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‫* سألت حكيما ً عن سؤال طالما حيرني ‪.‬‬ ‫ ما هو أكثر شيء مدهش في البشر؟‬‫فأجابني ‪ :‬البشر يمّلون من الطفولة فيسارعون ليكبروا ثم يتتوقون ليعودوا‬ ‫أطفالً ثانيًة ‪.‬‬ ‫يضّيعون صحتهم ليجمعوا المال ‪ ،‬ثم يصرفون المال ليستعيدوا الصحة ‪.‬‬ ‫سون الحاضر فل يعيشون الحاضر ول المستقبل‬ ‫يفكرون بالمستقبل بقلق ‪ ،‬وين َ‬


Diseases causing urine retention in equine : :

Prepared by

Ayman Hesham


Introduction The urinary organs constitute the main channel through which are . thrown out most of the poisons of a horse's body To a large extent, therefore, these organs are the sanitary scavengers and purifiers of the system, and when their functions are impaired, the retained poisons quickly show their presence in resulting horse diseases of the skin, the nervous system and/or . other organs


Retention Of Urine :Definition Partial or complete inability to expel urine from the .bladder by the usual natural method


Causes of retention of urine :I) Non infectious causes It is frequently due to spasmodic constriction- 1 .of the neck of the bladder may also be the result of mechanical-2 .obstruction in the urethral canal It sometimes occurs as a result of paralysis-3 following on abnormal conditions of the

.brain and spinal cord


Severe dehydration lead to decrease blood flow to -5 kidney . 6-Rupture of urinary bladder. 7- Excessive loss of fluid e.g., severe diarrhea or vomiting. 8- Shock e.g., after hemorrhage or cardiac infarction 9- Tubular necrosis . 10- bilateral obstruction of ureters. 11- post- partum Incontinence 12- congenital


II) Infectious causes : 1- early stage of rabies . 2- late stage of tetanus. 3- pyelonepheritis. 4- equine protozoal myeloencephalitis(Sarcocystis (neurona


:Symptoms .Repeated but unsuccessful attempts to urinate- 1 .Standing with the front and hind legs far apart- 2 .straining, grunting or groaning- 3 .possibly the passing of a few drops of urine- 4 Rectal examination will confirm the diagnosis if any doubt or-5 difficulty exists in determining between retention and nonsecretion of urine .restlessness- 6 .distention of the abdomen in case of rupture of urinary bladder - 7 .smell of urinferous odor from the animal if occur uremia- 8


Diagnosis .clinical signs & case history- 1 .apply ultra sonography- 2 x-rays- 3 urine examination- 4


Ultrasonography Renal calculus- 1


Obstruction of the ureter-2


bladder carcinoma- 3


bladder calculus- 4


Ruptured bladder- 5


Treatment If the urine has been long retained, and-1 the bladder contains a large quantity, the catheter should be passed and the greater .portion drawn off


Catheterization in male & female


’)Treatment (cont after catheterization give to animal diuretics to remove- 2 .remainant of urine Give to animal anti-inflammatory & antibiotic- 3 warm fomentations to the loins, or a large poultice over-4 .that region, will have a soothing effect sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine with or without-5 trimethoprim + folic acid in EPM


Surgical treatment as Tube Cystotomy- 6

Laparotomy Cystotomy

Indwelling bladder catheter


Prevention Give to animal sufficient amount of water- 1 .daily Give good balanced ration that contain- 2 vitamins esp. vitamin A responsible for .epithelial tissue periodic examination to animal- 3 .systemically .select good breed by animal index- 4


equine diseases  

diseases causing urine retention in equine &their treatment

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