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TRANSLATION

Numbers in .tbe translation relate to the numbers in the Notes. Square brackets indicate Iha! the 覺oords translated are wholl,of largely restored.


PHYSICS Fr.l [Diogenes of Oinoancla's epitome on sensation! and nature}.

Fr.2 (... observing that' most people suffer from false notions about things! and do not listen to ,the body] when it brings important and just Iaccusations] against the soul-, alleging that it is unwarrantably mauled and maltreated by the saul and Idragged to things which are not necessary (in fact, the wants of the body are smaIl and easy to obtain> ~ and the soul too 'Can liye well by aharing in' their enjoyment+ -, while those of the soul are both great and difficult to obtain and, besides being of no benefit to our nature, actually involve dangers). So (to reiterate what i was saying] observing that these people are İn this predicament, i bewailed their behaviour and wept over the wasting of their lives>, and i considered it the responsibility of a good man to give Ibenevolentl assistance, to the utmost of one's abiİity, to those of them ,who are well-constituted-. [This] İs [the first

reason] for the inscription. i declare that the '[vain] fear of [death and that] of the Igods B~:J:' ""'<Anj J ",:f u.,)?, [auu Ltıall JUY ıur reaı vaıue= ıs gerıerated not by theatres] and: [... and] baths [and perfumesl and oirıtments, lwhich we] have left to [the] masses, [but by natural science? ...]


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Fr.3 (And i wanted to refute those who accuse natural scierıce! of being unsble to be of any benefit to us.] in this:way, [citizerıs.] even though i am not engaging in publie affairs", i say these things through the inscription just as. if i were taking action>, and İn an endeavour to prove that what' benefits OUf nature, rıamely freedom from disturbance+, İs identical for one and all. And so, having described the second resson for the inscription'', i now go on to mention my mission and to explaln its character and nature. Having already reached the sunset of my life (being almost on the verge of departure from the world 00 account of old age), i wanted, before being overtakerf'by death, to compose a Ifinel anthem [to eelebrate the] fullness [of pleasure]6 and so·to help now those who are well-constituted/. Now, if onlyone person or two or three or four or five or. six or any larger number. you choose, sir, provided that it İs not very large, were in a bad predicament, i should address them individually and do all in my power to give thern the best advice. But, as i have said before, the majority of people suffer from a common disease, ..as in a plague, with their false notions about thingss, and their number is inercasing (for in mutual emulation they catch the disease from one arıother, like sheep)"; moreover, [it İs] right to help [also] generations to come (for they too belong to us, though theyare still unbornltv; and, besides, love of humanity prompts us to ald also the foreigners who come here!-l. Now, since the remediest\ of the inscription reach a larger number of people, i wished to use this stoa to advertise publicly the [medicinesj U that.bring salvation-t. These rnedicines w.ehave put [fully] to the. test'>: for we have dispelled the fears [that grip] us without justification, and, for pains,-those that are grcundless W~ have. completely excised, while those that are natural we have reduced to an absolute minimum, making their magnitude minute'v.

as


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Fr.4 ... us ... the first :... ,.. [as İs supposed by] same of the philosophers and especially the Socratics-. They. say that pursuing natural science and busying oneself with investigation of [celestial phenomena] is .superfluous and unprofitable-, and they do (not even] deign [to concern themselves with such rnatters].

Fr.5 [Others do notjexplicitly [stigmatise] natural science [as unnecessary], beingashamed to acknowledge [this], but use another 1 means of disearding it , For, when theyassert that things are inapprehensible, what else. are they saying than that there is no need for us to pursue natural science. Arter all, who will choose to seek? what he can never find? Now Aristotle! and those who hold the same Peripatetic views+ as Aristotle say that nothing is sdentifically knowable, because things are continually in flux and, on account of the rapidity of the flux, evade our apprehension. We on the other hand acknowledge their> flux, but not its being so rapid that the nature of each thing [is] at no time apprehensible by sense-perceptions. And indeed [in no way would the upholders. of] the view under discussion have been able [to say] (and this İs just what they do [rnaintainj) that [at one time] this is [white] and this black, while [at anather time] neither this İs [white rıor] that black, [if] they had not had [previous] knowledge of the nature of both white and black", . And the so-called Iephectics philosophers], of whom Lacydes [of Cyrene]? ...

Pr.6 [As for the first bodies-, also] called elemenıs, which on the one hand have subsisted from the beginrıing [and] are indestnıctible, and


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[on the other hand] generate things, we shall explain what [they are] af ter we have demollshed the theories of others, Well, Heraclitus of Ephesus identified fire as -elemental, Thales of Miletus water, Diogenes of Apollonia and Anaximenes air, Empedodes of Acragas- fire and.air and water and earth, Anaxagoras of Clazomenae the hornoeomeries of eaeh thing, and the Stoics matter and God}. As for Democritus of Abdera+, he did well to idendfy atoms as elemental, but since his corıception of them was in same respeets mistaken, he will be considered in the exposition of our theories. Now we shall bring charges agairıst [the] said men, not out of contentiousness towards them, but because we wish the truth to be safeguarded'': and we shall dea! with Heraclitus first, since he has been placed first on our listb. You are mistaken, Heraclitus", in saying that· fire İs elemental, for neither is it indestructible, since weobserve it being destroyed, nor can it- gerıerate things ...

Fr.7 is nothing . void . to be acted upon, .... to be acted upon .... infinity nothing cannot ... the last, because he (?) knows it. Even Dernocritus erred İn a rnanner .unworthy of him self•.when he said that atorns alorıe! among. existing things have true reality, while everything else exists by convention/. For, according to your account, Democritus, it willbe impossible for us even to live'', let alone discover the truth, since we shall be unable to protect ourselves from either fire or slaughter or [any other force]. ..................

o.. this

Fr: 8

[Since the first bodies cannot

be broken up by anyone]; whether he İs gad or rnarıl, one İs left to corıclude that the se things- are [absolutely] irıdestructible+, [beyond the reach of] necessity'v For if


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[they were destroyed], in accordance with [necessity, into the nonexistent, all things would have perished.]5

Fr.9 ,[Al1d] often mirrors! too will be my witnesses [that likenesses]

and appearances are real lentitiesl. For what i say will certainly not be' denied at all by' the image which will give supporting 'evidence on oath- in mirrors. We should not see ourselves in them, nor indeed would [any reflection] be created, [ifthere were not a continual flow being borne from us to the mirrors and bringing back an image] to us. For this too is convincingproof of the effluence, seeing that each of the parts is carried to the point straight ahead, Now the images that flow frornobjects, by impingirig on our eyes, cause us both to see external realities and, [through entering our soul, to think of therrı'. So it' İs through impingements] that the soul receives in turn the things seen bythe eyes; and after the impingements of the first images, our nature İs rendered porous in such a rnanner that, even if the objects which it first saw are no longer present, images similar to the first ones are received by the mind, [crea-. ting visions both when we are awake and in sleep.]" [And İet us not he surprised] that this happens even when we are asleep5;' for images flow to us in the same way at that time too. How so? When we are asleep, with all the senses as it were paralysed and extinguished [again in] sleepv, the saul, which İs [stili wide] awake? [ and yet İs unable to recognise] the predicament and -condition of the senses at that time, on receiving the images that approach it, conceives an untested and false opinion conceming tlıem, as if it were actually apprehending the solid nature of tnıe reelitiess: for the means of testing the opinion are asleep at that time. These are the senses; for the Me and standard [of truth]? with respect to [out drearns] remain [thesel [In opposition to] your [argument,

Democritus, we now say

this:]1o the [nature of dreams İs inno way god-sent, as you maintain, or rnonitory'J, but rather dreams are produced, i say, by] certain: ' [natural entities, with the resuIr that the fallacious argurrıerıt is tutned .


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aside;]12 for, [as i have shown, the same images which cause visian cause dreams as well as thought.] 13'

Fr, 10

... asleep ... So visions are not empty illusions of the mind, as the Stoics hold. For indeed, if on the one hand they call them empty on the ground that, while they have a corporeal rıature, it İs exceedingly subtle and does not impinge on the senses, they have expressed themselves wrongly, [since it was necessary to eall] theırı corporeal, despite their subtlety, if on the other hand they call them empty on the ground that they have no corporeal nature at all - and it is in fact this rather than the former which they mean -, how can the empty be represented? What then are theyl? Visions id fact have a compositiorı which is subtle and eludes our sight, [but which İs not empty. For the mind, being superior in subtlety, provides ... the starting-point- and .,. things ." and moves> ,. irnagining that we shall be struck with a sword Of shall fall from a precipice, wc sp ring up in cohsequerıce of our fear, even when we are in company. To these examples [1 add this furthet one: since in our drearns], as also when we are awake, we perform sexual acts, it is no good arguing that the pleasure we derive from them İs unreal because we are asleep+. So one mu st not call these visionsernpty, since they actuaIly possess such great power. On the other hand, however, if theyare not ernpty, that does not mean that theyare serıtienr and rational and really chat to us, as Demeerirus supposes; for films which are so subtle and lack .the depth of a solid constitution çannot possibly possess these faculties>, So these theorists, the Stoies and Democritus, went astray in opposite directions: the Stoics deprive visions of a power which they do have, while Demeerirus endows them with a power which they do not have. In fact the nature of ldreams ... J6


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Fr.ll ... they departeel from embryonic (?) .... [Then the ancesrors]! of man born, [according to] the present account, [from the] earth-, [received in additionl aparticula! kind of strength [inhererıt] in nature ...

Fr.12 [The caves! which they frequented with the advance of time', as theysought shelter from] wintry storıns, gave them the canception of houses, whilethe wraps which they made for their bodies, as they proteeted them either with foliage or with planıst or even (for they were alteady killing animals) with skins+, gaye thenı the rıotion of dothes- not yet plaited, but perhaps made by felting> or some such process. Then the advance of time inspired them or their descendants with the idea of the loorn as wel16. So no 'arts, [any more than] these, should be explained by the introduction of Athena or any other deity; for all were the offspring of needs and experiences in conjunctiorı with time". And with regard to vocal sounds - i mearı the words and" phrases", of which the earth-born human beings produced the first utterances -, let us not İntroduce Hermes? as teacher, as same daim he was (for this İs palpable drivel), nor let us .credit those philosophers-v who say that it was by deliberate invention and teaching that.rıames were assigned to things in order that human beings might have [distinctive designatiorıs] for them to facilitate their communication with one anather. It is absurd, indeed more absurd than any absurdity, as well as quite impossible, that any ane individual should have assembled such vast multitud~sl1 (at that time there were as yet no kingst-, and indeed, in the absence of any vocal sounds, no writing; and with regard to these mu'ltitudes [it would have been quite impossible, except by means] of a decree, for their assembly to have taken place) "and, having assembled tlıem, should [have' taken hold of] a "

.

rod (?) and proceeded to teach thenıHke an elementary schoolma-

ster, touching each object and saying <Jet this 'be called 'stüne', this 'wood', this 'human being' or 'dog' [or] 'ox' or I'ass'J ...»


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Fr.13 ,(The heavenly bodiest, when the whirls of alrP eause [such strong movernent], are all [violently] tossed about, but some meet one arıother, while others do not; and sornet pursue a straight eourse up to a certain poirıt, others, like the sun and moon, an oblique one, while others revolve in the same place", İike the Bear; moreover, sorne move İn a high orbit, others however in a low one. Yes, and this is a faet of which most people are ignorant: they suppose the sun at any rate to be as law as it appears to be, whereas lt is not as law; for if it were so, the earth and everything on it would necessarily be set ablaze. So it is its image which we see low>, not the sun itself6. However, this is to digress. Let us rıow.discuss risings and settings and related rnatters? after making this.preliminary point: if one İs investigating things that are not directly perceptible, and if one sees that several explanations are possible, it . is reckless to make a dogmatic pronouncement coneerningany single one; such a procedure İs characteristic of a seer rather than a wise rnanô. It is correct, however, to say that, while all explanati~ns are possible, this one id more pİausible than that. It is theretere possible that the sun [is] a disc resembling redhot charcoal [and]. of an extremely fine texture", [lifted up by the] winds and [funetioning İike] a spring10, in that same. fire [flows away]ll from it, while other fire flows Iintol it from the [surroundings], on account of tlıeir rnultitarious [mixture] , in aggregations of small [partsJ12. Thus it is [of itself naturally] sufficient for the world ...

Fr.14 Hall, not unreasorıably, İs produced by a fine, İoose conglomeration, which is due to the [self-moving energy] what surrounds it and [is formed] either by a wind [that is eold] but high in the air or

of

by filmy snow.P


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Fr.15 ... all men hoped................... at a loss. -For if theyexperience disttnet visiorıal , and are unable to discover how these are, produced, understandably, 'I think, theyare involved İn appreherısion; and sometimes [they are] even convinced- [that there is aL creator ...

Fr.16 ..... and [they vehemently] ,denounee the [most pious people] as [atheistie]". And in faet [it will becorne evident-] that it İs not we [who deny] the [gods, but othersl>, Thus [Diagoras of Melos, with certain others+ who closely followed his] theory, cate&orically asserted that gods do not exist and vigorously] attacked [all those who thought otherwise.I Protagoras of Abdera in effect put forward the same view as Diagoras, but expressed it differently to avoid its excessive audadty. For he said that he did not know whether gods exist, which İs the same as saying that he knew tha~ they do not exlst5. if indeed he had ba1anced the first statemerıt with «However, I. do not know that they do not exist,» [perhaps] he [wouldl almost have a [circumlocution] to [avoid the appearance of denying] the gods .completely. [But he said] «İ do not know that they exist», [and not] «i do not know that they do not exist», doing [exactly] the same [as Diagoras, who indefatigably did not]: stop saying that [he did] not. [know 1 that they exist. [Therefore.] as i say, [either Protagoras in that case] ip effect put forward [the same view as Diagoras or .. ]6

Fr.17 ....................................[ina chariot.]! making Triptolemus mount one and providing him. with most wretched . [toilS]2, . .................... ; For indeed, while honouring supreme- [Zeus]

and Demetert as deities, [we regard human beings] not as [their] slaves, Ibut as their friendsl>.


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Fr.18 ...... : that wemay not suppose-, having shared İn judging what is stili the .subject of dispute, ,.. .................. [Ler us not think that the gods are eapable of exarnining- people who are unjust] and base and [noble] and just. [Otherwise the] greatest disturbarıces İwill be created in our souls.P

Fr. 19 [Let us then contradict Homer, who] talks [all sorts of nonsense] about them-, [represenring them sometimes as adulterers-, sometimes as] lame>, [sometimes as thievish+, or even as being struck by mertals with a spear,"] as well as [inducirıg the craftsmen to produce inappropriate portrayals. Some statues of gods shoot [arrows and are produced holding] a bows, [represented] like Heracles in Homer"; others are attended by a body-guard of wild beastsô; others are angry with the prosperous, like Nemesis according to popnlar opinion; whereas we ought to make statues of the gods genial and srniling, so that we may smile back at them rather than be afraid of thern? . . Well, thenıa, you people, let us reverence the gods [rightly-I] both at festivals and on [unhallowed occasions, both] publicly [and privarely] , and let us' observe] the customs [of our fathers İn relation to them--; and İet not the imperishable beings be falsely accused at all] by us [in our vain fear that theyare responsible for all misfortunes], bringing [sufferings to us] and [contriving burdensome obligations] for themselves. [And let us also call uporı] them [by name .. .D]

Fr.20 [Lt İs. impossible, .to begin with.] that he should have need city and fellow-citizens1, as well as being quite absurd that he, god, should seekto have men as. fellow-citizens. And. (here İs further pointtoo: if he had created the world as a habitatian and for himself, i seek to know where he was living before the. world

of a as a this city was


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created; i do not find an answer, at any rate not one consistent with the doctrine of these people2 when they dedare that this world İs unique, So for that infinite time, apparently, the gad of these people was cityless and homeless and, Üke an unfortunate man - 1 do not say «god» -:' having neither city nar fellow-citizens, he was destitute and roaming about at randam. If therefore the divine nature shall be deemed to have created things for its own sake, all this İs absurd; and if for the sake of men, there are yet other more absurd consequences. Let us divide 'the discussion into two - the world and men thernselves. And first let us speak about the world. [If indeed] all things are well arranged for men and nothing is antagonisric to them>, our situatiorı İs likethat of creatures made by a gad. But let it be agreed first .... 4

Fr.21' [The sea] has [excessively large] 'parts [of this earth] as its share, making a peninsula of the inhabited worldt: it İs itself also full of yet other evilsand, to cap all, has water which is not even drinkable, but briny and bitter, as if it had been purposely made like this by the god to prevent men from drinking, Moreover, the so-called Dead Sea2, which is really and truly dead (for it is never sailed),· even deprives the local inhabitants of part of the land which they occupy; for it drives them away to a ~ery considerable distance with its irnpetuous attacks and again floods. their Iand as it wİthdraws, as though being on its guard lest they may do any cleaving of the earth with a plough. Such then are the things of the world. But the things of men themselves - let us now see if theyare well arranged by divine providence. Let us begin like this: fine indeed, my ftiends, [is this] creature man - a creature that İs [rational, gifted with prescience] of the future, and [capable of} Icading a blissful Dife -. if] he possesses virtue for] its own [sake and good dispositiorıs. But] this creature [does not possess wisdom or indeed virtue, according to] the [Stoics who hold that view]; for the [great folly of all men prevents them.3] And ... not ...


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Fr.22 ." prostrate ourselves [before your images-. By making men] tyrants you2 permit [outrages]. Let us also [refer to soldiers] who have' infllered numerous hardships on the [whole world. And] let us "b tp esJ an d ..... m . our ... remem b er certaın Who. therı, [father Zeus], if he hears [any taIk of gods .who allow] such great evils to afflict [marıkind, ... ?J4

Fr.23 [Enough of this subject", since it is] not necessary [to say anything] in referenee to (?) the trap posed by meanings that [rernain] concealed (?)2, unless [you1 think that we do not appreciate what great misfortunes same people have experience d on account of this ambiguity and irıtricate obliqueness of orades, or that this is the right time for us to give a thoroughexplarıation of the kind of disaster which the Sparrans sufferedt [after they had consulted the Delphic orade concerning ArcadiaL.

Fr.24 In this case anatural philosopher! [used argurnents] of a dialectician, attempting the art of divination concerning dreams [and] wholly [trusting] them. For [Antiphon, he says, predicted, when he was consulted by a runner.] who was just about to compete for a prize at Olyrnpia, that he would be beaten/. For the runner, he says, said, when consulting Antiphon, that he thought that an eagle was giying chase in his dreams. And Antiphon at once [told him to remember that an eagle always drives other birds betore it and İs itself last. However, he says that arıother interpreter declared, when he was consulted,] that the god did not say at all to therunner «you will be beaterı», and that the eagle İs no cause for anxiety. If, thanks ,to Antiphon, he (the rurırıer) had not shown him (the interpreter) up, so that [he was able to see that the dream could be inter-


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preted in entirely different ways, he wo覺覺ld not have suspected that he was receiving un reliable advice.] ... For ... thing ... as dreams testify ...

Pr.25 [To the happy man the unhappy man always seems more turbulent than him, sirice he 襤s full of disturbar覺ce and confusion.]!

Fr.26 .....................................for indeed ...

Fr.27

(No translatable

text)


ETHICS

Fr.28 Diogerıes of Oinoanda's epitome [on) ernotiorıs! and [actionsj-'.

Fr.29 [Tİıere are many who] pursue philosophy for the sake of [wealth and fame], with the airn of procuring these either from private individuals or from kings, by whom philosophy İs deemed to be same great and precious possessionl. Well, it is not in order to gain any of the above-mentioned objectives that we have embarked upon the same urıdertaking-, but so that we may enjoy happiness through attainment of the goal craved by nature3.' The identity of this goal, and how neither wealth can furnish it; nor pelirical farne+, nar royaloffice, nor a life of luxury and sumptuous banquets>, nar pleasures of cheice love-affairs6) nor arıything else, while philosophy [alone can secure it], we [shall now explain after serting the whole questiorı before you. For we have had this writing? inscribed in public] not [for ourselves], but [for you) citizerıs, so that we might render it available to all of you in an easily accessible form without oral instruction.s] And ... you ...

.: Fr, 29 lower margin (Epic. Sent. 1/ [The blessed a..qd imperishable being] rıeirlaer experiences trouble itself not causes it to another, [so that it İs not affected by feel-


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ings either of arıger or of favour; for it is to the weak that such ernotions belorıg.]

... time ...1, and we contrived this in ord er that, even while [sitting] at home, [we might be able to exhibit the] goods of ,philosophy, not to all people ~here [indeed], but to those of them who are civilspoken-; and not Ieasr we did [this.] for those who are called foreignersl "thoügh theyare not really so. For" while the various segments of the earth give different people a different country, the wholecompass of this world gives all people a single country, the entire earth, and a single home, the world". ' i am not pressurising any of you into testifyirıg thoughtlessly and unreflectively in favour of those who say «[this] is true»: for [i have] not Ilaid down the Iaw on] anyrhing>, [not even on] matters concerning the godss, [unless] togetber witb [reasorıing]. [One thing] only i ask of you, [as i did alsa] just now: do not, even if [you should be] somewhat indifferent and listless, be [like] passers-by [in your approacb] to the writings, Iconsultingl each [of them] in a patchy fashion and [omittillg to read everything .J

Pr. 30 lower margin (Epic. Sent, 2) [Death] is nothing to us; for what has been dissolved is without serısation, [and what is without sensation İs nothing to us.]

Fr; 31 [Let us, then, immediately! begin bt discussing pleasures, and] mareaver [by carefully examining the arguments in detail- ...] .


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Ft.32

L.. the Iatter] beirıg as malicious as the formert. i shall discuss folly shortly, the virtues and pleasure now. If, gentlemen, the point at issue between these peoplel and us involved inquiry into «what İs the means of happinessr» and they wan- . ted to say «the virtues» (which would actually be true) , it would be unnecessary to take any other step than to agree with them about this, without rnore ado}. But since, as i say, the issue İs not «what İs the means of İıappiness?», but «what is happiness and what İs the ultimate goal of our nature?», i say both nowand always, shouting out loudly4 to all Greeks and non-Greeks, that pleasure is the end of the best mode of Iife>, while the virtues, which are .inopportunely messed abouts by these people (being transferred from the place of the means to that of thei end), are in no way an end, . but the means to the end. Let us therefore now state that this is. true, making it our start-

ing-point, Suppose, then, someone were to ask someone, though it is a rıaive question, «who İs it whom these virtues benefit?», obviously the answer will be «man». The virtues certainly do not rnake provision for these birds flying past, enabling thern to fly well, or for each of the other animals: they do.not desert the nature? with which they live and by which they have been engerıdered; rather it İs for the sake of this nature that the virtues do everything and exist. Each (virtuer) therefore rneans of (?) just as if a morher for whatever reasons sees that the possessing na tur e has been surnmoned there, it then being necessary to allow the court to be asked what each (virtuer) is doing and for whoms , . [We must show] both which of the desires are natural and which are not''; and in general all things that [are included] in the [former caregory are easily attained ... ,10].

Fr. 32 lower margin (Epic, Sen/o 6, 8) [For the purpose of gaining security from men government and kingship are anatural good, so long as] this end can be procured [from them].


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No pleasure is intrinsically bad; but the] means of achieving some pleasures [involve disturbances] that far, far Ioutweigh the pleasııres.]

Fr.33 such' virtues ... pleasure '0' and [of virtues] ... Eeels' [rnuch] pain the evli [isJ...[fromJ aLLvirtues ... apart from tension! ... pleasure, but these quibblers- admir ... [ofterı] found not "0' [and Zeno] himself [proposes]' the opinion just as if he means virtue when he has said «pleasure», and that men run tothem>. And again elsewhere having forgctterr' this İnınger ([for they didl not [say that] .....,..) .... of this ... so that ... it .., in no way .... Since these people5 lay it down6 Iike a trap? for all men, ~it8] is able [to ensnare use?)], just like birds themselves, and to d:rag [us] far off even though we have proved fit for the names of the virtues, [sometimes .....ı at other times] : submitting to ., i warıt [now to get rid of} the error, [prevalent among] you along with Iothers, eoneerning] the same emotion", and espeeially [to speak] against one 'doctrine of yours, [Stoics]ıo My argumenr is [as follows: not]. all canses in things precede their effeets, even if the majority do, but sorne of them preeede their effects, others [coincide with] them, and others follow them, Examples of causes that preeede are cautery and surgery saving life: inthese cases extreme pain must be borne, and it is after this that pleasure quickly followst-. Examples of coincident causes are [solid] and Iiquid nourishment and, in additİon to these, [sexual acts]: we do not eat [food] and experience pleasure afterwards, 'not do we drink [winejjınd experience pleasure afterwards, nor do we ernit semen and experience pleasure afterwards; rather the action brings about these pleasures for us immecliately, [without awaiting} the futurel-. [As for causes that follow, an example is expecting to win] praise after death: although inen experience pleasure now because 00'

o •••••••

"',

there will be a favoutable memory of them after they have güne, nevertheless the cause of thepleasure occurs İater,


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OF OlNOANDA

Now you, being unable to mark off these distinctions, and being unaware that the virtues have a place among the causes that coirıcide wİth their effeets (for theyare borne along with [pleasure), go completely astray].

Fr. 33 lower margin (Epic. Sent. 10) [If the things which are productive of pleasures for debauchees dispelled the rnind's fears about celestial phenornena and death and pains, and moreover taught the lirnit of desires] and of pains, we . should have no reason to [censure such people], since they would be sated [with pleasures from every side] and [wouId] not [experience either mental] or physical pain - [pain whİch İs the evil.]

Fr.34 ... reasorıjrıg [of happirıess] (is' .,. hope-, after i . selectiorı (of these)2, and eure of erring ernotions. So where, i say, the .danger is great, so also is the fruit. Here we must turn asiele these fallacious arguments- oh the grounds that theyare insidious and insulting+ and contrived, by means of terminological ambiguity, to [leadlı' wretched human beings [astray] [let us] not [avoid everypain. that İs present, and let us not choose every pleasure>, as the many always do. Each person must employ rensoning], since he [will not always achieve iramediate success: just as] exertion (?) [ofterı] İnvolves one [gairı at the beginning and] certain [others as time passes by], so it İs also with [experiencing pleasure]; for sowings of seeds do [not) bring [the same benefit] to the sower, [but we see] some of the seeds [very quickly] genninating [and bearing fruit, and others taking longer] of pleasures and lpains] ........ [pleasure]. And so the [ are] if [prudence]. Let us now [lnvestigate] how life İs to be made pleasant for us both İn states and İn actions, Let us first discuss states, keeping an eye on the po int that;

J


· THE EPICUREAN

INSCRIPTION

385

when the emotions which disturb the saul are removed, those which , produce pleasure enter into it to take their places. Well, what are the xiisturbing emotions? [Theyare] fears - of the gods, of death, and of [painsl- and, besides [these], desires that [outrun] the İimits fixed by nature", These are the roots of all evils, and, [unless] we cut ,them off, [a multitude] of evils will grow [up. on] us. [Well, let us examine] our fear of the gods '" '

Fr, 34 lower rnargin (;Şpk. Senı. 3) [The quantitative ı .. limit of pleasure is the] removal of all pain. [Whoevet experiences pleasure, so long as it continues, cannot ever be troubled] by pain of body or of rnind or [of both together]. ,

i Fr.35 As amatter of fact this fear is sometimes clear, sametimes not dear - de ar when weavoid something manifestly harmful like fire through fear that we shall meet death by it, not dear when, while the mind is occupied with something else, it (fear) has insinuated itself into our rıature and [lurks] ._.

Fr, 35 lower margin (Epic, Sen!. D) There would be ina] advantage [in securirıg protection against our fellow-men so Iong as phenomena above and below the earth and in general whatever happens in the boundless univetse were matters of suspicionl.

Ft.36 [productive of pleasures] [is] of [myth] .... .most .....

. :.. And

more

of the [gods]


386

DIOGENES

OF OINOANDA

Fr ..37 The soul furnishes nature with [the ultirnate] cause [both of life and of] death, It is true that the number of its constituent atoms, both its rational and irrational parts being takeri into accourıt+, does not equal that of the body-; yet it girdles the whole man and, while being itself confined, binds him in its turn) just as the rninutest quantity of acid juice+ binds a huge quantity.of rnilk. And this too is a sign, among many others, of the primacy of this cause-: often , although the body has been beset by a long illness and has come to be so attenuated and emaciated that the withered skin İs all but adhering to the bones and the constitution of the internal parts appears to be empty and bloodless, nevertheless, provided that the soul rernains, it does not allow the creature to die. And this is not the only sign of its supremacy, but it is also the case that amputations of hands and often of whole arrns or legs by fire and iron cannot unfasten life6• So powerful İs the deminion which the soul-part of us exercises over it". Contrariwise there are occasions when, although the body is intact and has suffered no diminution of its bulk, [the faculty of serısation abandons it; for it İs of no avail if the soul no longer rernainsf and its uniorr with] the body [is dissolved. But, as long as we se~ the same part? stili remaining as guardian ıo, the] man [Iives!'. Thus, as i said--, the ultimate] cause [of life] is the soul [being united with] or Iseparared from the body]'

Fr. 37 lower rnargin (Epic. Sent. 5) [It is irnpossible to live pleasurably without Iiving prudently] and honourably and justly, and İs irnpossible to liye pruderıtly and honourably and justly [without İiving pleasurably, If a man lacks these qualities, it is impossible for him to liye pleasurably].

ıt

Fr.38 [The soul cannot survive separation from the body] , sirıce it is [necessary] to understand that it too is a partl. By itself [the] saul


THE EPıCUREAN

lNSCRIPTION

387

cannot ever either exist (even though [Plato and the] Stoics talk a great dea} of nonsense [on this subjectj) or [experience movement], just as [the body does] not [possess sensation when the saul' is reİeased from it]2.

Fr.39 ... in perpetnal motion! If t why then .. we say . even to be ..... this ..... from (?) the ....: after the body .... it2 ........... is joined with the body, , if powerful when ....................... How therı, Plato, will imperishability [comeabout] for you? Or how can this [in comman language be called. (?)] imperishable ? ' The Stoics (wantirıg to say IDare singular things than others ort this subject) deny that the souls are absolutelyt imperishable, bu! then say that those of fools are destroyed imnıediately after the parring of 'the body, while those of virtuous men survive, though they too are destroyed sometime+, Well, observe the glaring implausibility of their vİew: they rnake their assertian as though the wise and the unwi~e) even if they do differ in intellectual ability, 'do not have the same rnortality. Acnıally, .I maryel more [at their restraint] - how it is that, once [the saul] is to have the power to exist separate from the [body], even if we say for the [briefest moment of time], and ...5

Fr, 39 lower margin (Epic. Se,!'. 29 = Semt. Vat. 20) [Of the desire s, same, are naturaland necessary; ,othets] natural, but [not necessary]; and others neither natural nor [necessary, but the products of idle Eaney.]

Fr.40 [And let us not say that the saul trarısrnigrated! and did not perish, as the Orphics], and [not] only Pythagoras, crazily- [suppose].


388

DIOGENES OF OINOANDA

Fr, 40 lower rnargin (Epic. Sent. 25) [If you do not at all times refer each of your actions to the natural erıd>, but instead, when making a ehoice or avoidance, turn aside to adopt same other criterion, your actions will not be in conformity with your principlesj+,

Fr.41 ........ we '" the .... [not] as the adherents of Ernpedocles Pythagoras [say]. For having [memory(?)J .

and

Ft.42 [Empedocles in regard to these matters borrowed his philosophy from Pythagoras! going astray (;ı) he says] that the souls transrnigrate from body to body after the first has been destroyed, and that this happens ad infinitum, as if sorneorıe. is no! going to say to him: «Empedades, if the souls are able to survive independently and you have no [need] (?)2 lo drag theminto the nature of a living creature and to transfer them for this reason, how İs the transrnigration of use to you? For İn [the] irıtervening time, during [which] their transrnigration [is effected, interrupting] the nature of a living creature, they will be thrown into complete.confusiorı (?). If on the other hand theyare [in no way] able to survive [without] a body, why [exactly] do you give yourself - or rather thern - this trouble, dragging [thern] ahout and making them transmigrate from one [creature to] another? And these .. . ........................................................................... [Tt would be preferable] to make the souls independent and absolurely indestructible and not to cause them to embark on a lorıg, eircuitous vayage, so that eventually your theory, though still fallacious, would command more respect, Otherwise we shall disbelieve you, Empedocles, with regard to [these] transmigrations.» .


THE EPICUREAN INSCRIPTION

Fr. 42 lower margin (unknowrı

389

rnaxim)

[Pain.] when it is slight, Idoes not destroy pleasure.] while great [pain is not long-Iasting.P

Fr.4.3 [Visions are not empty illusions of the mind], as the Stoics imagirıel, going cornpletely astray-. in fact they also 'have [the rıature] of corporeal images [and] impressions similar in form> to all these visible objects which their flux'' [allows us to apprehend], as i dernonstrated also [in the] writing before this one>, when i was elucidating

the theories about [dreams]. Now these images do not İn any way have [any] sensation, as Demacutus [supposes, seeıng that theyare constructed] of [fine] atomss and are [perceptible]. only [by the mind", if] they have the form of such thin gs as are congenial to our nature, they make the saul exceedingly glad; but if of such things as are repugnant to our nature, they fill the whole man with a [great] perturbation and fear and [set] his heart pounding''.

Fr, 4.3 lower margin (Epic. Sent . .32) For [all those animals which could not make compaets not to harm one anather or] be harmed, nothing is either [just ~r indeed unjust, And the same is true of all those peoples which could not or would not make eompaets not to harm or be harrned].

Fr.44 [The saul experierıces] feelings far greater than the cause which generated them, just as [a fire] vast enough to burn down ports and cities İs kindled by an exceedingly smail spark-. But the preeminence- of these feelings of [the saul] is difficult for"ordinary peo-


390

DlOGENES OF OINOANDA

ple to gauge: it İs [imjpossible to make a direct comparison by expedeneing simultaneously the extremes of both (i mean of the feelings of the saul and of the body), since this seldom evet happens and, when it does happen, life is destroyed; and consequently the criterion for determining the pre-eminence of one of the two is not found. Instead, when sameone encourıters bodily pains, he says that these are grester than those of the saul; and when [he encounters those of the soul, he says that} they [are greater than the others>, For] what [is present is] .invariably more convincing [than what İs absent], and each person is [likeIy], either through [necessiry] or through pleasure, to confer pre-eminence on the feeling which has hold of him. However, this matter, which is difficult for ordinary -people to gauge, a wise man cakulates .on the basis of many factors [including] (continue d in fr. 45?)

Fr, 44 lower margin

(Epic. Sent. 4

= .Sent.

Vat. 3)

[Pain ın the flesh does not last continuously: extreme pain is present a very short time; pairı which onl~ just outweighs pleasure in the flesh do es not Iast many days; and chrorıic illnesses] permit a preporıderarıce of pleasiıre over pain in the flesh.

Fr.45 (Continuation of fr. 44?) ... [including: consideration ' of the future, in- respect to which they! are] worse [off, who, when they have been aroused] by feeIings of the soul struck [rıever] [they foist ibdr bodily] pains [uporı] their souls ...2

Fr.46 [Wherever pleasure is present, we never have] pain of body and [pain of mind - neither] bothtogether [nar singly] 1. For ,.."


THE

EPICUREAN

INSCRIPTION

391

Ft.47 [Nor do we consider terrible the misfortunes which provoke] such great pains. For (if it is necessary for anyone to take illustrations of pain) when someone has been struck by a thunderbolt, or when a stone four feet across! has crushed him with the speed of thought-, or when he has been decapitated [with a sword) wİth the swiftness [of a dream], how, in the name of Heradesi [is the suffering terrible in such cases, when death· occurs immediarely] and time does not even allow a cry of agonyt but with great vehemence snatches the soul away from pain? So, i say, critical occurrences and alsa thosenot very far below them, rıeither of which come [to a creature introducing lorıg-term pains in the flesh, are in no way to be feared by us. For if the pain takes a turn for] the worse, it no longer continues severely, but the erisis cornes and passes away in the shortest time; while if it is relieved, it ushers the creature to health. What then, in the name of the twelve gods+, İs terrible about that? Or how can we justly bring a complaint against nature'[, if someone who has lived for so many years and so many months and so rnany days [comesto his Iast day? So neither the one eventuality nor] the [other İs evil, since the erisis does not last for manyrlays}, after which [either death] will possess [someorıe] and [absolute] unconsciousnesss [will at once occur], or he will be [quickly restored to health] and [life ıs preserved]. And as for the [crises] of diseases, [which indeed] are themselves [bearable in these circumstances], why İs it alsa necessary [to experience mental pain about thernj/?

Fr.A7 Iower.rnargin

(Sent. Vat. 33? + Epic. Men. BO-Bl?)

[The flesh's cry İs freedom from hunger, freedam from thirst, freedodı from cold. One who is free from these thin gs and expects to remaİn so] might riva! [even Zeus in happiness.] Plain [flavours afford as much pleasure as a İuxurious diet whenever the pain of want has been completely rernoved; and bread and water give the highest pleasure whenever theyare consumed by one who needs thern.] .


392

DlOGENES OF OINOANDA

Fr.48 ............................... not (?) Therefore three kinds of pains - one coming to us from want-, anather from sprains and the bones (whether through blows or imperceptibly), anather from diseases - it is in the power of all to escape, in so far as a man's nature İs able to avoid them. Now want has beerı discussed above; as for wounds and suchlike, this much İs sufficient. [For] some .......... ~ , [while others] .

Fr. 48 lower margin (unknown maxim) [Yearrıing for (?)] the past ... 2

Fr.49 . [For even if i did rıothing to reveall and . [point out the rıature] of pleasures, stili [they themselves reve al] their own nature [to] usı, In this way well no İorıger, [Through bodily] pleasures [the sou1readily] receives also [those that are productive] of thisl. For our nature Iwants what] is better for [our] soul. Moreover, the soul İs manifestly more [powerful] than the body3; for it [has] control of the extrerne and supremacy over the other [feelings], as indeed we revealed it [above]+, [So if], through paying attention to the arguments of Aristİppus5, we take care of the body, [choosing] all the pleasure derived from drink, foad and [sexual acts]6 and indeed absolurely all the thin gs which no longer [give enjoyrnent after the happening, but neglect the soul, we shall deprive ourselves of the greatest pleasures]".

Fr, 49 lower rnargin (Epic, Sent. 16; -cf. fr. 71.119-13) [It is seldem that chance impedes a wise man: it is] reason [which has controlled the] greatest and most important matters. [and


THE EPICUREAN

INSCRlPTlON

393

which controls and will control them throughout the whole course of life.]

Fr.50

[Seeking], by making trial [by themselves], the root [of the goodJ they light uporı! [the pleasures of the stomach-. .But, after being afflicted by other desirest, on account of] what they İnvolve those who [have them harm] themselves.

Fr. 50 lower margin (from Epic, Sent. 37?) .... and whether not ....

Fr.51 [Neither political fame nor royaloffice not wealth İs productive of pleasure-, The] philosopher [therefore] does [not] want [the] authority [and dominion] of Alexander .Ior stili more] than even he [possessed] ı sirıce [human beings are] constituted (having no need of what is vainj-'.

Pr.52

[divination]

.

Fr.53 Why then 'is [the fulfilment of] certain predictions [etronger] evidence [of the soundness of divination than their non- Jfulfilment is evidence [of its unsoundness? It İs illogical.] in my view, 'o,. [i lay dowrı] ...


DIOGENES

394

OF OINOANDA

Fr.54 .... contradictions (?) İs [so, as these people- say], and [that it İs irnpossible] .to escape [necessity], ..... the error; while if ....... undecided (?) and For what [other] argument [will he adopt] ? [Evidently] he will [not] have one. So, if divination [is eliminatecl], what other evidence for fate İs

therei" If anyone adepts Dernocritus' theory and asserts that beeause of their eoilisions with one anather the atoms have no free rnovement, and that consequently it appears that all motions are determined by necessity-, we shall say to him: «Do you [not] know, whoevet you are, that there İs actually a free mavement İn the atorns, which Democritus (ailed to discover, but Epicurus brought to light>, - a swerving movemerıt+, as he proves from phenomena?» The most irnportant considetation is this: if fare .is believed in, all adınanitian and censure are nullified, and not even the wieked [can be jusdy punished, since theyare not responsible for their sins.] .

Fr, 54 lower margin (unknown maxim) [Time], even if it were [produetive] of pleasure eterrıally, [would not increase pleasure] eternally".

Fr.55 (For the text translated, see critical note on 12-14) [So necessity], as [hel says, for this reason İs accountable noone, while chance is unpredictable.]

Fr, 55 lower -margin (unknown rnaxim) .•.....•... corıceive ~

.

to.


THE EPICUREAN

INSCRlPTION

395

Ft.56 [So we shall not achieve wisdorn universally], since not all are capable of itl. Bu! if we assume it to. be possible, then truly the life of the gods will pass to men-. For everything will be full of justice and mutuallove, and there will come to be no need of fortifications or laws and all the things which we contrive on accourıt of one another. As for the necessaries derived from agriculture, since we shall have no [slaves at that time} (for indeed [we ourselves shall plough] and dig and tend [the plants] and [divert] rivers and watch over (the crops)3,' we sha1l] ... such things as ... not '" time and such activities; [in accordatice with what is] rıeedful, will interrupt thecontirıuity of the Isharedl study of philosophy; for [the] farming operations [will provide what our] nature wants. o ••

,

Fr. 5610wer margin (unknown maxim) [Every animal] is not able [to make] a compact [not to harm or be harmedj+

Fr.57 (is an example which we must followl ;..

Fr.58 ... often 1 .. wicked2 0

Ft.59 (illegible)

o"


DIOGENES OF OlNOANDA

396

Fr.60 ...................................................... .is

Fr.61 (Illegible)


FOURTEEN-LINE-COLUMN

LETTERS

LETTER TO ANTIPATER

Pr.62 From [Dlogen] es. My D1ear Antijpater], . [Of goodwill) you have [often given] me indications [already], Antipater, Iboth in the letter! Iwhich you] sent [us] recently [and] earlier [when i was] ardently [rryingto persuade] you [in persor覺] to turn to philosophy, in which you, [if] anyone, [live] the most pleasant [life through emplaying] excellent [principles]. Accordingly, i assure you, i am most eager to go and rneet again both you yourself and the other friends in Athens and in Cha1cis and Thcbes, and i assume that all of you have the same feeling . . These words of this letter i am now writing to you from Rhodes-, where i have recently moved from [my own country]? at the beginning of wiriter ...

Fr.63 own land being hit by snow. So, as' i was ssyingt, having had my appetite most keenly whetted by all the advantage-' of the .voyage, shall tryto meet you as ':. OUt

r

soan as wiriter has ended, sailir覺g first either to Athens or to Chalcis and Boeotia. But, since this 襤s uncertain,

both on account of the changeability and ineonstaney of our fortunes .and on account of my old age pe-


398

DIOGENES

OF OINOANDA

sides>, i am sending you, in accordance with your request, the arguments corıcerning an infinite number of worlds. And you have enjoyed good fortune in the matter; fot, before your letter arrived, Theodoridas of Lirıdus, a member of our school not unknown to you, who İs still a novİce in philosophy, was dealing with the same doctrine. And this doetrine came to be better artieulated as a result of being turned over between the two of us faee to face; for our agreements and disagreements with one arıother, and also our questionings, rendered the inquiry into the object of our search more precise. i am therefore sending you that dialogue, Antipater, so that you may be İn the same position as if you yourself were present, like Theodoridas, agreeing about some matters and making further mquides in cases where you had doubts. The dialogue began something like this: «Diogerıes», said Theodoridas, «that the Idoctrine laid down] by Epicurus on an infirıite number of worlds+ İs true [i am confident P, . .................... , as [if] Epicurus .

Fr.64 .... the ... of the matter under investigation .... having assumed all that ....

Fr.65 i laugh atl ... and dişmissed the arguments, passed on to us by you", of those who say that the world is of some . . corıcerning this and into argument We therefore, so that you may not rnake the earth gape operı and fill it and .... :.. "0

Fr.66 [Let us now. ask those who mislead us for the explanation of their theory So let us say to] the gentlernen: [«What do you] rnearr,


THE EPICUREAN

INSCRIPTION

399

[gentlemen, when you think nt to explain] the [earth İn this way as boundless? Do you İimit the earth throughout its Iength from above, circumscribing it] with a vault [of sky, and] from that starting-point do you extend [it] indefinitely into the region below, dismissing the unanimous opinion of all men, both laymen and philosophers, that the heavenly bodies pursue their courses raund the earth both above and below, and witlıdrawing the sun sideways outside the cosmos and reintroducing it sideways? Or are you not saying this, but that a single earth : ? if .

Fr.67 Therefore if the indivisible entities! are assumed by Us to be finite in number and for the [reasons] we have stated are incapable ofl coming together (for ..

so that

them

there are no Ionger- other entities behind them to surround their number and support them from below and bring thern together from the sides), how are they to erigender things, when theyare isolated from one anather? The consequence is that not ~ven this worlcl' wocld exist, For if the number of atoms were finite, they [would] not [be able] to corne together.


LETTER TO DIONYSIUS (AND CARUS?) ,

Fr: 68 .,. [including]

phenornerıa

..., Dionysius and [Carus (?)l, in a reviewJ2 ....

[surrımary]

.

Fr.69 [The current İs gradually dissolved by the air, As a result of the buffeting, it İs depleted-ıl for on account of the great extent [of space] it carırıor preserve the order and [position of the atorns]. Now, the] easily dispersed- Icurrerıts] of the atorns, [although being carried away] İn filmy form}, [nevertheless] themselves [both have] reality and are constructed [of matter by rıature], just as [these atom s] are composed by nature. [Since he is awaiting square impressions, aman] falsdy [accuses the eyes when they convey İn norı-square form impressions which] in reality [are borne] to us [through the air] İn a [roundish] forrn". [For] İn that case [he does not know], presumably, [that the images] emarıating> [from the towerJ are abraded [by the air, but afterwards] he sees well [that it is not the eyes which are at fault, but the mind ...]6

Fr.70 [In these matters pay attention toJ us; otherwise it is unhappily

necessary to have a prolonged discussion about them. So, [if] you had forgotten the doctrine, which we have expound-


THE EPICURBAN

INSCRIPTION

401

ed to Avi[tianus(?)Jl,. that the standard of our actions are the feelings of Ibothl pleasure and [pain], by reference to which we must determine İboth the] avoidance of them [and the] pursuit of something else-, do call. it to rnind. But if you remember it, what got into you, my good friends>, that you embarked on an actionsuch as this, which has given rise to feelings painful to Niceratııs and painful to us on accoiınt of his misfortunes+P For if you daim that you have a firm grasp of the doctrine, but that with regard to the dedsion of .sending the man to us or Dot sending him - whether [you] had to do it [in those circumstancesl or [you were mistaken -, we you were mistaken] the [utmost] Nicleratus. The difficulty to do with this] matter [has been thoroughly examined] so that Iafterwards all of us may be able to' know what we must] do ... .-

Ft.71 Chance [can] befall [us] and do harrn, but rarely; for it does not have fud, like fire, which it may lay hold of. So Epicurus, having regard to these matters, refused to remove chanee from things entirely (for it would ':' have been rash and ineompatible with philosophicalt respectability to give a false account of a matter so dear and patently obvious to all), but not a few occurrences- [he called only] small. As [therı the] dispositian of [the] wise man [can] represent the accidental [happening in this way, so, it seerns, İt)3 seldom [operates dorninantly], as [the son of Neocles]4 says: «It is seldam that [chance] impedes a wise man: it is resson which controls [and controlled] the [greatest] and most important matters.s-' . [most of all) .

Fr.72 "0

[bore] ... those .. [on] rocks .... [the others! _..... cold

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

0

o' ., •••••••••••••••••

At last he found a place of refuge on]


DIOGENES OF OINOANDA

402

the rocks, from which the sea was no longer ahle to suck him downand shatter him} again. So he was crushed, as one would expect, and swallowed down <sea-water>;he was Iacerated through having fallerı upon sea-gnawed rocks. Stili, he began to revivei and little by İittle •.........•. 5 During the time when; Iafter a long while, the] attacksö of the waves were intermittent, he barely came safely to dry land, flayed İiterally all over. So he lay on [the extrernity of] the lookout-point, [where he spent] theday [in this state] and the following night and again the day until evening, spent by hunger and his wounds. [We know] now that the accidental is doing welF .what is reekoned [appropriate] for you. For your herald who brought [you] cornplete salvation is [not] dead; for next chance 8

Fr.73 about death-, and you have persuaded me to laugh at it. For i have no fear on account of the Tityuses and Tantalusesô whom some deseribe in Hades, nor do i shudder [when 1 reflect upon] the decomposition of the body+, Ibeing convinced that we have no feeling, orıce the] soul [is wirhout serısation], or anything else>, [Therefore] this matter EI must say now: «i sha11be deprived of] life and i shall leave behind the pleasures that belong to it [pleasures for which however] .after [death noone yearnses. For İn this case neither a strong hope nar longing possesses him, because he left behind all objects which too will manifesdy decornpose. For indeed] to the [dead death is rıorhirıg? ... J [i foliow you-] when you make [these] statements

ın

Fr.74 ... causes distress (?)1, in the name of Athena? And charaeteristic of the good man to converse with himself this: «i am a human being and it İs possible that i was some w~y (?)]~ since indeed of the flesh is such and such thing and many other things, of

surely it İs and to say affeeted [in and such a

which none cannot accur.» So on


THE

EPICUREAN

INSCRIPTION

403

every occasion he 襤s able to keep in mind- those of the affections that are natural, because theyare. compasses.

easily defined and rnarked out as with

Fr. 75 (Letter to Antipater or Letter to Dionysius覺 (Illegible)


DIOGENES

404

OF OINOANDA

SMALL-LETTER FRAGMENTS OF UNCERTAIN POSITION

Fr.76 of same ....

Fr.77 ... says ..... is (?)

Fr.78 ... nar

.

having failed

suspicion

'" this

.

Fr.79 The [concept! is the assurance-'] testing of related images-] ...

which [is responsible for the

Pr.80 and

aga覺n .,....... by one anather......

just as .

Pr.81 ..... allows

[pleasure]

[reesoningfPj]

.


THE

EPICUREAN

405

INSCR1PTION

Fr.82 [this]

............... more

these

i

[those] 1

.

Fr.83 For [the]

cjf its own (?) is ....................................................................... For indeeel from .

brings .•.... of irratiorıal Ifears'l.

Fr.84 (No translatable text)

Fr.85

_." if he finds [what is being sought(?)] and [when it has been found (?)] ... .

Pr.86

Fr.87 ..... [thisC?)]

is

Fr.88-89 (No translatable text)

.


DIOGENES. OF OINOANDA

406 Fr.90

.... [images(?) .. constructed]: .... 0

Fr. 91·92 (No translatable

text)

Pr.93 ... in old age

not even

abstain{?}

soul

.

Pr.94 (No translatable text)

Fr. 95· ... [free from(?)] pains [and imperishableü'J]

....

Fr.96 o

••

not ....•...... blessed!

and


THE

EPICUREAN

INSCRlPTION

407

Fr.97 ... [all] men [are able to save] thernselves, [with help from us", and to effect a complete dispersal of misfortunes affecting the soul (?)2 and to do away with disturbing emotiorıs and fears}',

Fr.98 A thunderbolt .occurs- through a violent eruption from the douds, when both wind and a close mass of fire have. burst out together-. An earthquake occurs through entrapment of winds İn the earth>, and in other ways too+,

Fr.99

There is no need to be puzzled how hail is formed İn summertime'. For snow exists unobserved even then, though in a filmy form, and can produee hall, as also can a wind that İs cold but high İn the

air2.

Fr. 100 ...... matter ....


DIOGENES

408

OF OINOANDA

Fr. 101 ... the things of the

[so that] each

and

[not happer覺]

Fr. 102 ... not

the [thing

is]

Fr. 103-104 (No translatable text)

Fr. 105 The extremes of pains cannot last Iong: either they quickly take away life and are themselves also taken away with it, or their acutene ss is diminishedt.

Pr. 106 Uttering cries of agony-, when one is groaning with pains-', is forced on us by naturet: but cornplaining because Iwe do] not [fully achieve] the condition of the healthy [is contrary to naturel.

Pr. 107

There

are! three of

the

enjoyrnents- not ...


THE EPICURBAN INSCRIPTION

409

Fr. 108 [One] must [regard] wealth [beyond] what is natural [as of no more' use than water] to a container that is full [to] overflowing-. We can look at other people's possessions [without envy] and experience [purer] pleasure than they can; forjwe are free from craving]2.

Fr. 109 [Luxurious foods! and drinks ... in no way produce from harrn and a healthy condition İn the fleshJ2

freedom

Fr. 110 (No translatable

text)

Fr, 111 ... [for us to show] which of the desires are natural, and which

vairı-. It İs not narure, which is the same for all, that makes people noble or ignoble, but their actions and dispositions.

Fr. 112 The sum of happiness consists in our disposition, of which we

are master. Military service is dangerous and one is subordinate to others-. Public speaking İs full of agitatiorı and nervousness as to whether one can convince-. Why then do we pursue an occupation like this, which İs under the control of others?

o


DIOGENES OF OINOANDA

410

Fr. 113

is

Nothing so corıducive to corıtentment! as not being occupied with. much business, not tacIding distasteful matters, and not being forced at all beyond one's own capability, For all these things provoke disturbances in our nature.

Fr. 114 ... good(s) .... natural .....

Fr. 115 Amongst these

they say

nature

.

Fr. 116

... [both to you and] to those who Iwill comel after you! ... reason inasmuch as [you will be persuaded that it] İs with feel2 ing and continual exercise of virtues'. For the rneans of salvatiorr' İs there. It İs in case you have not yet [attained any] knowledge of these matters that we turned so many letters to srone" for you.


THE EPICUREAN

INSCRIPTION

411

DIRECTIONS TO FAMILY AND FRlENDS

Pr. 117 I, Diogenes, give these directions to my relatives and familyand friends! . .i am so sick that i am now at the critical stage which.will determine whether i continue to liye or not; for a stomach cqmplaint- is afflieting me-. if i survive, i shall ~ladly accept the cont~nuation of life granteel to met.while if i do not survive, [death will not' be unwelcome to me(?) .. J

Fr. 118 ..................â&#x20AC;˘....

[elernentary principles

(?)]


DIOGENES OF OINOANDA

412

TEN4LINE-COLUMN WRITINGS

Fr. 119

[I am confident, as i address the inscriprion to you,] my frierıds, [that many will become healthy in soul-, Why do i say this]? What in the world are [the remedies]? The [inscription],: dearest friends, [wiil afford help- both] to us [ourselves] and [to others; for i produeed it for the benefit of my fellow-citizens-: and] i produced [it] above all [from a desire to help our descendants]+, in case [they should walk up and down this stoa>, as well as showing myself berıevolerit towards those strangers among us6 [who are wellconstituted]", And being perfectly aware that it İs through knowledge of the matters, concerning both physics and the emotiorıs, which i explained in the places belows, that [tranquillity of rnind comes about, i know well that i have advertised the rernedies that bting salvation]".

Fr. 1201 [From Diogenes.

Dear Menneas (?) i am suffering an attaek of colic (?)2 as i write to you. i am serıding -you an account of this matter. For i think that the extreme of virtually no pain is İong-İasting ...]3 i


THE

EPICUREAN

INSCRlP1iION

413

Pr. 121 .... to be. ......•. [lirnits (?)] nor writing to! [consistent with] the [firm foundations] of the mental constitution-, the reinforeement of ..... .coming about as a result of curdled miJk3 until i recover. [For the] curdled milk, [i say, Lam taking after corning] into [this hazardous situation, to build up the membrane surrounding the ..... ]

Fr. 122 ........... [written] and [woman] and me! ............ i am convinced that i recovered better through having been recommended to her both by you, dearest Menneas, thanks to your goodwill and solicitude towards me, and by the wonderful Carus and my Dionysius-, at the time whenI was staying with her> in Rhodes. Farewell once more.

Pr. 1231 .... [you will Hnd the] fullness [of blessings], if you possess [freedom from pain], as [i havealready shown] in arıother [writirıg-', And we must] not [abuse rıature] ...3

Fr. 124

[From Diogenl es. [Dear ... ]

Fr. 125

C.. you mu st carry out a carelul and] sure [inquiry] İnto them. [For when images] of persons who are far away [from our sight İn-


414

DIOGENES

OF OINOANDA

vade our mind, they cause the greatest disnırbance-. But if you examine- the whole matter carefully, you will learn that] the images of persons who are not present are of precisely the same kind as those of persons who are preserit. For although' the images are perceived not. by the senses, but by the mind, they have the same power, as far as in them Hes, for persons who are present+ as when they existed with those other. persons' present alsa. Therefore, with regard to these matters. mother, [be of good heart: do not reckonl the visiorıs [of us6 to be bad]; rather, [when you see them], think of us daily [acquirirıg] something [good] and advancing İfurther İn happiness]. For not smaIl [or ineffeetual] are these gains for us which rnake ourdisposition godlike and show that not even our mortality makes us inferler to the imperishable and blessed rıature"; for when we are alive, we are as joyful as the gods, [knowing that death İs nothing to us;·and when we are dead, we are 'h out sensatıon . 8....] wıt

Fr.126 [Same fear death because it involves loss of the good things of life. But this fea! is vain: each man, when he has been deprived of the good things, will be] equally [distcessed if] he perceives his İoss; but if he does not perceive it, how does he suffer 10ss1? Think of us rhen, mother, as always joyful in the midst of such good things and show enthusiasm for what we are doing. But in heaven's name, do not be so generous with the contributiorıs which you are constantly sending us. For i do not want you to go without anything so that i may have rnore than enough; i should rather go without so that you may not, although in fact i am living İn plenty in all respects, because of our friends and because of father constantly sending us money~ and recently alsa through Cleon sending nine minas. Therefore neither of you should be elistressed individually on our account, but you should make use of one anather ...


. THE EPICURE.AN INSCRIPTION

415

Pr.127 [At preserıt you reject out philosophy; but Iater perhaps you will wish, when your hostility has been banished.] to open the congenial entrances to our commurıiry, and you will tum away from the speeches of the rhetoricians-, in order that you may hear something of our tenets. Af ter that- we confidendy hope that you too will knock very soon at the doorsof philosophy : . you (?) and .....

Ft. 128 [What

advantage then], Dositheus, İs [attached to]. this [desire for your son, in the name of] Dionysus? [For] İn truth .... [survive] ...

Fr.

1~1

For in that case! the speaker will be rightin saying that one is no different from the other. But it İs not possible to say this in the case of poverty and wealth; for we see many things which belong to wealth without belonging to povert)) and belong to poverty without belonging to wealth .. [wealth] .

. Fr.130

..................................... [blessed]! now (?) . [This man they2 do] not [help at all], since, although [genial, they are] regarded with Iear>. [Consequently, as i said, sinee on eyery occasion] philosophy [is serviceable], make full use [of our doctrines, no longer standing aloof from] them. And L....... philosophy] so rnuch. .....


.DIOGENES

416

OF OINOANOA

Fr. 131 ..... through others

If, then,

.

Fr. 1321 [However, such beings- are not accustomed to obta襤n the good

will ofr覺eighbours, r覺or] again [to favour whatever man they wish. if] therefore [they observe] what is natural, and ... Fr. 133 ... [you suffer the least pain and] [pleasure]

Fr. 134 ............. fear .....

Fr.

135 (No translatable text)

Fr. 136

(Illegible)

1

proeure [the] quickest


THE EPICUREAN INSCRıPTION

417

OLD AGE

Er. 137 (Epitarne]

of Diogenes [of Oinoarıda in support of old age]",

Fr.138 Of ten, young men,' by Heracles;: i have been really annoyed with those who, though they have not yet grown old, [already consider that theyare justified İn bringing serious charges against old age-, on the ground that it exposes human beings to many afflictions ................ There are those who] have progressed so [far] in cu1ture2 that they not only praise the poet Hesiod [for saying «at the miserable threshold of old age»>, but alsa quote with approval the words of .... ]4

Fr. 139 ... them/themselves [İike] Cleobis and Biton. Theref0r.e, [my fdends], so that you may not be İn the same state as most people and! ...

Fr. 140 ... [to seize [to be born]

nothing] at any time ,..

[necessity]

not


418

DIOGENES

OF OINOANDA

Fr. 141 .... «to sleep softly; for that is the way of the aged.»! Well, i say that, when [the body] has grown old, the [person's mind -İs still firm] ...

Fr. 142 [For indeed the poets say thatone who has grown old, although unable to be useful] with his body, [is champion İn speech. Mter he had encountered a recomrnendation of the] best [opinion, when Nestor spoke in the assembly, Agamemnon, according to Homer, said: «In truth, old man, once again you have outdone the sons of the Achaeans İn debare»}: and before the meeting of the assembly, the king, so] the same [Homer says], «first lseated a council of greathearted elders.x-' And there are others «through old age having ceased from war, but good speakers,»> [To the word of Home!" is added that of the tragic poet Sophocles (?)4 ... ]

Fr. 14} ... arms [by no means adequateJ to combat [the passions of the of Peleus] and [the growth of the [famous] wrath ........................................ [if it İs necessary for anyone to defend himselE,as the Iyric poet Alcrnan 1 says, it İs a virtue to use] words [rather than forcel-. For i ...

son'

Fr. 144 ...... worse. Coughing complaints [scarcely cause] any ltrouble to the chronic sufferer]! ....


THE

EPICUREAN

INSCRIFTION

419

Fr. 145 [Such mattersJ1 are [now] the subject of my Iinvestigationl-, and my very first point İs this. if anyone calls the dimmings experienced by the aged blindnesses, . [It İs not a problem peculiar to the aged]! if it happens [sornehow] that occasionally, when they want {to apprehend] something, [they are not able to do SO; for] it is shared with the young. For indeed [what rarely happens] ..:

Fr, 146

Dne

aged are not displeased at the comparison .with the] elephant [on aceount of the very] slowmovement of the body,[in my opinion at any rate], even thoughIin this respect! theyare being called deficient; for the elephant has areputation for being intelligerıt and extremely gentle and long-Iivedt. . . ............. Concerning the weakness of the body this ~rgutnent is sufficient]. As for the [argument] concerning [rnadness] (since some [suffer from this also), it İs to be put] like this. In the firsr place' . ............................................ : [Secondly], let us not be unaware [that] madness İs produced [not] by old age, but [by] same other [cause of] natural [origin]" .

. Fr. 147 [For one rnust adınit that rnany], who have grown old [in our own comrnunity] and [eventually attaİned the age of a hundredl, not only [suffered none of the ilis] which [i haye merıtioned], but [lived] with their senses unimpaired [until] the last [day] of their İives. And r, so that i may [wheel ab out! and] oppose those who [accuse the aged of being necessarily weak (?)]


DIOGENES OF OINOANDA

420 Fr. 148

............. This man . not affairs and farneto these the same thing ...................................................................... same so that2 .............. to provide neither are pains of the [body] . H

••••••••••

Fi. 149 ............. For all (?) . ........................................ [Deprivatiorı of desire] is [by no mearıs] an argument [agairıst] the agedl. For in general, where there are no cravings for' things, there are no feelings of distress concerning them either", unless a person is trulyout of his mind, being disposed to .be distressed about this very circurnsrance - that [he has been deprive d] of the [feelirıg of desire].

Fr. 150 ........................................................................ ......... the [shape (?)] life blessedt, and İs sufficient for our] nature

(Taste) İs (?) [So pleasure makes .

Fr. 151 .... [in order that]' when the interstices

[are no longer there, pleasure] rnay appear of its own accord without doing any harm to the corıstitution-. For the Iiquid-İnourishment] ...

Fr. 152 ...~

........ [neither]

lS

,

,.."

~ __

,

, .

as they grope about! do they find İn 'any of tlıese


THE EPICUREAN

INSCMPTION

421

things what they wish to fınd nor [as they blindly stumble do they meet witlı success]. ..;.,.............. . ; : . [ExpectingJ that they will find the pleasant life [above all] in wealth, they embark on a frerızied quest for it; then, if they become wealthy, theyare indignant at not finding what they expected. Often, then ..... 2

Fr. 153 ......

İs corıvincingly proved

(?) ı. Of the

desires same are vain, others natural-. Now those that are natural seek after such thin gs as [are necessary} for our rıature's enjoyment>, [while those that are vain] ...................... What [need to mention the]' fabulous treasuries of Croesus and his gold ingots ot the' rivers runrıing with gold for him? What [berıefit], father Zeus, [di8 he 'derive] from these [richesj+? 0

•••••••••••

o', o••••••••••••

Fr; 154 ... ls(?).

If you yourself say «If then, Diogenes-, not even in

wealth İs happiness ever found (by man-, how is life made pleasant for us ?»3, i shall answer4 wise man] .

Pr; 155 [For what İs natural İs easy to obtain, while what İs vain [is difficult to obtainIt. And, apart from this, young men, big, yes big, İs

the advantage [in daiming for yourselves greatl poverty [rather than wealthJ2 ...

.

Fr. 156

.................

Ihe

rhinks

philosophy]

just

",'"

................... For some people, [having shown dim understanding.] at


DIOGENES OF OINOANDA

422

the moment! [cast] what is pleasing [in the teeth of] those who want [to choose pleasures]. But later-' they bring [a complair覺t against r覺aturej>

"0

Fr. 157 ................................................ 繚 [arrogant] and [overbearing in the power of (?) the' [old man] .... such as these .., and stili down to the present . time while we liye, for a long time no longer to exist. For quickly the race of men perishes on account of the that accompanies itl (?)]

Fr. 158

... to -be uncivilised- [and] deserving [of the] '" which also

and ..... near- ... to be considered .

Fr. 159 (No translatable text)

Fr. 160 .... now (?)

.

Fr. 161

.........................[, as the Stoics' suppose. They bring the most serious charges a1so against our] nature-, [degrading the body]J ........................................................................ [For moving (?)],. and [experier覺eing sensation],

and [thinking of anything+, and uttering] words [is impossible without] the [body. So, i say, our bodies rnust be held in honour]. And ....


THE EPICUREANINSCRlPTION

423

Pt. 162 ......................................... to think senses (?) ,............... precedence .............................................. these

[sensation to be]

(?) / .

.

Fr. 163 ...............................................

[these arguments] about

.

Fr. 164

not

........................... to Iead sameone these .

in this respect

.

and no longer

[of

Ft.165 ... not of the [old man] pleasure].

this

For [this reasor覺, then.I ...

Fr, 166 ... such as this

dance (?)

.

Fr. 167 Well, however thar may be, [if he celebrates an all-night festival ...]


DIOGENES

424

OF

OINOANDA

Fr, 168 .......................................................... [desire(?)] . .................................. to snatch away ... from fears İn haste .,., if [you are (?)] not on guard against ...

Fr. 169 ....................................... lest (?) do not live [such as this ]

have

For we

.

Fr. 170 ....................... [us]

Homer

[For]

.

Fr. 171

.... [will use

.. power]

.

Fr, 172 ..... (full of .... pleasııres (?)] ...

Fe. 173 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

about this. He does] ...................................

o< •••••••••••••••••••

not

then

Epicurus agrees [deny that the] happy man [Eut Dernocritus of Abdera] 1 [Well,


THE EPICUREAN

lNSCRJPTION

425

Fr. 174-175 (No translatable text)

Fr.176 ......... and [a wise man] easily judges [everything in accordance with] feelings [and sensations]! ...

Fr. 177 ......................... [but] has

.

Fr.. 178

(Text obliterated)

Fr. 179 (No surviving text; perhaps never inscribed)


DlOGENES OF OINOANDA

426

FRAGMENTS OF UNCERTAIN POSITION

Ft. 180 ... it is not possible to live ...

Fr. 181 (N o translatable text)


80

SUPPLEMENT TO DIOGENES OF OINOANDA

5 oç.

10

Oeoç

yap, [qnıılı, EOTlV] l;ct'lov a<p6op' [TOV KOl ucı]Kapıov eç ~n&vos eisI oiGJvo, ıınO[EVOS EvoEESl v Ti) OE KOn 6e6s, ei] Tjv TOV ÇılTEIP.[OVXPovov], riovxaoos X![AtaOas ET&V], OÜTCUS EiS ıv(voıav av TjAl-

av.

Fr. 20 1= NF 39 i 6EV TOV lTOAECUSavTct'l ır:'

xpeıcxv 5

VlTCXPXElV

,

Kor ovv-

lTOAEtTEVT&V; - v lTpOS Tct'l KaıyeAoıov ETvol eEOV OVTO snTElV OVVlTOAE1TEVTCx$ av9pc0lTov) ~XElV.

For the Greek text of fr. 20 i 7~III 14, see Sm 180-181; Smith (1998b) 133. Translation (i) [So İt is obvious that wrong-doers, given that they do not fear the penalties imposed by the Iaws, are not] afraid of [the gods]. This [has to be] corıceded. For if they were [afraid, they] wouId not [do wrorıg]. As for [alll the others, [it İs my opinion] that the [wise] are not [(reasoning indicates) righteous] on account of the gods, but on account 01 [thinking] correctly and the [opinions] they hold [regarding] certain things [and especially] pains (II) and death (for indeeel invariably and without exception human beings do wrong eitlıer on account of fear or on account of pleasures), and that ordinary people on the other hand are righteous, in so far as theyare righteous, on account of the laws and the penalties, imposed by the laws, hanging over them. But even if some of their number are conscientious on .account of the gods, not on account of the laws, theyare few: only just two or three individuals (ID) are to be found among great segments of


THE EPICUREAN INSCRIPTION

81

rnultitudes, and not even these are steadfast in acıing righteously;

for theyare not soundly persuaded about providence. A dear indication of the complete inability of the gods to prevent wrongdoings İs provided by the nations of the Jews and Egyptians, who, as well as being the most superstitious of all peoples, (IV) are the vilest of all peoples, On account of what kind of gods, then, will human beings be righteous? For theyare not righteous on account of the real ones or on account of Plato's and Socrates' judges in Hades. We are Ieft with this conclusion; otherwise, why should not those who disregard the laws seorn fables much more? So, with regard to righteousness, neither does our doctrine (V) do harm [nor doesl the opposite [doctrine help] , while, with regard to the other condition, the opposite doctrine not only does not help, but on the contrary .also does harm, whereas our doctrine not only does not do harm, but also helps. For the one remove s disturbances, while the other adds them, as has already been made clear to you before. That not only (VI) [is our doctcine] helpfuı.· [but alsothe opposite doctrine harmful, is dearly shown by] the [Stoics as they go astray. For they say in opposition to us] that the god botlris maker of [the] world and takes providential care of it, providing for all things, inchıding' human beings, Well, İn the first place, we eome to. this question: was it, may i ask, for his own sake that the gad created the world (VD) [or for the sake of human beings? For it is obvious that it was from a wish to benefit either himself or human beings that he embarked on this] undertaking. For how could it have been otherwise, if nothing is' produced without a cause and these things are produced bya god? Let us then examine this view and what the Stoies mean, It was, they say, from a wish to have a city and fellow-citizens, just as if (VIII) [he were an exile from a city, that] the god Icreated theworld and human beings. However, this supposition, a coneoetion of empty talking, İs] selfevidently a fable, composed to gain the attention of 'an audience, not anatural philosopher's argumerıt searching for the truth and inferting from probabilities things not palpable to sense. Yet even if, in the belief that he was doing sorne good (iX) [to himself, the god] really [made the world and human beings], . For god [is, i say], a living being, indestructible [and] blessed from


82

SUPPLEMENT TO DIOGENES OF OINOANDA

[age to] age, having cornplete [self-sufficierıcy], Moreover, what [gad, if] he had existed for infinire [time] and enjoyed trarıquillity [for thousands of years, would have gorl this idea (fr. 20 i) that he needed a city and Iellow-citizens? Add to this the absurdity that he, being a god, should seek to have human beings as fellow-citizens, For translation (1998b) 137.

of the rest of fr. 201 see Sm 376-377; Smith

Col. i 1-7. The above reconstruction, which as far as STJllıas should be treated as exempli gratia, is much changed from that printed in Smith (1998b) 132. Although the reconstruction is entirely my responsihility, i am mueh indebted to Leofrane Holford-Strevens for his just criticism of my earlier atternpt to restore lines 4-5. For TaS TWV voucov Çrı~{as (İines 2-3), d. II 8-10 TaS TOVTWV (sc. T(;)V vöucov) Çrı~ias. 6. [<poj3epOı y'l: Smith (2000g) 432A33. 8. [lTciVTUlV]: Smith (2000g) 433. in the same place i suggest that, although lollucn is probably right, "it İs not impossible that Diogenes wrote e.g. [T]&V O' (lAAUlV i. [OtalTElTEıolJ..loı'~. 9-10. On my restoration.of these lines and for other views on them, see Smith (1998b) 139; Smith (2000g) 433. Simone MooijValk tells me she takes [01]~0\ as non-parenthetical (as i do) and favours Aalr yov EXElV] (suggested to me by Phillip De Lacy - see Smith [2000g] 433). She has kindly provided the following translation of her Dutch translation (Mooij- Valk [2000] 12): "As for the others, according to me it starıds to resson that the wise are righteous not on account of the gods, but .. .". However, her interpretation, İike other interpretations that have been communicated to me, does not respect the space hefore Xo-, Moreover, it involves a strange word-orderi if OV is not Eollüwed by a parenthesis, it seems very difficu1t to take it, as she does, with OlKO\OVS rather than with A6yov EXElV. In Smith (1998b) 139 I cited with approval Armstrong (1997) on the Epicurean conception of justice. See nowalsa O'Keefe (2001).

ono

ana

o"


83

THE EPICUREAN INSCRIPTION

ceı.m

7-IV 2. On Diog.'s desetiption of the J ews and Egyptians as being rrcvrcov 1..uapwTaTOl as well as rrcvrcov OelOlOalııOVEOTaTol, see Smith (1998b) 140-143; Smith (2000a) 69-70. John Clucker has kindly drawn my attention to Theophrastus reported by Porphyry Abst. 2.26, where a Jewish practice of aniınal sacrifkes İs deemed unaeeeptable to Greeks and .is contrasted with Egyptian abstinerice from animal saerifices. For the likelihood that Diog, has the Jews and Egyptians İn mind in fr. 22.7-10, see my note ad loe. below, Col. VII 11. As noted in Smith (2000g) 434, the question-mark in Smith (1998b) 133 after 2:TuJIKOi İs a misprint. 14-VIII 6. My reconstruction is of eourse exempli gratia. Phillip De Lacy, in aletter dated 28 December 1999, offers instead: >

'1

[et,

ÖTIWS

l.frı

(0crırep e'f TIOOUVTIOAE1TEV]-

[TWV Epl1ı.ıOS1], TOVÇav6p@][rrovç €0l1ıı1ovpyrıosv. a][ooAEoxia viı nlO:Ka'l uc][TaıoAloyıa TOV[TO. Kaı] ~üeOS . Col. VIII 10:-12. It İs important to realise that, in mentioning Td &OrıAo, Diog. is referring not to the gods, but to the creation of the world. Cf. Philodemus Sign. eol. XXXIII 9-20 De Lacy and De Laey and see Smith (1998b) 144-145. Col. IX 7. [<PTJı..tI]:Smith (2000g) 4.34. 8. On Epicurean gods as çi;)o, see Mansfeld (1993) 178-180; Smith (1996e) 127-128 n. 59. 11-fr. 20 i 3. Cf. Lucr. 5.ı65~173, especially 168-169: quidoe noui potuit tanto post ante quietos inlicere, ut cuperent vitam mutare priorem? Given that Diog, is arguing against the Stoics, there is no reason to doubt, as sorne do, that Luer. too has them in mind (see Smith [2001] 20,139-140).

i


96

SUPPLEMENT TO DIOGENES OF OINOANDA

i.

\

f

5

"

-

_f

TOlVVV K<:XL TOV KOTEXaVTCCUIJ.CCçllETCl TO\)'<P(l]ACCVTOV1Ta6avs ~

\

1Tapo[K~IeivCİl 1TAavov~

IlCalAIOTCC1TpaOEV<pvo[q TO] PDyııa UI.lWV a[tlaaıss. eOTIV auTOS' [ou] 1TaVTCCTa EV TOIS [TIpalylıaaı 1TOlTlTlKa 1Tp[QTloXPoVEI -r&v 1TotOVtl(~]VQVt' €İ KCCITa rrAEloTa 1TElrOVae TOÜTO, oXÖS

ws

lO

Fr. 33 VI = HK 69 II + 70 i

tt.

os

A' CCVTWVTa u]EVrrpQ]3

TOXpovei, Ta OE [avv]xpoVEI,v Ta OE tlETcc[XPolvEl.

NP 128 tower margin (part of Epic, Sent. 10) [IlEll'Paiııe6cc aUToıç], :rCCVTCX[XO]eev Translation (&.33 III 7-VI 3) (ın 7) .... is able, as these people lay it down, like a bait, for all human beings, to draw them, like birds or fish, open-mouthed to the names of the virtues, and somerimes (IV) itself [illusions (?). And you are] not ashamed, [you] wretched people, [of contradicting both yourselves and] one another: [for indeed, employing puerile] wit, [you reject] pleasure, while cleverly agreeing [with us about sensation], so that youare not [prevented from] passing through. [an area İn safety] (V) when you venture to climb crags. Well now, i want to deflect also the error that, along with the feeling of self-Iove, has you in its grip - an error that, more than any other, further inflates your doctrine as ignorant. The error İs this: (not] all canses İn thin gs precede their effects, even if the majority do, but (VI) some of them precede their effects, others Iceineide with] them, and others follow them. For full commentary .on Er. 33 III 5-V 147 see Smith (1998b) 148-152.


97

THE EPICUREAN INSCRIPTION

Col. III 8. "A conferma dello splendido K[a6]h:vTat (1997) 233does well to che Arist. HA 533b19

[Sm]", Grilli Ka6ıcİcnv

Ta

S(KTVa. Col. IV

My reconstruction of this column ısexempl! gratia and should be treated with appropriate cantion. Sedley (2002) 170-172 has proposed a very different reconstruction, in .accordance with his belief that the polernic is, an anti -Cyrenaic one. Part of his version (LV 6-12) İs given only in English. Col. V 3. TOlVVV. Sedley (2002) 169is unhappy that i transiate "well now" rather than "therefore". But the word can be' used in a transitional or. inferential sense, and, as Denniston, Particlos 568580, shows, the two senses often merge into one ancther, Given that Diog, is here, as he makes dear in İines 3-10, moving on to dea! with a further error commitred by his opponents, i am unrepentant about my translation. . Col. VI 10-11. Grilli

(1997) 234 strongly queries my, rejection of [e]rroKoAov6eıv (HK) and preference fOrtl1raKoAov6e'lv (Sm). The latter is what i thought 1 could read on my squeeze, but the compound İs poorly attested andJ may have been deceived 'by damage. So HK's resteration is probably correct, . 12. Grilli (1997) 234 presses the case for the artide before [oTEp].e~, but there does not seem to be sp~ce for it. ' Col. VII 2, 4. Grilli (1997) 234 objects to, [OEijTOV Koi [olvo]v, on the ground that ILinMediterraneo si dice 'pane e vino' ) non 'cibo e vino'". But, apart from the fact thatatTd> 'can mean "bread", orroç KOloıvo) is not unusual: see e.g, Hom, it. 9.706; Od. 3.479; Pl. Resp. 372a. ., " NP 128lower margin (Epic, Sent. 10)'


98

SUPPLEMENT TO DIOGENES OF OINOANDA

The first lerter of the first word (}J.€Iı\}loillE6a) must have been carved on HK fr. (68), and the last four İetters of the Iast word (ıravTaxc6ev) were carved on HK fr. 69. The rnaxims carved in the lower margin of the Etbics blocks are a very helpful indicator, in places where there are gaps in the text of the Ethics itself, of how rnany columns are missing (see Sm 82). In Sm 482 i suggested that about ten columns are missing berween fr. 32 and 33. However, if P. Von der Mühll (MB 22 [1965] 229~231) İs right in deleting KOl aAyııöcvcuv after eaVaTOV in Sent. 10~the gap between fr. 32 and 33 will be more like nine columns.

Fr, 34 (HK fr. 62 + 82 + 63) Col. II 1. In my drawing of HK fr, 62 in S 10ı i should have shown the last two lerters of eyAoyrıv in ligature, 10. On the probable occurrence of rrpolTTlAoKIOTTıS in Dionysius of Halkamassus Ant. Rom. 11.38.5, see now Smith (1994a). Col.N 4. Grilli (1997) 234 may well be rightto prefer W's KOPlTOV to my KEpOOÇ. He conıpares Sent. Va!. 27. CoI. V 4, 8. There are some variations between Sm and S. See the drawing of HK fr, 82 in S Iül , . 7. Grilli (1991) 234 would like to read OiK[EIOV], comparing Us Epic. fr. 398 p. 275.30. . Col.

vn

11-12. [lTpool<pvoETol (Sm). Grilli (1997) 234 comments; '''la presenza di p(saı in metafora, continııata daVlTOTEllWJ,lEV, spiega la sce1ta di Usener (vlTol<pvoETaı) e di HK (VlTEK]<pvoETaı), che hanno riferimento alla vita vegetale, il che non e per lTpOO ]qH.}O€Taı». This İs highly misleading. VlTEK<pVO}J.Olis cited by LS] only from Philostratus of Lemnos Im. 1.15, where it is used of


102

SUPPLEMENT TO DIOGENES Of OINOANDA

i

[srn- [vcv ]TO

<pv-

Jeaı llv Kaı

5

T]aıç aA[Aaıs - - - - - - - -lıç oıa Tl OlUK oloa

IOTov v] TTıV <pv-

10

[oou [en KE-

[m rrpcrlv€-

n

1'0. V Kan

5

yap ouoaııws]

~1l€ıV [gaoVTat TEeVE]WOlV CO[Vplıoı Kaı olueelyııaTa' xp[ovta ii x8ovı]OlTrOTa~On Ka\ aAAa TO\l~

oüToEAEtlVci.

c.0S Aeyov]Ot llü6[ot. ovôsv ovv] ifPOS Tıııas. iTTis aiaeiıl-

OIV

aecus aıro[voııs, 6 SaVaTOS}, 10

GJS E'fpllKa [fıoıı rrpô TOV]TCUV Kaı EV[eECUS ifaA!v1 OIOI1EVW K[a\

ioxvpiÇeol-

Bo ı. v TrOP' rı[lleıv yap

nI

Bvrrro] TLLS

Lower margin (unidentified maxim)

- . - -- [A]?Il[3avel

K- • -

Translation (I), " [what İs natural (?)] ... and ... to the others ... i do not know why

,

1

•••••••••••••

- ••••••••

(ll) [For indeed, when] we [are dead, we shall certainly not experience continual wailings and groanings or] rivers [of hell and other such miseries, as] the myths [say we shall. So death is


THE EPIClJREAN INSCRIPTION

103

nothing] to us, [once serısation İs absent], as i have [already] said [before] and [straightaway again] shall continue [also to maintain, For] among us (Epicureans) mortality ... Col. II 3-4. [Ohıc:0]y~aTa. Or read [OTEvd:}y~aTa, which occurred both to Barnes and to me independently See. Smith (2000g) 435. 6. eAE[ıva]. The word is used of punishments ın the tınderworld by Lucian Menipp. 14: ıroAAa Kaı EAEEıva Tiv Kaı aKoVaat Kat ıoeıv. Diog. too may have written EAseıva.

Fr.43 (NF 13 + 12) Col. i 12-II 5. My translation in Sm 389 İs quoted and queried by Morel (1996) 300 n. 198, but, as i have pointed out to the writer and as he has kindly acknowledged, he has misunderstood the English and his translation agrees with mine. CoL II 5. For [av] (Sm) read ö:lv] (S).

Fr.44 (HK fr. 64) For the proposed link-up berween this fragınent and fr. 45, see below under fr. 45. Col. i 8. ovoeırlAoyıoToÇ oceurs also in III 11. On the use of epilogwords by Epicurean writers, see Schofield (1996), ovoeırlA6yıoToS and fr, 44 are discussed by him on pp. 229~230; See also Warren (2001b) 147-149. .


118

SUPPLEMENT TO DIOGENES OF OINOANDA

Diog. 'S stoa and spent only a few minutes there, either be cause they had to attend to other business or because their concentration-span was short, would be much more likely to read a few ten-line maxims than to plunge into the Pbysics or Etbics, and it İs difficıılr to believe Diog. would not have realised this.

Fe 100 (HK tt. 33) i have re-edited this small fragment, from which rıoone had extracted anything of significance before, in Smith (2000f). According to my exempli gratia reconstructiorı of it, reproduced below, Diog. rejects the Stoic theory that the element s of the universe are gad and matter before going on to state the Epicurean view. if this is correct, fr. 100, being concerned with a fundamental point . in Epicurean physics, almost certainly preceded the pronouncements on meteorological and terrestdal phenomena in fr. 98-99.

'nı

oü[ T' EOTl oToıXET]a T(;JV n[avTcuv eEO> Kal]

ÜATlv (KO[ı<WÇ yap apxasl Ol 2TCUIK(oi TaVa' i)yovv]-

5

Tat) u o[uı-€ 1TÜP OUT' (hıp1 oü[8' 00cup OÜTE yrı, ws] [ÔOKOVOtV &)..)..01, a)..}-

rA' aToııoı <pvaEl>, di cfı] 10

[eloıv O:1TAWS a<paaPTOI] [Kal allETa~ATlToıJ.

Translation [The elernents] of the [universe are] neither [gad and] matter [(which] the Stoics [wrongly regard as ultimate principles) nar fire nar air nar water nor earth, as others suppose, but indivisible entities, which are absolurely imperishable and unchangeable]. For fULL commentery on fr. 100, see Smith (2000f) 135-136.


THE EPICUREAN INSCRIPTION

119

1-5. Cf. fr. 6 II 7-9: Ol 8' cİTro Tf'lç ~TOas vAııV Kaı gecv (sc; elvoı oTolXEıa ElITov). For KaKws İn line 3, cf. fr. 6 III 9: KaKws, 'Hpa[KAEı]TE, lTUpı:Tvaı OTÖlXEl[OV Al]YEIS. In lines 3-5 [apxas ." Taü8' nyoüvIToı is a slight rnodiflcation of [apxas .,. TaUT' olovl'rcn, suggested to me by David Sedley, who kindly commented on a draft of Smith (2000f). .

Fr.99 (NP 82) 6. For e[XEı] (Sm:L; Sm) read

?[ta

TE] (S 164).

Fr. 102 (NF 86) 7. For oVx (Sm L; Sm) read OVX! (8165), as conjectured by A. Casanova, Prometheus 14 (1988) 274. 8. For CY (Sm) read ~V (S 165).

NF 130= YF 191 This maxirn was diseovered in 1997 and first published in Smith (1998b) 156-158, with a photograph on p. 157 (fig, 14). The lower part of what probably will have been a column of 9- ıı lines is buried under blodes in the course above, and it was not possible to expose it. Moteover, part of the exposed text has been damaged. probably by tree-roots, A combinadon of the fragment's content and style of lettering leads me to place it provisionally between fr. 104 and 105. Fr. 98104 (and fr. 97, which may be introductory) have a comınan style of lettering, and fr, 98-100, the three that are well enough preserved to reveal their corıtent, are concerned with physics, NF 130's style of lettering links it to the fragments that follow fr. 104 in my arrangernent, and i place it at the front of the group because a rnaxim that stresses the importance of banishing fear of death, one of the two chief obstacles to the achievernent of a,Tapa~.ia, is likdy to have preeeded maxims on pain (fr. 105-106), as the order İn whieh these topics are treated elsewhere (e.g. fr, 34 VII 1-4; Epic.


TIIE EPICUREAN INSCRIPTION

NF 131

121

= YF189

This fragmerit was diseovered in 1997. i published it in Smith (1998b) 158-160, with a photograph on p. 158 (fig. 15). and I have discussed it alsa in Smith (1998a) and Smith (2000a) 74. It is to be seen, although not very clearly, in the photograph of NP 127 in the present work (fig. 3). Since the rnaxim is concerned with vain desires, especially the desire for fame, i place it next to fr. 1Ll , which carries rwo maxims, the first of which ended (we do not have its beginning) by mentioning the distinction between natural and vain desires; and since only the first maxim in fr. 111 is concerned with desires. i place NP 131 before fr. llL. It is als o possible that it was close to Er. 108, on the vain desire for wealth. \I! KEvaı TWV ElT[t][8]Vlllwv, v WOlTSp ai Ş6~rıs Kaı Twvauoi(.VV, V OV IJ.OVOV eıoıv KEva i, v lTPOÇ GE Tcf> KEVOl, v KOI OValTOptOTAL. 'i

o

5

,

OUK anEO[IK}e TOV lToA-

[A]a ıısv lTE1VEtV, aiel

rOlE OI'JlO:V. v TO neAAa[vl 10

IJ.EV

(Ke)KTiigŞç!,

[v}t&v

[UET' 01-

o', eg[Tlv KEVOV].

uacat

Translation Vain desires, like those for fame and such things, are not only vain, but, well as being vain, also difficult to fulfil. It is not unlike drinking much, yet always being thirsty. To be master of Pella, bu! [to have troubles for company, İs vain],

as

6. ovancpıaTOl.

Here the word means "diffieult to fulfil",

"difficult to satisfy", rather than, as is usually the case, "difficult to obtain". However, the same usage almost certainly occurs İn Epic, Sent. 26, where ovancpıoToL, the reading of F, has been rejected by many editers on the ground that its sen se İs unacceptable. The


122

SUPPLEMENT

TO DIOGENES

OF OINOANDA

present passage of Diog, shows the objection of those editers to be unfounded. For full discussion, see Smith (1998a). 7. a1TEoIKE. Jonathan Barnes (in aletter of 2 December 1999) rightly queries my descriptionof the verb as "impersonal" (Smith (1998bl 159). Given that a subject ("being in the grip of' vain . desires") can be derived from the context, i should have said {(quasi-impersonal". 9~11. For Alexander the Great as anexample of the vanity of power and fame, d. fr. 51. .

Fr~111 (HK Cr. 30) 6. There is a paragrapbe (see S 171) beneath the beginning of the line. It was notrecorded by HK or Sm.

NF 132 = YF 186 This fragment, discovered in 1997, was published in Smith (1998b) 160-162, with a photograph on p, 161 (fig. 16). The photograph is reprodueed in the present work (fig.. 5). With a width of just 22.5 cm., this İs the slimmest block of the inscription yet found. Related statistics are that it contains fewer words (sixteen) than any other fragrnent carrying a complete column of ten line s or more, and that it is the only fragment to contain a word whose letters are distributed between three lines (cvolıaÇollEv in 6-8). \YJecan be confident that the maxim stood very close to fr. 112. The two fragments are linked both by their very distinctive style of lettering (on which see Smith [1998b] 160) and by their content. As i point out in Smith (l998b) 161, the opening lines of fr. 112 (1-3: TO KE<pUAaıov Tfiç Evamilovfa) rı oıô:6ecnç) would follow on very naturally and effectively after the closing Iines (8-11) of NF 132. Theretere NF 132 may well have immediately preceded Ir, 112. At the same time) Er. 112 would also follow on very naturally after the second maxim in fr. ııı, both being concerned with the importance of our cta8ecnç. So the order of these maxims cannot be established with certainty; and this comment is applicable to the whole eelleetion.


130

SUPPLEMENT TO DIOGENES OF OINOANDA

eOT1,

10

II

ecrrı, ,!!V.

Kaı ın:vıct j.lEV rrpöoır AOVTCVÖ' TIpCOEÇJ-· V

av

) [ •• . '1' 1 v ayy OOVVTES OVV

-PLV aır~[piav <pEpov-r[a

Ol

Kal Ta '01a12TOOIKOlAE1-

yovaıv. v 6 [yap A6yosl 5

OVT&V [OV Ti6rıaı]

10

11AOVTO'! [KpEITTCV Tt] Kaı TIPOT[Elj.lCTEpOV] TIpayj.lex etlvexıı Kaı TIE], "] []v' ıov TO,,[,E vaVTıov, 11 [1I~~i~v 1IAOVTOV KpelTITova,

aAAo ... l

Translation (I) For in that case the speaker will be right in saying that one is no differentfrom the other. But it İs not possible to say this in the case of poverty and wealth; for we see many things that belong to wealth without belonging to poverty, and that belong to poverty without belonging to wealth. (II) [So the Stoics speak İn ignorance of the difficultyand the points of difference; for] meir [argument does not assume that] wealth [is a superior] and [rnore highly-valued] thing, [and poverty the opposite, or that poverty İs superior to wealth, but ... J,

-

5. TleııO\. Sedley's tentatiye suggestion. Mine had been AeYEI. 6. KPE1TTOV Tl. Sedley's suggestion. i had proposed TO

KPElTTOV.

7.

Sedley

would

prefer

TIPOT[ETElj.lTlj.lEVOV]

or

TIPOT[ElUWUEVOV].

10. The writer probably went on to say "that both [poverty and wealth] are indifferent" (according to the Stoics).

Fr. 131 (NF 111)

6, 8-9. See the drawing İn S ı93 for sorne minor additions to thetext in Sm.


134

SUPPLEMENT

i

TO DIOGENES OF OINGANDA

(ı -5 missing) OlTOUÔaaaVTES

OUK et-

oov o~aTıvaç ahia)

lTEqovoaS 1O

.Q

Kaı

J"".

EV-

ıixeeo'1\

VlJoav oVX llTTOV II ~Çtl ~Tl Xcipov T&V lTÇl[Aaıwv]

(12·18 hidden or missing)

II

(1-5 missing) _____

10 A

[OVTE TOVTOVS] OÜT' EKdvovç. Ot ovlvl, 't . aı-tcpOTepOl yap opcooıv TO cp&s. ei Kat f:ıpaxei TlT"; TOV Ol yeyııpaKcTES. Kaı -raiS ovallKO'raı) (12-18 hidden Ol;' rnissing)

Translation (i) [The young], for all theireagemess, on account of the irnpact of certain causes did not see and were no less, or even still more, annoyed than the aged , . (II) [neither the latter group] nor the former, For both groups [i.e.both young and old] see the İight, even if the

old do slightly less. And to the hardness

of hearing ...

For full commentary on NF 133, see Smith (1998b). Col. II 10. Punctuation is alteady indicated by a paragrapbe, and it is not de ar why there İs a marginal A as well. The same sign İs to be seen to the left ofHK fr. 50 (fr. 16) II 13 and HK fr. 66 (fr. 32) 15. 11. This line may have been followed by something Iike TWV yepCVTc.:lV 6 atITOS A6yoS apı,t6ÇEt "And to the hardness of hearing of the old the same argumerıt is applicable" .

Martin Ferguson Smith-Oinoandalı Diogenes Fragmanları Çevirisi  

Martin Ferguson Smith-Oinoandalı Diogenes Fragmanları Çevirisi

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