QNT 275 Week 1 Apply Connect Week 1 Exercise

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QNT 275 Week 1 Apply Connect Week 1 Exercise Review the glossary in your textbook in preparation for this assignment. Complete the Week 1 Exercise in Connect. Note: You have only 1 attempt available to complete assignments. 1. Define Ratio Variable. A variable having values that are numbers which reflect quantities or measurements. A characteristic from a sample or population that can assume different values for individual elements (members) of the sample or population. A quantitative variable such that ratios of its values are meaningful and for which there is an inherently defined zero value. Facts and figures from which conclusions may be drawn, generally for a specific study or issue. 2. Define Inferential Statistics.

Efforts to mislead users of statistical information including biased sampling, misleading chart, table and descriptive measures, and inappropriate analysis or inappropriate interpretation of the results. The process of using a sample of measurements/values to make generalizations about the important aspects of a population of measurements/values. A sampling design in which we divide a population into subgroups that do not overlap, then select a random sample from each subgroup (stratum). A sample selected in such a way that every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected. 3. Define Variable. A characteristic from a sample or population that can assume different values for individual elements (members) of the sample or population. A variable having values that indicate into which of several categories the value for the respective sample or population element belongs. Data collected over several time periods. A variable having values that are numbers which reflect quantities or measurements. 4. Define Stratified Sampling. Efforts to mislead users of statistical information including biased sampling, misleading chart, table and descriptive measures, and inappropriate analysis or inappropriate interpretation of the results. A sampling design in which we divide a population into subgroups that do not overlap, then select a random sample from each subgroup (stratum). A qualitative variable value for which there is no ordering or ranking; data values are not numerical and fit into categories. A qualitative variable value for which there is ordering or ranking.

5. Define Sample. The process of organizing and describing important elements of a set of values. A sample selected in such a way that every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected. The process of using a sample of measurements/values to make generalizations about the important aspects of a population of measurements/values. A subset of the elements in a population. 6. Define Ordinal Variable. A quantitative variable such that ratios of its values are not meaningful and for which there is not an inherently defined zero value. Facts and figures from which conclusions may be drawn, generally for a specific study or issue. A quantitative variable such that ratios of its values are meaningful and for which there is an inherently defined zero value. A qualitative variable value for which there is ordering or ranking. 7. Define Descriptive Statistics. The process of using a sample of measurements/values to make generalizations about the important aspects of a population of measurements/values. A sampling design in which we divide a population into subgroups that do not overlap, then select a random sample from each subgroup (stratum). The process of organizing and describing important elements of a set of values.

A sample selected in such a way that every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected. 8. Define Random Sampling. A sampling design in which we divide a population into subgroups that do not overlap, then select a random sample from each subgroup (stratum). A sample selected in such a way that every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected. A qualitative variable value for which there is no ordering or ranking; data values are not numerical and fit into categories. Efforts to mislead users of statistical information including biased sampling, misleading chart, table and descriptive measures, and inappropriate analysis or inappropriate interpretation of the results. 9. Define Qualitative Variable. A variable having values that indicate into which of several categories the value for the respective sample or population element belongs. Data collected over several time periods. The set of all elements about which we want to draw conclusions. A subset of the elements in a population. 10. Define Interval Variable. Facts and figures from which conclusions may be drawn, generally for a specific study or issue. A quantitative variable such that ratios of its values are not meaningful and for which there is not an inherently defined zero value. A quantitative variable such that ratios of its values are meaningful and for which there is an inherently defined zero value.

A characteristic from a sample or population that can assume different values for individual elements (members) of the sample or population. ===============================================

QNT 275 Week 1 Practice: Connect Knowledge Check

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QNT 275 Week 1 Practice: Connect Knowledge Check Complete the Week 1 Knowledge Check in Connect. Note: You have unlimited attempts available to complete practice assignments. 1. Daily temperature in a local community collected over a 30-day time period is an example of cross-sectional data. True False 2. Time series data are data collected at the same time period.

True False 3. Primary data are data collected by an individual. True False 4. A random sample is selected so that every element in the population has the same chance of being included in the sample. True False 5. __________ consists of a set of concepts and techniques that are used to describe populations and samples. Data mining Traditional statistics Random sampling Time series analysis 6. A sequence of operations that takes inputs and turns them into outputs is a ____________. statistical inference process random sampling runs plot 7.

Processes produce outputs over time. True False 8. _________ uses traditional or newer graphics to present visual summaries of business information. Data mining Descriptive analytics Predictive analytics Association learning

9. The number of sick days taken by employees in 2008 for the top 10 technology companies is an example of time series data. True False 10. A population is a set of existing units. True False 11. A(n) _____________ variable is a qualitative variable such that there is no meaningful ordering or ranking of the categories. interval ordinal ratio

nominative 12. Judgment sampling occurs when a person who is extremely knowledgeable about the population under consideration selects the population element(s) that they feel is(are) most representative of the population. True False A population is a set of existing units. True False

Processes produce outputs over time. True False Primary data are data collected by an individual. True False It is possible to use a random sample from a population to make statistical inferences about the entire population. True False The term big data was derived from the use of survey data. True False _________ uses traditional or newer graphics to present visual summaries of business information.

Predictive analytics Data mining Descriptive analytics Association learning An example of a qualitative variable is the mileage of a car. True False Any characteristic of an element is called a ____________. process set variable D)census A sequence of operations that takes inputs and turns them into outputs is a ____________. random sampling statistical inference process runs plot

Daily temperature in a local community collected over a 30-day time period is an example of cross-sectional data. True False

An example of a quantitative variable is the manufacturer of a car. True False Cross-sectional data are data collected at the same point in time. True False

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QNT 275 Week 2 Apply: Connect Week 2 Case

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QNT 275 Week 2 Apply: Connect Week 2 Case Part 1 You manage the inventory for a car dealership. Your management would like you to review current inventory on the dealership lot. Review the Week 2 Data Set. Create and calculate the following in ExcelÂŽ: Create a Pie Chart which summarizes colors of the cars in the sample. Create a Bar Chart which summarizes the frequency of the models of the cars in the sample. Create a Frequency Table for classes of MPG, including Frequency and Relative Frequency for the cars in the sample. Calculate the mean Days in Inventory for the cars in the sample.

Compare that to the median and the mode. Highlight the value that would be a better representation of the “typical” price of a car in inventory? Calculate the standard deviation of the Days in Inventory for the cars in the sample. Calculate the 5 number summary for the suggested retail prices of the cars in the sample. This consists of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th quartile and the IQR. Note: Part 1 is not submitted. It is only to be completed in preparation for Part 2. Part 2 Reference your Excel® spreadsheet from Part 1. Complete the Week 2 Case in Connect. Note: You have only 1 attempt available to complete assignments. Sample Car # Color MPG Suggest Retail Price Option Package Days in Inventory 1 Grey 27.6 \$24,390.00 LX 1 2 Grey 32.4 \$21,780.00 Touring 10 3 Blue 33.2 \$21,149.00 Touring 28 4 Black 34.7 \$22,069.00 LX 21 5 Blue 27.2 \$22,532.00 Touring 16 6 Blue 26.6 \$20,345.00 Touring 22 7 Red 37.3 \$22,112.00 EX 12 8 Silver 34.9 \$21,289.00 Touring 23 9 Silver 29.6 \$24,871.00 LX 15 10 Silver 32.3 \$25,389.00 EX 8 11 Grey 31.9 \$25,998.00 EX 28 12 Red 26.4 \$19,713.00 LX 55 13 Black 34.8 \$25,213.00 EX 2 14 Silver 35.9 \$24,467.00 Touring 33

15 Black 34.6 \$21,402.00 LX 17 16 Black 33.3 \$20,351.00 LX 14 17 Grey 33.1 \$23,732.00 Touring 1 18 Red 37.5 \$24,558.00 Touring 2 19 Red 27.8 \$19,167.00 LX 18 20 Red 36.1 \$19,903.00 Touring 22 21 Blue 28.8 \$22,140.00 Touring 19 22 Red 26.2 \$22,180.00 EX 41 23 Silver 27.4 \$23,120.00 Touring 33 24 Black 34.9 \$19,837.00 Touring 21 25 Red 36.5 \$24,666.00 EX 31 26 Red 26.3 \$19,446.00 EX 35 27 Blue 31.4 \$23,954.00 Touring 11 28 Blue 30.9 \$21,201.00 LX 3 29 Red 27.4 \$21,346.00 EX 26 30 Red 36 \$19,406.00 EX 31 ===============================================

QNT 275 Week 2 Practice: Analysis ToolPak Installation

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QNT 275 Week 2 Practice: Analysis ToolPak Installation Complete the steps indicated in the “Installing the Analysis ToolPak” video to prepare for this week’s assignment. Take a screenshot of the Data tab showing the installed toolpak. Click on the Assignment Files tab to submit your screenshot. ===============================================

QNT 275 Week 2 Practice: Connect Knowledge Check

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QNT 275 Week 2 Practice: Connect Knowledge Check Complete the Week 2 Knowledge Check in Connect. Note: You have unlimited attempts available to complete practice assignments. 1. In a statistics class, 10 scores were randomly selected with the following results: 74, 73, 77, 77, 71, 68, 65, 77, 67, 66. What is the IQR? 11.00 10

5.00 5.25 12.00

2. A quantity that measures the variation of a population or a sample relative to its mean is called the ____________. range interquartile range standard deviation coefficient of variation variance

3. An observation separated from the rest of the data is a(n) ___________. absolute extreme outlier quartile mode

4. Quality control is an important issue at ACME Company, which manufactures light bulbs. To test the life-hours of their light bulbs, they randomly sampled nine light bulbs and measured how many hours they lasted: 378, 361, 350, 375, 200, 391, 375, 368, 321. What is the mean? 375 389.9

368 346.6 200

5. In a statistics class, 10 scores were randomly selected with the following results (mean = 71.5): 74, 73, 77, 77, 71, 68, 65, 77, 67, 66. What is the range? 516.20 144.00 22.72 4.77 12.00

6. Which percentile describes the first quartile, Q1? 25th 100th 75th 50th

7. Personnel managers usually want to know where a job applicant ranked in his or her graduating class. With a grade point average of 3.83, Michelle Robinson graduated above the 93rd percentile of her graduating class. What is the percentile rank of a student whose GPA was the median GPA. 75th 50th

25th 93rd 10th

8. All of the following are measures of central tendency except the ____________. mode range mean median

9. Quality control is an important issue at ACME Company, which manufactures light bulbs. To test the life-hours of their light bulbs, they randomly sampled nine light bulbs and measured how many hours they lasted (mean = 346.6). 378, 361, 350, 375, 200, 391, 375, 368, 321 What is the range? 58.5 191 3424.3 10,609 342.43

10. The local amusement park was interested in the average wait time at their most popular roller coaster at the peak park time (2 p.m.). They selected 13 patrons and had them get in line between 2 and 3 p.m. Each was given a stopwatch to record the time they spent in line. The times

recorded were as follows (in minutes): 118, 124, 108, 116, 99, 120, 148, 118, 119, 121, 45, 130, 118. What is the mean? 115.5 148 118 114.15 45

11. The local amusement park was interested in the average wait time at their most popular roller coaster at the peak park time (2 p.m.). They selected 13 patrons and had them get in line between 2 and 3 p.m. Each was given a stopwatch to record the time they spent in line. The times recorded were as follows (in minutes): 118, 124, 108, 116, 99, 120, 148, 118, 119, 121, 45, 130, 118. What is the median? 118 115.5 45 114.15 148

12. When establishing the classes for a frequency table, it is generally agreed that the more classes you use the better your frequency table will be. True False

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QNT 275 Week 3 Practice: Connect Knowledge Check

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QNT 275 Week 3 Practice: Connect Knowledge Check 1. A plant manager knows that the number of boxes of supplies received weekly is normally distributed with a mean of 200 and a standard deviation of 20. What percentage of the time will fewer than 160 boxes of supplies arrive in a week? 2.28% 4.56% 42.07% 57.93% P(x < 160) = P(z < (160 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 200)/20) = P(z < â&#x2C6;&#x2019;2) = 0.0228 2. The z value tells us the number of standard deviations that a value x is from the mean. True False

3. An event is a collection of sample space outcomes. True False 4. Determine whether these two events are mutually exclusive: consumer with an unlisted phone number and a consumer who does not drive. not mutually exclusive mutually exclusive

5. Determine whether these two events are mutually exclusive: unmarried person and a person with an employed spouse. not mutually exclusive mutually exclusive 6. Which of the following statements about the binomial distribution is not correct? Each trial results in a success or failure. Trials are independent of each other. The experiment consists of n identical trials. The random variable of interest is continuous. The probability of success remains constant from trial to trial. 7.

For a continuous random variable x, the height of the probability curve f(x) at a particular point indicates the value of the probability for that value. True False

8. An important part of the customer service responsibilities of a cable company is the speed with which trouble in service can be repaired. Historically, the data show that the likelihood is 0.75 that troubles in a residential service can be repaired on the same day. For the first five troubles reported on a given day, what is the probability that all five will be repaired on the same day? .2373 .9990 .0010 .6328 P(x = 5) = .2373

9. A standard normal distribution has a mean of ____________ and standard deviation of ____________. zero, one zero, zero one, zero one, one 10. A letter is drawn from the alphabet of 26 letters. What is the probability that the letter drawn is a vowel? 5/26

21/26 1/26 4/26 AEIOU; 5 vowels out of 26 letters. 11. The set of all possible outcomes for an experiment is called a(n) ____________. event probability sample space experiment

12. Using the following probability distribution table of the random variable x, what is the probability of x = 3? 5/15 2/15 1/15 3/15 All values of P(X) need to sum to 1, so 5/15 + 4/15 + 1/15 = 10/15 means P(X = 3) = 5/15. ===============================================

QNT 275 Week 4 Apply: Connect Week 4 Case

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Customized Work for QNT 275 https://uopcourses.com/sd_product/qnt-275-weekly-practice-connectknowledge-check-apply-connect-weekly-case/

Part 1 You manage Human Relations for your company. One of your sales managers has retired, leaving an opening. You are considering two different employees for the position. Both are highly qualified so you have decided to evaluate their sales performance for the past year.

Use the Week 4 Data Set to create and calculate the following in ExcelÂŽ: Determine the range of values in which you would expect to find the average weekly sales for the entire sales force in your company 90% of the time. Calculate the impact of increasing the confidence level to 95%? Calculate the impact of increasing the sample size to 150, assuming the same mean and standard deviation, but allowing the confidence level to remain at 90%?

Based on the calculated confidence interval for weekly sales on the sample of 50 reps at a 90% confidence level: Calculate both Reps’ average weekly performance and highlight if it is greater than the population mean. You want to determine whether there is a statistically different average weekly sales between Sales Rep A and Sales Rep B. Create Null and Alternative Hypothesis statements that would allow you to determine whether their sales performance is statistically different or not. Use a significance level of .05 to conduct a t-test of independent samples to compare the average weekly sales of the two candidates. Calculate the p-value? Considering that individual you did not promote: Determine whether this person’s average weekly sales are greater than the average weekly sales for the 50 sales reps whose data you used to develop confidence intervals. Create Null and Alternative Hypothesis statements that would allow you to determine whether the new Sales Manager’s weekly average sales are greater than the sample of Sales Reps. Use a significance level of .05 to conduct a t-test of independent samples to compare the average weekly sales of both. Calculate the p-value? SAMPLE OF WEEKLY SALES Sales Rep # AverageWeekly Sales(\$) Week # Weekly Sales(\$) – Rep A Weekly Sales(\$) – Rep B 1 1228 1 4657 5839 2 7374 2 6133 2602 3 1055 3 3438 2830 4 1859 4 7394 4763 5 3938 5 4327 3740 6 1692 6 2552 1315 7 569 7 7063 1599 8 4059 8 7844 1629 9 3689 9 6898 2416 10 607 10 4003 2107

11 1370 11 6884 4237 12 3735 12 4007 6322 13 3305 13 7214 2710 14 7228 14 2358 5890 15 6279 15 7745 5119 16 1671 16 1337 5184 17 5708 17 1052 3439 18 2569 18 6056 4828 19 4163 19 1495 3667 20 1519 20 3530 2518 21 7734 21 4749 6073 22 784 22 3833 5566 23 6766 23 7869 4555 24 7261 24 4541 5867 25 5034 25 6882 6039 26 7115 26 3868 1032 27 6291 27 5934 4834 28 6287 28 4447 3687 29 2080 29 5504 2214 30 7621 30 5554 4659 31 1047 32 6517 33 5172 34 3876 35 5429 36 4538 37 3786 38 2510 39 4863 40 7246 41 1175 42 641 43 4269 44 7034 45 3406

46 2256 47 3182 48 5178 49 4428 50 1189 ===============================================

QNT 275 Week 4 Practice Connect Knowledge Check

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Customized Work for QNT 275 https://uopcourses.com/sd_product/qnt-275-weekly-practice-connectknowledge-check-apply-connect-weekly-case/ Based on a random sample of 25 units of product X, the average weight is 102 lb and the sample standard deviation is 10 lb. We would like to decide if there is enough evidence to establish that the average weight for the population of product X is greater than 100 lb. Therefore, the alternative hypothesis can be written as HA: Îź > 100. (Assume the population is normally distributed.) True

False The null hypothesis is a statement that will be accepted only if there is convincing sample evidence that it is true. True False A research study investigated differences between male and female students. Based on the study results, we can assume the population mean and standard deviation for the GPA of male students are Âľ = 3.5 and Ď&#x192; = 0.5. Suppose a random sample of 100 male students is selected and the GPA for each student is calculated. What is 7.0 3.5 0.05 0.5 If we have a sample size of 100 and the estimate of the population proportion is .10, we can estimate the sampling distribution of with a normal distribution. True False The power of a statistical test is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is false. True False A recent study conducted by the state government attempts to determine whether the voting public supports a further increase in cigarette taxes. The opinion poll recently sampled 1,500 voting age citizens. 1,020 of the sampled citizens were in favor of an increase in cigarette taxes. The state government would like to decide if there is enough evidence to establish whether the proportion of citizens supporting an increase in cigarette taxes is significantly greater than .66. What is the alternative hypothesis? p â&#x2030;¤ .66 p < .66 p = .66 p > .66

seconds. If random samples of 36 download times are selected, calculate the mean of the sampling distribution of the sampling mean. 0.3 0.05 0.15 0.9 For a given hypothesis test, if we do not reject H0, and H0 is true, no error has been committed. a Type I error has been committed. a Type II error has been committed. a Type III error has been committed. According to the Central Limit Theorem, if a sample size is at least _____, then for most sampled populations, we can conclude that the sample means are approximately normal. 50 25 20 30 If the sampled population distribution is skewed, then in most cases the sampling distribution of the mean can be approximated by the normal distribution if the sample size n is at least 30. True False The sampling distribution of a sample statistic is the probability distribution of the population of all possible values of the sample statistic. True False A(n) _____________ hypothesis is the statement that is being tested. It usually represents the status quo, and it is not rejected unless there is convincing sample evidence that it is false. true research alternative null

The diameter of small Nerf balls manufactured overseas is expected to be approximately normally distributed with a mean of 5.2 inches and a standard deviation of .08 inches. Suppose a random sample of 20 balls is selected. Calculate the mean of the sampling distribution of the sample mean. 0.8 5.2 0.08 0.018 If a population distribution is known to be normal, then it follows that None of the other choices is correct. the sample mean must equal the population mean. the sample mean must equal the population mean, the sample mean must equal the population mean for large samples, and the sample standard deviation must equal the population standard deviation. the sample standard deviation must equal the population standard deviation. the sample mean must equal the population mean for large samples. If p = .8 and n = 50, then we can conclude that the sampling distribution of is approximately a normal distribution. True False As the sample size increases, the standard deviation of the sampling distribution increases. True False

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QNT 275 Week 5 Apply Connect Week 5 Case

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QNT 275 Week 5 Apply Connect Week 5 Case You are the manager of a retail store. You want to investigate how metrics can improve the way you manage your business. Use the Week 5 Data Set to create and calculate the following in ExcelÂŽ: Conduct a goodness of fit analysis which assesses orders of a specific item by size (expected) and items you received by size (observed). Conduct a hypothesis test with the objective of determining if there is a difference between what you ordered and what you received at the .05 level of significance. Identify the null and alternative hypotheses. What is your conclusion? Generate a scatter plot, the correlation coefficient, and the linear equation that evaluates whether a relationship exists between the number

of times a customer visited the store in the past 6 months and the total amount of money the customer spent. Set up a hypothesis test to evaluate the strength of the relationship between the two variables. Use a level of significance of .05. Use the regression line formula to forecast how much a customer might spend on merchandise if that customer visited the store 13 times in a 6 month period. Consider the average monthly sales of 2014, \$1310, as your base then Calculate indices for each month for the next two years (based on the 24 months of data). Graph a time series plot. In the Data Analysis Toolpak, use Excelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Exponential Smoothing option. Apply a damping factor of .5, to your monthly sales data, then create a new time series graph that compares the original and the revised monthly sales data. ORDERS VS. SHIPMENTS Size # Ordered # Received Extra Small 30 23 Small 50 54 Medium 85 92 Large 95 91 Extra Large 60 63 2X Large 45 42 CUSTOMERS IN PAST 6 MONTHS Customer # # Visits \$ Purchases 1 8 468 2 6 384 3 8 463 4 2 189 5 10 542 6 4 299 7 6 345 8 2 197

9 4 293 10 1 119 11 3 211 12 9 479 13 7 430 14 7 404 15 6 359 16 10 544 17 9 522 18 5 327 19 6 353 20 7 405 21 4 289 22 7 386 23 7 403 24 1 146 25 7 416 26 9 485 27 3 333 28 7 241 29 2 391 30 6 268 MONTHLY SALES (\$) Month \$ Sales Jan 1375 Feb 1319 Mar 1222 Apr 1328 May 1493 Jun 1492 Jul 1489 Aug 1354 Sep 1530 Oct 1483 Nov 1450

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QNT 275 Week 5 Practice Connect Knowledge Check

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QNT 275 Week 5 Practice Connect Knowledge Check A sequence of values of some variable or composite of variables taken at successive, uninterrupted time periods is called a seasonal factor. cyclical component. moving average. least squares (linear) trend line. time series. The chi-square goodness-of-fit is _________ a one-tailed test with the rejection region in the right tail. never sometimes always

When the moving average method is used to estimate the seasonal factors with quarterly sales data, a ______ period moving average is used. 4 8 5 2 3 An experiment consists of 400 observations and four mutually exclusive groups. If the probability of a randomly selected item being classified into any of the four groups is equal, then the expected number of items that will be classified into group 1 is _____. 100 125 150 25 The range for r2 is between 0 and 1, and the range for r is between ____________. There is no limit for r. â&#x2C6;&#x2019;1 and 0 0 and 1 â&#x2C6;&#x2019;1 and 1 In simple regression analysis, the quantity that gives the amount by which Y (dependent variable) changes for a unit change in X (independent variable) is called the correlation coefficient. coefficient of determination. slope of the regression line. standard error. y-intercept of the regression line.

The chi-square goodness-of-fit test will be valid if the average of the expected cell frequencies is ______________. between 0 and 5 less than 5 at least 5 greater than 0 at least 1 Suppose that the unadjusted seasonal factor for the month of April is 1.10. The sum of the 12 monthsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; unadjusted seasonal factor values is 12.18. The normalized (adjusted) seasonal factor value for April cannot be determined with the information provided. is equal to 1.1. is larger than 1.1. is smaller than 1.1. One use of the chi-square goodness-of-fit test is to determine if specified multinomial probabilities in the null hypothesis are correct. True False The slope of the simple linear regression equation represents the average change in the value of the dependent variable per unit change in the independent variable (X). True False The upward or downward movement that characterizes a time series over a period of time is referred to as _____________. irregular variation seasonal variation a trend cyclical variation A major drawback of the aggregate price index is that

it is difficult to compute. percentage comparisons cannot be made to the base year. it does not take into account the fact that some items in the market basket are purchased more frequently than others. it is computed by using the values from a single time series or based on a single product. The correlation coefficient may assume any value between 0 and 1. 0 and 8. −1 and 1. −1 and 0. −∞ and ∞. The number of degrees of freedom associated with a chi-square test for independence based upon a contingency table with 4 rows and 3 columns is _____. 5 7 12 6 In simple linear regression analysis, we assume that the variance of the independent variable (X) is equal to the variance of the dependent variable (Y). True False hose fluctuations that are associated with climate, holidays, and related activities are referred to as __________ variations. trend cyclical seasonal irregular

A ______________________ measures the strength of the relationship between a dependent variable (Y) and an independent variable (X). coefficient of determination standard error slope correlation coefficient When we carry out a chi-square test of independence, the chi-square statistic is based on (r Ă&#x2014; c) â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 1 degrees of freedom, where r and c denote, respectively, the number of rows and columns in the contingency table. True False The correlation coefficient is the ratio of explained variation to total variation. True False A multinomial probability distribution describes data that are classified into two or more categories when a multinomial experiment is carried out. True False The ____________________ is the proportion of the total variation in the dependent variable explained by the regression model. correlation coefficient slope coefficient of determination standard error ===============================================