's and a of ballots, vote count a and would woman's vote would unnoticed, things proceed pass would this be the case were men. Especially as though women been incautiously made, as by Mrs. Clara T. 18 This suppositionhas sometimes in in a paper against Woman Suffrage read before a legislativecommittee Leonard of woman advocates of rejecting suffrage into the opposite error 1884. It has led some " the whole an ingenious effort of imagination, but of no weight as argument occur": this "contingency could never so George practicalargument," because as a Question of Expediency, Cambridge, the Commonwealth: or a and Pellew, Woman he disposed of this matter to think Even Higginson seemed by Mass., 1892, p. 14. shall be possibilityof a politicaldivision in which all the women there is no saying Sense about the other," Common Women, on side and all the men Works, iv. on one "

332.


FEMINISM

302

their local affairs (of cities, and, in the decision even of a known our country, of States),where would be majorityof women againsta known majorityof men in of forcible aid from the rest of executed, case opposition, by where there is no the country. But in national affairs especially, external superiorarbiter, on subjectswhich arouse passion,such the as are minoritymight apt to occur every generationor two, of and at the that contained majority they really suspect men, last might refuse to respectthe decision of the feminine majority. Fightingmight therefore again be resorted to, and would probably end with deprivingwomen of the franchise. This is no fanciful picture;for, although we have not had in modern times woman to reach suffragelong enough anywhere such a catastrophe, and have only a legendaryreport of such an in the past,^' have plentyof other instances of a strong event we of voters not minority submittingto a weak majority. The exclusion of the negroes from the franchise in the.South practical in point. There, before this final consummation, a is a case and over minorityof whites, over again,refused to submit to the decision of a majorityof blacks. We have instances even of mistakes committed because they thought by a minorityrevolting themselves the stronger, though they were not. This was the in our Civil War, when, althoughmen alone counted case were South the both of the believed themselves superior men on sides, of the North. Revolt against a stolen majority, to the men merely of votes, not of voters, would have again occurred in of the Democratic 1876-77 but for the realisation by the men side that after all they were not strong enough to have their way, If such thingscan the trouble. at least that it was not worth or with alone men happen voting,they would be stillmore frequent franchise.^* if women half of the a composed A case in pointwas before the world (inthe winter of recently to 1915-16) in the questionin England whether to compel men in sections of

a

country

on

In ancient of the men most voted cate Attica, as above noticed, p. 83, when to dediand most of the women to the city to Poseidon Athene, and when, though the women's allowed to stand, the men not victory was thereupon deprived them only of but of the headship in the family. the right to vote "Once in our 13 Cf. history a minority rose jority, against the maFrancis^Parlcman: in the belief that it could out-fightit. This would happen often if the minority, of woman in the supposed case as suffrage, had not only the belief but the certainty that it could the majority," Some master against Woman Suffrage, of the Reasons Blease such that if ever Against this argument opposition occurred urges p. 12. the one side and the other, between a a on on majority of men majority of women " of time, whether the dissolution of society is only a matter then women are franchised enBut he does not explain his rneaning or attemjjt to or not," op. cit, 247. assertion of his is that the risk of such opposition his position.- Another mere support into politicalcalculations, 253. He, o-i course, to deserve to enter is so small as not American familiar with Luckily for him, while the women. is more English than is opposed to this verjr question of woman suffrage, he is not confronted majority of men for it. with a majority of women 17

"


AGAINST

WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

303

The British legislature hesitated by conscription. this project, because they were over not sure whether, if adopted, it could be enforced that is, they did not know whether a of it. there Whether in the country favoured was majority men for of a was majority women or immaterial,except againstit, to

go

war,

"

for their " indirect influence " over If the country had the men. had woman their and the women might suffrage, representatives have been againstconscription while the majorityof men were for it,and so the country might have been deprivedof this benefit. Or if the majorityof men were againstit,a majorityof women might have been for it,and this majoritywith a minority of men and then have been might have passed the measure, unable enforce to it, plunging the country into turmoil.^* where Women's they votes, of course, are not an utter nullity, exist. They must deference paid to them ; be counted,and some for the forms of government cannot be lightly disregarded.The form of government admittingwomen's to the count, the votes itselfand organiseitself. The cannot majorityof men recognise the men's real machinery of government is defective. Hence with permanent will may be defeated or thwarted, sometimes added effect. For instance,during a war a majorityof women and make thus of to a minority men might peace prematurely, for. were fighting give away the very thingthe majorityof men refrain from going Or in peace such a compound majoritymight the and favourable to war on a opportunity, so bring country into Such dire straits on another occasion favourable to the enemy. Britain to-day,if at the might have been the predicamentof Great had voted for the election before 1914 as many women as men members of Parliament; for then they might have elected more indeed is the claim that they would do, members as pacifist Britain and Great might have stayed out of the war, France be contemplating have been crushed, and Great Britain now a "

"

votes similar fate. Women's joinedto men's mix no better than oil and water, but produce a confused emulsion,and misrepresent and will of a country, possibly the power underratingit at times, Men such alone often make and overratingit at other times. of heads added the without to count mistakes, but with women this result would fi-equently, arms happen still more atedly, exagger-

and "

Votes is the

dangerously. "

The of the power of delegation

represent power.

said suffrage," an

individual

Daniel Webster,

to some

agent."^"

M. Hughes, in Australia, exhibition made curious by the Premier, Wm. of that country at the coming and October, 1916, beseeching the women to go to war to fight for them. other men to coerce men to permit some referendum "The of representaCf. Brougham: essence similarly 229. VI. 20 Works, 224, 19

in

It

was

September

a


FEMINISM

304 Votes

represent opinionsalso,of

opinionsof powerful men. and she is sustained by some

the

or

power,

course,

suffragist "

but

opinionscontrolling No, says men

a

in her

female

party

"

expressionof opinion." No false. Votes, properly,express, not could be more statement not mere wish, but will,which is opinionand wish mere opinion, sary. backed by force and by the determination to use force if necesis the true idea of the state,"again said Webster: "This the collected will of it is an organisedgovernment representing this will is the vote. of collecting And the means the people." said Blackstone, is the declaration of the people's The suffrage, ^^ will." In a representative ion opingovernment it is not the mere that prevails, but the will of of a majorityof the population of the comthe powerful members the majorityof the people munity.^^ s aid *'The will of the majorityshould prevail," ferson, Jefand he frequentlyrepeatedthe statement, almost always when will." ^^ Of course, in this connection using the term alone vote, their will coincides with their opinion,and so, men after male suffrage became pretty generalin our country, it be**

a

vote

is

simply

a

^^

written

'*

^^

"

"

*'

for a of the people should be parted with, and tion is that the power given over, limited period, to the deputy chosen by the people," Political Philosophy, iii, 33. S. Blackwell, So Gail Hamilton: is 21 Alice Voting Objections Answered, 1. the prescribed, legal official way of expressing opinion," Woman's Wrongs, 98 (and in other this book the authoress shows no conception of the vote, cf. 76, 77, 88, 97, no). Similar is the opinion of the Trade Union Woman's Suffrage League of Greater and and Frank New York, as voiced by their President Secretary, Alfred J. Boulton York "The ballot is an A. Byrne, in The New instrument Times, Feb. 21, 1915: by which affect the Commonwealth." register their views on tree questions which a people may Even H. is reported Wadham, a (in the same judge, Wm. newspaper, April ^, 1915) to have spoken of the ballot as "merely an expression of opinion." What its jurists do not know is to become of a country when the first principles of constitutional law ? 22 Works, vi. 222. 2S Commentaries, i. 170. The full meaning of "will" be in this connection may definitions of government A by comparing two seen goveriunent," given by Price. he in 1776, "is, or wrote ought to be, nothing but an institution for collecting and the will of the people," Observations Civil Liberty, 47. carrying into execution on "Civil And is an expedient again in 1785: for collecting the wisdom government and force of a community," Observations the American on Revolution, 14. He here added: Free states ought to be bodies of armed citizens,well regulated, and well disciplined, and execute to always ready to turn properly called upon, out, when the laws, to quell riots, and to keep the peace," 16. Cf. Mackintosh: tion "Representais an expedient for peacefully, systematically, and unequivocally collecting this universal voice the reason of all men, guiding their will, to be expressed in law, he complained of the narrowness and of the franchise in England in his day because "the general will does not govern," Vindiciae Gallicae, 1791, in Works, iii. "

"

"

"

"

"

J53.

154* cf, 151. Cf. Locke:

"

When

number of men and not women [note that it is men, make one or community government, they are thereby the majority have make a one body politic,wherein right For when number conclude the rest. of men of have, by the consent to act and any that community one a individual, made community, they have thereby made every determination is only by the will and as to act body, which one body, with a power of the of the majority; for that which acts being only the consent community any is one it being necessary to that which individuals of it, and one body to move way; that way whither the greater force carries it, the body should it is necessary move of the majority." Of Civil Government, which is the consent 95-6. 25 Works, Washington ed., ii. 332; similarly vii. 496, ix. 131, cf, ii. 297, iii. 489, vii. 183, viii. 125, and the passage above quoted, p. aggn. 24

children] have consented presently incorporated, and or

any

to


WOMAN

AGAINST

SUFFRAGE

305

"

"

speak of publicopinion as being our guildingprinciple.^^ Hence, because a cat may look at a king, and any woman have an opinion, the totally idea has can wrong originatedthat women's opinionsought to be counted, as part of publicopinion, and that this is the full meaning of the democratic the of But principle.^^ guidingprinciple democracy is not or publicopinion but publicwill only publicopinionconfined to men's opinion. For it is the objectof government, not merely to pass laws as expressions of the people's but to enforce desires, them as expressions mination, of, and by means of,the people's will,deterand power, which are embodied in The men. only execution of the laws," said Jefferson, is more importantthan ^^ the making of them." Laws without force behind them are and law-makers force in them without absurdities. nullities; are A legalproposition without compulsionbehind it,"some lawyer has said, is a contradiction in itself : a fire that burns not, a light that shines not." Votes cast by women like guns that fire are ^^ not behind them : guns without men good enough for show in quiet times, but useless in times of stress dummies mere then,2" Hence the fatuityof the oft-repeated assertion that to not

came

to

uncommon

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

26 Jefferson himself opinion of the public, degree," Works, Ford's

"

Government on being founded opinion, the it is ought to be respected to a certain wrong, ed.jv. 282. All his other writings show that he had only in view in this connection, wherefore it was legitimate for him to speak of their men " *' in place of their ' will." opinion that Jefferson got the statement government is founded froip Hume, on opinion Essays, I, iv., who, however, was a Tory, and used it in a different sense, applyingit to all governments, to despotisms, which, even ** he says, must mamelukes at least lead their praetorian bands, or by their opinion. Hume used governors '\only of the leaders, and not of the whole body whose force or keeps the rest in subjection. The leaders rest on this body by consent opinion^ and hence it is the opinion only of men, equivalent to their will; but the leaders do consult the opinions or wishes of the rest. It is, therefore, wrong not for Hume to say that " force is always on the side of the governed, the governors having nothing to but opinion." The the force of their followers have them to supsupport governors port with this force, either the and majority, or if a minority, armed them, and organised, they are stronger than the rest, either a smaller or the larger part of the When in 404 the oligarchy tried to rule at Athens they govern. b. c, people whom criticised them for wishing to rule by force while yet they were weaker Theramenes all but their own three they would rule; whereupon they disarmed than those whom the ruled weaker at least to make than the thousand partisans, attempting in this way rulers. Aenophon, Hellenica, II, iii. 19, 20. the following. " Representative government is not 27 Hence also such an error as York Ross Times, Feb. 14, 1915, "if the Weeks, in The New possible," says Anna unrecorded." Or half of the people [= population] reference is are opinion of one which allows to vote injustice of a constitution a only one-half its made to "the citizens,"as by Mrs. B. O. Edey, in the Patchogue Argus, Sept. 29, 1916. The case, not of the population have the suffrage, as a quarter worse, by the way, is really much would it even Then to have with its extension half of them what women. and not that minority have to rule the majority? It is owing to this error right still would the mother of feminism," Mrs. Women is spoken of as Hale, What that democracy of Woman, Democracy has Want, 107. 8; repeated by Mrs. Tuttle, The Awakening such legitimate offspring. no 28 Works, Washington ed., iii. 82. the woman carries a voter soldier,'with sticks for guns, 29 As boys playing John Martin, Feminism. that won't 323. go off," Mrs. gun is law which has not "Nothing authority behind Abbott: it; and 30 C/. Lyman to compel obedience. there is not A ballot real authority where power there is no this act expression of opinion; it is an act of the will; and behind is not a mere The ballot is explicity an to be power compel obedience. act of the will must once

even

wrote

:

when

"

"

"

"

'

...

.

.

.


FEMINISM

3o6 cast

it has operation not so difficult, within the competence ribbon,^^and perfectly a said,as small part of of women.''^ The act of votingis a very

a

been

ballot is

very to match a

easy

"

thing everybe all,for the ordinary voter, when the affair. It may work to But are hkely things is working smoothly. because there is the potentiality smoothly because it is not all of force behind the vote. of every country resides in those who have the The sovereignty their will. It has resided mostly in a few men, to execute power of power enough to have a not in possession since the rest were effectual. It has will they could make a will of their own not all men, countries to reside in practically in some come but because all classes of men in this position, because all are cratic in them. Accordingto the demoof the men and most "

"

now

are,

"

in every governancestors, ment revolutionary uncontrollable and absolute, is a supreme, sovereign, resides ple." this power always in the body of the peo-

doctrine of there but power;

our

in the

Evidentlythis power does not reside community, or else they would not now ^^

the

be

women

of

begging for

reside in children." it ever nor can admission to the suffrage; to some extent, when they were have resided in women, It may of tells us a Scythian tribe, the strong enough. Herodotus with hunted and fought in company Sauromatae, whose women Politics is pacificwar. force. or expression of power Wliy elections called, and not improperly called, campaigns." are Wish the Suffrage, Atlantic Monthly, Sept., 1903, p. 293. York, June 9, 31 Lady Suffrage in Australia. The Independent, New Holder, Woman Suffrage subject published by the National Woman 1904, quoted in a leaflet on the same of So the women Association, Political Equality Series, No. 6. Cf. above, p. 244. Russell in Everybody's E. Magazine, New Zealand said, according to Ch. New Political Equality Leaflet), "they had not Dec, 1906 (quoted in another York, there than to go to a vote dreadful to go to a polling place and found it any more and buy bread." store less a sponsor than Bentham, in his Constitutional Code, 32 This has no argument It is countenanced even by Lecky, Democracy published in 1827 {Works, ix. 108B). vention ConYork Constitutional in the New and Liberty, ii. 548; also by John Bigelow, who it takes very of 1894 said little time to cast vote," Revised Record, ii. a of Even T. Roosevelt has indulged in this argument. Yet since the outbreak 410. in Europe he has had to lay stress on the immense the war importanceof force. Thug Take Fear God and his book Part is almost to men. own entirely addressed your of our He exhorts us to be worthy sons nation of freemen a ancestors, 57; desires will trained to the use of arms," 404; and thinks no has a right to the vote who man not fit himself to fight for his country, the 228, cf. 97-8, 106, 227. Resting upon H. Shaw this, by Anna same as (following in the steps faultyidea is "such a statement functions of Mrs. Gilman) : these two of father and mother Lying between [which be exchanged], is the great plane of human functions which belongs equally cannot and men and in that plane the ballot is included. And both men to both women, and Answers it equally well," Ten Extempore to Questions, no. women can use 5. The last is true only if the ballot is nothing but a piece of paper dropped in a box itself (like and to actualise containing an expression of opinion, which is somehow be used by anybody Claus, as somebody has said), and so can a child's letter to_Santa has an who opinion. and General 33 So a Proclamation, drafted by John Adams, of the Government in 1775; in Adams's Adams of the Colony of Massachusetts Works, i. 193. Court of all legitimate authority, himself spoke of " the great body of the people as the source and authorit7 less than of all efficient power," ix. 148, cf. 107, vi. 469. Power no

of the will, and The great do not Women .

.

implicitlyan

.

.

.

.

"

*'

go

together. 34

Cf. Simonds

above, p. 26

in.


FEMINISM

3o8 petent with

to

men

equallyable to equallyas

run

take part in government, they ought to be the government alone equallyas well as men,

be willing, seriously, willingly.Well, would women do so? Would to they not, on the contrary, stand the governturning over aghast at the very proposalof men ment them in control? their them of and Some to leaving But the their willingness. leaders might asseverate intransigent would not. majorityof sensible women They would know that of would be they completelyincapable maintainingorder within nality borders of suppressingthe lawlessness and crimitheir own of defending be utterly of men incapable ; and that theywould who control the country againstattacks of the wicked men other countries. all men, Only let men throughout all the be the set up by world women good enough to obey governors their then and out women women commands, might voters, carry rule. But men not are so good everywhere,and not even anywhere. Men make make men cannot women obey them, women in any country stand aside and leave it obey them. Let the men and

"

"

"

it: within a week the women's absolute to govern if revealed and would be or incompetence they were given fifty ; would be hundred the result different. to not a prepare, years Nature the ruled. has made men and women Men the rulers, are for this arrangement, and if women do not connot responsible sent stillsubmit to it.^* for they must to it,they are only foolish, Men's power over is not women women a usurped power, as some have simplyemployed the power have idlycharged: ^'* men which has Nature entrusted to them alone.^^*" to Men, repeat again,have made, and stilldo make, government. and indefeasible title to its manageThis is their original ment.'^ So it is with us. Our forefathers made our ments: governthe people from whom the they,as we have seen, were the

to

women

" her ballot when John Martin : Woman casts and where suffer men do so. She can neither secure the ballot nor hold it without his consent. She rail at this as much she likes; but such is the case, and as nobody is to blame may made for it except her the weaker/* Femtnism, Nature, which 323. C. Woodhull: "Women have Men have no 38aB."r., Victoria ganized orgovernment. and they maintain it to the utter exclusion of women. Women a government, much members of the nation and are as as men right to are, they have the same themselves which have. Men have but usurped men none right to the an govern W. Davis's Woman History of the National arbitrary control of women," in Paulina

38

her

Cf. Mrs.

to

^

Suffrage Movement,

_

117.

" of Mrs. Emma Willard : The only preceding the statement the earth is that of a family sovereign, the on only natural government husband and father. Other these sovereigns confederated, that are just governments the advantage of all their families combined," in they may_ together the better secure Lord's Life of Emma Willard, 117. *' from 39 Cf. Edward Curtis: Such association, grown simple beginnings to the the essentially,an as state, is thus, primordiallir and complex organisation known function of provisions and organisation of the males, by the males, for the masculine Sense" Jacobi in her ''Common defence," The Philosophy of It, quoted by Mrs The makes argument no impression applied to the Woman Suffrage Question, 110. her because she thinks the situation now "reversed,' iii, 115. on

38b Contrast

natural

with

the

"


AGAINST

WOMAN

SUFFRAGE

309

sprang; and they have handed their handiwork the proper down to their male descendants as fathers in the of our to take their placesin it. Some persons line of descent,using the power transmitted to them, have extended from other to to abroad, men men coming participation and to men of lower classes,on the belief (not always right) have that they too would be competent. We American men now the rightto vote have what Gail Hamilton (withoutperceiving " *" its import) called not because we the lordshipof voting," the human are or or beings,or citizens, people,but because men, the right, obtained for us by of the power, was or the recognition other men, with the understanding that we hand it on to other " The said Webster, choose to men," representatives," right " is every man's part (ifhe has the proper qualifications) in the " exercise of sovereign power." in full rather Such, outline,is the argument, which, to repeat, " has been called the force argument,"for not goingbeyond men in the extension of the franchise. One form or another of it has been expounded by writers on this side of the suffrage constantly been better expressedthan by question. Perhaps it has never most Mrs. a womanly woman, Mary Mapes Dodge. " Voting " The rule of power," she wrote, is based on fighting power. the majority is at bottom the rule of force. Sixty thousand to hundred thousand voters a voters yield not because they believe them to be wiser than themselves,but because they know them to be stronger. When they do not believe them to be do not and we have a rebelyield. They resist, stronger,they lion. It is the knowledge that there is a physicalforce undergo

authorityof

governments

our

"

"

"

Woman's Wrongs, i66. This certain of woman meets counter-statements suffragists,which the repeat fallacy,above pointed out, p. 252, of taking the end of an induction carried^ far too for the beginning of a deduction. Thus I. Bowditch: Wm. "The of 1780 men had the right of suffrage, not because of any law or constitution charter or grant or because whatever, not even they were who or men were men, actually in possession of power, but solely because they formed alone the power part of the people, in whom In like manner of sovereignty resided. the men of to-day, we ourselves, have the [as before], but solely because right of suffrage, not because we form we part of tlie Suffrage a Right, not a Privilege^ Boston, 1879, p 7. people of the state,*'Woman Men Whitlock: because Brand vote There is no they are other reason men. than have the right to vote because that, and women they are because witli men women, and they are Democracy, part of humanity," Women 7-8. Ch. A. Beard: "Every be adduced in favour which of allowing anybody but kings to share in can argument be adduced in favour of women," Common the government, The Man can and the H. Shaw : The enfranchised Franchise. Anna is that, as citizens, reason men are That is all there is to this question of woman "hey have a stake in the government. of the Amer. a Problem of Political Justice,Annals suffrage," Equal Suffrage Acad, Soc. Science, J[an., of Pol. and IQ14, p. 96. vi. 223. A mistake is sometimes made in this connection 42 Works, by opponents of woman he says " the suffrage is a trust suffrage, as, for instance, Gronlund, when benefit to such citizens* as granted by the state for its own etc., The New Economy, existence its citizens. has no The A state apart from state 126-7. was originally who and their male made granted the suffrage to themselves ants; descendby some men, descendants either offered it to, or had it extorted and they or their male from it by acquiringpower to deserve them as they came by, other men enough to wield it. 41

"

"

"


FEMINISM

310 neath the vote its power; desire,but the

strong enough to uphold the

vote

that the ballot is not

of

measure

*^

strength."

the

givesto

simplythe expressionof A

man's

expressionof

it

follows, in the words of Rossiter Johnson: ters As the financial world has invented bank-notes,checks, and let-

may "

so

that

vote

quoted

be

as

for the thingsthey represent, which pass current of credit, been have brought into use by which available so various devices and the result of a conflict be foretold, forces can be measured and thus whereupon the destined losers submit without a conflict, of tion." is the This life and treasure. philosophy a popularelecsave *^ ** and in It has long been before the pubHc both here nents.^"^ England.*^ It lurks even, at times, in the words of its oppoIt has

been

never

refuted.

More W orthlessness. New Worth and briefly York, 1872, p. 247. "The is only a way of avoiding a physical Francis Scott: vote Mrs. York New of opinion," in The 16, 1913Times, Nov. difference contest over every who of emphasises the need Johnson, is fully expounded by Mrs. The argument enforce the decrees they issue, for can confining the ballot to the hands of those who Woman in a democracy, and the Republic, 49, the sake of stabilityof government See also Mrs. John Martin, Feminism, 322. 55-73. 78-85. " Those find He who adds, like Mrs. Dodge: Blank-Cartridge 44 The Ballot, 2-3. not permit the majority to have their way, themselves in the minority