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Gender Inequality and Internet Use among Undergraduates in Nigeria: An Approach of Modified Technology Acceptance Model. Awoleye O.M*., Siyanbola W.O.* Hassan O.M.*,, Awoleye A.E.** National Centre for Technology Management, Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife **Department of Education, Foundations & Counselling, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Being a paper Presented at the 2 Biennial Conference between 4-7 May, 2009 nd

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Awoleye et al, 2009

Email: awoleye@yahoo.co.uk


OUTLINES

• • • • • • • • • • NACETEM

Title page Outlines Overview Research Questions Objectives Methodology About TAM Findings Conclusion Recommendations Awoleye et al, 2009

Email: awoleye@yahoo.co.uk


• Advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) are intertwined. – The Internet, mobile phones, fax machines, email services and other ICT facilities have accelerated globalization concept. (Nwagu, 2006; Awoleye & Siyanbola, 2006)

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Awoleye et al, 2009

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Telephone Penetration in Nigeria 30

y = 0.1199e0.6745x

Teleldensity

25

R2 = 0.9807

20

Teledensity

15

Expon. (Teledensity)

10 5 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Year

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*The exponetial equation appears to be a best fit, but it predicts a total teledensity by now, 2009 . *A Linear fit rather best predicts a more realistic teledensity, which gives a teledensity of 87 by the year 2020.

Awoleye et al, 2009

Email: awoleye@yahoo.co.uk


OVERVIEW

– Internet Adoption Region World Asia Indonesia Nigeria

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Density 18.9% 12.4% 8.9% 5.7% (8m users/140mpop)

Awoleye et al, 2009

Email: awoleye@yahoo.co.uk


RESEARCH QUESTIONS

• Is there any difference in the usage pattern of the Internet between Male and Female undergraduates. • To what extent do Female undergraduates lag their Male counterparts with respect to using the Internet? • What are the motivations towards effective use of the Internet by both sexes? NACETEM

Awoleye et al, 2009

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OBJECTIVES

This research: (i) investigates differences in Internet adoption between male and female undergraduates. (ii) It also underscores the differences within the concept of TAM. NACETEM

Awoleye et al, 2009

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Methodology

•Sample size and coverage: 300 students span 10 faculties, 40 departments including science and non-science based disciplines. •Sampling technique: Simple Random •Return Rate: 288 (96%) NACETEM

Awoleye et al, 2009

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Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) External Variables Perceived usefulness

Perceived ease of use Attitude Towards

Behavioral Intention to use

Actual System Use NACETEM

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TAM

Perceived Usefulness ( PU ): T he

degree of performance for a person who uses a particular system. The person believes that his/her performance is enhanced by using the system.

Perceived Ease of Use ( PEOU ) : T he

extent to which an individual believes that using the system will be free of TAM is applied in various fields and widely effort. used by the researchers in order to make a better understanding of adoption and use of technology NACETEM Awoleye et al, 2009 Email: awoleye@yahoo.co.uk


Results TAM categorization

Criteria

Male (%)

Female Ave. (%)

Difference

Demographic data

Gender

42.7

57.3

50

-14.7

Age (< 22years)

33.0

51.7

42.4

-18.7

Science & Engineering course enrolment

47.3

35.8

41.6

11.5

PC Ownership

37.4

17.7

27.6

19.5

PC Access

86.2

88.5

87.4

-2.3

Internet access

90.2

93.3

91.8

-3.1

Ownership & Access

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TAM categorization Perceived usefulness

Perceived ease of use

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Male (%)

Female Ave. (%)

Difference

Positive effect on academic performance

78.0

93.5

85.8

-15.5

Easy global communication

86.6

87.6

87.1

-1.0

As solution to assignments

88.0

64.0

76.0

24.0

Easy process of using the Internet

85.2

72.3

78.8

12.9

Easy process of using search 90.5 engines

82.3

86.4

8.2

Easy process of using email

81.4

81.1

-0.7

Criteria

Awoleye et al, 2009

80.7

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TAM categorization

Actual use

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Criteria

Male (%)

Female (%)

Ave.

Diff.

Cyber cafĂŠ use

89.9

92.1

91.0

-2.2

Email use

81.5

82.5

82.0

-1.0

Average e-mail sent (>20 mails per month

21.3

10.9

16.1

10.4

Average e-mail received (>20 mails per month

24.8

12.8

18.8

12.0

Yahoo mail users

62.5

44.3

53.4

18.2

Online time spent (>6hrs per week)

19.7

6.5

13.1

13.2

Information searching

18.5

14.3

16.4

4.2

Google users (search engine)

78.3

58.3

68.3

20.0

Frequent Internet users

69.8

47.5

58.7

22.3

Experience Internet Users 58.9 Awoleye et al, 2009 (over 4yrs)

62.1

60.5

-3.2

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Conclusion â&#x20AC;˘ The research unveils that Internet adoption among female students is affected by perceived ease of use; while their male counterparts were affected by perceived usefulness. (Consistent with Wahid, 2007). â&#x20AC;˘ Internet adoption among women is slightly lower than their male counterparts. The research found that the male student are frequent users and spend more time online.

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Policy Suggestions

The University Management should: Establish and encourage a computer culture that permeates all activities at all levels in the university; equip the university with tele-centres with close proximity to the students (Computer + Internet); conduct research and develop hardware, firmware, software and courseware to enable Nigeria to generate its own modern computer technology capability. NACETEM

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• THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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? Time • How… • Where… • What’s…etc

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Gender Inequality and Internet Use Among Undergraduates in Nigeria