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READINGS The readings are a intended to act as a conceptual foundation and stepping stone for the exploration of concept development. The readings focus on urban design, offering numerous concepts, strategies, and platforms upon which to build a design framework for the studio design project, “The Metabolism of Vernon and the Los Angles River� MAT Urbanism (Stan Allen) Defining the Urbanistic Project (Joan Busquets) Study Areas, Sites and the Geographic Approach to Public Action (Peter Marcuse) Where and How does Urban Design Happen (Alex Krieger) Biomorphic Intelligence (Lootsma)

01 03 05 07 09


MAT

01. MINIMAL FORMAL DISTINCTION

URBANISM: THE THICK 2D BY STAN ALLEN

Stan Allen seeks to further articulate and

assess Alison Smithson’s 1974 article “How to Recognize and Read MAT Building.” Allen offers various examples of the use of MAT Building princliples in contemporary design and planning. MAT Building is now being explored at the urban scale. With it’s emphasis on the diagrammatic and organizational, MAT Urbanism has a new releveance in contemporary planning. Rather than focusing on the deployment of a recognizable language and identity of form, the force of MAT Urbanism is not in its parts but in it’s collective whole.

Formal

Informal

02. MINIMAL SECTIONAL VARIATION

Little variation in sectional heights

03. WALLED CITY VS. OPEN CITY

Closed

Open

Vertical Emphasis

Horizontal Empahsis

04. MERGING OF NEW + OLD

The merging of new + old structures and uses


05. ABSENT OF HIERARCHY, CENTRALITY, AXIALITY, AND SYMMETRY

09. CELL (ARCHITECTURAL SCALE) TO CLUSTER (URBAN SCALE)

At the architectural scale MAT emphasizes the cellular form Hierarchal, Central, Axial

Non-Hierarchal, Central, Axial

06. CONNECTION DRIVEN VS. OBJECT ORIENTED

MAT is oriented to connect buildins and interstitial spaces rather than to the object of the architectural structure

At the urban scale MAT takes on a cstem and cluster-like form

10. ADDITIVE OR SUBTRACTIVE

07. AMBIGUITIES OF EDGES

MAT creates an ambiguity of where one structure/space ends and another begins

08. ANTI-FIGURAL, ANTI-REPRESENTATIONAL, AND ANTI-MONUMENTAL

MAT emphasizes the adaptability of the site and its spaces, allowing for

The antithesis of MAT Building

Buildings should be thought of from the beginning as fragments; as containing within themaselves athe capacity to act with other buildings: they should be themselves links in systems. Alison + Peter Smithson

MAT Building makes no emphasis on the figural or represntational


Defining the Urbanistic project by Joan Busquets

 5[PVJGVKE)GUVWTGU2CTVKEWNCTRTQLGEVUVJCV work as a catalyst to restructure the urban fabric QHCEKV[5WEJRTQLGEVUNKMGVJG)WIIGPJGKO Museum in Bilbao, Spain.

Joan Busquets looks at ten contemporary approaches that are re-defining urban planning.

 /WNVKRNKGF)TQWPFU7UKPIEQPXGTVGF infrastructure or reused spaces as central areas for restructuring the urban program.

3. Tactical Maneuvers: tactical decisions where funding or large scale development is improbable, small scale improvements begin to redefine the urban fabric, “there is always something to be improved”

4. Reconfigured Surfaces: Reconfigure/reprogram underutilized spaces, the aggregation of smaller scale RTQLGEVUVJCVEQPPGEVVQIGVJGTCPFUVTGPIVJGPVJG larger open spaces.


5. Piecemeal Aggregations: An intermediate scale, 16-24 city blocks, used to change the urban configuration of a city. This scale is used to determine city needs. It also provides services and communal spaces.

6. Traditional Views: A continuance of 19th and 20th century urban design approach but fulfilling the functional needs of today.

 4GE[ENGF6GTTKVQTKGU*WOCPUGVVNGOGPVKUPQV viewed as the primary element in an ecosystem, rather human settlement is one part of a larger ecological ecosystem.

8. Core Retrofitting: Retrofitting traditional and historic fabrics, these places are to function as the core of the city or urban design.

9. Analog Compositions: A large master plan is not the best method for development, look for small and KPVGTOGFKCVGUECNGRTQLGEVUCPFVJGEQPPGEVKQPUDGVYGGP these create an urban fabric.

10. Speculating Procedures: Innovation in the field of urban design is influenced by theory based disciplines such as philosophy, thermodynamics, hydraulics, computer‌ it is viewed as an experimental investigation.

6'%*01.1); 2*+.1512*; *;&4#7.+%5 COMPUTERS


study areas, sites, and the geographic approach to public action by Peter Marcuse

Peter Marcuse criticizes and investigates a new way to look at planning. Current Planning Strategy: 1. Site : a bounded piece of property 2. Study Area: a geographical unit of study such as a neighborhood, street, or zoning district. 3. Area of Concerns: concerns that arise from or influence the study area The approach is looking at the inside out; working at the issues and concerns that are directly related, physically or not, to the site. It limits the scope of work, neglecting possible issues that are not visible from this perspective Proposed Planning Strategy: 1. Area of Concern 2. Study Area 3. Site Peter Marcuse suggests working from the outside in. Larger issues such as pollution and poverty are starting points that contribute in defining a study area. Example: Pollution in a Neighborhood is the study area, source of pollution is determined as the site for action. The study area should also not be defined by geographic political borders because this leads to a wall. What happens outside this defined border? The issues are neglected and can result in assumptions that lead to unexpected consequences. Some areas of concern to consider when determining an area of study: • Physical: the adjacent areas surrounding the site. • Historical: look at the history of the site, begin to determine which is the most significant. What can the site be a monument, museum… • Planning: look at the current, past, future plans that influence the site. • Market: look at the jobs and the people that have and will work on the site, where do they commute from. The real estate value of the site, how far will this site influence that market. • Social: programs offered by the site, who will benefit from these programs? • Democratic: who has access to the planning process of the site. The planning should encourage the participation of all that are willing to participate. Ease of access to planning.


Outside In

Inside Out


Where and how does urban design happen ? by Alex Krieger Alex Krieger has described the ten spheres of urbanistic action that people calling themselves “ Urban Designers� have assumed to be their professional domain, though not all at once, nor even unanimity about the different sub-spheres overall.

Needless Land Consumption Settlement Pattern

S

Zoning Control Sprawl

Resource Allocation

Framework

Min. Environment Harm Architecture

Conser Open Sp

Planning

Smart Growth Bridge

Urban Design

Visiona Urbanis Infrastructure

Engineered Architecturalized

Theorist


Modern Lifestyle

Convenience

Overall Quality

Sustainability

Traditional Forms

Resource Distributiom

Urban Problem Solving

Green Space Future Oriented Human Intended

rve pace

Newer Approach

Local Issues

Placemaking

Shaping Forms

Community Advocacy Influence on future

Architecture of the city Restorative Urbanism

ary sm

ts

Rational Process

Public Policy

Landscape Urbanism

Conservation

Predecessors Evaluation

Permits

Infrastructure Ecology

Public Opinion Softscape / Landscape Shapes

Aesthetics Codes

Local Setting

BMP’s


Urban design readings