PARIS’ CBD LA DéFENSE STRATEGIC MASTERPLAN AWP +HHF
NEWS: AN EXHIBIT ON THE VISION AND PROPOSED STRATEGY OF THE PROJECT IS CURRENTLY ON DISPLAY AT LA DÉFENSE. UNTIL THE END OF AUGUST
STRATEGIC VISION. REORGANISE THE ‘PRISM’ OF PUBLIC SPACES TO CREATE A SPECIFIC ‘CLIMATE’ FOR LA DéFENSE
CURRENT EXHIBIT AT LA DÉFENSE photograph by DASHA MIKIC
THE CHALLENGE OF THE SLAB The project at La Défense is most strongly defined by its programmatic and spatial complexity. This is especially evident in the multileveled nature of circulation, infrastructure, and occupiable space. What appears on the surface as just a slab, is in actuality, just a small part of a larger system. The slab, functioning as a hybrid ground, serves at once as the pedestrian walkway, a roof to 6 stories of underground infrastructure, and a wall to surrounding streets all the while floating above a transportation hub. In this way, it epitomizes the relationship between landscape, architecture, and infrastructure. In response, a set of guidelines proposed by AWP and HHF reimagines the slab as a key connector in the site instead of a barrier,
maximizes efficient use of the space in, on, and around the slab, and develops a holistic vision for a new cultural and programmatic culture on the site. The new plan strategically links Paris to the CDB, strengthens connections to the surrounding neighborhood, and integrates the underground transportation. The guidelines create a framework under which the CBD can build new towers, remodel extant commercial properties, design spaces for exercise and cultural events, install a network of green and open spaces, expand infrastructure and transportation, and evolve planning structures over the next 20 years. This plan also envisions the long-term evolution of the site and identifies possibilities to extended infrastructure to adjacent neighborhoods. Guiding principles for design include: (1) redefining the ground (through
In 2012, public institution DEFACTO, selected AWP, Office for Territorial Reconfiguration, (Marc Armengaud, Matthias Armengaud, Alessandra Cianchetta) in partnership with HHF, to provide design and implementation guidance for La Défense, Central Business District. The objective was to conceive a new strategic master plan for the entire (161 hectares) site that addressed issues of public space—green space, urban infrastructure, circulation, transportation and site evolution— specifically as they relate to the 30 hectare slab.
interventions on the slab), (2) reestablishing the grand axis, (3) inhabiting in-between spaces, (4) allowing for a natural invasion, and (5) incorporating shared spaces. EXPLORING THE UNDERGROUND Beneath La Défense lay several train and metro lines (metro line 1, RER A), a highway (A14 route), and as well as a large number of parking, but there is little character to these spaces. The plaza is envisioned as the central hub of the project, which connects people
PERCENTAGE OF EMPTY SPACE ON THE SITE; WHICH OFFERS OPPORTUNITIES FOR MOBILITY, LANDSCAPE, AND PROGRAM
to all aspects of their life at La Défense: interface to parking, link to work, access to the stadium, cinema or shopping centre. Multileveled systems pose a number of serious challenges and opportunities for design. On the one hand semisubmerged roadways contribute to a safe and pedestrian-oriented central plaza, yet permeability between levels is often weak. In order to formulate the relationship between vertical and horizontal territories, a new design strategy is proposed. The surface is cut through, subterranean parts are day-lighted, visual connection is established, and circulation systems are added. The vision is that in the future, the underground can function as more than a transition route to other destinations, but rather become a destination in itself, a meeting place, and a place for programmed activities. Thus, this axis is the medium to penetrate the greater richness of the site and, in this way La Défense can serve as a model for exploiting the full potential of the underground. Envisioned axis
We were able to re-find 100,000 square meters of underused spaces in between buildings and between level changes that have great potential to link important locations.
In response to this challenging condition of the site, it was necessary to develop the theme of “depth” in a rather literal sense: creating places for living within the areas now used for parking. Through site analysis and spatial reconfiguring, were able to re-find
empty occupied space space
30ha slab surface area
left: zoom-in of mobility hub right: key facts and figures from diagnositc books produced by awp+hhf
100,000 square meters of underused spaces in between buildings and between level changes that have great potential to link important locations. As part of the intervention’s first goals, the potential value of the underground network at La Défense is developed to a maximum extent particularly as it serves as the interface between subterranean parking, metro lines, and the elevated walkway that links office buildings. PROJECT PHASES The first phase of the project includes analysis and a site diagnostic evaluation. The diagnostic phase is comprised of analysis that resulted in a series of data maps. In the case of plan guide public areas of La Défense, this phase was essential for the understanding of the site. The first task of the study was to
daily commuters 400 000
create a system of representation, to compile an atlas of public spaces, and gather unpublished data owned by different actors on the site. A series of walking workshops were conceived of as a new way to generate knowledge from the site`s operational actors: Defacto, employees and residents, and other visitors to achieve a sensitive experiential mapping of the visit. These steps helped us the read the site and break it down into programmatic typologies and a set of targeted interventions. After the diagnostic phase, a general program was established based on our five principles. The five principles set out in the order of importance, and are grouped under the title «Towards a climate.» This phase was essential to the understanding of the site and also for producing 10
themed books which outline the different layers of public space of La Défense. These strategies also helped to structure proposals and formulate a strategy for implementation. The second phase focuses on infrastructure, there will be profound changes to the character of the neighborhood, driven by a stronger engagement with public space. Wayfinding will be improved, so that one can take pleasure in walking and driving around La Défense, as one would in the centre of Paris. The ring road will mutate into an urban boulevard; pavements and walkways will be renovated and connections to nearby Puteaux, Courbevoie and Nanterre will be improved. As a result, to La Défense serve as a critical link in a larger network
re-define the axis
of streetscape interventions from one bend of the Seine to the next and between Paris and its surrounding hinterlands. Defacto has already begun important work to simplify and improve access for road users and pedestrians, upgrade car parking, install a new signaling system on the plaza, a new lighting plan and unify wayfinding, street fittings and advertising signs. FIVE STRATEGIES FOR DESIGN 1. re-invent mobility/redefine the ground. Entryways, thresholds, and circulation routes between La Défense and the peripheral neighborhoods were all addressed as crucial components to future success of the project. The proposed network of paths and open spaces function as the connective tissue between currently disjointed buildings, levels, and areas.
Improving navigation in/under/around the slab is central to the master plan, as well as to the public’s interaction with the greater La Défense-area. 2. re-establish the grand axis. The Parisian grand axis is maintained, but it is mutable in response to existing conditions. The networks of greenspaces around this new axis are added to, updated, and re-imagined; they provide the area with new character, programmatic potential and experiential continuity. The new network of promenades, planted routes, a system of way finding devices, and improved entryways stretch outward from a central spine and offer direct access to the surrounding neighborhood and other peripheral sites. The central axis is envisioned as a rich “oasis” of nature and urban identity, which fuses architecture, landscape, art, and community.
3. inhabit in-between spaces. An integrated system of infrastructure will increase access to the site and ultimately improve navigation within the site. Attention to a variety of landscape conditions creates interim settings, each interesting in their own right, which give form, focus, and character to different parts of the site. Simultaneously, a system of integrated design strategies and aesthetic vocabulary retains a sense of coherence and integrated whole. Hard and softscape paths, street furniture and wayfinding devices were also proposed particularly at in-between spaces to achieve these goals. Through a series of analyses aimed at exploring under-utilized spaces on the site, we discovered 100,000 square meters that had the potential to be used for program, circulation, or landscape.
left: NIGHT AT LA DÉFENSE PHOTOGRAPH BY MAYA NEMETA right: nighttime tour of la défense conducted by awp
4. allow for a natural invasion. The design proposal maintains that landscape should both adapt to the context of the plaza and take on a more radical form, so that it helps define a new character. The landscape network aims to engage people throughout the site. We at once respect the existing infrastructure and site conditions while employing landscape strategies as a way to occupy and engage the site. A hybrid of landscape interventions introduces new landscape typologies and meets a wide variety of user needs. The proposal includes hardscape areas that capture vistas and facilitate easy movement through the site, a plaza for largescale gatherings, lawns and fields for recreation and sport, and quiet gardens for sanctuary. 5. incorporate shared spaces. The plan aims to develop the current assets of the site. Building upon the current
art collection, public buildings and worldrenowned corporate presence, the proposal thus outlines an approach for La Défense to become a greater center for tourism, culture, economy, and the arts. We also rethink the role of public interior spaces; for example, defining ground floor atria as giving access not to towers, but as extending interior rooms to open space, thus blurring the boundary between public space and private interior. towards a climate As we conceived of the new character of the site, we established a critical relationship between the visible and invisible components: above ground and underground, building and infrastructure. Most importantly, we aim to develop a new “climate” on the site. While invisible to the eyes, experiential quality to the site was central; we wanted to create a space that felt safe, comfortable, lively, and ever
accommodating to the needs of its users. Thus the climate will be the defining memory of La Défense, an innovative space full of contrasts that is infinitely more hospitable than the immense, stark landscape of the current site. We were also looking at depth on the site so as to anchor the buildings and to help overcome the current sense of it being an illogical pile of disjointed buildings. If the navigation is strong enough, the museum, the hybrid landscapes and the event spaces can extend underground and this new climate can permeate between layers and link many places. A developing new nighttime identity for the site is also of primary concern to the success of the future of the site. La Défense is strongly contrasted busy and calm periods (morning/ lunch/leaving the office, day/night,
GRAND AxE / séqUENCE b A
suR dALLE / PORTE REGNAuLT
DIAGNOsTIC DE LA séqUENCE parvis existant à amplifier
signalétique 4 espace public
PROGRAmmATION DE LA séqUENCE clarification de l’identité de grand parvis
3 mise en lumière
PéRImèTRE 1 : PARvIs DE LA DéFENsE surface : 42 450 m2 PéRImèTRE 2 : PERCEmENT vERs COEUR TRANsPORT surface : 200 m2 PéRImèTRE 3 : bANDE PROGRAmmATIqUE surface : 2980 m2
1 armature urbaine
espace A3 +A2+A1 Porte regnault surface
poubelles cendrier bumper
végétation hors sol
CARACTéRIsTIquE mORPHOLOGIquE espace en coeur d’immeuble à caractère privatif, à dominante végétale
TAILLE mOyENNE de 1000 à 3000 m 134
PROGRAmmATION / PRéCONIsATIONs - amplification du climat végétal - lieu calme et ornemental (pas de mobilier d’assise) - espace traversant et non clôt - végétation arbustive, sujet de haute tige à limiter pour ensoleillement - espace éclairé - travail sur l’identité du patio (couleur, essences, végétaux productifs, lumière)
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sol perméable éclairage bas
poubelles parking velo cendrier
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GRAND AxE / séqUENCE C A
P parking velos
végétation hors sol
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PéRImèTRE 1 : NOm surface prOgrammatiOn / précOnisatiOn
PéRImèTRE 2 : NOm surface prOgrammatiOn / précOnisatiOn
transports collectifs transports individuels piste cyclable
working week/ weekend, seasons…). Presently, night transforms the space under the plaza (in a negative sense, couched in the shadows of the parking garages) and ends in the towers (as corporate sculpture). By changing the nocturnal identity of public spaces at La Défense, we can alter the experience of the site from a series of spatial constraints to an urbanism of temporal opportunities. The question of light, and therefore of a nocturnal plan, is
particularly important to developing this alternative dimension of the site. As part of the complete proposal, the firm developed a way to think of the night as a profound untapped space, which can be enhanced by a lighting system for a 24-hour, global population. Thus, the plan calls for a more human, sensitive and artistic approach to the night, an overarching system of artiﬁcial lighting, choreographing movement through the site, and temporal flexibility. As new
éclairage au sol mobilier urbain
oeuvres nocturnes arbre attaque
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uses integrate into La Défense, there will be logistical concerns adjustments to accommodate more nighttime visitors: new infrastructure like a stadium, parking garages, attention to lighting and wayfinding devices, and art installations.
LOCATION La Défense, Paris, France CLIENT DEFACTO, Établissement Public de gestion du quartier d’affaires de la Défense Architects AWP Marc Armengaud, Matthias Armengaud, Alessandra Cianchetta (Partners) with Laureline Guilpain, Noel Manzano, Joseph Jabbour, Clara Lamerre, Charles Bouscasse, Denis Brochard (Project team) + HHF Simon Frommenwiler, Simon Hartmann, Tilo Herlach (Partners) Pierre Escobar (Project team) ENGINEERS + LEA (Lighting) + GINGER (Engineering, QS) + JONCTION (Logistics engineering) + AFP Conseil (security) NET SURFACE 160 ha COMPETITION - DELIVERY 2011 to 2012-2014 IMAGES © AWP-HHF, Anna Positano
Photo credit : Gregori Civera
office for territorial reconfiguration PRACTICE PROFILE AWP (Marc Armengaud, Matthias Armengaud, Alessandra Cianchetta) AWP is an award winning interdisciplinary office for territorial reconfiguration and design. It is based in Paris and Basel (AWP-HHF) and develops projects internationally working on a wide variety of programmes : architecture, landscape design, strategic planning, urbanism ranging from major large scale public projects to temporary installations both in France and internationally. The practice was awarded the French Ministry of Culture’s Prize for Best Young Architects in 2006, and the French Ministry of Transport, Housing and Ecology’s PJU urban planning award 2010. AWP is currently working on the strategic masterplan plan for the development of urban space in the La Défense business district, and designing an iconic 800 m long public space just below the Grande Arche de la Défense, as well as a series of follies and buildings (culture & leisure). Relevant projects include: the Lantern pavilion in Sandnes, Norway, nominated for the Mies van der Rohe Award in 2009; the masterplanning of public spaces and mobility for the 230ha Praille-Acacias-Vernets area, Geneva; the construction of the Evry wastewater treatment plant, France; the sculpture park for the LAM - Museum of Modern, Contemporary and Outsider Art of Lille Metropole, France; the redesign of the public realm for Capodichino airport and the Ferro-Gomma Hub multimodal park in Naples, Italy (with RSH-P) and a number of international high profile competitions. Our portfolio of clients includes several European cities, metropolitan and regeneration authorities, cultural institutions and developers. AWP also curates and designs exhibitions for major cultural institutions and regularly writes books and essays. The three partners have exhibited their work, taught and lectured at architectural venues in Paris, London, Milan, Rome, Barcelona, Beijing, Toronto, Belgrade, Tianjin, Winnipeg, Geneva, Copenhagen, Oslo, Trondheim, Tirana, Lausanne, Montréal, New York and many other places.
Fields of Activity Architecture / Master Planning / Design / Landscape Architecture / Public Space / Urban research & Forecasting www.awp.fr
PARTNERS PROFILE ALESSANDRA CIANCHETTA Alessandra is a partner at AWP and the Director of AWP-UK. Her portfolio of award-winning designs ranges from major large-scale public projects to temporary installations and mostly focuses on public realm and cultural provision. Among her latest ongoing projects are the design of a 800 m long iconic public space and follies project for the Jardins de l’Arche, below the Grande Arche de la Défense and around the new Arena 92; the masterplan for the development of all urban spaces in the La Défense CBD, Paris and a series of small cultural & leisure buildings and follies in a Park in Poissy (Fr). Other relevant projects include The Lantern pavilion in Sandnes, Norway, nominated for the Mies van der Rohe Award in 2009, the sculpture park for the LAM, Museum of Modern, Contemporary and Outsider Art of Lille Métropole, France, the public realm redesign of Capodichino airport, the Ferro- Gomma Hub multimodal park, both in Naples, Italy (with Rogers Stirk Harbour & partners) and a public square for the high speed station in Florence (with Foster & partners). She has also curated and designed exhibitions for major cultural institutions (such as the GAMC, City of Architecture and Heritage and Pavillon de l’Arsenal, Paris, Fondazione Adriano Olivetti, Rome, COAC, Barcelona, among others) written books and essays (Park Guell, Gustavo Gili, 2002, Alvaro Siza_: Private Houses 1954_–_2004, Skira 2004 and Nightscapes, nocturnal landscapes, Gustavo Gili, 2009) and lectured and exhibited her work worldwide. Invited Professor at Columbia University GSAPP The Shape of Two Cities / New York-Paris Special Programme since 2012, Visiting Professor at the Master «Extraordinary Landscapes», Naba, Milan, Italy, at the Azrieli Visiting Critic at the School of Architecture and Urbanism, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, where she currently directs a theory & design DSA. Alessandra has also been a member of the Newham Design review panel in London since 2007. Awarded the French Ministry of Culture Prize for Best Young Architects in 2006 and the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainability, Transport and Housing PJU urban planning award 2010, she graduated from the “La Sapienza” Rome, Etsa Madrid and Etsa Barcelona. She later completed advanced studies on criticism and landscape theory at UPC, Barcelona and Ehess, Paris. She worked with José Antonio Martinez Lapeña - Elias Torres in Barcelona and with Franco Zagari in Rome, before founding AWP in Paris in 2003. MARC ARMENGAUD Founding member of AWP, Marc is responsible for the research and experimental projects at the office, being in charge of curatorial work for exhibitions, publications, lectures and strategic studies. He has directed various interdisciplinary studies focusing on new forms of public spaces, temporary communities and nighttime mobility for the French Ministry of Culture and Communication and for the City on the Move Institute, PSA foundation. He is currently directing a prospective strategic study about water networks and territorial policies, “le grand Paris de l’eau”, for the group Suez Environnement aiming to establish a relation between public spaces and “inhabitable” infrastructures. He curated an exhibition night in themetropolis for Paris’ Urban Center, Pavillon de l’Arsenal. Marc regularly writes for the architecture magazine D’Architectures and is the author of several books and essays about architecture and perception issues in urbanism: among others, Nightscapes (GG Barcelona, 2009), L’Estuaire est une region bien intéressante (in Revue 3030, Estuaire Biennale catalogue, 2009), Corps à corps de la perception et du territoire (ENSAPM, 2009), Espaces invisibles (publiques) (Voies Publiques catalogue, Pavillon de l’Arsenal, 2006), Drawing movements in the dark (in : Nat Chard, drawing indeterminate architecture, Springer, 2005). Associate Professor at the Paris Malaquais School of Architecture since 2009, Marc directs project studios and regularly organizes workshops and international seminars. In addition he is often invited to lecture and teach at architecture universities worldwide. Awarded the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainability, Transport and Housing’s PJU Urban Planning award in 2010, Marc studied philosophy at Paris Sorbonne University (DEA) and is currently working on a PhD in Architecture (University of Paris – Est). MATTHIAS ARMENGAUD Founding member and director of AWP, Matthias is in charge of the practice’s architectural, landscape and urban projects both in France and internationally (Scandinavia, Italy, Switzerland, China, etc), focusing on public spaces, cultural facilities, infrastructures and large-scale masterplanning. He is currently working on a several-year mission for Defacto to develop the masterplan for the development of all urban spaces in the La Défense CBD, and another mission for the state of Geneva concerning the masterplanning of all public spaces and mobility for the 230ha Praille-AcaciasVernets area, in the south of Geneva, as well as for the construction of the Evry wastewater treatment plant and that of cultural facilities in Bois le Roi, France. He collaborates regularly with Dominique Perrault (retail towers, harbours, museum projects) and with ADPI (the architecture department of the Paris Airport company), both in France and internationally. Founder of the Troll” label and responsible for several strategic studies about nighttime mobility for the City on the Move Institute and the municipalities of Rome, Copenhagen, Malmö, Paris, Brussels, Barcelona, Helsinki, Rome, Toronto and Belgrade, he is also founding director of MTMA, and urban trends forecasting agency, and a consultant for future cities for several institutions. Currently associate professor at ENSA Versailles (Fr) and visiting professor (expert) at Fribourg (Switzerland) Engineering and Architecture school, Matthias has been invited to lecture and chair juries at several architecture universities (the EPFL in Lausanne, 2009, the ENSA Versailles, 2008, the “Extraordinary Landscapes” master’s program at Politecnico de Milano, 2006-08, Elisava Barcelona, 2005, Marne-la-Vallée Architecture School, 2003-05, among others). He won ﬁrst place at the Forum des Jeunes Architects in 2000; the Tony Garnier urban planning prize, awarded by the French Academy of Architecture in 2001; the French Ministry of Culture prize for Best Young Architects in 2006, and the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainability, Transport and Housing, PJU urban planning award in 2010, Matthias is a graduate from the Versailles School of Architecture, and founded AWP in Paris in 2003.
Photo credit : Matthias Willi
hhf architects PRACTICE PROFILE HHF (Tilo Herlach, Simon Hartmann, Simon Frommenwiler) HHF architects was founded in 2003 by Tilo Herlach, Simon Hartmann and Simon Frommenwiler. Since then, HHF architects have realized several projects in Switzerland, Germany, China, France, Mexico and the USA. The scope of work ranges from large scale construction (eg the fashion centre “Labels 2” in Berlin), to interior design (eg the ‘Conﬁserie Bachmann‘ in Basel), to master planning (eg Unterfeld in Zug, Switzerland; La Defense in Paris; and the ‘public space and mobility strategy‘ for the city of Geneva in Praille-Acacias- Vernets), to public structures (eg the “Ruta del Peregrino” lookout point for a pilgrimage route near Guadalajara, Mexico, or the “Baby Dragon” pavilion in the Jinhua Architecture Park, China). From the outset, HHF have sought out collaborations with other architects, artists and specialists in order to widen the practice’s view on projects and enrich the quality of speciﬁc proposals. Teaching is an important aspect of their work. Simon Frommenwiler was a teaching assistant with professor Harry Gugger at the ETH in Lausanne between 2005 and 2007 and has taught as visiting professor at the ENSA in Strasbourg since 2011. Simon Hartmann has been Professor at the HTA in Fribourg, Switzerland, since 2009. Previously he served as a teaching assistant and head of teaching at the ETH Studio Basel, with Professors Jacques Herzog, Pierre de Meuron, Roger Diener and Marcel Meili. The principals of HHF were visiting professors at the University of Innsbruck, and guest lectured at the UIA in Mexico City and at MIT in Boston. They have also served as jury members at numerous universities. Founded: 2003 Type of company: GmbH (LLC) Directors: Tilo Herlach, Simon Hartmann, Simon Frommenwiler Associates: Cella Hubel, Magnus Zwyssig Staff: 25 – 30 – the team consists of architects, urbanists, designers, draftsmen and interns
PARTNERS PROFILE Tilo Herlach 1972 Born in Zurich, Switzerland | 1992 – 1998 Studies in Architecture at ETH Zurich and ETH Lausanne; Masters at ETH Zurich with Prof. Ruggero Tropeano | 1998 – 2003 Collaboration with d-company, Bern and Rolf Furrer Architekten, Basel | 2003 Founding of HHF architects, Basel | Since 2006 member of the “Board for Urban Planning SIA Basel” | Since 2007 Board member of the Berlin Chamber of Architects | 2010 BSA member | 2011 Visiting professor at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. Simon Hartmann 1974 Born in Bern, Switzerland | 1994 – 2000 Studies in Architecture at ETH Lausanne, TU Berlin and ETH Zurich; Masters at EPF Lausanne with Prof. V. Mangeat | 2000 – 2003 Collaboration with Rolf Furrer Architekten, Basel | 2002 – 2007 Teaching assistant at the ETH Studio Basel with Prof. Jaques Herzog, Pierre de Meuron, Roger Diener, Marcel Meili | 2003 Founding of HHF architects, Basel | 2009 – 2011 Professor at the HTA Fribourg | 2010 BSA member | Since 2011 Professor at the Joint Master of Architecture course, Fribourg | 2011 Visiting professor at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. Simon Frommenwiler 1972 Born in London, United Kingdom | 1994 – 2000 Studies in Architecture at ETH Zurich; Masters with Prof. H. Kollho_ | 1997 – 2003 Collaborations with Bearth & Deplazes, Chur and Skidmore Owings & Merrill, New York, USA | 2003 Founding of HHF architects, Basel | 2005 – 2007 Teaching assistant at ETH Lausanne with Prof. Harry Gugger | 2010 BSA member | 2011 Professor at the the Joint Master of Architecture course, Fribourg | 2011 Visiting professor at the ENSA Strasbourg, France.
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La Défence press release