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Daw Na Mountain


Noun Noun

ကသက္ရွိသက္မ့အ ဲ ရာဟူသမွ်ကုိ Noun ဟုေခၚသည္။

Nounမွာအၾကမ္းမ်ဥ္းအားျဖင့္၅မ်ိဳးခြဲထားပါတယ္။ လူ၊တိရိစာၦန္၊အရာ၀တၳဳ၊ ေနရာ၊စိတ္ကူးေတြျဖစ္ၾကပါတယ္။ Noun

လူ

အထီး

တိရိစာၦန္

အမ အထီး အဲဒီထဲမွာလူ

အရာ၀တၳဳ

ေနရာ

အမ

ဆိုရင္

စိတ္ကူး

အထီး/အမ မရွိ = Neature Gender အထီး၊အမ

လိင္ျပန္ခြဲထားတာေတြ

့ရပါတယ္

ျပီးေတာ့

တိရိစာၦန္မွာလည္း

အထီးအမခြဲထားပါတယ္။ ဒါေပမယ့္ အမ်ားသုံးနာမျဖစ္သည့္ အရာ၀တၳဳ၊ ေနရာ စိတ္ကူး ေတြမွာ အထီး/အမ မရွိဘူး (Neature Gender ဟုေခၚပါသည္။) Countable and uncountable Noun

မွာေရတြက္လုိ ့ရတဲ့နာမ္ ႏွင့္ ေရတြက္လုိ႔မရတဲ့နာမ္ (သို႔မဟုတ္) ေရ တြက္ရန္ခက္ခဲေသာနာမ္ဟူျပီး

ႏွစ္မ်ိဳးခြဲထားပါတယ္။

Countable E.g.

I eat a banana every day. ကၽြန္ေတာ္ငွက္ေပ်ာသီး ေန႔တိုင္းစားတယ္။ I like bananas. ကၽြန္ေတာ္ငွက္ေပ်ာသီးၾကိဳက္တယ္။

မွတ္ခ်က္။ Like ရဲ့ေနာက္ကပါတဲ့ Noun ဟာအမ်ားထည့္ေပးရမယ္၊ ေရတြက္လုိ ့ ရတဲ့နာမ္ ဆုိရင္ S ထည့္ရတယ္ ေရတြက္မရတဲ့ နာမ္ ကုိမူလအတုိင္းပဲထားပါတယ္။ ငွက္ေပ်ာသီးက Countable noun ျဖတ္ပါတယ္၊ ဒါေပမယ့္ (banana) က Singular noun ျဖစ္ျပီး (bananas) ကေတာ့ Plural ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။


ေရတြက္ရေသာနာမ္ေတြ႔ရ့ဲေရွ့မွာ အေရအတြက္ေတြကိုသံုးႏိုင္ပါသည္။ ဥပမာ -‘one banana’ ‘two banana’ အစရွိသျဖင့္ Examples: A ball is a toy. A cow has a tail. A book is on the desk. There is a village over there. Do you have a ten-pound note? It wasn’t your fault. It was an accident. Uncountable noun ေရတြက္လို႔လံုး၀မရေသာနာမ္(သို႔)ေရတြက္ရန္ခက္ခဲေသာ နာမ္ေတြေရွ့မွာ အေရအတြက္ကိုထည့္လုိ႔မရပါ။သို႔ေသာ္တစ္ခါတစ္ရံေရတြက္ရန္ခက္ခဲေသာ နာမ္ရ့ေ ဲ ရွ့မွာ အေရအတြက္ထည့္သံုးပါသည္။ Eg.

I eat rice every day. က်ေနာ္ေန ့တုိင္းထမင္းစားတယ္။ I like rice. က်ေနာ္ထမင္းစားရတာၾကိဳက္တယ္။

ထမင္းက Uncountable noun ျဖစ္တယ္ ဒါေပမယ့္ ကပ္သီးကပ္သပ္ ေရးမယ္ဆုိရင္ေရးလုိ ့ရပါတယ္။ There are two rices on your cheek. မင္းပါးေပၚမွာထမင္းလံုးႏွစ္ေစ့ရွိေနတယ္။ There are two white hairs on your head. မင္းေခါင္းေပၚမွာဆံပင္ျဖဴႏွစ္ေခ်ာင္းရွိတယ္။ ဒီလုိေရးမယ္ဆုိရင္လည္းေရးလုိ ့ရပါတယ္ ဒါ့ေၾကာင့္ ေရတြတ္ရန္ခက္ခဲေသာ နာမ္လုိ ့တစ္ခုထပ္သိရေအာင္ဒထ ီ ဲမွာျဖည့္ ထားေပးခဲ့ပါတယ္။ Example Kate was listening to (some) music. There’s sand in my shoes. Do you have any money? It wasn’t your fault. It was bad luck. There is no electricity in this house.


We haven’t got enough water. B: A/An Singular conuntable noun ေတြရ့ဲေရွ့မွာ a,an လုိက္ေပးရပါတယ္။ a/an/the မပါပဲေရးလုိ ့မရပါ။ a beach

a student

an umbrella

I want banana ေရးလို႔မရပါ။I want a banana လို႔ေရးရပါသည္။ There’s been accident. လို႔ေရးလို႔မရပါ။ There’s been an accident . လို႔ေရးရပါသည္။ ျပီးေတာ့ plural countable nouns ေရွ့တြင္ a,an ,the မထည့္ပဲ သူ ့ခ်ည္းသက္သက္ေရးလုိ ့ရပါတယ္။ I like bananas. ( bananas in general) Accidents can be prevented. သာမန္အားျဖင့္ Uncountable noun ကုိ a/an ျဖင့္ေရးလုိ ့မရပါ၊ ‘a sand’, ‘a music’, ‘a rice’. ႏွင့္ေရးလုို ့မရ။ Uncountable noun ကို countable noun ေျပာင္းခ်င္ရင္ a…..of ျဖင့္တြဲျပီးေရးၾကပါတယ္။ a bowl / a packer / a grain of rice uncountable noun ေရွ့တြင္ the,my,some မပါပဲ သူ႔ခ်ည္းသက္သက္ေရးလို႔ရပါတယ္။ I eat rice every day. There’s blood on your shirt. Can you hear music? C: Some ႏွင့္ any ကုိလည္း plural countable nounနဲ ့တြဲသံုးႏိုင္သလို unconuntable noun ႏွင့္လည္းတြဲသံုးနုိင္ပါသည္။ We sang some songs. ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္တုိ ့သီခ်င္းဆုိသည္။(အခ်ိဳ ့) 5 Did you buy any apples? ပန္းသီးေတြ၀ယ္ခ့လ ဲ ား We listened to some music.


ကြ်ႏု္ပ္တုိ ့သီခ်င္းနားေထာင္တယ္။ (အခ်ိဳ ့) Did you buy any apple juice? ခင္ဗ်ားပန္းသီးေတြ၀ယ္ခ့ဲလား။ Many ႏွင့္ few တို႔ကို Plural countable noun ႏွင့္တြဲသံုးျပီး much တို႔ littlတို႔ကို uncountable noun ႏွင့္တြဲသံုးပါသည္။ We didn’t take many photographs. ကြ်ႏု္ပ္တုိ ့ဓာတ္ပုံေတြအမ်ားမရုိက္ခ့ရ ဲ ဘူး။ I have a few things to do. ကြ်န္ေတာ္တခ်ိဳ ့အလုပ္ေတြလုပ္ဖုိ ့ရွိေသးတယ္။ I doesn’t have much money. ငါမွာပိုက္ဆံမရွိေတာ့ဘူး။ ႈ I would like a little salt on my soup. ငါဟင္းခ်ိဳထဲကိုဆားနည္းနည္းေလာက္ထည့္ခ်င္တယ္။

Countable and uncountable 2 A: Noun အမ်ားစုဟာ countable ႏွင့္ uncountable သကဲ့သုိ ့သုံးႏုိင္ပါတယ္ဒါေပမယ့္အဓိပၸာယ္ေတာ့ကြာျခားမွဳရွိပါတယ္။ Countable: Did you hear a noise just now? (a specific noise ) ခင္ဗ်ားခုအသံေတြၾကားလား ( a noise = တိက်တဲ ့အသံ a ပါလုိ ့တိက်တဲ့အသံျဖစ္တယ္) I bought a paper to read. (= a newspaper) ကြ်န္ေတာ္ဖတ္ဖုိ ့သတင္းစာ၀ယ္ခ့ဲတယ္။ There’s a hair in my soup! (=one single hair) ဆံပင္တစ္ပင္ကြ်န္ေတာ့စြပ္ျပဳပ္ခြက္ထဲမွာရွိတယ္(ဆံပင္ကုိသီျခားေျပာခ်င္လုိ ့) You can stay with us. There is a spare room. (= a room in a house) အခန္းအပုိေတြရွိပါတယ္ ခင္ဗ်ားက်ေနာ္တုိ ့နဲ ့တည္းႏုိင္တယ္။ I had some interesting experiences while I was travelling. (= things that happened to me) ကၽြန္ေတာ္အလည္ခရီးထြက္တုန္းကစိတ္၀င္စားစရာေကာင္းတဲ့အေတြ ့အၾကဳံရခဲ့တယ္။ ( အဲဒီခရီးစဥ္ထြက္တ့အ ဲ ခ်ိန္တုန္းကရခဲ့တဲ့အေတြ ့အၾကဳံကုိေျပာတယ္)


7 Enjoy your trip. Have a good time! ေကာင္းတဲ့ခရီးစဥ္ျဖစ္ပါေစ(ခရီးသြားတဲ့အခ်ိန္မွာအတိအက်ေျပာခ်င္လုိ ့ပါ) She has been late for class six times this terms this term. သူမသည္ စာသင္နွစ္တြင္ သင္တန္းခ်ိန္ေျခာက္ၾကိမ္ေနာက္က်ဖူးသည္။ Uncountable: I can’t work here. There’s too much noise. ( not too many noises) ဒီမွာငါအလုပ္မလုပ္ႏုိင္ေတာ့ဘူး အသံေတြအရမ္းဆူညံေနတာပဲ (ဒါေၾကာင့္ ေယဘုယ်အားျဖင့္ဆုိရင္ အသံေပါင္းစုံျဖစ္မယ္ ဒါေၾကာင့္ uncountable နဲ ့တြဲသုံးျဖစ္တယ္) I need some paper to write on. (= material for writing on) က်ေနာ္စာေရးဖုိ ့စာရြက္လုိတယ္ You have got very long hair. (not hairs) (= all the hair on your head) မင္းမွာဆံပင္အရွည္ရွိပါလား (ဒီထဲမွာေသခ်ာၾကည့္မယ္ဆုိရင္ hair ရဲ ့ အေရွ့မွာ a မထည့္ထားတာေတြ ့ရလိမ့္မယ္) You can’t sit here. There isn’t room. (= space) ခင္ဗ်ားထုိင္ဖုိ ့ေနရာမရွိဘူး ( ဒီထဲမွာ room ကေနရာ ကုိေျပာပါတယ္) They offered me the job because I had a lot of experience. က်ေနာ္ ့မွာအေတြ ့အၾကဳံမ်ားလုိ ့သူတုိ ့ကၽြန္ေတာ္ကုိအလုပ္ေတြကမ္းလွမ္းတယ္။ (ဒီထဲမွာ a lot of ကုိေတြ ့ရလိမ့္မယ္ a lot of ကေတာ့ countable ႏွင့္ uncountable ႏွစ္ခုစလုံးသုံးလုိ ့ရတယ္) I can’t wait.I haven’t got time. ငါမွာအခ်ိန္မရွိလို႔မေစာင့္နုိင္ဘူး။ We have spent too much time on this week. ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ဒီအိမ္စာလုပ္တာအခ်ိန္အမ်ားၾကီးကုန္ခ့ဲတယ္။ Coffee/tea/juice/beer etc. (drinks) are normally uncountable: ေကာ္ဖီ၊ လက္ဖက္ရည္၊ သစ္သီးရည္၊ ဘီယာ ေတြက ပုံမွန္အားျဖင့္ I don’t like coffee very much. က်ေနာ္ေကာ္ဖီသိပ္မၾကိဳက္ဘူး။ But you can say a coffee ( = a cup of coffee), two coffees (=two cups) etc: (ဒါေပမယ့္ တစ္ခါတစ္ရံမွာသုံးေလ့ရွိပါတယ္ a cup of coffee )


Two coffees and an orange juice, please. ေက်းဇူးျပဳျပီးေတာ့ ေကာ္ဖီ ႏွစ္ခြက္နဲ ့လိေမၼာ္ရည္ေပးပါ။ B: The following nouns are usually uncountable: ေအာက္မွာေဖာ္ျပတဲ့ nouns အားလုံးဟာသာမန္အားျဖင့္ uncountable မွာပဲသုံးသည္။

accommodation permission

behaviour traffic

damage advice

luck bread

You can’t use a/an with these noun: (a/an နဲ ့ေအာက္မွာေဖာ္ျပေသာ နာမ္ ႏွင့္သုံးလုိ ့မရပါ)

furniture

luggage

progress

weather

I’m going to buy some bread. or……. a loaf of bread. (not a bread )

baggage

chaos information

news

scenery

ကၽြန္ေတာ္ေပါင္မုန္ ့သြား၀ယ္မယ္… (သုိ ) ေပါင္မုန္႔ တစ္လုံးေလာက္ (a bread သုံးလုိ ့မရပါ)

work Enjoy your holiday! I hope you have good weather. ( not a good weather) ခင္ဗ်ားအားလပ္ရက္မွာအရမ္းေပ်ာ္ပါေစ ခင္ဗ်ားေကာင္းအခ်ိန္ျဖစ္ပါေစ။ (a good weather မဟုတ္ပါ) These nouns are not usually plural ( so we do not say ‘breads’, ‘furnitures’ etc.) ဒီ noun ေတြကုိအပုံမွန္အားျဖင့္ plural မဟုတ္ပါ။ (‘breads’, ‘furnitures’) Where are you going to put all your furniture? (not furnitures ) ခင္ဗ်ားအိမ္သုံးပရိေဘာဂေတြဘယ္မွာထားမွာလဲ။ Let me know if you need more information. (not informations) ခင္ဗ်ားသတင္းအခ်က္လက္ေတြလုိအပ္ရင္ကၽြန္ေတာ္ကုိေျပာေပးပါ။ News is uncountable, not plural: သတင္းက uncountable ပါ plural မဟုတ္ပါ။ The news was very depressing. (not The news were ) ဒီသတင္းက စိတ္ပ်က္ဖို႔ေကာင္းတယ္။ You cannot use singular countable nouns alone (without a/the/my etc.): She never wears a hat. (not she never wears hat) သူမဦးထုပ္ဘယ္ေတာ့မွမေဆာင္းဘူး။ Be careful of the dog. (not Be careful of dog) ေခြးသတိထားပါ What a beautiful day!


ဘယ္ေလာက္သာယာတဲ့ေန႔လဲေနာ္ I’ve got a headache. ကၽြန္ေတာ္ေခါင္းကိုက္ေနတယ္။ B: We use a/an ….to say what kind of thing or person something/ somebody is: ဘယ္လိုအရာ၀တၳဳ(သို႔)ဘယ္လိုလူမ်ိဳး စသည္ျဖင့္အမ်ိဳးအစာကိုေျပာခ်င္ရင္ ေရွ့တြင္ a/an ထည့္သံုးပါသည္။ That’s a nice table. ဒါစားပြေ ဲ ကာင္းတစ္လံုးပဲ။ In the plural we use the noun alone (not some….): Those are nice chairs. (not some nice chairs) ဒီဟာေတြက ေကာင္းတဲ့ထိုင္ခံုေတြပဲ။ Compare singular and plural: A dog is an animal.

Dogs are animals.

I’m an optimist.

We’re optimists.

Tim’s father is a doctor.

Most of my friends are students.

Are you a good drive?

Are they good students?

Jill is a really nice person.

Jill’s parents are really nice people.

What a lovely dress!

What awful shoes!

We say that somebody has a long nose/ a nice face/ blue eyes/ small hands etc.: Jack has got a long nose.

Jack has got blue eyes.

(not the long nose)

(not the blue eyes)

Remember to use a/an when you say what somebody’s job is: တစ္စံုတစ္ေယာက္ရ့အ ဲ လုပ္ကိုေျပာခ်င္ရင္ ေရွ့တြင္ a/an ထည့္သံုးသည္ကိုသတိ၇ပါ။ ဥပမာ-Sandra is a nurse.

(not Sandra is nurse)

Would you like to be an English teacher? C: You can use some with plural countable nouns. We use some in two ways. (1) Some = a number of/ a few of/ a pair of: I’ve seen some good films recently. (not I’ve seen good films) ငါအခုတစ္ေလာ ေကာင္းတဲ့ရုပ္ရွင္ေတြၾကည့္ျပီးျပီ။


Some friends of mine are coming to stay at the weekend. ငါ့သူငယ္ခ်င္းေတြ ပိိတ္ရက္မွာလာလည္လိမ့္မယ္။ I need some new sunglasses. (= a new pair of sunglasses) ငါေနကာမ်က္မွန္အသစ္လိုတယ္။ Do not ာuse some when you are talking about things in general. ကၽြႏုပ္တို႔ ေရဘူယ်အားလံုးကို ေျပာခ်င္ရင္ some ကိုသံုးလို႔မရပါ။ I love bananas. (not some bananas) My aunt is a writer. She writes books. (not some books) Sometimes you can make sentences with or without some (with no difference in meaning): တစ္ခါတစ္ရံ some ထည့္ထည့္၊မထည့္ထည့္ သံုးလို႔ရပါတယ္။ ဥပမာThere are (some) eggs in the fridge if you’re hungry. အကယ္လို႔မင္းဗိုက္ဆာရင္ ေရခဲေသတၱာထဲမွာ ဥေတြရွိတယ္။ (2) Some = some but not all: 50% ေအာက္လို႔ေျပာခ်င္ရင္ someကိုသံုးပါသည္။ ***Some children learn very quickly. (but not all children) ***Tomorrow there will be rain in some places, but most of the country will be dry. မနက္ျဖန္ ေနရာအနည္းငယ္မိုးရြာလိမ့္မယ္။ဒါေပမယ့္ ေက်းလက္ေဒသေတာ္ေတာ္မ်ားမ်ားေတာ့ ေျခာက္ေသြ႔လိမ့္မယ္။ A / an and the ဘာမွမသိေသးခင္(စမိတ္ဆက္) မွာေျပာရင္ a/an ထည့္သံုးျပီး သိသြား၇င္(သို႔)တိက်သြားရင္ေတာ့ the ကိုသံုးပါသည္။ Study this example: Joe says ‘a sandwich’, ‘an I had a sandwich and an apple for lunch. The sandwich wasn’t very good, but the apple was nice.   

apple’ because this is the first time he talks about them. Joe now says ‘the sandwich’, ‘the apple’ because Karen knows which sandwich and the apple that he had for lunch.

JOE

KAREN

Compare a and the in these examples:


A man and a woman were sitting opposite me. The man was American, but I think the woman was British. လူတစ္ေယာက္န႔ဲ အမ်ိဳးသမီးတစ္ေယာက္ ငါ့မ်က္ႏွာခ်င္းဆိုင္မွာ ထိုင္ေနခဲ့တယ္။ဒီလူၾကီးကေတာ့ အေမရိကန္ပဲ။ဒါေပမယ့္ ဒီအမ်ိဳးသမီးကေတာ့ အဂၤလိပ္လူမ်ိဳးျဖစ္မယ္။ When we were on holiday, we stayed at a hotel. Sometimes we ate at the hotel and sometimes we went to a restaurant. အားလပ္ရက္ေတြေရာက္ေသာအခါ ငါတို႔ဟုိတယ္မွာတည္းခဲ့တယ္။ တစ္ခါတစ္ေလ ဟိုတယ္မွာထမင္းစားျပီး တစ္ခါတစ္ေလေတာ့ စားေသာက္ဆိုင္မွာ စားခဲ့ၾကတယ္။ B: We use the when we are thinking of a specific thing. Compare a/an and the: တိက်တဲ့အရာကိုေျပာခ်င္ရင္ the ကိုသံုးပါသည္။ Tim sat down on a chair. (perhaps one of many chairs in the room) တင္မ္ သည္ ထိုင္ခံုတစ္လံုးမွာထိုင္ခ့တ ဲ ယ္။ Tim sat down on the chair nearest the door. ( a specific chair) တင္မ္ သည္ တံခါးနားကထိုင္ခံုေပၚမွာထိုင္ခ့တ ဲ ယ္။ Paula is looking for a job. (not a specific job) ေပၚလာ အလုပ္တစ္ခုရွာေနတယ္။ Did Paula get the job the applied for? (a specific job) ေပၚလာေလ်ာက္ထားတဲ့ အလုပ္ရသြားျပီလား။ Have you got a car? (not a specific car) မင္းမွာကားရွိလား။ I cleaned the car yesterday. (=my car) ငါမေန႔ငါ့ကားကိုေရေဆးခဲ့တယ္။ C: We use the when it is clear in the situation which thing or person we mean. For example, in a room we talk about the light/the floor/ the ceiling/ the door/ the carpet etc.: ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ေျပာခ်င္တ့ဲ အရာ၀တၳဳ၊လူ ရဲ့တိက်တဲ့အေျခအေနကိုေျပာခ်င္ရင္ the ကိုသံုးပါတယ္။ ဥပမာCan you turn off the light, please? ေက်းဇူးျပဳျပီး မီးပိတ္ေပးနုိင္မလား။ I took a taxi to the station. (=the station in that town) ကၽြန္ေတာ္ ဘူတာရံုကို ကားတစ္စီးငွားခဲ့တယ္။ (in a shop) I’d like to speak to the manager, please. (=the manager of this shop)


ကၽြန္ေတာ္ဆိုင္မန္ေနဂ်ာနဲ႔စကားေျပာခ်င္ပါတယ္ခင္ဗ်ာ။ In the same way, we say (go to) the bank, the post office: I have to go to the bank and then I’m going to the post office. (The speaker is usually thinking of a specific bank or post) ကၽြန္ေတာ္ ဘဏ္ကိုသြားမယ္ ျပီးရင္ေတာ့ စာတိုက္ကိုသြားမယ္။ We also say (go to) the doctor/ the dentist: လူတစ္ေယာက္ရ႔အ ဲ လုပ္ကိုေျပာခ်င္ရင္လည္း ေရွ့တြင္ the ထည့္သံုပါတယ္။ Caroline isn’t very well. She’s gone to the doctor. (= her usual doctor) ကာရို္လင္း ေနသိပ္မေကာင္းဘူး။သူမဆရာ၀န္ဆီသြားခဲ့တယ္။ I don’t like going to the dentist. ငါသြားဆရာ၀န္ဆီသြားရတာမၾကိဳက္ဘူး။ Compare the and a: I have to go to the bank today. ကၽြန္ေတာ္ဒီေန႔ဘဏ္ကိုသြားရမယ္။ Is there a bank near here? ဒီနားမွာ ဘဏ္တစ္လံုးမ်ားရွိသလား။ I don’t like going to the dentist. ကၽြန္ေတာ္သြားဆရာ၀န္္ဆီ သြားရတာမၾကိဳက္ဘူး။ My sister is a dentist. ကၽြန္ေတာ္ညီမသည္ ဆရာ၀န္တစ္ေယာက္ျဖစ္သည္။ We say ‘once a week/ three times a day/ £1.50 a kilo’ etc: တစ္လမွာ(သ)ို႔တစ္ပတ္မွာ တစ္ၾကိမ္ ၊တစ္ကီလိုမွာ ဘယ္ေလာက္စသည္ျဖင့္ေျပာခ်င္ရင္ a ကိုသံုးပါတယ္။ ‘How often do you go to the cinema?’ ‘About once a month.’ မင္းရုပ္ရွင္ရံုကိုဘယ္ႏွစ္ၾကိမ္ေလာက္သြားလဲ။တစ္လမွာတစ္ၾကိမ္ေလာက္သြားတယ္။ ‘How much are those potatoes?’ ‘£1.50 a kilo.’ အာလူးတစ္ကီလိုဘယ္ေလာက္လဲ။တစ္ေပါင္ခြဲေပးရပါတယ္။ Helen works eight hours a day, six days a week. ဟယ္လန္တစ္ေန႔မွာ ရွစ္နာရီ၊တစ္ပတ္မွာ ေျခာက္ရက္အလုပ္လုပ္ပါတယ္။



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