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The Ultimate Dangerous Game Rifle Designing for the 21st Century: The Lock

Hunting the


The Quintessential African Trophy


and elephant culling in Africa

A heartfelt letter to a sultry beauty


Still Barking after all these years

Spearfishing Success What does it take?

After the Shot

Blood In Motion: A Forensic Guide to Tracking www.africanxmag.com


Every year it is the same – I start with new resolutions that I want to keep. It is easy to decide I am going to hunt or scuba or kayak more. But to get ‘round to actually doing it – that is another thing. As far as personal habits go, I still do not exercise enough and I will not give up steak and biltong. Some things are not negotiable. As for the magazine itself, it’s easy for me: keep on getting better and stay at the cutting edge of hunting and internet presentation technology. These resolutions I can keep. Our new virtual reading experience, for example. Click the hunter guy to see it. We let readers read the magazine online, much like a real magazine. You page through the magazine just like a normal magazine. But of course, you can zoom, click everywhere and go directly to a professional hunters’ site or a product page or watch a video. One day, Christopher Columbus was at a dinner which a Spanish gentleman had given in his honor, and several persons were present who were jealous of the great admiral’s success. They were proud, conceited fellows, and very soon they began to try to make Columbus uncomfortable. “You have discovered strange lands beyond the seas,” they said, “but what of that? We do not see why there should be so much said about it. Anybody can sail across the ocean - and anybody can coast along the islands on the other side, just as you have done. It is the simplest thing in the world.” Columbus made no answer but took a boiled egg from a dish. He looked intently at them with the egg in his hand. “Who among you, gentlemen, can make this egg stand on end?” One by one those at the table tried it and said that it was impossible. Columbus then tapped the egg’s small end on the table, indenting the shell so that it could stand upright. “What is easier than to do this which you said was impossible?” Columbus asked them. “It is the simplest thing in the world. Anybody can do it - AFTER he has been shown how!’’ There will be African hunting magazines that will do this after us. But there is always certain satisfaction in being the first. And, as they say, imitation is the sincerest form of flattery! We at African Expedition wish you the best year you have ever had, and a heartfelt thanks to all you hunters and adventurers who help us grow so exponentially.

Mitch Mitchell 3 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE January 2009

Publisher Safari Media Africa Financial Thea Mitchell Editors Africa: Mitch Mitchell editorafrica@africanxmag.com USA: Alan Bunn editorusa@africanxmag.com Layout & Design Xtasis Media and Digital Wind Contributors & Photographers L. Grizzaffi (Reloading), C. Cheney, A. Bunn, D. Edgcumbe, G. Geer, Dr. K. Hugo (Medical) C. Mitchell, Dr. G. Swart (Medical) Advertising and Marketing South Africa: T. Mitchell adssa@africanxmag.com Phone +27 13-7125246 Fax 0866104466 USA: Alan Bunn adsusa@africanxmag.com (706) 2762608 African Expedition Magazine is an independent bimonthly publication promoting fair, sustainable hunting, a protected environment, adventure sports and practices. The African Expedition Magazine is published by Safari Media Africa

Disclaimer While all precautions have been taken to ensure the accuracy of advice and information provided, the Proprietor. Publisher, Editor or Writers cannot accept responsibility for any damages, inconvenience or injury whatsoever that may result from incorrect information. The views expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the publisher or its agents. African Expedition Magazine assumes no responsibility to return graphics unsolicited editorial, or other material. All rights in unsolicited editorial, letters, emails, graphics and other material will be treated as unconditionally assigned for publication and copyright purposes and material will be subject to African Expedition Magazine’s unrestricted right to edit and editorial comment. All material and/or editorial in African Expedition is the property of African Expedition and/or the various contributors. No part of this magazine may be reproduced without the prior written consent of the Publisher.

con 8 The Ultimate Dangerous Game Rifle

Designing for the 21st Century: The Lock

20 Hunting the Zebra

The Quintessential African Trophy

38 TheOld Warhorse

Still Barking after all these years


48 Bardot and elephant culling in Africa

A heartfelt letter to a sultry beauty

55 Spearfishing Success What does it take?

ntents 60 After the Shot

Blood In Motion: A Forensic Guide to Tracking

68 Press Releases 74 Trophy Gallery 5 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE January 2009

80 News 88 African Bush Cuisine

Springbuck Shank Pie with Red Wine and thyme

91 True North

The Warrior Heart


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The Ultimate Dangerous Game Rifle Designing for the 21st Century: The Lock




n part one of this article (July 2008 issue), several issues associated with barrels and iron front sights were discussed at length. Now let’s look at one of the other two traditional parts of a firearm; the lock or, in modern terms, the receiver. I will talk about some ideas for their possible refinement, and try to examine every feature in detail. If there is anything I have overlooked or if you know of any new products or ideas we should know about I would love to hear additional thoughts from our readers.

After years of research and worldwide combat experience, Paul Mauser standardized his bolt action rifle design in 1898 with his famous Mauser Model 98 action which featured cock on opening, control round feed and positive claw extraction. Although there have been several notable designs in the ensuing century the main innovative thrusts in receiver designs have focused on cutting manufacturing costs. No one has substantially improved on Mauser’s original criteria of total reliability in combat under extreme conditions of weather. Currently Gottfried Prechtl Firearms in Germany and Granite Mountain Arms in the U.S. are both manufacturing new Model 98 magnum receivers using the early 1930’s drawings of Paul Mauser and adhering closely to his original specifications. Gottfried Prechtl, on his website, goes into detail to explain where he has diverged from Mauser’s original dimensions, but these are minor changes and only serve to enhance gas pressure handling capabilities and facilitate modern cartridge sizes. As far as I am concerned - besides the stock - the biggest design flaws in factory DGR’s and the biggest potential hazard to your health is the lack of an extracapacity drop box magazine. I do not understand the big rifle companies, such as Winchester and Remington with their three round magazines . . . . and some of the factory issued big caliber Weatherby rifles hold only two rounds! There has been so much complaining from the rifle hunting community that Weatherby now sells a floor plate that will let you put three rounds in rifles like my .30-378 Mark V. In fact, the main reason I recommend CZ rifles to safari bound newcomers is for their enhanced magazine capacity. January 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE


The older model Brno ZKK 602 is a favorite among African PHs because they hold five .375 H&H cartridges in the magazine and one in the chamber. CZ’s new model safari rifles, the CZ 550 Safari will do the same “one up, five down” stack. To their credit, Ruger does put four shots down in the magazine of their .375 H&H caliber M77 RSM Safari rifles, but no one can beat CZ in terms of total firepower. This feature can only be appreciated by someone who has emptied their rifle into a dangerous animal that is still on its feet. I highly recommend practicing rapid reloads at the rifle range before you go off on safari. This is something I had to learn the hard way. After my close call in Australia with a banteng (wild ox) I am almost overcome with gratitude just thinking about an extra round in the big Weatherby calibers, if I had my choice, I would prefer to have a rotary magazine, like the old 1903 Mannlicher-Schoenauer with one cartridge up and five down capabilities. Too expensive to build or not practical size-wise, I suppose; although Ruger has managed to field both .44 Mag. and .22 caliber rifles that use a rotary design magazine. I see no reason why a good modern designer couldn’t come up with something similar for large caliber DGRs. A rotary design magazine would have the advantage of holding more rounds than a conventional straight or staggered cartridge design, but would not extend as far below the stock, which would facilitate the rifle’s handling and carrying characteristics. However, like I said, the downside to this idea is the size of the magnum cartridges could make it too fat in profile to fit elegantly into the stock. Another good rifle design that incorporates a great idea is the two “onboard” detachable magazines used by the Steyr-Mannlicher L series DGR rifles of a few years ago. Conventional wisdom warns against using detachable magazines in a DGR for a couple of reasons. First, it is feared that recoil will blow the magazine out of the rifle with hot hand loads, or even with some factory ammo. However, I personally know an experienced hand loader who has taken his .458 Win. Mannlicher L on safari. He told me that the locking mechanism is so robust that blowing out a mag has never been a problem for him, even with brisk reloads. The other nice thing about the Mannlicher L design was the extra magazine that was built into the stock. This is so much better for quick reloads than the pricey trap-door cartridge holders found inletted into many custom rifle stocks or behind their recoil pads, not to mention the inexpensive elastic slip-on designs. The second thing with detachable mags that conventional wisdom warns you about is that if you lose them you are left with only a single shot rifle at best or a club—at worst. This 10 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE January 2009


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true but that is why the SteyrMannlicher stock-mounted extra magazine is so clever. Besides, if it was me, I would have 3-4 extra magazines at a minimum. No big deal with a deer rifle, but in a DGR it would be better to reload military style if the need arose. Eject the empty magazine onto the ground, and slap a fully loaded new magazine in as fast as possible. Even a missing $50-100 magazine would not be a crippling financial loss, and the fact is they can be usually recovered after the action in most hunting situations. Well known writer and Zimbabwean PH, Don Heath, has a detachable mag equipped Dumoulin in 9.3x62 which he loves, and tells me that he has never had any problems with its magazine. He carries several spare magazines, which are not only good for rapid reloads but also enable quick changes from soft points to solids as the need arises. It is too bad Steyr made the Model L’s magazines out of a plastic polymer which became brittle and unreliable with age. Plastic and other synthetic materials have many places where they are practical on a serious weapon, for instance as a coating to protect the metal or to provide a buffer for some reason, but I am dubious about using them for magazines. So I say yes to detachable magazines for a DGR, if they are properly designed and manufactured. An enterprising rifle company needs to find an extremely talented metal smith to copy the Steyr-Mannlicher magazine design and their stock mount system. Make it out of steel, make it as robust as possible. . . . and make an extra half dozen spare magazines for me! Another seemingly minor, but actually very important, point is that the bolt handle knob on a DGR should be larger than the one used on standard big game rifles to facilitate acquiring the bolt quickly and automatically when the hunter is under stress. Also, I personally don’t want any checkering in the metal on the bottom side of the knob. I once had a Remington 700 bolt knob “sandpaper” a nice scar into my right index finger when I didn’t have a perfect grip on a heavy recoiling .416 Rem. Mag. KS Custom. 12 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE January 2009

The large teardrop shaped bolt handles found on some traditional Mauser DGRs are a perfect design that I see no reason to change. Many bolt action military sniper rifles also sport extra large bolt knobs for the same reasons that a proper DGR should have one. They are easy to find and manipulate during very stressful situations, where a small mistake can have dire consequences on your longevity. Another high tech solution that is often overlooked is an all-weather lubricant, whether grease, powder, or oil, that will retain its qualities in extreme temperatures. An arctic to tropic weapon needs lubrication that will enable it to function in the harshest climates on Earth. The only choices I currently know of are Shooter’s Choice gun grease which will function in temperatures from -60 to +360F degrees and Shooter’s Choice FP-10 Lubricant Elite which has a range of -76 to +500F degrees. There maybe are some others available now, but these were the first that I know of to tackle this problem. Polar bear hunters have found out the hard way what a big problem lubrication can be in a very cold climate. A DGR must be 100% reliable, so when the moment comes, you can take whatever shot is offered without worrying about a frozen receiver. Traditionalists weep at the thought of the demise of rust bluing, but there are now better solutions for metal protection. I had a Teflon coated, syntheticstocked rifle back when you could not give the things away and no one else in the world wanted them. This was in the 1970’s, and I also wanted quickdetach scope rings, but was shouted down by all the local rifle “gurus.” Being a contrarian by nature, I would have bought them anyway, but the only sources at the time that I knew of for quick-detach scope rings were in Germany, and I didn’t know any practical way to order them. The same local experts who thought my rifle was a horrible abortion happily took my money since they figured I would soon be committed to an insane asylum and have no further need of money. A pioneering assistant gunsmith hand made my prototype synthetic stock from a fiberglass mold, and then found one of the few gunsmiths in the country who did Teflon coatings. 40 years later, the stores are full

The CZ50 Safari Kevlar


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of similar guns and today no one even looks sideways at mine. Today we have even more advanced finishes, one finish option I would consider for coating an arctic to equator rifle is to send it to Robar and have them put on their NP3 and Roguard finishes. There are other US companies offering all sorts of different finishes, but the Robar Company has one of the best reputations in the business. They have been around for a long time and their rugged products are well known among shooters. Their first product, Roguard, meets the U.S. Military Machine Gun Dry Firing Requirements of 60 days of sea water immersion or 1000 hours salt spray, and the other finish, NP3, exceeds a 240 hour salt spray test, so it should be capable of handling any demands most people might make on it. Robar recommends having the outside surfaces done in Roguard which looks similar to regular bluing, but is actually black in color, then have the internal parts coated with NP3, which is a medium gray color, and also has the advantage of being self-lubricating. Receiver mounted sights are another interesting idea. A feature of the old Brno ZKK 602 DGRs (much loved by everyone who saw it) is the receiver with a flip-up peep sight built in to the rear bridge. These peep sight models are much sought after by many dangerous game hunters who haunt gun shows looking for wayward rifles in need of new homes. If you can’t find a gun show gun then the alternative is flip-up peep sights from some custom gunsmiths, but only at fairly high prices. While not a flip up design, Talley has a nice peep sight that mounts straight onto their rear scope bases. On a full tilt custom rifle built, it would be possible to have one of these fitted to a trap door storage place in the stock where it could be kept until needed. For most folks, putting it in a military surplus compass pouch would get the job done, albeit not as elegantly. Despite Jack O’Connor’s famous comment that hunters, who wanted iron sights on their scoped rifle, were like Model T owners who insisted on buggy

whip holders, I don’t like a gun that doesn’t have iron sights. I don’t want scope-only rifles at all, even if they are varmint rifles. There are just too many things that can go wrong to damage a rifle scope when you are far away from camp. I want to be able to detach a disabled scope quickly, and have some good iron sights to fall back on if a shot opportunity presents itself. This can become a serious issue in the thick bush of Africa on the trail of a big wounded animal such as a Cape buffalo. A return of the flip-up peep sight built into the rear of the receiver would be a heck of a selling feature to offer and would gladden the heart of many true hunters. Novice safari hunters generally like the idea of folding rear sights and flip-up “moon sights” on the front, but the reality is that a folding back sight on a DGR is not a very good idea. Most all professional hunters and many clients have made the observation that when you really need it, a folding back sight will always be folded down.

Prechtl action

However, a flip-up moon sight on your front is always a good idea for low light situations. Traditionally, moon sights are made of warthog ivory, which they say doesn’t yellow with age, but for me I’d rather have a tritium model such as I discussed in Part One, unless the rifle was a very traditional piece and warranted wart hog ivory.

I have extensively used both Warne and Talley quick-detach rings and bases and they have served me well with no failures. I do not like the Leupold QR design as the levers are too easy to knock loose. I had a problem with a QR on a banteng hunt on the Cobourg Peninsula in Australia. That incident broke me from ever wanting to use them again. The Leupold QRW is a different story, as it is just the Warne design marketed under the Leupold name. This is a small point, but to me a very important point, when placing your order. Harold Wolfe once wrote me, “As to the way of hunting in Europe, people require huge, ugly scopes, which do not mate with classic elegant lines of a rifle. This is why many rifle catalogues do not show pictures of scope mounted rifles any more - it just looks too bad.” Undoubtedly this is true, but for the most part Americans are long on performance and short on style. Most serious hunters I know would not give January 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE

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Krieger Barrels 2024 Mayfield Road Richfield, WI 53076 (262) 628-8558 http://www.kriegerbarrels.com/ Meprolight 58 Hazait Street P.O. Box 26 Or-Akiva, 30600 Israel (972) 4 6244111 http://www.meprolight.com/ Ameriglow 5579B Chamblee Dunwoody Road, Suite 214 Atlanta, Georgia 30338 (770)390-0554 http://www.ameriglow.com/ Trijicon 49385 Shafer Avenue P.O. Box 930059 Wixom, MI 48393 USA 1-800-338-0563 (248) 960-7700 http://www.trijicon.com/ Serengeti Stockworks 2860 Farm to Market Rd Kalispell, Montana 59901 (406)756-0783 http://www.serengetistockworks.com/ Talley 9183 Old Number Six Hwy. P.O. Box 369 Santee, SC 29142 (803) 854-5700 http://www.talleyrings.com/ Warne 9500 SW Tualatin Road Tualatin, OR 97062 1-800-683-5590 (503) 657-5590 http://www.warnescopemounts.com/ Robar 21438 North 7th Ave, Suite B Phoenix, Arizona 85027 (623) 581-2648 http://www.robarguns.com/np3.htm Granite Mountain Arms P.O. Box 72736 Phoenix, AZ 85050 (602) 996-9009 http://www.granitemountainarms.com/ Gottfried Prechtl Auf der Aue 3 D-69488 Birkenau, Germany +49 6201 167 88 http://www.golmatic.de/Waffen_EN/buechsenmacherbedarf_en/ system_en.htm

you a dime for elegance. Personally, I like designs that combine both elegance and performance. However, there will always be the die-hard traditionalists, to whom the scope manufacturers should cater to, and personally I regret that you can no longer get all steel tube scopes. Maybe all steel is a small point, but they are much more rugged than the present aluminum tube models. I think this is an important point and so much so that I think the extra weight is worth it, even in mountainous terrain. For many of us, the 4x is all the scope we may ever need, but the variable powered scopes always outsell the fixed scopes. This is the reality of today’s market. I would say the Leupold 3-9x33 is probably the all time number one selling quality scope in the US. It is rare to find someone with a fixed 4x or 6x, but when you do it is usually the sign of a sophisticated and knowledgeable hunter. I am one of the few people I know who uses a 4x on a big game rifle and it is a steel tubed German Zeiss, unfortunately, this has not imparted to me any sophistication or knowledge. I was just following Jack O’Conner and Elmer Keith’s advice. Then there is the issue of 1-inch vs. 30mm scope rings. You will have some calls for 30mm rings, but most Americans will prefer the 1-inch just because they are familiar, easier to find, and usually less expensive. There is the argument that the larger 30mm tube transmits more light. Obviously this is true but I don’t know if the human eye can actually discern the difference. However, if I was putting together an ultimate DGR and had the budget, I’d probably go with the 30mm rings just for the hell of it.

Remington http://www.remington.com/products/firearms/centerfire_rifles/ model_798/model_798_safari.asp

Another thing to consider is your trigger mechanism. If it is based on a commercial Mauser or Winchester design then it is already simple, robust and easy to tweak. If it is an old military Mauser trigger, I would recommend replacing it with a new Timney trigger. I have an old Mauser 7x57mm deer rifle with a Timney trigger that has worked flawlessly for many years. Although very robust, the original military triggers leave much to be desired in the accuracy department.

CZ http://www.safariclassics.com/cz550asm.aspx http://www.safariclassics.com/sc550.asp

Finally there is the question of what is the best safety. If your rifle only has iron sights, there

New England Custom Guns 438 Willow Brook Road Plainfield, NH 03781 (603) 469-3450 http://www.newenglandcustomgun.com/ Timney Triggers http://www.timneytriggers.com/sunshop/catalog/Mauser-1-1.html Shooter’s Choice http://www.shooters-choice.com/


is not much point in replacing the original vertical Mauser “flipper” safety as issued on all their military rifles. However, mounting a scope low on the receiver, American style, necessitates the use of a horizontal lever safety, such as found on the Winchester Model 70, to clear it. The only decision you need to make is whether you like the three position factory Winchester safety or a custom two position safety. Since most folks are already familiar with the three position safety, they don’t even think about it, but on a DGR, a two position safety gives you an extra half second of speed in getting your rifle into firing mode. I probably would not spend the money to replace a factory three position safety, but if I were building a new rifle from scratch and had the option, I would go with a two position safety just for the extra fraction

of a second. Not a big deal, but in the wrong circumstances it could become a very big deal nevertheless. On the Ruger rifle, I would replace their small safety with a bigger after market version. Older Ruger rifles had sliding thumb safeties on their tangs like double barreled shotguns and double rifles. This is the best safety design ever made for a DGR, and I have no idea why they ever dropped it. The decision had to be the cost factor, but there is no doubt the tang safety is the fastest and best design that has ever been developed for a DGR, whether scoped or unscoped. The DGR is not your deer or elk rifle. It is a rifle that you are betting your life on and you cannot take shortcuts with it. Some hunters have tried—and died.

Alan Bunn is a hunting publication veteran and has a degree in journalism from the Atlanta University. He is a rifle expert and hunts regularly in Africa. January 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE

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The Quintessential African Trophy

Hunting the

Hunting the Ze-


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Species: Equus burchelli (Gray, 1824) English: Burchell’s zebra Afrikaans: Bontsebra Shangaan: Mangwa Zulu: Dube Xhosa: Dube Shona: Mbizi Sotho: Pitsi Tswana: Pitsi

DESCRIPTION Sometimes unkindly referred to as the “pajama donkey”, the Burchell’s zebra is one of the most exquisite trophies any bowhunter could wish for and this is one time when size is not really important, even a rug mount of a sub-adult is eye catching in it’s beauty. They are sometimes erroneously referred to in Afrikaans as “kwaggas”. The true quagga however, whilst closely related to the Burchell’s zebra, became extinct towards the end of the last century when the last living specimen died in captivity in 1883. The whistling intake of breath followed by nasal “kwa ha kwa ha ha” whistling of these animals is one of the unique and captivating sounds of the African bush. It is thought that the name “kwagga” originated from the call. Inhabiting open grass plains and well grassed woodlands this species must surely rank as one of Africa’s most elegant children. Belonging to the horse family zebra have typical horse-like features. The general colour is white or buff with starkly contrasting dark brown to black stripes, which become broad and oblique over the hind quarters. Stripes extend very low down to the belly on the flanks. The height at shoulder is about 50 – 55” (127 – 140cm) and they weigh in at about 500 – 700lb (230 –320kg). There is no significant difference in size and weight between the sexes. Stallions however tend to have slightly thicker necks. The Burchell’s zebra differs from mountain zebra in that the ears are shorter, a dewlap is absent, there is no “grid” pattern at the base of the tail and they have lighter shadow stripes between the black stripes on the hind quarters. Zebra always appear to be in good condition with shiny coats and well filled out bellies. This despite the fact that zebra carry one of the highest parasite loads of all wild animals. Most wild animals are host to many parasites but zebra have a particularly high load when compared to other species. Some zebra even have a parasitic worm that lives in the aortic arch of the aorta as it exits from the heart. Most internal organs harbour specific parasites. January 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE

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DISTRIBUTION Most authorities agree that that Burchell’s zebra has never occurred south of the Olifants river in South Africa. In the Southern African sub-region they are found in the north and north eastern parts of the Koakoveld in Namibia up to the Botswana border. They are widespread in Botswana north of Lake Ngami and the Makgadigadi pan and in the Tuli block. They are absent in the central plateau and eastern districts of Zimbabwe but occur north and south of the plateau. They are found in the north and eastern parts of Mpumalanga, in parts of Gauteng, Northern province, North West province and in parts of Natal Kwazulu in South Africa. They also occur in parts of Swaziland. They are found south of the Zambezi in Mocambique but are absent in the south and more densely populated eastern parts of the country.

HABITAT The Burchell’s zebra is a savanna species that is partial to open woodland, shrub and grassland where water is readily available. They avoid dense woodland if possible and although they occur in dry semi arid areas, they are not found in true desert country. Their particular habitat preferences and water requirements often result in seasonal migrations.

HABITS Zebra are gregarious animals that form small family groups consisting of a stallion, one or two adult mares and foals of varying ages. Family group size averages 7 – 10 animals. While herding mares a stallion keeps it’s head lowered and ears forward. Stallions who have no mares form bachelor groups or live alone. Family groups remain distinct even in large aggregations of zebra. There does not appear to be any social organization above that of family groups. Burchell’s zebra are often seen in the company of blue wildebeest. This is because they both favour short grass areas. Zebra have loosely organized home ranges and readily move to wherever food and water are available. There is quite a lot of group interaction and social

grooming in zebra. They often lean against each other. Vocal communication is important in this species. Courting stallions “nicker”, animals will whinny or will snort by forcing air through the nostrils to warn of danger. When attacked by predators a breeding herd bunches up. When they run, the stallions hang back or position themselves on the flank to ward off the predators, which they often do successfully. Scarred rumps from unsuccessful lion attacks attest to the effectiveness of their defensive kicks. Zebra, to their own detriment, tend to be inquisitive, often returning to investigate a source of initial flight. This can sometimes give a bowhunter a second chance if he has “spooked” a herd of zebra. Competition between rival stallions can sometimes erupt into full scale fights with biting, kicking and rearing. Burchell’s zebra are not territorial. Lion and hyaena are the main predators of zebra. Mortalities also occur through disease. Zebra are very partial to taking dust baths and it is common to find areas within their habitat where they roll in the sand or bare ground. Because they are preyed upon by lion, especially around waterholes, they are wary when approaching to drink.

FEEDING AND DRINKING Zebra are mainly grazers, but occasionally will browse on leaves and scrub. They also dig for grass rhizomes and corms during the dry season. They graze on short grass and are able to survive in areas with poor or coarse grass cover. Zebra have a strong, mobile upper lip which helps to channel food between the incisors. Two of the favourite grass species selected by zebra are Cynodon dactylon and Themeda triandra. They have been observed feeding on the singed leaves of mopane (Colophospermum mopane) and round leaf teak (“dopper kiaat”) – Pterocarpus rotundifolia. Zebra are very partial to green flushes which occur after a burn or following rain. They will also feed on the devil thorn Tribulus terrestris , a herbaceous pioneer plant growing on disturbed or overgrazed ground, which is poisonous to sheep. They are very dependent on water and never wander very far from water holes. Zebra require approximately 14 litres of water per day to meet their physiological requirements but will drink an average of 21 litres at a time as the drinking frequency is in the January 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE

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region of once every 36 hours.

Dust baths and rubs

Zebra are not ruminants. They have a single stomach and a very enlarged portion of the large intestine – the caecum – fulfills the fermenting function of the four stomachs of ruminants. Zebra are referred to as hindgut fermenters.

Zebra enjoy rolling in sandy areas and they leave

HUNTING THE ZEBRA Trophy Rug mounts make beautiful and eye catching trophies with their starkly contrasting black and white stripes. As the hide is the trophy in this animal it is important to ensure that field preparation and skinning is carried out in a professional and thorough way.

Signs to look for Vocalization If you have been following the series of articles on tracking you will recall that sign does not only include visual clues but also those picked up by your other senses as well – such as sound, smell, touch and taste. Zebra are very vocal animals and will frequently betray their presence by “barking”, whinnying, and snorting. These sounds can carry a long way in the bush and can lead you to zebra long before you have a visual sighting. Listen for these signs. Tracks and droppings The tracks of zebra are those of the typical horse-like hoof. The general hoof structure is well known and should be familiar to anyone who has seen a horse. The horse family only have one “toe” (the third) on each leg and only the tip of the toe (the hoof) comes into contact with the ground.

A zebra hoof showing the non-cloven shape (above) and track (below)

The tracks of Burchell’s zebra resemble those of a small horse. The length of the track is about 120 – 140mm with the hind track being slightly longer and narrower. On hard ground only the edges of the hoof and the frog will be visible. Zebra dung is kidney shaped with each individual pellet about 50mm in length. It is usually deposited randomly because zebra are not territorial. Grazing areas Areas heavily grazed by zebra are often characterized by trampling and by grass having been cropped fairly close to the ground. Signs of digging with hooves in search of underground corms and rhizomes can sometimes be observed.

A horse track is larger and more round when compared to that of a zebra


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Piles of zebra scat. Older scat (left) and fresh scat being broken up by dung beetles (right).

bare, dusty patches behind. They also sometimes choose a convenient object such as a rock or log to rub themselves on. Hair will be left behind on the

Figure 6: A zebra rubbing against a tree. Hair will be found on the tree.

Hunting techniques for bowhunters Zebra will be found in well grassed woodland or in fairly open grassland. It is relatively easy to stalk up to zebra in woodland but can be quite difficult in open habitat. To the advantage of the bowhunter zebra are not easily spooked. They are inquisitive and will sometimes stand to watch an approaching intruder. They might even approach closer to investigate. Even after having been stampeded they will stop after having run off a short distance. It is not unusual for them to return to the site of disturbance to investigate the source of their fright. Although zebra will allow you to approach them in open habitat their flight distance is too far to fall within bow range. It is therefore advisable to try, as far as possible, to approach without being seen or to position yourself to intercept a herd along its direction of travel. Zebra have a keen sense of sight, hearing, and smell. Always approach downwind if possible. Zebra are successfully hunted using spot and stalk and walk and stalk techniques, or using hides or elevated platforms. In open areas the use of a ground blind or even hiding in a disused aardvark burrow are further options open to the bowhunter.

Individual scat pellets showing the distinctive kidney shape. Fresh scat above and older scat below. Note the change in colour.

The dependence of zebra on water make waterholes and the approaches to waterholes good ambush sites. A good hunter can sometimes call zebra in by mimicking the “kwa ha kwa ha ha� call.

object. See Figure 5 and 6.


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A zebra rubbing against a tree. Hair will be found on the tree.

Follow up Wait a minimum of 30 minutes before following up after a heart/lung shot, at least 2 to 3 hours after a liver shot and 10 to 12 hours before you begin looking for a gut shot animal. Zebra have a fairly slow blood clotting time. Blood clots in about 9 to 11 minutes. They lose a lot of blood therefore before the clotting process becomes effective. This works to the bowhunter’s advantage. Zebra dust bathing

Shot placement Quartering away and broadside shots into the heart lung area should be the target area of choice. See Figure 7. Frontal and rear end shots are not advised. When taking a broadside shot be careful of placing the shot too far forward as the shoulder blade (scapula) and upper bone of the foreleg (humerus) are quite substantial and will definitely have a detrimental effect on arrow penetration.

Choice of equipment Any efficient bow of 60lbs or more will be able, with the help of a good broadhead tipped arrow, and good shot placement, to dispatch a fully grown zebra. Carbon, wooden and aluminium arrows have all been used with good effect when matched to the right bows. A complete arrow weight of at least 500 grains is advised. The arrow / broadhead combination must be able to deliver a momentum of 0.4 or a kinetic energy of 60 – 70 foot pounds.

Concentrate on the top of the crease at the back of the foreleg or slightly behind it for good arrow placement.

Don’t go too light. A heavier arrow having higher momentum will penetrate better through tissue and bone than will a light arrow.

Zebra are fairly broad animals and arrow pass through is not always guaranteed. Incomplete pass through will result in a poorer blood spoor. Fortunately the open to semi-open habitat frequented by zebra usually makes follow up fairly straight forward after a good shot.

A strong, well constructed , one-piece broadhead of high mechanical advantage and cut on impact point is suggested. Remember that two-blade broadheads will generally have better penetration than three or four blades. Three blade broadheads will howJanuary 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE

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Shot placement for bowhunters, left side view, organs left in position.

ever keep the wound channel open and give a better blood trail to follow.

Hunting techniques for rifle hunters It is relatively easy to get within rifle range on foot when hunting zebra. A heart lung shot would be a good choice of shot if the range is a bit far as it presents the biggest target. When using a scope or at closer range the neck and brain shot are also options. One thing to bear in mind when choosing the neck shot as an option is that there is a thick ligament running in the top of the neck above the spine which if hit will cause the animal to drop in its tracks as if with a spinal shot.

suddenly gets up and runs off! Reading in the history books of the old west there are records of cowboys actually using this technique to capture wild horses. The idea is to place a neck shot at about the midpoint of the thickness of the neck and not aim too high in the neck.

Choice of equipment There are a wide range of calibre and bullet choices for hunting zebra. Some of the many possibilities are listed in the next table. Avoid using solids. Soft point bullets will work for brain neck or heart lung shots.

Don’t be surprised if, when approaching the animal it


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3 2


Shot placement for rifle hunters, left side view, organs in position. 1) Heart-lung shot 2) Neck shot 3) Brain shot



7mm Remington Magnum

150 or 160 grain SP, NP

.308 Winchester

150, 165 or 180 grain SP, NP

30-06 Springfield

150, 165, 180 or 200 grain SP, NP

.300 Winchester Magnum

150, 165, 180 or 200 grain SP, NP

.300 Weatherby Magnum

150, 165, 180 or 200 grain SP, NP

.338 Winchester Magnum

180, 200, 225,or 250 grain SP, NP

.340 Weatherby Magnum

200, 225 or 250 grain SP, NP

.350 Remington Magnum

200 grain SP

.375 Holland & Holland Magnum

250, 270 or 300 grain SP, NP

378 Weatherby Magnum

270 or 300 grain Barns –X or RN expanding

* SP – Soft Point

NP - Nosler Partition

RN – Round Nose

Cleve Cheney holds a bachelor of science degree in zoology and a master’s degree in animal physiology. He is a wilderness trail leader, rated field guide instructor and the author of many leading articles on the subjects of tracking, guiding, bowhunting and survival. Cleve has unrivalled experience in wildlife management, game capture and hunting, both with bow and rifle.


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Nuchal ligament

Left side view with semitransparent skin. Skeleton, circulation and organs in position. Left lung moved.

Nuchal ligament

Left side view with transparent skin. Skeleton, circulation and organs in position. Left lung moved.


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Left side view with transparent skin and skeleton. Brain, spinal chord, circulation and organs in position. Left lung moved.

Circulation only.


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Left view with transparent skin. Left lung moved, other organs in place.

Shot placement from a treestand for bowhunters, high left side view, semitransparent skin.


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Closeup of vital area with transparent skin. Left lung moved, other organs in place.

Closeup of vital area with transparent skin. Left lung and organs moved.


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Front left view with transparent skin and skeleton and organs. Circulation in position.

Left quartering away with transparent skin and organs.


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www.3DSPG.com Wireframe view of skeleton and circulation

Images courtesy 3DShot Placement Guide


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Right wireframe views



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The Old Warhorse Still Barking after all these years 38 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE January 2009


Koos Barnard

he .303 British is one of the most well-known cartridges of the 20th century. It served as the official British military cartridge for more than 60 years and although not popular in America, this rimmed cartridge was very popular for hunting in all the former British colonies. It is still going strong in South Africa, Canada and Australia. January 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE

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Designed for the Lee-Metford Mk I rifles in 1887, the .303 cartridge was adopted by the British army in 1888. Its 215g bullet was driven by 70gr of black powder to a velocity of 1850fps. When smokeless cordite replaced black powder, the velocity was increased to 1970fps. Unfortunately the hot-burning cordite powder eroded the shallow Metford-type rifling very quickly and in 1895 the deeper Enfieldtype rifling was adopted and from then on the rifles were known as Lee-Enfields. The British used this rifle against the Boers during the Anglo-Boer War of 1899 - 1902. Early in the 1900s when the big military powers of the day (Germany and America) switched to lighter bullets for their service rifles Britain did the same and shortly before World War I the 215gr bullet was replaced by a 174gr spitzer leaving the muzzle at approximately 2440fps. As all British colonies were issued with .303s, thousands came into South Africa after the Anglo-Boer War and again before and after World War I. Many of these rifles fell into the hands of local farmers and hunters who found the Lee-Enfield reliable and accurate enough for general purpose hunting. Inevitably it was used with military FMJ ammunition which was cheap and readily available in large quantities. Although deadly on humans, the .303 soon became a controversial hunting cartridge because the military ammunition produced mixed results. The FMJ bullets had aluminium tips which shifted their centre of gravity back. When the Geneva Convention decided that expanding bullets were inhumane for military use, Britain sidestepped this restriction by designing a FMJ with an aluminium tip. Within the first 100m or so these bullets with their lightened tips were still yawing in flight and when striking a target its “back-heaviness� caused the bullet to cartwheel or tumble through the target, causing horrific damage.


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On small animals the tumbling bullet often killed like lightning, but if the shoulder bone of a large antelope was struck or a raking shot was taken, the tumbling inhibited penetration and the bullet often failed to reach the vitals. At longer ranges the bullet stabilized, but then punched a tiny, clean hole through the animal, doing very little peripheral damage and often causing very slow internal bleeding. Many animals thus escaped wounded or ran far before they went down and were subsequently not recovered. Such conflicting results had as many hunters swearing at the .303 as swearing by it. Overall it developed a reputation as a wounder which was not the fault of the cartridge, but the bullet. Used with appropriate expanding bullets the .303 is adequate for all non-dangerous game at short and medium ranges. Under bushveld conditions (out to 150m) a 174gr softnose at 2400fps is good medicine for anything up to and including blue wildebeest and kudu while a 215 grainer at 2150fps will down all game from duiker to eland with ease. Although the .303 is not a long range cartridge for smaller plains game species, 150gr bullets loaded to 2500 - 2600fps will perform admirably on springbuck and blesbuck out to 220m. If you own a rangefinder and are familiar with your bullet/load’s trajectory, taking on small game out to 300m should not be a problem at all. No manufacturers chamber rifles in .303 anymore, but surplus military rifles can be bought at comparatively low prices and turned into useful sporters. A number of manufacturers still produce ammunition while reloading components are readily available from several companies. Some, like Rhino and Claw, both South African manufacturers, produce premiumgrade hunting bullets for this old warhorse.

Although the .303 is quite accurate in properly tuned rifles, especially in ones built on the strong P14 action (a K98 Mauser-type made in America), this rifle/ cartridge combination is not meant for long range varmint shooting. Its flexible action and often oversized chamber count against it, but for general purpose hunting any of the old military rifles with good bores will do a stellar job. Due to the flexible action and oversized chambers full length resizing of cases is not recommended as head separation becomes a common problem. Partial or neck-sizing will make cases last longer and it is good policy to avoid maximum loads. In rifles built on P14 actions handloaders can push the .303 easily into the .308 Win class. The .303 I own, was inherited from my late father who bought the rifle second-hand in 1952 in the old South West Africa, now Namibia. This old LeeEnfield MkI of 1902 vintage came with 200 rounds of military FMJ ammunition. I still have in my possession the original licence that was issued to my dad, signed by a Mr Genis. The date 1902 is stamped on the stock and action but whether it ever saw action during the last months of the Anglo-Boer War we will never know. When I got the rifle the barrel was in bad shape so I shopped around until I found an original BSA barrel in good nick with the same profile as the old one. As I wanted a handy carbine for short-range bush work, I asked the gunsmith to shorten the barrel to 21-inches. In addition to a standard front bead and a wide V rear sight, I had a custom peep-sight made which mounts on the cocking piece. It has a so-called ghost ring aperture, measuring 5mm in diameter. With this sight the rifle will produce 1.5�, three-shot groups at 50m all day long. January 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE

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My oldest son, Dandrej, gradually developed a love for the old Lee-Enfield and in 2005, at age 15, announced that he wanted to hunt with it. When he handles this rifle, I can often see he is dreaming of an era when it was natural for a young man to roam the bush with a rifle in his hands.

proved extremely difficult. I carried a scoped .308 as backup and offered it several times during the hunt to the young Nimrod, but he refused to use it. Finally he told me that he has made a commitment to hunt with the Enfield and by breaking it, he would cheat on himself. Can a father ask for more?

Although American and Norma ammunition are available in South Africa, we prefer to use the local PMP products (factory ammunition and components), which are good enough and much more affordable. When reloading, we use a 174gr PMP softnose in front of 38gr S335 (a local extruded powder, very similar in burning rate to the American IMR 3031). Muzzle velocity out of the 21” barrel is just over 2300fps - ideal for short-range bushveld applications.

Forced to work even harder than for his warthog, Dandrej learned a lot more about hunting than he would, had he been carrying a scoped rifle. And then our luck changed. On the last day of our hunt we managed to sneak up to a small herd of springbuck, but they stayed so bunched up that Dandrej could not shoot and eventually the group sensed our presence and drifted off.

Many modern-day hunters regard the .303 cartridge as inferior because of its old-fashioned, rimmed design and its mild ballistics. They also criticise the twopiece stock and the fact that the Enfield-action is not as strong as most Mauser-types. The slow lock time and the Enfield’s relatively heavy trigger pull are two more drawbacks which count against this 120-yearold veteran. Yet, despite all its “warts” the .303 will still bring home the bacon if the hunter does his bit. Using an open-sighted rifle with all the drawbacks I’ve mentioned, force the hunter to get close to his quarry, to take extra care and ultimately it puts the hunting back into the hunt. On his first hunt with the Lee-Enfield Dandrej learned just that. We travelled to the Northern Cape to hunt on Wintershoek, a property about 50 miles south of Kimberly. The acaciastudded plains and the broken veld (rocky hills) are very similar to the vegetation and the topography of the area where I grew up in South West Africa and is therefore this part of South Africa is one of my favourite hunting venues. After working hard for two days, Dandrej managed to shoot a warthog and then decided to go after springbuck. As you probably know, these animals prefer open plains and getting close enough for a shot

We followed patiently and eventually caught up with four rams on the far side of a small blackthorn thicket. After some careful stalking we managed to sneak into range and get Dandrej into a shooting position. The springbuck knew we were there, but had not identified us positively, which gave me a chance to set up the shooting sticks for Dandrej. The animals were facing us at a slight angle and when the old Lee-Enfield barked, I heard the 174gr bullet strike with a loud, “dup”. Then I saw how the ram on the extreme right dropped in his tracks. Dandrej, who shot from a sitting position, jumped to his feet and reloaded quickly, but it was not necessary, the ram was down for good. An autopsy back at camp revealed that the bullet had broken the near shoulder, passed over the heart, destroyed all the “plumbing” above it and then ploughed through the rumen before exiting in front of the far back leg. This old Lee-Enfield was the only centre-fire hunting rifle my father ever owned and he used it expertly until his ageing eyes made it difficult to use the open sights. I am in my 50th year and shooting with open sights is now becoming a bit of a challenge for me too. However, it is good to know there is a young man who loves to hunt with this old rifle. I wish them both many happy hunting hours.

Koos Barnard is an ex-professional hunter and a full time gun writer, having published hundreds of articles. He was born in Namibia and has been a keen hunter since his youth. January 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE

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Bardot and elephant culling in Africa and elephant culling in Africa A heartfelt letter to a sultry beauty


People can be quite lazy about answering letters. Brigitte Bardot for instance. I wrote to her once. That delectable, pouting French film star of the 1950s who, in later life, became an animal rights activist (and is very sun-dried these days) - had written an impassioned plea to Nelson Mandela. She asked him to intervene in an international dispute concerning elephant culling in Zimbabwe and Botswana. Zimbabwe and Botswana wanted to cull their elephant herds but had, up to then, bowed to pressure from Europe’s “bunny-huggers”. As a consequence 70 000 elephant which travel to and fro between these two countries irreparably damaged the ancient riverine forests along the Linyati and it was a case of either cull or face further ecological calamities. There are 100 000 now. It is difficult for people living in areas where elephants are rare - such as San Tropez and say, Manchester’s southern suburbs - to understand the environmental impact of elephant overpopulation And certainly the people of Europe have no idea of the flatulence problem that elephants have. Their voluminous bowels are filled with methane gas. This is why these animals are so enormous. If an elephant were to be totally degasified it would be the size of a warthog. Few people appreciate this. If you were to light a match behind an elephant you could create a bizarre parody of the 1937 Hindenburg disaster. I felt honour-bound to send this letter to Miss Bardot with whom I was in love from about 1954 until around 1969 when I switched to Francoise Hardy. She never did reply.


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Ms B Bardot La Beach St Tropez France. Mon petit cabbage, va? Enchantee, I’m sure. Bonjour, etc. Comment ca our environment here in us elephants are doing to rpl su se the all at wh d an I fear you do not underst Africa. phant? I know I can bold - there is in just one ele so be y ma I if ce en tul fla r in the House in 1953. Do you realise how much because I saw you in Docto u yo h wit ely fre rs tte ma discuss such ! (Don’t ask me how ar! Five hundred kilograms ye a s ga ne tha me of n -to One elephant lets off half-a d, they have.) scientists weigh it but, indee y are left to go on babwe and Botswana. If the Zim en twe be ng ssi cro ssts cri will produce There are 70 000 elephan y huff and puff a bit more the pt ce ex s bit rab like t breed jus increasing - and elephants enhouse the world. gre to enough methane gas they now have to live ts that used to sustain them, es for the ed lish mo de ve ha And because they ence you’d not believe. s in them a degree of flatul ce du pro ich wh ss gra off us St mostly They could turn your precio er. lay e on oz the gh ou thr a hole clean ent troops and crazed They could, one day, blow s and rampaging governm oe uit sq mo h wit d fille le Tropez into a tropical hellho dictators. s of methane. When se in one year, 35 000 ton ea rel l wil ss, gra off ng livi es like ripe A herd of 70 000 elephants, ed canaries fall out of the tre -ey llow ye a, are ed od wo a through even a small herd passes plums. gas! l produce 1.7 million tons of wil rd he s thi e, tim life a in , . Thus Elephants live 50 to 60 years rbon dioxtimes more efficient than ca 20 is s, ga e us ho en gre a as ne, equivalent of Bearing in mind that metha (if you will pardon moi) the ere ph os atm the o int ss ing to pa ide, these elephants are go xide. dio n 30-million tons of carbo enough to because you are fortunate n’t do U YO ll, We . ng du t of elephan bare whatsits. But WE Then you have the problem in-friendly sunblock on your lph do g bin rub z pe Tro St be sitting on the beach at do. grand in the veld in just n 2 million tons of le poop tha re mo ve lea uld wo ts compounded. Seventy thousand elephan se by 5 percent per annum rea inc l wil e lum vo the m, cull the one year. And, if we don’t ed? tons of this stuff, compound Can you imagine 2 million g there from? , kneeImagine the methane arisin wading about central Africa be l wil le op pe t en oc inn w m now, ho match. Just think, in a few years fro were to carelessly strike a dy bo me so if ine ag Im s! deep in elephant dropping aign against culling is. how misguided your camp lise rea w no u yo pe ho I Well, mon petit epinard, Au revoir mamoiselle, James F Clarke

oté 1954-1969)

(Je suis votre trés grand dev


James Clarke came to South Africa in 1955 as a reporter looking for trouble. He quickly found it by marrying Lenka Babaya who claims she married him only because she always wanted a simple surname. He skillfully fathered two very beautiful daughters, Jenny and Julie, neither of whom think he is in the least bit funny. Clarke’s ambition is to become President of South Africa so that he can introduce the death penalty for people who say, “Is it?” every time one tells them something. January 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE

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rdinarily success is considered to be prosperous progress in any field. Success means different things to different people in different positions. What about success in spearfishing – it’s also different for each spearo. In this article of explain an equation derived by Piet Van Rooyen (Diving and Spearfishing in South Africa) back in the 1980’s. I then proceed further to alter it and explain the alteration.

The difference between greatness and mediocrity is often how an individual views a mistake - Nelson Boswel

S is success in spearfishing. It is equal to the terms on the right hand side of the = sign. Add those up and it could be possible to predict the success of a spearfisherman with fair accuracy. Imagine if you could predict your success in spearfishing outings – it would take a lot of the hit and miss out of the hunts. S=A+BxC+D+E+F+G

In the equation A is the availability of fish, B - bottom time, C - times down, D - experience, E - marksmanship, F - fish sense, alertness and instinct, and G is luck. These factors all have an influence on a spearo’s success. If we can find out what influences each factor we may be a big step closer to predicting our success, or the lack of it.

A: Availability of Fish

Before everything else, getting ready is the secret of success - Henry Ford

The first term, A, is availability of fish. Getting to know the availability of fish in any area you dive is probably going to have a large influence on your success as a spearo, fish photographer or even if you are just a nature loving freediver. 54 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE January 2009

Spearfishing Success

What does it take? January 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE

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A - Availability of fish is affected by: ●● Good quality reef - often produces good fish but not always – here you need to either discover excellent new reef(undived), or you must know exactly when to visit that reef – find out what makes it fire and go then – normally these times are not extensive i.e. narrow windows of opportunity. ●● Previous exploitation reduces the number of residential or semi residential species, and some learn what a spearo is – making them much smarter. On heavily exploited reefs you must be fully aware of conditions that boost success and advanced spearfishing techniques that can enhance performance. ●● Thermocline, fish do not like extreme temperatures and fast rising cold water may increase the presence of fish. ●● Observation is also important – knowing where and how to look is important. You will also benefit from knowing where and when not to look.

B: Bottom Time Term B in the equation is bottom time which depends on: Lung capacity - it is said that we cannot change lung capacity. Well I am not 100 % sure of that. Your diaphragm is the “pump” driver – if you can improve the function of your diaphragm then it is quite possible to increase the amount of air He who conquers himself is the taken in. mightiest warrior - Confucius Lungs can be compressed by a technique such as packing. Relaxation is very important – you need to be relaxed, calm and extroverted.

C: Number of Dives Times down or number of dives done (C) depends on:

Water temperature which is one of the single greatest determining factors of a spearo’s success. Factors that influence water temperature include the strength and direction of wind and current, season, air temperature, and in shallow areas swell size(mixing thermocline and upper layers) and tide. Cold water also slows up your work rate and even your mental processes if your body chills. Fitness obviously affects your dive rate. Other factors that heavily influence times down include – current, depth and swell and the species of fish being hunted. For some species one dives to the bottom and must wait for 40 seconds while with others one may shoot while still descending.

D: Experience Factor D is Experience which depends your age and frequency of diving. Whether you get the fish or not depends on how we act on the sea floor or in midwater when a fish shows up – certain behaviour and body language will inform the fish of your intentions. Violate these and you will probably not see that fish again. Often in spearfishing you need to get a nice specimen of a certain type of fish to “get on a roll” with that species – all of a sudden you get them regularly while before you never had any success.

E: Accuracy Marksmanship (E) depends on concentration, visibility and equipment. Snipers did not become snipers by going out into action and learning to shoot by knocking off enemy. Often the great snipers of the wars were farm boys who spend many a day traipsing through the woods or veld with a rifle slung over their shoulder.

Equipment is also very important – for example switching from thermoplastic to carbon fins you may get an increased depth range of say five meters on your operating depth – typically one can add this five meters onto a 20 m depth thus giving a 25% improvement. I think luck is the ability to recogTraining improves ones capacity to pernize an opportunity and the ability form – especially in deep or rough water to take advantage of it - Samuel where greater exertion is required. Goldwyn


You miss 100% of the shots [dives] you don’t take - Wayne Gretzky

To get good at shooting you must shoot and shoot and shoot some more with a good quality gun. You will need to be able to concentrate, control muscles and steer your gun. Also you will need to predict spear

trajectories and distance. Judging of a fish’s speed and direction will affect marksmanship.

ing thought about it on an off for 17 years I eventually altered the equation by mixing into each term a powerful factor, M. Mathematically it would look like this:

On occasion you may have to judge the viability of a shot and may purposely take a “poor” shot to permit S = (A + B x C + D + E + F + G)M The whole equapenetration. Marksmanship is a subject best learned tion is raised to the power M at sea with a good gun after brief M is your Mindset and refers to: review of physical phenomena at ●● desire to be successful, play. Success is the result of good judg●● persistence, ment, good judgment is the result Visibility also plays a role – you of experience, and experience is ●● passion, may need to shoot fish which are often the result of bad judgment - A out of sight at the time that you ●● obsession, Robbins pull the trigger. In such conditions ●● single mindedness. you predict their swim route and shoot where you expect the fish Leverage to be. In addition to these we must consider the leverage factor. This is the ability of you, the diver, to achieve F: Fish Sense efficiently by the use of reason to give you an edge. Term F consists of Alertness/instinct/fish sense It is synthesizing a winning combination. Fish sense is a spearo’s instinct that directs him It may involve activities such as doing variable balto the fish. There is also a logic component to fish last dives to get fish in very deep water or “dry scoutsense - e.g. the crackling of the reef can tell of the ing” for a competition using Garmin blue charts; or structure and hence likelihood of getting fish in that tapping into local fishermen’s knowledge for a comdirection. There are techniques you may use to petition and much more. enhance your concentration and peripheral vision. Alternatively you may sit on shore while others dive It is even possible to enhance your sixth sense that long and hard (inefficiently) for few fish because you is capable of alerting you of danger and make you know after that after the wind has blown for two days aware of opportunity. in a certain direction there will be an ice cold thermocline sending herds of awesome fish onto reefs you The G-Factor know. From your dive records you distilled a model The final term, G, is the mystical Luck factor for success and can apply that to future dives. What is luck? It’s defined as “good fortune”. So, is Donald Trump lucky? How about Bill Gates? Do consistently successful people always have good luck? Can one arrange things so as to bring about good luck? Over the last 17 years I have spearfished and always kept an eye on what influences my success, or the lack of it. I sensed something was missing in Piet van Rooyen’s equation. It sometimes seems that inWhat factors tense desire creates on only push some opportunities but also its own divers far talents - Eric Hoofer ahead of the pack, what brings “luck”? Having been a keen student of personal development for longer than I have spearfished I had a little insight into what was missing.

Gletwyn’s websites: www.freedive.co.za and http:// southafricaspearfishing.blogspot.com. Online video clips of underwater hunting see: http://www.youtube.com/user/ gletwynr or click on the image

Dr. Gletwyn Rubidge holds four South African spearfishing records and represented SA as Springbok spearfisherman in 2007 in Spain. He is an author, holds a doctorate in analytical chemistry, has done over 1300 dives and spent more than 6000 hours at sea in the last 17 years.

To me something was missing in the equation. HavJanuary 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE

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After the Shot

By Jerry Allen

Blood In Motion: A Forensic Guide to Tracking



t takes a lot of work to set up and execute a hunt, but what happens after the shot will determine if the hunt is truly a success. You’ve chosen your PH with care and travelled thousands of miles to come hunt in Africa. You’ve sighted in your guns and bows and made sure you have all the gear you need. It’s expensive, and hunting is hard work, to say the least. After days of scouting and tracking you find your magnificent trophy and you take your shot. How long will the trailing process take you? Will you find the animal? Understanding how to track and find blood can make the difference between having meat and a trophy to show for all the hard work that you have put in — or coming home with nothing at all. You make a plan when you hunt to increase your chance of success, but if you track without a plan, your chances of success are greatly reduced. I sell blood-detection products to law enforcement, and my business has given me a lot of information on what to look for and what a blood trail can tell you about the hit you’ve made on an animal. I am called to many deer trails after all hope seems to be lost, because many people know that I can find blood that cannot be easily seen. Blood trails can be misleading to the hunter —lots of blood does not necessarily indicate a mortal wound, nor does a seeming lack of blood necessarily mean the animal isn’t dead. The reaction of the animal and the blood pattern will give us a better understanding of how to go about recovering an animal. Normally, animals do not bleed to death, as an animal that weighs 160 pounds must lose 45+ ounces to die from blood loss alone. Animals will die faster from trauma than blood loss, and a combination of both is by far the best. Most animals can travel very fast when wounded — deer can hit 35 mph, and even if they die quickly after the shot, they can travel a long distance before collapsing. A wounded animal will not go far unless it is pushed or sees movement. Sit still for at least a half hour, or you will make the tracking more difficult. If you shot a large buck, it is still possible that there is a larger one close behind him. Most animals travel in loose groups; the animals in the rear of the group can help by showing you where the wounded animal traveled. Spooking these animals will remove helpful clues to January 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE

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the whereabouts of your trophy, and may cause a second opportunity to be wasted. Pay attention to the reaction of the animal when it is shot, as this is your first clue to helping you know how to find it. The reaction can be deceiving, but it is still important. I have shot deer and had them look at me like nothing happened, only to watch them fall over where they stand. I have had many hunters tell me that they knocked the animal down, only to watch it suddenly jump up and run off, leaving lots of blood. This is the one that I hate to hear the most. First of all, body shots that do not impact the neck or spine rarely make animal drop, and if the neck or spine is hit, the animal is usually disabled and cannot get up. The clues of the “dropped and got up and left lots of blood” tell me it was most likely a leg or low shoulder hit. The falling down likely means the leg was broken; lots of blood usually indicates a muscle hit. Muscle damage leave lots of blood in the first 100 yards, but then the blood trail fades fast. There will be lots of large spots of blood as the animal stands often and will lean against trees. Even with a broken leg (or two), an animal can run very fast. I have had a lot of people tell me, “I thought I hit it, but there was no blood.” Any time there is a wounded animal, there is blood, even if it cannot be seen. Blood droplets, which are forced out of the body by gunfire, produce a high-velocity-impact splatter pattern. The pattern can be smaller than 1 mm in the beginning of the trail. Shots taken with a bow leave medium-impact blood splatter patterns and will leave droplets around 3 mm in size. Both can be difficult to see, even in the snow, so trust your instinct and follow the trail the deer took. If the deer was hit, the blood will appear soon. If it was a lung hit, it can take time for the body cavity to fill and blood to be forced out. Animals may run in the beginning of the trail; this will cause blood trails to be harder to see, as the blood is spread over a larger distance. If there is no visible blood trail, wait and let the animal lie down — it will not go far and should die quickly. Another common animal reaction is the hind leg kick. This reaction indicates that the animal was hit farther back, most likely a gut shot. The blood pattern and the color of the blood will be very important. Darker blood is from the stomach or liver. A liver shot is always fatal, but is still a poor shot to take. Green matter or food is from one of the deer’s four stomachs — a fatal shot, but it will most likely take until the next day or later for the deer to die from a stomach shot. Give this animal at least three hours and follow up in the daytime. 62 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE January 2009

The double lung shot is the best-percentage shot to take, as it will cause massive internal bleeding and drowning, causing death within about 150 yards. This pattern will start out with little blood, but it will increase as the animal starts blowing blood out the mouth and nose. Quartering-away shots always cause the most damage, as the projectile will travel more distance through the body. Shots from a raised area (tree stand) generally give a better blood trail, as the exit hole will be lower and allow blood to leave the body cavity in greater volume. Shooting for the tail is the worst shot, leaving only a wounded animal or spoiled meat. If the shot hits the back of the thigh, it will bleed well but will not die soon, as the muscle will tighten up and help stop the bleeding. An animal shot in the anus will spread bacteria all over the insides, and the damage will be even worse if the bladder is also hit. This type of shot requires the animal to be cleaned immediately and thoroughly washed out in order to save any of the meat. Blood trailers spend a lot of time looking on the ground, but little time looking at the brush, where more than half the blood is usually found. Blood on brush can reveal how high or low the shot hit, helping in the recovery plans. No hunter should be without a gps or compass — use it to get a bearing on the trail taken using a marker like a unique tree to track to. Working in pairs is best; have one tracker circle ahead 75 to 100 yards in case the animal is alive. Then have the second person take the trail. Repeat this until the animal is recovered. Remember to be safe when tracking, because all animals are dangerous when wounded. Proper gun handling and line-of-fire rules must be followed to avoid injury. Timing is very important. Tracking too soon is the main reason mortally wounded animals travel a long distance and make recovery difficult or impossible. Tracking too slowly will cause the meat to spoil. Reading the clues properly will make the difference in how good the meat tastes, since recovery shortly after death is important. Meat with a gamey taste can be caused by slow recovery, not cleaning properly or hanging in warm weather. Adrenaline runs high after the shot, and humans have a hard time controlling it. Relax, breathe deeply and take a few moments to reflect about what happened. The beginning of the trail is the most important place to get the facts of what happened and how

to proceed. The first thing we do at a crime scene is cordon off the area to keep people from altering evidence. Then we use only a few people to process the scene, again, to keep from altering or destroying the evidence. Walking on a blood trail will transfer the blood pattern from its original spot to somewhere else, or destroy it completely. Never put more than three people on a trail unless it is hopeless to recover without extra people. Mark the trail as you progress to give you a travel pattern to study for clues. Unless the animal drops within sight, no trail should be taken within 30 minutes. The animal you just shot will be looking at the spot where it was wounded to see what happened. It will lay down soon and try to lick or heal the wound, usually within 40 yards if there is cover. Do you want to turn a 40-yard trail into a 400-yard trail? Many times I am asked to follow a blood trail that had a small amount of blood that suddenly had twice as much blood, then nothing. This usually means the animal has turned 180 degrees and walked over the same trail twice, then cut off at a 45- or 90-degree angle after it decided the trail it was following was not safe. The blood left on the ground or brush is important, as it can tell much about the wound. Bright red or pink indicates an artery or lung shot. Many animal trails I have followed were from shots that hit low in the shoulder or leg, leaving large amounts of blood. The blood is slightly darker with a very narrow trail 4 to 8 inches in width. This animal will likely need a second shot. Make plans to get a person ahead to dispatch the animal. Trails of blood more than 2 feet wide are complete pass-through shots and increase the chances of recovery greatly. Blood trails that have squirts of blood on the side of the trail 2 feet or more indicate arterial shots in the neck, heart or other major artery. Give the animal time to bleed out before you start tracking. Brown or greenish blood, or blood with green or brown matter, is always a gut or liver shot — in both cases, the animal will need extra time to die before you attempt to recover it. The liver shot will kill faster, but may still take two hours or more. Blood with green matter is a five- or six-hour wait to track. The tracker should attempt to put a shooter ahead to dispatch the animal if it is still alive. Many visual blood trails disappear when the animal’s heart stops and the blood pressure drops, as the blood is no longer being forced out of the body. Most

animals can still travel 30 to 45 seconds and cover 65 yards or more before dropping, and the blood trail will be almost impossible to see without bloodtracking aids. A reagent will come in handy, as the animal will be close by but may not be seen because of terrain or brush. Many times I have found animals within 40 to 50 yards of the stand, where they died after having run 250 to 300 yards in a long arching circle, trying to get back to the spot they were safe in before the shot. Knowing the bedding areas helps a lot if you cannot find an animal. There are tools we can use in tracking. Dogs are now legal in many states, and are a great tool if there is no rain or snow. However, most people do not have dogs or have the time to train them, nor do they have the money to pay a dog tracker. Dog tracker fees vary but usually end up around $150. Lights made for finding blood do not work very well, as blood absorbs light. Regardless of what you see on TV, law enforcement officials do not use lights to find blood. There are a few reagents (Tink’s® and Bluestar®, notably) that make blood glow in the dark. I prefer Bluestar® because it was first made for forensic use. The inventor, Dr. Loïc J. BLUM, with a Ph.D. in chemiluminescence, has perfected the mixture, making it the easiest and strongest blood finder in the world. It is used in more than 70 countries by law enforcement and hunters alike. These reagents pick up hemoglobin, which transports oxygen to the cells. Hemoglobin contains iron, which is a basic element of earth and is nearly impossible to destroy without fire. Much time was spent to produce a product that the investigator would need little or no training to use and that could tell the difference between blood and other items containing iron. Sold in tablets that you add to water, these reagents are easy to carry and inexpensive. You can usually cover 100 yards in 10 minutes or less, and the time saved will be worth the money spent. It will also work well in evergreens and moss, because the reaction with blood is so much different from “false positives” that anyone can tell the difference. Luminol-based products were made for law enforcement to find blood amounts so small the DNA profile cannot be done. Even in the crime scene, clothing or items that have been cleaned over and over will still glow bright blue were blood was present. Many times the hunter cannot find the beginning of January 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE

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the trail. Before you leave the stand, use a waypoint to know where the animal was standing when the shot was taken. A compass is perfect for this, using a marker such as a tree to find the spot. Many times I use a reagent only to find the start of the blood trail. To do this, I spray while walking across the trail as soon as I find the blood. I look to see if I can follow it with my eyes; if not, I continue to use the reagent. I often use it to regain a trail when an animal changes terrain, going from leaf litter to grass fields, for example. The best of these products will even work in the rain.

there, these are transfer patterns made by people and animals walking on the blood trail. Blood will be trackable for a very long time. There has been a forensic study on Civil War sniper holes at the Shriver House museum in Gettysburg, Pa., and blood was found more than 143 years after it was shed. Blood will last in the woods for months, but there is a big difference in the brightness between old trails and new ones. Blood on the hands of a hunter after gutting an animal without gloves will remain for weeks, no matter how well the hunter Blood projections on washes. This is used a wooden floor frequently in murder cases.

ink. hen s a kitc lighting n o s l ction er norma proje d Blood raphed un g to o h P ions condit

You will learn a lot about trailing when using a reagent, since you will see the whole trail every time you use it and can key in on the evidence the blood trail leaves. Since it glows bright blue in the dark, even people who are colorblind or whose eyes are “not as good as they used to be” can follow the trail without any help. No glasses or lights are needed, just water and a spray bottle. Water can be taken from streams, lakes and ponds along with any tap or bottled water. In extreme cold, you can use window washer solvent. Total darkness is not needed, just low light after shooting hours end. The tablets are mixed in a sprayer with water and sprayed on the ground where the animal was standing, and if the animal was hit, there will be a bright blue glow. Blood is easily transferred from one place to another, so stay off the trail or you will leave footprints of blood all over the woods. There will be an unbroken trail of blood where the animal went. If you just find blood spots here and 64 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE January 2009

Last but not least, use trail markers. This will help if you need to leave the trail for any reason and will help anyone who is trying to join later on to find the trackers. This also gives a pattern of travel, which most likely will be an arch traveling back to the bedding area downwind of the stand. Bedding areas are thick with a good view and take advantage of wind direction, and they provide a perfect area for a wounded animal to try and recover.

Murdere r and blo ’s wet ody foo to


n floor


So no matter what happens before or after the shot, there are tools that cost very little and will save lots of time, and help us remain ethically responsible by recovering game quickly and efficiently.






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Press Releases Muzzy Introduces the New Phantom-MX Muzzy’s Phantom broadhead was developed for bowhunters wanting a traditional style with superior penetration, and the Phantom did not disappoint. The new Phantom-MX takes that exceptional performance one step further with its revolutionary compact, aerodynamic design and .004- inch thicker blades for unbeatable strength and superior flight even at maximum speeds. Consistently deadly in even the most extreme conditions, the 100-grain, 4-blade PhantomMX will easily take down some of the heaviest big-game species, such as elk and moose, with unparalleled accuracy. The ultra-tough, primary blade cuts instantly on impact to drive deep through thick skin and bone, and the “bleeder blades” ensure massive blood trails to aid in locating the animal. Combined, the blades on the Phantom-MX deliver a wide 1 1/8” x 1” cutting diameter to quickly get the job done. The Muzzy Phantom-MX bleeder blades are not your typical add-on blades; they are strong integral components that are built to the same exact specifications as the quality and durable main blades. Both blade types are easily re-sharpened as desired.

Muzzy’s XSeries SG-X 125-Grain Small-Game Head The newest member of Muzzy’s X-Series, the SG-X 125-grain small68 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE January 2009

game head packs the big performance you demand into a small but deadly package. Especially designed with the small-game hunter in mind, the SG-X features a replaceable TroCar tip, spring-loaded arms and a stainless-steel body for maximum functionality with lethal results.

Muzzy X-Celerator The Muzzy X-Celerator arrow rest is everything you could ask for from an arrow rest plus some things you never dreamed were possible. Best of all, one model fits all bows, both leftand righthanded, and installation takes less than five minutes! Unlike all other “drop-away” arrow rests on the market, the X-Celerator actually features a “drive-away” design utilizing a rigid cable attachment secured to the downward cable, which brings the rest up at full draw and drives it out of the way of the arrow. This unique feature allows you to control the speed at which the rest drops as well as the amount of rest travel.No drag, no interference and no torque result in the perfect arrow launch each and every time. The X-Celerator’s innovative design allows for 100% fletching clearance on all bows regardless of bow

speed, draw length or cable slide travel, and the absence of springs and strings ensures accurate, reliable performance with every shot on every bow. For more information on Muzzy products, call 1-866-387-9307, or check out www.muzzy.com.

Magnalight.com Adds More High Powered Golight Remote Controlled Spotlights Larson Electronics’ Magnalight.com announces diversification of its line of High Intensity Discharge (HID) Golight remote controlled light upgrades. Dallas, TX (PRWEB) January 5, 2009 -- As the name would indicate, the Golight spotlights are controlled via remote controllers, including both hard wired mounted joystick style controllers and wireless handheld and mounted button style models. If the operator depresses the buttons or the joystick, signals are sent to the motors in the Golight, causing it to rotate 360 degrees or tilt over a range of 140 degrees. The operator can also control the power to the light, which enables them to position the light head for activating the beam. The standard Golight Stryker model offers a 900 foot long beam that presents a wide spot pattern with a width of 135 at that distance. The High Intensity Discharge (HID) Golight upgrade spotlights increase total beam distance of 2,800 feet (930 yards or 9 football fields), and reduce the overall beam width to 90 feet at that distance. The HID Golight Stryker spotlights offer a much brighter, whiter color over the entire beam distance, since the arc lamp

burns gas at a 6000 Kelvin color, while the stock 65 watt halogen bulb produces a “yellow/orange” beam at distance. Magnalight.com solidified the HID Golight upgrade in September and is now expanding the range of packages to include more features and mounts. The HID Golight remote control spotlights round out a range of remote controlled lighting solutions, including LEDLB series of remote controlled LED emitter lights and the RCL360 series are ultra hardened HID remote controlled lights for mining and other high vibration environments. The PTB-1 is an independent, ultra heavy duty pan tilt base that is used for mounting multiple HID lights and LED emitter lights for military applications. Like LED lights, the HID lamps have long life and no filament to break under vibration, so they are popular in situations where operators need vast amounts of white, bright light with little or no maintenance. Combined, with an ability to position the light from the cab or jobsite remotely, makes the entire effective for operators who need to be as productive at night as they are during the day. Learn more about Larson Electronics at www.magnalight.com or by calling 1-800-369-6671.

PMP launches new Elite range of hunting ammunition PMP in South Africa has launched its new elite range of hunting ammunition. According to Carel Wolhuter, Chief Executive Officer of PMP, this is the first new range of hunting ammunition developed on South African soil over the past 16 years – since the ProAmm range manufactured since 1992. January 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE

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The new range is called the “African Elite” series, and will be available at all dealers in South Africa and Namibia in very attractive packaging, and was fully developed by PMP. Mr Wolhuter said that the new range will fit in very well with PMP’s existing Standard, ProAmm and Super ranges, which are already known over the world for excellent performance and value for the hunter’s money. The “African Elite” range consists of the more popular bush calibers presently used in South Africa, and will be used mostly in bushveld conditions, where hunting takes place with slightly heavier bullets over shorter distances. The following calibers are manufactured: ●● .375 H & H Magnum 300gr ●● .300 Winchester Magnum 200 gr ●● .30-06 Springfield 180 gr ●● .308 Winchester 180 gr The ammunition is loaded with the internationally proven Swift A-Frame bullets, which PMP imports directly from SWIFT in the USA. This premium hunting round is “aimed” at the more selective hunter and for the international hunter who struggles to bring his ammunition and rifles to South Africa, and will be considerably more expensive than existing ranges of PMP. Learn more about PMP at http://www.pmp.co.za or call JC Muller at +27 012 318 1536

NIKON INTRODUCES NEW AFRICAN RIFLESCOPE SERIES Africa has long been a continent of dreams and danger for hunters around the world. For those seeking their adventure on the Dark Continent, Nikon has a new riflescope series that is more than ready for the hunt. Three riflescopes—all with ultra wide fields of view— make up the new Monarch African Series from–a one-inch tube 1-4x20mm and two 30mm tube 1.1-4x24mm models. Each scope features Nikon’s fully multicoated optics to provide crystal clear viewing and a power range designed to handle fast shots with dangerous game. 70 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE January 2009

“In a dangerous game situation the hunt can turn from lazy to deadly in less than a second,” said Jon LaCorte, Senior Product Marketing Manager for Nikon Sport Optics. “And that’s when you will really appreciate every feature we built into our African Series of riflescopes.” Hard charging game requires hard hitting rifles and Nikon’s four full inches of eye relief will keep all the pain on the barrel end. The lower power range keeps shooters on target in fast, “both eyes open” situations. The easy, light to handle 20mm and 24mm objectives combine with Nikon’s durability to carry the rifle without worry. All of the new African Series scopes are built around what works when hunting dangerous game in Africa and beyond and utilize the proven German #4 reticle for fast target/reticle acquisition. For late night predators of the toothy kind and other low-light hunting, an illuminated #4 is available as well. And since it’s a Monarch, crystal clear images and light transmission second to none will help make the Dark Continent seem a little brighter. The 1/2 MOA adjustment means a fast, sure sight-in. A large field of view gets you on target fast, when it literally can mean life or death for the hunter or the hunted. The New Nikon Monarch African Series of riflescopes will be on dealer shelves in late summer 2009. MSRP for the 1-4x20 is $279.95, 1-4x24 German #4 reticle is $769.95 and 1.1-4x24 Illuminated German #4 reticle is $859.95. Nikon Inc. is the U.S. distributor of Nikon sports and recreational optics, world-renowned Nikon 35mm cameras, digital cameras, speedlights and accessories, Nikkor lenses and electronic imaging products. For more information about the new African Series and the full line of Riflescopes, Laser Rangefinders, Binoculars and Spotting Scopes, contact: Nikon Sport Optics, 1300 Walt Whitman Rd., Melville, NY 11747-3064. 1-800-645-6687. www.nikonhunting.com

Your African hunting safari is a unique experience. Now you can document your hunt day by day and revisit those exciting times for years to come. 31 Full days of journaling space with vital information: ●● safari clothing ●● personal item checklists ●● health and first aid ●● mammal identification information with photographs, tracks, dung and SCI and Rowland Ward qualification minimums.

Know how to administer CPR. Deal with dangerous animals up close. Identify and treat bites from snakes, spiders and scorpions. Know the right emergency numbers to dial in an emergency – it’s all there. A must-have item for every serious hunter. Sturdy PlastiCoil binding for durability and easy opening, 110 pages, 6.0 x 9.0 in. Full color covers and cream interior printed in black and white.


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Trophy Gallery



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a dive with a Great White Shark

Win a Great White Shark cage dive with full luxury accommodation in the Gansbaai in the fairest Cape, South Africa.

White Shark Diving Company Kleinbaai, South Africa Phone: 0027 (0) 21 671 4777 Mobile 00 27 (0) 82 559 6858 info@sharkcagediving.co.za www.sharkcagediving.co.za




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Zimbabwe Army fed with elephants The Zimbabwe Defence Forces (ZDF) and the Parks and Wildlife Management Authority have reportedly struck a deal that has resulted in the authority slaughtering elephants to feed soldiers at army barracks across the country. Sources in the army told the Zimbabwe Independent that there were acute food shortages in the barracks and the supply of elephant meat was a big relief. Parks Authority director-general Morris Mutsambiwa yesterday said there was no such a deal with the army. However, military sources insisted the existence of the pact and disclosed that shortages of food rations in the barracks started early last year after the Ministry of Defence exhausted its budgetary allocation due to the harsh economic environment.

Lions back in Lake Mburo Kampala — THREE lions have been sighted in Lake Mburo National Park, a decade after they were declared extinct in the protected area that lies nearest to Kampala. According to the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA), observations by park authorities, aid workers and lion ecologists have indicated that three lions have migrated into the park.

U.S. Economic Sanctions Against Zimbabwe: read this if you are going to hunt Zimbabwe An Executive Order imposing sanctions against specifically identified individuals and entities in Zimbabwe by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). 80 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE January 2009

This Executive Order prohibits U.S. persons from engaging in any transactions with any person, entity or organization found on this list which is compiled and regularly updated by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). This list also names properties where American hunters are forbidden to hunt legally. Click here to search the list. No American should have any dealing with anyone on this list or anyone associated to someone on this list. For more information click on the US Treasury logo below. The site provides a fact sheet with general information about the Zimbabwe sanctions program imposed by the new Executive. Send the SDN List to your outfitter and let him confirm to you in a written statement that you will have no involvement with identified individuals and entities in Zimbabwe. He also has to stet that at no time you will hunt on a sanction listed property. Criminal fines for violating the Executive Order are severe.

Namibia bans media at ivory sale WINDHOEK — Namibia raised eyebrows yesterday when it banned the media and observers from a once-off ivory auction held under the auspices of the United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (Cites). No explanation was given for the news blackout. Newspaper The Namibian said the environment ministry had kept the auction under wraps and quoted sources as saying Chinese and Japanese bidders had arrived in Windhoek on Sunday to view the ivory stocks. Yesterday, in the first of four sales, $1,1m was raised in the sale of 7,2 tons of ivory, the first lot of a total 106 tons on offer.

At the 14th Cites conference held in the Netherlands last year, Namibia was permitted to sell nine tons of ivory, Botswana 44 tons, SA 51 tons and Zimbabwe four tons. Cites attached “strict conservation measures” to the concession. Between March and April, the Cites secretariat visited the four countries and verified that the declared ivory stocks had been properly registered and that they were of legal origin. The previous ivory auction held in Windhoek raised $5m. Cites says it agreed to the sales only in African countries where elephant populations were judged to be healthy and growing. More than 312000 elephants are living in the four nations. Most of the tusks were taken from elephants that died from natural causes or culling. Profits from the sales had to go towards elephant conservation projects, or towards programmes aimed at developing communities who lived around elephant ranges, Cites said. Sapa-AFP, Bloomberg

Botswana Ban On Lion Hunting Still in Force Lion hunting in Botswana remains prohibited 12 months after government decided to stop awarding hunting licenses last year. Dr Trevor Mmopelwa, the Director of Wildlife in the Ministry of Environment, Wildlife and Tourism did not say when the ban will be lifted. “The lifting of the ban on hunting cannot be predetermined. It will depend on the rate of build up of the lion population,” he said. “Research to date, indicates that while the lion population in Botswana remains fairly satisfactory, in certain areas near protected areas, notably Khutse Game Reserve, Central Kgalagadi Game Reserve and the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, conflict between humans and predators is on the rise. The department is currently finalising the Predator Management Strategy, which will holistically address predator conservation and management throughout Botswana. The issue of utilisation of large carnivores including lions will be addressed in the context of the strategy,” Mmopelwa said.

South Africa Moves to Restrict Canned Hunting South Africa, which boasts a wide array of wildlife, has come under fire from activists who say officials have moved too slowly to stop the hunting of handraised animals that have lost their fear of humans. The draft regulations block the hunting of large predators in a controlled environment, as well as while they are under the influence of immobilizing or tranquilizing agents. The regulations were released earlier this week and are expected to come into effect in March 2007. They follow three years of talks between the state, wildlife industry and animal groups, which produced recommendations by a panel of experts. “There is strong merit for it to be phased in because it has far-reaching implications for the hunting industry. It can’t just be implemented,” said Crispian Olver, former environmental affairs director-general and chairman of the expert panel. However, some animal welfare groups, such as SanWild Wildlife Trust and the Born Free Foundation, said the move did not go far enough. They said of particular concern was a six-month period of acclimatisation for animals released on game ranches before they can be hunted. “The government is playing with words. It says it has banned canned hunting but in reality the legislation says predators released onto farms can be hunted after six months,” said Louise Joubert, a founder trustee of the SanWild Wildlife Trust.What is going to happen to a hand-reared lion, used to humans for almost seven years, how is it going to react when the hunters approach? It certainly isn’t going to expect a rifle to be shot.” The Professional Hunters Association of South Africa (PAHSA) estimates the revenue generated from so-called canned hunting could be in excess of 2.5 billion rand (US$356.9 million) annually, with top money paid for the “big five” -- lions, leopards, buffalo, elephant and rhinoceros. According to British-based Born Free Foundation, there are now more than 3,000 lions held in South African captive breeding facilities, compared to 300 in 1997. The Foundation lists South Africa and North America as the two countries where canned hunting flourishes, with South Africa clinching top January 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE

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spot for the highest number of canned lion and elephant scalps.

Google Earth reveals hidden environment treasure in Mozambique A team of environmental scientists and bird experts have discovered a remote treasure in Mozambique’s hidden Mount Mabu.

Click to see Mount Mabu on Google Earth

Using Google Earth to identify a remote patch of pristine forest, the scientists on an expedition to the site discovered new species of butterfly and snake, along with seven Globally Threatened birds, in the area that they acknowledge to be the locally known, but unmapped,, also adding that scientific collections and literature also failed to shed light on the area. “This is potentially the biggest area of mediumaltitude forest I’m aware of in southern Africa, yet it was not on the map,” related Jonathan Timberlake from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (RBG Kew), who led the expedition. “Most Mozambicans would not even have recognised the name Mount Mabu,” he said. Following scoping trips, a team of 28 experts from the UK, Mozambique, Malawi, Tanzania, Belgium, Ireland, and Switzerland, that included scientists from BirdLife, ventured into the forest, having to challenge the steep terrain and dense vegetation. Inside, they found a wealth of wildlife, including three new species of butterfly and an undiscovered species of adder. The scientists believe there are at least two novel species of plant and perhaps more new insects to identify. They took home over 500 samples. “The phenomenal diversity is just mind-boggling”, exclaimed Jonathan Timberlake. Despite civil war from 1975 to 1992 ravaging parts of Mozambique, the landscape was found virtually untouched, the group said. The site also proved to be important for birds, especially endangered Thyolo Alethe Alethe choloensis, which is common throughout. “This may be the most important population of Thyolo Alethe known,” remarked Dr Lincoln Fishpool, BirdLife’s Global IBA Co-ordinator, who joined the expedition. “At other sites, forest is rapidly being lost or much of the habitat is sub-optimal,” he said. 82 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE January 2009

BirdLife also reports that the group found that there were six other globally threatened birds among the 126 species identified. Of these, mentioning the Vulnerable Swynnerton’s Robin Swynnertonia swynnertoni is particularly significant - bridging a large gap between known populations. Mozambique’s only endemic species, Near Threatened Namuli Apalis Apalis lynesi, was also seen. This was the first record of it away from nearby Mount Namuli, they observed. The group says conserving Mount Mabu is now a priority, saying the forest’s value as a refuge to villagers during the war has thus far helped to protect it, along with poor access and ignorance of its existence. However local people are returning to the area and Mozambique’s economy is booming. There is a risk the forest will come under pressure to be cut for wood or burnt for crop space. RBG Kew is working to protect the forest, as part of ongoing efforts with the Mozambique government. BirdLife has plans to recognise it as an Important Bird Area (IBA), “Mount Mabu effortlessly qualifies as an IBA”, said Dr Fishpool. Ground-level measures could be most effective conservation for the immediate future: “Remoteness is currently its best protection. We hope to work alongside the local tea-estate managers who are conservationsympathetic and want to maintain the status quo of the forest”. As for Google Earth, Jonathan Timberlake says the digital imagery has helped scientists realise more about the world, saying it may reveal further unnoticed pockets of diversity, especially in areas like Mozambique or Papua New Guinea. “We cannot say we have discovered all the biodiversity areas in the world,” he said. The expedition was led by RBG Kew and involved scientists from the Mozambique Agronomic Research Institute and the Mulanje Mountain Conservation Trust in Malawi, as well as BirdLife International.


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African Bush Cuisine Springbuck Shank Pie with Red Wine and thyme


●● 4 whole springbuck shanks (lamb also works), with the long bones sawn off ●● flour ●● 1 tablespoon olive oil ●● 2 chopped onions ●● 4 garlic cloves, chopped ●● 2 cups good red wine ●● 2 cups beef stock ●● 2 diced carrots ●● 2 diced potatoes ●● 1 tablespoon chopped rosemary ●● 1 Tablespoon cornflour ●● 1 Tablespoon fresh chopped rosemary ●● pastry ●● egg and water Coat each shank with flour. Heat the oil in a saucepan and brown the shanks. Remove from the pan and set aside. Saute the onions and garlic in the same saucepan until soft. Return the shanks to the saucepan. Heat the wine and stock and add to the meat. Cover and simmer for 2 hours (or in a pressure cooker for 1 hour). Add the carrots, potatoes and rosemary and bring to the boil once more. Reduce the heat, cover and simmer for 20 minutes or until the meat is very tender. Heat the oven to 180 degrees C and butter four small ovenproof dishes. Divide the meat and vegetables (not the sauce) among the dishes. Mix the cornflour and water to form a paste and add to the sauce in the saucepan. Bring to the boil and simmer until the sauce thickens. Pour over the meat and leave to cool. Roll out the pastry to a thickness of about 3 mm. Cut out four shapes to cover the top of the dish and cut a small hole in each pastry circle for the shank bones. Brush the edges of the dishes with the egg and water mixture and carefully lay a pastry circle over the filling in each dish so the shank bone protrudes through the hole. Bake for 20-30 minutes or until golden brown. Serve with a good port. Delicious! January 2009 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE

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True North The Warrior Heart

I have in my files a copy of a letter written by Major Sullivan Ballou, a Union officer in the 2nd Rhode Island. He writes to his wife on the eve of the Battle of Bull Run, a battle he senses will be his last. He speaks tenderly to her of his undying love, of “the memories of blissful moments I have spent with you.” Ballou mourns the thought that he must give up “the hope of future years, when, God willing, we might still have lived and loved together, and seen our sons grown up to honorable manhood around us.” Yet in spite of his love the battle calls and he cannot turn from it. “I have no misgivings about, or lack of confidence in the cause in which I am engaged, and my courage does not halt or falter . . . how great a debt we owe to those who went before us through the blood and sufferings of the Revolution . . .

Lithograph of Sullivan Ballou

Sarah, my love for you is deathless, it seems to bind me with mighty cables that nothing but Omnipotence could break” and yet a greater cause “comes over me like a strong wind and bears me unresistably on with all these chains to the battle field.”

Listen carefully now: You do. That is why God created you—to be his intimate ally, to join him in the Great Battle.

A man must have a battle to fight, a great mission to his life that involves and yet transcends even home and family.

(From Wild at Heart , 141) Used with permission from John Eldredge

He must have a cause to which he is devoted even unto death, for this is written into the fabric of his being.

You have a specific place in the line, a mission God made you for.

To subscribe to John’s emails, click on www.ransomedheart.com/myprofile to create a profile See also the Ransomed Heart Podcast at www.ransomedheart.com/podcast



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Profile for African Expedition Magazine

African Expedition Magazine Volume 1 Issue 4  

The Ultimate Dangerous Game Rifle ▪ Designing for the 21st Century: The Lock Hunting the Zebra ▪ The Quintessential African Trophy The Old W...

African Expedition Magazine Volume 1 Issue 4  

The Ultimate Dangerous Game Rifle ▪ Designing for the 21st Century: The Lock Hunting the Zebra ▪ The Quintessential African Trophy The Old W...

Profile for axmag