Avi Bankim Patel | firstname.lastname@example.org
Table of Content Project Abstract............................................................................
Major Issues................................................................................. Community Interface Education Ecological Intensification Food Production Regeneration
Case Study One............................................................................ Growing Power Case Study Two............................................................................. Edible Schoolyard NYC Case Study Three.......................................................................... Sole Foods Street Farms Case Study Four............................................................................ City Farms Case Study Five............................................................................ Eco-Laboratory Case Study Six.............................................................................. Urban Farms
16 19 22 25 28 31
Key Goals | Objectives| Criteria.................................................... Project Description....................................................................... Preliminary Program....................................................................
39 41 42
Project Abstract As the population increases globally, the lack of available resources such as land, water, and food is becoming increasingly evident as more countries are striving to meet the standard of life, the United States currently enjoys. Presently, most our food is grown through traditional farming methods, but as the population grows the availability of arable land wanes. One solution to this problem is to reintegrate agriculture back into the pockets of vacant and abandoned lots in our cities. This will provide an opportunity to truly address the notion of sustainability as a well-orientated plan, due to developing higher density, multi-functionality, and a more integrated community socially. This aspect of urban agriculture also provides a complementary strategy to reducing urban poverty, food insecurity, and enhance urban environment. Through a mixture of architecture and agriculture this final study will explore opportunities in creating vertical farming within the urban fabric of Austin, Texas to help alleviate food insecurity and food miles for those that reside within the city.
Project Background Since the start of the millennium we have been living in a world with roughly 6.8 billion people, and this number is only expected to rise. By the year 2050 we should be expecting a world population reaching nearly 9.5 billion people.1 This astronomic number should begin to raise questions such as: “where are we going to fit all these people, where will they all live, and most importantly, how are we going to support all the sustenance needed for everyone”. The only way we can even attempt to answer these questions is by anticipating the future by analyzing the historical trends. One trend that will help answer some questions is the frequency in the movement of people from rural areas to dominant urban cities. “About half of the world’s population currently live in cities, a figure which is likely to grow to two-thirds by 2030.”2 This statistic may solve some questions in regards to where the future population might reside, but it begins to raise a whole new set of issues that we must deal with. One such issue is the fact that within the past twenty years we have seen significant sprawling throughout America; a result from chasing the American dream of having a big house with a large backyard and a nice white picket fence. As this dream begins to take on a generational shift, more people are moving away from the suburban lifestyle into a city orientated one. The populations in these cities are ever increasing due to the availability of jobs, the constant rise of oil prices, and the improvement of education, housing, and transportation. The key issue here is how worldwide urbanization and growth in prosperity will increase human need for more land.3 In conjunction with the demand for additional land, most cities are being built or have been built on what arable lands we have left. It is said that 90% of the earth’s arable land is already in use.4 A factor that becomes increasingly important as the population increases. As farmlands begin to diminish so does the capacity to support the world’s food population. For instance, by the year 2050 we would need a landmass the size of Brazil in order to support an additional four billion people through traditional farming.5 Additionally, “If developing countries copy our western urban lifestyles - in terms of demands for food, forest products, and energy - we will need three planets, rather than the one that we actually have.”6 With this in mind it is of crucial importance for cities in developed countries to become more efficient in the way they use resources, especially regarding food supply. In order to become more efficient, we would have to begin reconsidering the planning of cities. One solution is to explore the integration of urban agriculture within the city-scape. 2
The advent of urban farming is not new, rather it has been touted by many theorists and architects such as Ebenezer Howard who wrote, Garden Cities of Tomorrow, Le Corbusier in The City of Tomorrow and its Planning, and Frank Lloyd Wright’s The Living City. Howard envisioned breaking up many industrial cities of Great Britain due to the overcrowding of many slums due to the industrial age.7 The populous then would settle into several large towns, which would have the planning of food production integrated within the towns fabric. According to Howard each city would devote five-sixth of the city-town land to food production, and other mixed use functions would sprinkle in throughout the voids.8
Figure 1: “The Social City,” by Ebenezer Howard, 1898. Original Diagram
Although Le Corbusier was against the notion of dispersing the population, he too proposed allocating certain amounts of land, proportional to residential capacity, for agriculture. In his 1922 Contemporary City proposal, he envisioned three types of food-producing areas: “protected zones,” for the envisaged large-scale agriculture; large kitchen gardens for detached suburban homes; and 10-acre groups of allotments cultivated by apartment dwellers.”9 Le Corbusier also addressed the management of such large plots with a farmer in charge of every 100 plots, and intensive cultivation would be employed.10 Frank Lloyd Wright’s vision was also to integrate agriculture into dispersed suburban settlements as a method of landscape. He envisioned that for a family of four to be 3
self-sufficient they would require one acre of land. “Architecture and acreage will be seen together as landscape, as was the best in antique architecture, and will become more essential to each other.”11 The notion of architecture and acreage as a symbiotic relationship was one of Wright’s greatest feats, because it freed the distinction between urban and suburban which created a sense of how a city could be driven by ecological intensification.12 Urban agriculture has been used throughout the world. In developing countries urban agriculture is largely driven by economic need, while in developed countries it is more likely to have risen due to social or recreational needs.13 Some consider urban farms to be places where communities take back their autonomy.14 Others believe it to be an income generator, and others concentrate on the educational values it provides. The common thread between all the urban farming projects, and the people involved with them is that they believe in “everyone striving together to create a healthier community where people know their neighbors and have access to good food.”15 Based on David Hanson and Edwin Marty, the author of Breaking Through Concrete: Building an Urban Farm Revival, they defined urban farming as:
“An urban farm is an intentional effort by an individual or a community to grow its capacity for self-sufficiency and well-being through the cultivation of plants and/or animals.”16 Presently urban farms do not have the capacity to feed the entire population, but what it can provide is an important role in helping establish an efficient production of food for areas where there is food insecurity. The USDA, United States Department of Agriculture, defines food insecurity as meaning, “limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways.”17 This is just another extremely pressing issue, and will bound to get worse as the population increases. Based on a study done by the USDA, in 2008 and 2009 a total of 50.2 million Americans were considered to be “food insecure”, including 17.2 million children.18 At the same time current concerns in much of the world are about the obesity epidemic, and the worldwide health crises caused by poor diets. The report also noted that food insecurity was more prevalent in large cities than in rural areas, suburbs, and other outlying areas around large cities.19 This increase in food insecurity in large cities has coined the term “food deserts”, which the USDA defines as:
“An area in the United States with limited access to affordable and nutritious food, particularly such an area composed of predominately lower-income neighborhoods and communities.”20 4
Figure 2: Highlighted areas are food deserts all across the United States. Courtesy of USDA
The idea of food deserts stems from the concept of food miles, which is defined by the number of miles food has to travel to get to the final marketplace. With the rise of industrialization and agribusiness, cheap transport, and food preservation technology the distance between farm and market has increased dramatically and steadily. For example, in the United States the average shopper makes 1.7 trips to the supermarket per week.21 Even in the past decade, the average distance Americans must travel between their home and the closest grocery store is six miles.22 Additionally, nearly a quarter of all trips in the city are associated with purchasing and consuming food.23 In a time where many countries are trying to reduce their carbon emissions, this compound effect of traveling for the food we eat, which is also coming from faraway lands does not help the cause. As stated previously Earthâ€™s arable lands are being wiped-out at an alarming rate. This and the fact that the disappearance of farming as an occupation has instigated a great threat to our food production. The average age of farmers in North America has steadily risen over time. The USDA estimates that the proportion of farmers over 55 rose from approximately 37 percent in 1954 to 61 percent by 1997, and has continued to rise.24 From a global standpoint only 2.8 billion of the 6.8 billion people currently are considered to be farmers.25 Most of the worldwide farmers are poor peasant farmers farming for sustenance to feed their family and friends. From a metrics standpoint one industrial farmer feeds over 140 people on average.26 Locally, farmers only account for a meager two percent of the 5
U.S. population; for example, in the 1930s there were about six million people listing themselves as farmers; by 2009 fewer than 150,000 declared farming as their principle occupation.27 The lack of farmers can be associated with the constant troubles they face on a regular basis. The USDA estimates that 50 percent of all crops planted in the United States never reach the plate of the consumer.27 Factors such as droughts, floods, spoilage, and plant diseases account for most of the losses. On a global scale the situation is more dismal with nearly 70 percent of planted crops never reach the harvesting stage.28 With the increase in severity of harvesting conditions and the growth of food shortages the price for our general foods has also increased, which puts more stress on the poor countries and low-income families. Crop production is linked to seasonal changes and weather patterns, which greatly determine the amount of yield that would be produced. Traditionally, failure to produce maximum yields has been associated with adverse weather conditions.30 As designers we have the ability to offer our expertise in designing solutions to multiple problems associated with challenging urban sites and the needed guidance to intensify and expand food production within the city. As we await the inevitable increase in population, designers have the opportunity to create new and innovative methods in achieving the desired food production of the future. Although there has not been a new method developed to help create food production for the masses, there have been countless examples where urban farms are being used on a local scale. The best way to begin attacking the issue of food production due to population increase is by beginning locally.
Endnotes 1. Dickson Despommier, The Vertical Farm: Feeding the World in the 21st Century (New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin’s Press, 2010), 83. 2. André Viljoen, Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes: Designing Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities (Oxford: Architectural Press, 2005), 33.
4. Jennifer King, Food and the city: Urban Agriculture and the New Food Revolution (New York: Prometheus Books, 2012), 64.
5. Dickson Despommier, The Vertical Farm: Feeding the World in the 21st Century (New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin’s Press, 2010), 83. 6. André Viljoen, Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes: Designing Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities (Oxford: Architectural Press, 2005), 33.
7. Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of Tomorrow (London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1902), 50-57.
9. Le Corbusier, The City of Tomorrow and its Planning (London: Architectural Press, 1971), 205.
11. Frank Lloyd Wright, The Living City (New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1995), 281-285.
12. André Viljoen, Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes: Designing Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities (Oxford: Architectural Press, 2005), 101.
13. Ibid., 45.
14. David Hanson, Edwin Marty, Breaking Through Concrete: Building an Urban Farm Revival (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012), 5.
17. Janine M. Salle and Mark Holland, Agricultural Urbanism: Handbook for Building Sustainable Food & Agriculture Systems in 21st Century Cities (Winnipeg, Manitoba: Green Frigate Books, 2010), 95.
19. Jennifer King, Food and the city: Urban Agriculture and the New Food Revolution (New York: Prometheus Books, 2012), 17.
20. USDA. “Food Desert.” Characteristics and Influential Factors of Food Deserts. www.ers.usda.gov/.../err140.aspx
21. Jennifer King, Food and the city: Urban Agriculture and the New Food Revolution (New York: Prometheus Books, 2012), 23.
22. Ibid., 17.
23. Janine M. Salle and Mark Holland, Agricultural Urbanism: Handbook for Building Sustainable Food & Agriculture Systems in 21st Century Cities (Winnipeg, Manitoba: Green Frigate Books, 2010), 24.
24. Ibid., 51.
25.Jennifer King, Food and the city: Urban Agriculture and the New Food Revolution (New York: Prometheus Books, 2012v), 70.
26. Ibid., 70.
Endnotes 27 Dickson Despommier, The Vertical Farm: Feeding the World in the 21st Century (New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin’s Press, 2010), 125.
28. Ibid., 26.
29. Ibid., 27.
30. Ibid., 146.
Figure 1: Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of Tomorrow (London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1902)
Figure 2: USDA. “Food Desert.” Characteristics and Influential Factors of Food Deserts. www.ers.usda.gov/.../err140.aspx
Major Issues The implementation or integration of urban agriculture back into the city requires solutions to numerous issues. These issues will typically vary from city-to-city and countryto-country, but these issues all have a common thread; it is based on the existing context and conditions within the specific urban environment. As stated before, the main problem is food security within the city itself and to limit the amount of food miles for residents. This topic of food security can easily begin branching out into various other issues, but in order to create a design intervention that will provide a new type of precedent and theoretical model for a city, specific issues must be analyzed. Additionally, these pressing food issues can often be a point of departure for addressing a range of urban issues including: community interface, education, ecological intensification, food production, and regeneration. Community
There are various definitions and connotations behind the term “community”. It is difficult finding a definition that is simple enough to get the concept across, yet complex enough not to leave anything important missing. The idea of community being, “a unified body of individuals,” is broad enough to leave it open to discussion and complex enough to include what is most important. Most importantly, when the concept of community is broken down, facets such as social inclusion, participation, collaboration, and communication become the most significant aspects. These aspects become increasingly important when placed within the urban context. Namely because of the constant issues many major cities deal with such as blight, gentrification, dilapidation, and the abandonment in the core of our cities. This creates only a compounding negative effect for the residents and the families living in the city and the types of opportunities that may be available to them. According to Ken Dunn, the founder and director of the Resource Center in Chicago, “There is a direct connection between vacant land and the condition of urban communities. Simply by making sure that no city lot sits neglected; we can ensure better economic stability, safety, community engagement and quality of life.”31 The question then becomes how can an urban farm become a catalyst for blighted areas and for low-income families. One such increasing usage of city infill has been community gardens, which promotes healthy communities and provide food security for many low-income families. Community gardens strengthen community bonds, provide food, promote environmental awareness, community education, and create recreational and therapeutic opportunities for a community.32
One successful model has been Growing Power (Case Study One), a community garden out of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The founder of the program, Will Allen, designed a program that has been used as a “living museum” or “idea factory” for the young, the elderly, farmers, producers, and other professionals ranging from USDA personnel to urban planners.33 Allen is widely considered to be the leading authority in the expanding field of urban agriculture. He promotes the belief that all people, regardless of their economic circumstances, should have access to fresh, safe, affordable, and nutritious foods at all times.34 Allen has become a national leader in the movement toward urban food security, and has won numerous awards including the MacArthur “Genius” grant.35 Allen strives to instill in the youth who volunteer and work with him, a lifelong commitment to healthy and sustainable urban food systems, starting with what they feed themselves. Green Power is not only a fully operational farm, it is also an educational center and green jobs resource. In addition to forging relationships with youth and families in the community, Growing Power looks to strengthen the food security ecosystem by involving Milwaukee businesses and public institutions in their work.36 Allen likes to call Growing Power an urban farm university, and he consistently seeks new ways to expand their curriculum.
Education As stated in the introduction, there is a severe disproportionate ratio between our current population and the number of farmers. This is obviously a major issue when it pertains to who will be growing our food for the future. Since there are so many factors that discourage new farmers from considering farming as an occupation; it becomes that much more crucial in trying to educate ourselves in growing enough for self-sufficiency. An urban farm is an ideal platform for generating dialogue between learning and participating in agriculture. The best way to integrate agriculture into our lifestyles is by beginning while we are young. Children can learn what local fresh food taste like and hopefully develop a desire for more, whereas college students can study the systems that control food supply and put into practice what they learn by working on an urban farm. Many institutions have already begun to practice this idea, because they also see the beneficial aspects of integrating agriculture into a school campus. Institutions are beginning to integrate learning and practicing urban agriculture, which creates a laboratory in conjunction with the everyday academic classes. Farm to School programs link farmers with school cafeterias in order to provide education to students. Another beneficial aspect of the program is that it often leads to an increase in the consumption of local fresh produce by students and school staff.37 One such precedent I will examine further is Edible Schoolyard 10
NYC (Case Study Two), which is an affiliate of the program founded in Berkley, California.
“Every child needs to learn how to cook, needs to learn how to cultivate a garden, plant seeds, learn about sustainability, be taken to a garden, and be able to put hands in the Earth.”38— Alice Waters, Founder of the Edible Schoolyard program Students who participate in Edible Schoolyard NYC’s comprehensive program learn how sustainable, organic food choices can transform their health.39 The basis for creating an integrated system is so that the kids are provided with hands-on learning experiences that arm them with the knowledge and skills needed to combat childhood obesity and embrace sustainable eating practices.40 This not only preserves the knowledge of past farming techniques, but it also allows the students to develop a core interest in the field. The student body is also ethnically diverse, and most kids come from low and moderate income families who qualify for food assistance at a rate well above the citywide average of 41 percent.41 According to the department of education almost 70 percent received public assistance.42 Thus, Edible Schoolyard NYC aims to close some of the disparities as a positive consequence of teaching kids and their families about growing and eating nutritious and healthy food.43
Ecological Intensification There is no feasible way of creating a new landmass the size of Brazil to fix our future agricultural needs. What is available to us are spaces within cities that are considered abandoned, blighted, brownfields, industrial wastelands, etc.; and as more and more cities suffer from economic downturns, the greater the availability for these types of lands become. Some textbook examples of once dominant cities that are now a hotbed for abandonment include Detroit, St. Louis, parts of Chicago, Cleveland, and other major cities within the upper Northeast and Midwest.44 This type of urban decay can be prevalent in many cities, but it tends to be confined within parts of the city-scape resulting in a much smaller scale and effect on the city, whereas the aforementioned cities are influential on a much larger scale. In order to encourage this notion of revitalization and sustainability; cities must now be heavily dense, but also high in intensity. While good urban planning promotes dense land use, it is rarely achieved and over time a waning of intensity inevitably sets in. One way to restore this within cities is to integrate agriculture back into the “missing teeth” of the city. Not only will this solution create a greater density within the city, but it also brings back ecological intensification from what it once may have been. Urban agriculture can 11
positively impact the greening and cleaning of the city by turning abandoned open spaces into green zones, thus raising surrounding property values.45 Degraded open spaces and vacant lands are often used as waste dump-sites and a source of crime and health problems.46 When these areas are turned into productive green spaces not only is an unhealthy situation cleared, but the neighbors will passively or actively enjoy the green area.47 These improvements may have a chance of enhancing community self-esteem in the neighborhood. This kind of opportunity has allowed many to begin creating designs that fulfill the vacancy within the cityâ€™s abandoned lots. One highly successful project that has utilized the abandoned lots within Vancouver, British Columbia is the farm, Sole Food Street Farms (Case Study Three). Vancouver has been known to struggle with increasingly high poverty.48 Not only has it affected the surrounding communities, but it has had an adverse effect on employment rates and child poverty as well.49 Sole Foodâ€™s goal going into the project was not to feed the neighborhood, but instead provide real-life, skill-based training for those who go through the program so they can find reliable work and support themselves.50 Additionally, Sole Food also helps those in low-income families and or homeless by providing them jobs in the farm.51 The most important accomplishment may be that the city has fully embraced the program and has allowed Sole Food to use a network of spaces for their farming needs.52
Food Production The issues of community interface, education, and ecological intensification, provide the contextual matter for food production, whereas, the relationship with sustainability is a symbiotic one. The reason being that as climate change intensifies, the weather patterns become more severe and it creates a more hostile environment for farmers to grow crops. Especially when they already have to deal with issues such as reduction in agricultural land, floods, crop failure, pests, drought, etc.53 Not only is the issue of food production related to the number of mouths to feed, but also doing so in a safe and healthy manner. Traditional farming requires various pesticides in order to prevent various issues from impacting the harvest. Additionally, during production of foods, various other preservatives and packaging are applied. Thus the health and safety of the final product available to us is quite different than the one pulled straight from the earth. As previously mentioned, there is an obvious availability in the amount of abandoned or vacant lots across many cities, but implementing a particular method in food production within the city may or may not be welcomed. Not everyone may want to live next to an outdoor farm that uses fertilizers or to outdoor pens for livestock. Additionally, urban 12
food production is usually small in scale, typically shared with spaces with other land uses, and makes use of urban waste spaces such as vacant lots, roofs, walls, and balconies. Urban agriculture benefits from small-scale systems and components that enable opportunistic and intense cultivation in pockets of high-value spaces.54 Therefore, finding and creating innovative methods to grow agriculture is needed to solve for the various issues that food production present today. An additional issue that food production presents is that almost all farming requires some form of irrigation, and on a global scale, uses around 70 percent of the available freshwater to do so.55 This problem can be solved when integrated with the aspects found in net-zero design. Soil requirement can present an issue for specific cities that cannot sustain agricultural growth. Many gardeners know that having rich top soil available is very valuable in producing healthy crops. One obvious precedent that has been utilized in creating vegetation in a safe and healthy environment have been greenhouses. Not only can these spaces be controlled but it also limits the amount of threats that traditional farming faces today.
Regeneration A farm generally has the connotation of being natural or organic, so it is often associated with being sustainable. However, â€œIn the United States, traditional farming consumes roughly 20 percent of the fossil fuel used annually.â€?56 Nowadays farms have begun taking different sizes and forms, so there is an obvious need to instill some sustainable strategies within the design. The idea of regeneration or hyper-efficiency stems from the concept of net-zero design, in which the building produces as much energy as it consumes. Most urban farms currently are on such a scale that it is becomes quite achievable to reach net-zero design, but for larger scaled projects it can become difficult to generate the needed energy and waste disposal capacity. Although this aspect of regeneration tends to be applied towards the goal of achieving a net-zero efficient building, its design systems within the building can be integrated in the production of agriculture. Agriculture requires three main components for survival: daylight, water, and a barrier. Farming outdoor presents some pros and cons in comparison to indoor farming. The last component, barrier, is used differently in regards to traditional methods via pesticides and herbicides. Now, creating a barrier for example, like the skin of the building, creates protection for the plants from the elements but also provides challenges in regards to daylighting and water sources. If the design of the building is integrated to create a form conducive to sustaining plant life, then it has achieved the aspect of regeneration. In essence, the main design strategies and 13
opportunities create a symbiotic approach between net-zero design aspects and food production. This issue of regeneration can be a part of the solution for a city in many facets such as being an educational tool, community space, but more importantly it can serve as a model for a cityâ€™s sustainability.
Endnotes 31. Sarah Rich, Urban Farms (New York: Abrams, 2012), 121. 32. Municipal Research, “Urban Agriculture-Community Gardening.” MRSC., http://www.mrsc.org/subjects/parks/ comgarden. 33. Growing Power, “Our Community Food Center.” Growing Power Inc., http:// http://www.growingpower.org/headquar ters.htm.
36. Ibid., 135.
35. Sarah Rich, Urban Farms (New York: Abrams, 2012), 132.
37. David Hanson, Edwin Marty, Breaking Through Concrete: Building an Urban Farm Revival (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012), 6.
38. Ibid., 44.
40. Ibid., 43.
44. Fred Smith and Sarah Allen, “Urban Decline (and Success) in the United States.”
45. Peter Ladner, The Urban Food Revolution: Changing the way we Feed Cities (Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers, 2011), 185-186. 46. The RAUF Foundation, “Why is Urban Agriculture Important?” RAUF., http://www.ruaf.org/node/513.
48. Jennifer King, Food and the city: Urban Agriculture and the New Food Revolution (New York: Prometheus Books), 173.
49. UrbanPromise Vancouver. “World Vision Poverty Report - Vancouver.”
50. Jennifer King, Food and the city: Urban Agriculture and the New Food Revolution (New York: Prometheus Books), 175.
51. HB Lanarc-Golder. “The Urban Farming Guidebook Planning for the Business of Growing Food in BC’s Towns and Cities.”
53. Dickson Despommier, The Vertical Farm: Feeding the World in the 21st Century (New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin’s Press, 2010), 84-85. 54. Mark Gorgolewski, June Komisar, Joe Nas, Carrot City: Creating Places for Urban Agriculture (New York: Monacelli Press, 2011), 154. 55. Dickson Despommier, The Vertical Farm: Feeding the World in the 21st Century (New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin���s Press, 2010), 208.
56. Ibid., 168.
Case Study [One]
Project: Architect: Location: Established: Program:
[Growing Power] Will Allen 5500 W. Silver Spring Drive, Milwaukee, WI 53218 1993 Community Garden
Growing Power Background: Located on an historic two acre site is one of the last remaining farm and greenhouse operations in the city of Milwaukee. â€œIn a space no larger than a small supermarket live some 20,000 plants and vegetables, thousands of fish, and a livestock inventory of chickens, goats, ducks, rabbits, and bees.â€?57 Vision: Inspiring communities to build sustainable food systems that are equitable and ecologically sound, creating a just world, one food-secure community at a time.58 Community: Growing Power provides hands-on training, on-the-ground demonstration, outreach, and technical assistance through the development of Community Food Systems that help people grow, process, market, and distribute food in a sustainable manner.59 The manner in which Will Allen integrates and encourages teenagers to work at his store, and learn about healthy foods and agriculture is the most unique aspect of this program. Another important aspect for a farm that supports the low-income populations is that it provides numerous jobs on site. Program: This specific farm is very unique in that it contains almost everything a large rural farm would have, but its compacted into a two acre site in the city. Although Growing Power supports various different types of vegetation, the idea of raising livestock is something that would seem to be 17
Growing Power frowned upon. Instead many flock to the market in hopes of buying some of the eggs, or fresh honey. Will Allen has created a totally holistic farm in that nothing is missing and that everything has a reason for being on the farm. For example he raises worms in order to help break down waste generated on site, but also to help his compost heap. In addition to the livestocks, worm depository, and an apiary he also utilizes six traditional greenhouses. These greenhouses grow over 15,000 pots of herbs, salad mix, beat greens, arugula, sunflower, etc.60 Allen considers the farm to be an urban farm university rather than a traditional farm because in addition to growing food on-site it also produces the necessary energy as well. Even though the farm may appear to lack technological advancement, it his highly technological in terms of how it produces foods. Will Allen has utilized various ponic systems to generate a greater efficiency in plant production. Most importantly he has done so, with cheap and readily available materials. Synthesis: Will Allenâ€™s model for an urban farm is near perfect in terms of community involvement and holistic farming programs. The manner in which Growing Power serves the community is something that I want to achieve in my own project. Additionally, the programmatic aspect of Growing Power also speaks to the variety of functions that can occur within an urban setting. 18
Case Study [Two]
Project: Architect: Location: Established: Program:
[Edible Schoolyard NYC] Alice Waters P.S. 216, the Arturo Toscanini School NYC 2010 Integrated Agriculture Education
Edible Schoolyard NYC Background: Edible Schoolyard NYC is a model that is being tested for an eventual integration within all public schools in the inner city area. This particular model serves approximately 300 students. In addition, it helps serve the low to moderate income families. Mission: “Edible Schoolyard NYC partners with public schools to build gardens and kitchen classrooms where children can engage in hands-on learning. Our goal is to provide students with the knowledge, skills and environment required to make healthier choices and change the way they eat...for life.”61 Education: “The edible schoolyard is a venue for every kind of traditional learning – reading, language arts, math, history – not to mention community building and social development.”62 Edible Schoolyard provides an unique opportunity for the 500 students of P.S. 216. The students that participate in the program learn how sustainable, organic food choices can transform their health. This experiential education feeds curious mouths from kindergarteners to fifth graders. The garden and kitchen classes are integrated into each grade level’s academic curriculum all year round.63
Edible Schoolyard NYC Health: Over three million New Yorkers citywide live in communities where access to fresh fruits and vegetables are tragically limited.64 Low-income families who lack the time and resources to eat healthier, settle for cheap, processed food options that ultimately lead to battles with obesity, especially amongst their children.65 â€œToday nearly 50% of NYCâ€™s public elementary school students are obese or overweight.â€?66 They are a part of the first generation of children forecasted to have a shorter life expectancy than their parents.67 A childhood plagued by obesity could result in an adulthood hampered by heart disease, cancer, diabetes or high blood pressure.68 Synthesis: The manner in which how Edible Schoolyard has integrated in the educational system and the community altogether is something to strive for. Not only is it a very important teaching tool for the children, but it is a sustainable working model that is being implemented in various schools across America. Creating a facility for urban agriculture would only seem to benefit the most when it is within close proximity to other school systems, so that participation like Edible Schoolyard NYC can occur. Additionally, the complexity of the schoolyard is not overwhelming, thus it can be easily maintained and can generate a long-life span rather than it being a temporary intervention as you will see in further case studies.
Case Study [Three]
Project: Architect: Location: Established: Program:
[Sole Food Street Farms] Michael Ableman | Seann J. Dory Downtown Vancouver, British Columbia 2010 Urban Farm
Sole Food Street Farms Background: Sole Food Street Farms transforms vacant urban land into street farms that grow artisan quality fruits and vegetables. Mission: â€œOur mission is to empower individuals with limited resources by providing jobs, agricultural training and inclusion in a supportive community of farmers and food lovers.â€?69 Ecological Intensification: In 2010, a 17,000 square-foot farm sprouted from an abandoned parking lot next to a run-down hotel in a notoriously rough part of downtown Vancouver.70 Vancouver has been known to have increasingly high poverty rates for years. Not only has it affected the surrounding communities, but it has driven away the usual foot traffic away from this area of the city. The manner in which Vancouver has adopted the idea of urban farms is something to note highly of. Not only is Sole Food a model for how to approach utilization of abandoned and blighted lots, but it has also generated a revitalization in the surrounding areas and has brought people back to what was once a blighted area. With this in mind the city of Vancouver allowed Sole Food to expand in order to generate more density within the city and encourage more foot traffic all across the city of Vancouver. Program: Much like previous case studies, the manner in which Sole Farm produces its food is quite similar. One drastic difference is its idea of mobility, due to the movement 23
Sole Food Street Farms from other Sole Food lots to another. It has developed a system of raised movable planters which can be stacked vertically. This isolates the growth from being contaminated, but also allows for production on pavement, and satisfies surrounding landowners who cannot make urban land available on a long-term basis.71 The ultimate goal here is that their plantings are made at the highest density possible in an attempt to make maximum use of what space is available to them. Most importantly, Sole Food estimates that production from these very intensive urban spaces can be 15-25 times higher than conventional â€œopen fieldâ€? farm plantings.72 Synthesis: The idea of Vancouver embracing Sole Food Street Farms into the fabric of the city is quite admirable, but this was only made possible by creating a very efficient and positive model first. This case study serves as an important precedent and model for a center of urban farms for my proposed city. Especially because farming in the city presents unique challenges and opportunities. Sole Food Street Farms utilized the scarce land that was available to them, which presented the challenges of rough pavement, security to prevent vandalism and theft, and finally adapting to the various urban lands that may have been too contaminated to grow in. The most important aspect to extract from this study are the methods and strategies used to create such a highly intensive food production in such a limited space. 24
Case Study [Four]
Project: Architect: Location: Established: Program:
[City Farms] Ken Dunn 1204 N. Clybourn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60610 2000 Mobile Farm
City Farms Background: City Farms is a model based on using available abandoned or vacant land until the community has a different use for it. Mission: “City Farm’s mission is to establish farms throughout Chicago, creating a network of production of fresh vegetables. We share our skills with our neighbors, provide jobs, and have fresh, organic food to sell.73 Ecological Intensification: City Farm uses resources Chicago has in abundance: compostable materials, vacant land, a ready market for fresh food, and a work force ready to dig in.74 The concept is simple; farm available land until the community finds a new use for it. City Farm does not buy or lease the land for the crops, its use is at the discretion of developers and city officials with the promise that if the land sells and a building can be erected, the farm will find new accommodations.75 This fits nicely with Ken Dunn’s view of urban agriculture as a treatment for ailing land and communities. The way he sees it, if a developer can successfully sell the land and build new housing and businesses, that’s a sign of urban recovery.76 The farm is designed to be fully mobile; the small office, work shed, and even the wood chips and compost in the ground can be picked up and moved for less than half the cost of establishing a new farm from scratch.77 The mobile model also supports sustainability, not just in terms of the reuse of 26
City Farms farming equipment and materials, but also by ensuring that city can prioritize density over sprawl.78 Education: The City Farm is rooted with the Resource Center, which provides a not-forprofit environmental education that strives to improve the quality of life in Chicago. The Resource Center has demonstrated innovative techniques for recycling and reusing materials in conjunction with the city farms for over 35 years. “The Resource Center has been devoted from its beginning to the economic and educational revitalization of city neighborhoods through recycling, urban farming, composting, and other programs that reclaim and reuse resources.”79 Synthesis: The previous two examples have shown the importance of having mobile farming methods in order to prevent sprawl and increase the intensity of ecological growth. The Resource Center for City Farms is the most critical function of City Farms due to the educational resources it provides for the community. From a programmatic standpoint City Farm’s Resource Center provides a near-perfect precedent in terms of what a facility for urban agriculture should provide from both a educational and community standpoint. Contextually, City Farms sits just on the outskirts of downtown Chicago, this provides an opportunity to bridge the inner city with suburban residents. Thus bringing both social classes together and the spreading of agricultural knowledge. 27
Case Study [Five]
Project: Architect: Location: Established: Program:
[Eco-Laboratory] Weber Thompson Seattle, WA Conceptual Eco-Community
Eco-Community Background: Eco-Laboratory was born out of the idea, asserted by the team, that â€œthere is no silver bullet for sustainability, no one solution for net-zero consumptive environments.â€? Eco-Laboratory is more than a building; it is where economics, culture and environment intersect to create a greater whole.80 Philosophy: Our vision is a holistic response to provide the basic necessities of healthy food, clean water, and a place where residents can live, work, and restore their impacts on site.81 Program: This 110,000 square foot Eco-Laboratory is a unique blend of functions that consist of a residential development merged with neighborhood amenities such as a community garden, neighborhood market, vocational training facility, and a public sustainability educational center. Its proposed location is on an infill lot in downtown Seattle, Washington. This model was designed in order to provide a viable development through mixed-use.82 The most resourceful aspect, however may be the integrated systems that create a closed cycle so that the building and the community itself is self-sustainable. Systems such as the hydroponic garden to grow food for the community; wastewater treatment to convert black and grey water to potable water; earth tubes to funnel in clean air for the vegetation; and lastly vertical axis wind turbines, solar panels, and hydrogen fuel cells 29
Eco-Community powered by methane creating a holistic integrated building thus totally exemplifying a self-sustaining community.83 Synthesis: This conceptual model of a self-sustaining community portrays a great example for passive design aspects that generate net-zero energy consumption, while integrating aspects of food production within the function of the building. Since this is more of a residential development and a eco-educational component second, the design is oriented thusly. Not only does this project exemplify how to use various sustainable strategies, but it provides a great precedent in regards to the program of a building such as this. In addition to serving the needs of the residents spatially, the form and shape of the building and glazing system create a representation of the performance of the building systems that allow for the creation of food. Most notably it brings a commercial scale of urban agriculture through the use of vertical farming to the community. Overall, the Eco-Community by Weber Thompson Architects have established a model for sustainability through integrating site, materiality, energy, indoor spatiality, water storage, and community orientated programming. The fact that all the needs for people and vegetation can be generated on site creates a sense that it is truly possible to be net-zero and create the idea of â€œregenerationâ€?.
Case Study [Six]
Project: Architect: Location: Established: Program:
[Urban Farm] KONODESIGNS Tokyo, Japan 2010 Pasana Headquarters
Urban Farm Background: Urban Farm at Pasona Tokyo Headquarters is a nine story high, 215,000 square foot corporate office building for a Japanese recruitment company. Philosophy: “When design unites the twin goals of improving life and business practice, it engenders beauty and crosses the boundaries of time to take on a life of its own.”84 Program: This case study is one of very few actual precedents that incorporates urban agriculture within the building system. It is the largest and most direct farm-to-table of its kind ever realized inside an office building in Japan.85 It is also a great showcase piece of the various different means of growing crops; traditional indoor plots, ponic systems, and vertical growth on the facade. “This New York firm created the urban farm in 2010 in an existing nine story office building in Tokyo.” “Workers in nearby buildings can be seen pointing out and talking about new flowers and plants and even the seasons - all in the middle of a busy intersection in Tokyo’s metropolitan area.”86 Yoshimi Kono, Principal The creation of the new headquarters for a recruitment firm consisted of refurbishing a 50 year old building to include office areas, an auditorium, cafeterias, a rooftop garden, and urban farming facilities.87 Inside the 215,000 square foot building consists of roughly 43,000 square feet dedicated to 32
Urban Farm green space that houses over 200 species of plants, fruits, vegetables, and rice.88 Facade Integration: The building has a double-skin facade where flowers and orange trees are planted on small balconies. Kono had a great approach to the project, “The design focus was not on the imposed standards of green, where energy offsets and strict efficiency rates rule, but rather on an idea of a green building that can change the way people think about their daily lives and even their own personal career choice and life path.”89 The last and most important quote from Kono about the building gives a great reason as to why create such a structure,“It is important to note that this is not a passive building with plants on the walls, this is an actively growing building, with plantings used for educational workshops where Pasona employees and outside community members can come in and learn farming practices.”90 Building Function: As a pre-existing structure, ducts, pipes, and vertical shafts were rerouted to the perimeter of the building to allow for maximum height ceilings and a climate control system used to monitor humidity, temperature and air flow in the building to ensure it is safe for the employees and suitable for the farm.91 The entire facade consists of deep grid fins, creating depth and volume for the organic green wall. Inside, the structure consists of deep beams and large 33
Urban Farm columns arranged in tight intervals creating low interior ceilings of 7’-6”. Lighting was installed hidden under the bottom of every beam creating a light cove to simulate daylight for traditional plot growth.92 Food Production: The recruitment firm, Pasona, understood that job placement opportunties in farming were very limited due to the steady decline of farming within the country.93 Rather than dwelling on it, Pasona focused on educating and cultivating the next generation of farmers by offering seminars, lectures, and internship programs in agriculture.94 To reverse the declining trend in the number of farmers and ensure a future for sustainable food production, Pasona created programs that empowered students with case studies, management skills, and financial advice to promote urban farming. Japan produces less than one-third of their food locally, while importing over 50 million tons of food annually.95 Since the crops are harvested within the headquarters it provides a distribution system that reduces the amount of food miles for marketplaces. Synthesis: “Pasona Urban Farm is a unique workplace environment that promotes higher work efficiency, social interaction, future sustainability and engages the wider community of Tokyo by showcasing the benefits and technology of urban agriculture.”96 This is an ideal example of integrating urban agriculture within a building. Not only does 34
Urban Farm this provide the opportunity for a safe and healthy environment for food production, but it also creates the possibility for additional spaces that supplement urban agriculture as specified in the other case studies. Urban Farm is a working model for solving the issue of food mileage by educating the general public of Tokyo. This is a facility in the mold of Eco-Laboratory (Case Study Five) in that it provides self-sufficiency for those who work in the office. Pasona Headquarters also shows that it is possible to grow various types of vegetation, through various different means as shown in the pictures. Since a fifth of the building is dedicated towards food production and other spaces dedicated towards the education, it provides a unique balance between learning and hands-on-experience. The structure and systems of the building also help establish an integration of building form and food production creating a symbiotic relationship as stated in the major issues. This specific building does not implement any net-zero design standards, therefore requiring a severe increase in energy usage in the upkeep of the plants. Overall, Pasana Headquarters provides a unique blend of all the case studies presented above. Although it does lack in some areas of community engagement and educational facilities, it makes up for it in the innovation and creativity of integrating food production all throughout the building.
Endnotes 57. Growing Power, “Our Community Food Center.” Growing Power Inc., http:// http://www.growingpower.org/headquarters.htm.
61. Edibly Schoolyard NYC, “P.S. 216 Arturo Toscanini.” Edible Schoolyard Inc., http://esynyc.org/explore/brooklyn-showcase-school/
69. Sole Food, “About.” Sole Food Farms., http://solefoodfarms.com/about/
70. Jennifer King, Food and the city: Urban Agriculture and the New Food Revolution (New York: Prometheus Books), 172-176.
71. Sole Food, “About.” Sole Food Farms., http://solefoodfarms.com/about/
73. Sarah Rich, Urban Farms (New York: Abrams, 2012), 121-122.
80. Weber Thompson. “Eco-Laboratory.” Weber Thompson Architects,. http://weberthompson.com/projects/319
63. Ibid. 64. Ibid. 65. Ibid. 66. Ibid. 67. Ibid. 68. Ibid.
76. Ibid. 77. Ibid. 78. Ibid.
82. Lloyd Alter, “Eco Laboratory by Weber Thompson Team Wins Big at Greenbuild.” MNN Holdings, LLC. http://www.treehugger.com/sustainable-product-design/eco-laboratory-by-weber-thomson-team-wins-big-at-greenbuild.html 83. Bridgette Meinhold, “Eco Laboratory: Seattle’s Exemplary Eco Community.” Inhabitat, LLC. http://inhabitat.com/eco-laboratory-by-weber-thompson/
84. KONODESIGNS, “Urban Farm.” KONODESIGNS Architects., http://konodesigns.com/company/
Endnotes 85. Dezeen, â€œPasona Urban Farm by Kono Designs.â€? Dezeen Magazine., http://www.dezeen.com/2013/09/12/pasona-urban-farm-by-kono-designs/
Reflective Statement Our current cities provide a unique set of challenges and opportunities to create interventions with the potential for solving a multitude of contemporary issues. Specifically, integrating architecture with agriculture provides a chance at solving issues such as food insecurity and food miles. As previous case studies have shown, incorporating aspects of community participation, education, and hands-on experience of urban farming strategies can help alleviate food insecurity faced in many of the prominent food deserts all across America. The success for many of the models derives from their focus on being local and striving to enhance the surrounding community and environment. Since the number of residents expected to live in cities is going to rise, the opportunity is there to develop higher density, encourage multi-functionality, and create well-integrated communities. Using the available spaces in our cities such as abandoned lots, vacant spaces, brownfields, industrial wastelands, etc.; provides the ideal opportunity to begin creating local environments such as those done by Growing Power, Edible Schoolyard NYC, Sole Food Street Farms, etc. This final study provides an ideal opportunity and challenge to demonstrate that a model focused around urban agriculture can become a catalyst in solving for the major issues of community interface, education, food production, and regeneration for our cities today.
Key Goals and Objectives Urban Design Develop higher density, multi-functionality, and a more integrated community socially. • To create a dense and intensive rich environment for the site and surrounding context. • Create a mixed-use development, rich in functionality, and enhance environmental atmosphere. • To use site context and climate to inform building program and form. • Utilization of sun path, wind velocity, and other relevant climate data to design and orientate specific building functions and aesthetic considerations. Community Interface Instill the notion of unity and environmental stewardship within the city’s fabric. • To create a facility that bridges the social gap by encouraging social interaction. • The project is located within close proximity to low-income neighborhoods. • Designing spaces that require collaboration and communication through farming practices. • Creating communal engagement through various outdoor and indoor programs. • Establish indoor-outdoor duality by creating adjustable spaces for flexible functions to help enrich surrounding sites. Education Encourage a collaborative learning environment that evokes participation and social inclusion. • To create an atmosphere that fosters hands-on-learning. • Designing collaborative learning and teaching spaces. • To create an opportunity for various job growth. • Providing various mixed-use functions within the program that enable the creation of a variety of jobs. • To provide food education via production for social institutions. 39
Key Goals and Objectives
• Establish a Farm-to-School relationship with institutions within close proximity.
Ecological Intensification Create an intensification process within the urban environment that fosters ecological growth. • Reintegrate a sense of natural ecology by re-claiming an abandoned, vacant site and replacing it with a design that fosters sustainability. • Utilization of a site that falls under the category of: abandoned, blighted, brownfield, industrial wasteland, etc. Food Production Provide the opportunity for production in areas of “food deserts” and for those that are considered to be “food insecure”. • Create enough production within proximity to serve social institutions such as schools, local markets, cafés, and restaurants. • To utilize modern and technological farming methods to reintroduce agriculture within the urban fabric. Regeneration Design a model development that exemplifies sustainability and ecological growth for the city. • Through the demonstration of green technologies and efficiency, while achieving net-zero design standards. • Exemplifying sustainable strategies by creating a transparency between systems and users. • To create dual purpose building systems in order to establish a well-integrated design. • The integration of net-zero design facets such as energy production, waste disposal, water treatment, and daylight systems into food production.
Project Description Project Proposal: As for the vehicle of my exploration in the research of urban agriculture, I am proposing a facility for urban farms in the heart of Austin, Texas. The design intervention will focus on enhancing the community interface, education, ecological intensification, food production, and regeneration within the city. The program of the facility will compromise of functions that will reinforce solutions to the major issues listed above, while integrating with the contextual matter of the community. Proposed Site: [690 Driskill St. Austin, TX 78701]
Characteristics: • Approx. 76,435 sq. ft. • Abandoned, Vacant Lot • Brownfield Site • 1/2 Mile from Sanchez Elem. School • Walking Proximity to Park/Playground • Located on bus route • Adjacent from low to moderate inc. neighborhood • Optimum north-south daylight access for ecological growth
Project Description Preliminary Program: Site Component: • Infill Farming Plots • Compost Systems • Water Collection • Energy Production • Wind • Solar • Geothermal Energy
Community Component: • Urban Farmers Market • Public Vending Spaces • Tourism Center • Café/Restaurant
Vertical Farm Component: • Food Production Spaces • Ponic Systems • Hydroponic • Aquaponic • Aeropoinc • Nursery • Laboratories • Quality-Control • Farming Methods & Tech. • Workforce Facilities • Management offices • Environmental Control
Agro-Housing Component: • 4 Caretaker Residence Units • 3 Workforce Residence Units • 3 Live-Work Units Eco-Educational Component: • Classrooms • Informal Laboratories • Greenhouse
Picture Credits Case Study One [Growing Power] • Rich, Sarah. Urban Farms. New York: Abrams, 2012., 132-147. • Growing Power, Inc.. “Grow.” Growing Power. www.growingpower.org/growing.htm Case Study Two [Edible Schoolyard NYC] • Rich, Sarah. Urban Farms. New York: Abrams, 2012., 42-53. • Edible Schoolyard NYC. “Our Story | Changing The Way Children Eat...For Life!.” Changing The Way Children Eat...For Life! | Edible Schoolyard NYC partners with public schools to build gardens and kitchen classrooms in New York City.. http://esynyc.org/ learn/story/. Case Study Three [Sole Food Street Farms] • Sole Food Street Farms. “About - Sole Food.” Sole Food - Sole Food transforms vacant urban land into street farms that grow artisan quality fruits and vegetables.. http://solefoodfarms.com/about/. Case Study Four [City Farms] • Rich, Sarah. Urban Farms. New York: Abrams, 2012., 121-131. • City Farm Resource Center. “FAQ | City Farm.” City Farm. http://www.cityfarmchicago.org/our-farms/faq/. Case Study Five [Eco Laboratory] • Alter, Lloyd. “Eco-Laboratory by Weber Thomson Team Wins Big at Greenbuild : TreeHugger.” TreeHugger | Your source for green design & living news, commentary and advice. http://www.treehugger.com/sustainable-product-design/eco-lab oratory-by-weber-thomson-team-wins-big-at-greenbuild.html. • Meinhold, Birdgette. “ECOLABORATORY: Seattle’s Exemplary Eco Community.” inhabitat. inhabitat.com/eco-laboratory-by-we ber-thompson/. • Weber Thompson. “Weber Thompson - Eco-Laboratory.” Weber Thompson. http://weberthompson.com/projects/319. Case Study Six [Urban Farm] • Dezeen magazine. “Pasona Urban Farm by Kono Designs.” dezeen magazine. www.dezeen.com/2013/09/12/pasona-ur ban-farm-by-kono-designs/. • KONO DESIGNS. “KONO DESIGNS - Urban-Farm.” KONO DESIGNS. http://konodesigns.com/portfolio/Urban-Farm/.
Bibliography Abel, Chris. “The Vertical Garden City: Towards a New Urban Topology | Planetizen: The Urban Planning, Design, and Development Network.” Planetizen: The Urban Planning, Design, and Development Network. http://www.planetizen.com/node/50957. AIA Seattle. “Eco-Laboratory | 2009honorawards.aiaseattle.org.” Congratulations to the winners of the 2009 Honor Awards! | 2009honorawards.aiaseattle.org. http://2009honorawards.aiaseattle.org/node/57. AGRI-TECTURE. “AGRI-TECTURE, Where should high-density urban farms in the US be....” AGRI-TECTURE. http://www.agri-tecture. com/post/40843986851/where-should-high-density-urban-farms-in-the-us-be#.Uc5GxWLVCUm. Alter, Lloyd. “Eco-Laboratory by Weber Thomson Team Wins Big at Greenbuild : TreeHugger.” TreeHugger | Your source for green design & living news, commentary and advice. http://www.treehugger.com/sustainable-product-design/eco-lab oratory-by-weber-thomson-team-wins-big-at-greenbuild.html. Badore, Margaret. “Vancouver’s Sole Food opens largest urban orchard in North America : TreeHugger.” TreeHugger | Your source for green design & living news, commentary and advice. http://www.treehugger.com/green-food/vancouvers-sole- food-opens-largest-urban-orchard-north-america.html. Bybee, Roger. “Food Justice in the City :: Will Allen takes on an Urban Food Desert” YES! Magazine.” YES! Magazine” Powerful Ideas, Practical Actions” YES! Magazine. http://www.yesmagazine.org/issues/food-for-everyone/growing- power-in-an-urban-food-desert). City Farm Resource Center. “FAQ | City Farm.” City Farm. http://www.cityfarmchicago.org/our-farms/faq/. Coyle, Stephen. Sustainable and Resilient Communities: A Comprehensive Action Plan for Towns, Cities, and Regions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Despommier, Dickson D.. The Vertical Farm: Feeding the World in the 21st Century. New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin’s Press, 2010. Dezeen magazine. “Pasona Urban Farm by Kono Designs.” dezeen magazine. www.dezeen.com/2013/09/12/pasona-ur ban-farm-by-kono-designs/. Edible Schoolyard NYC. “Our Story | Changing The Way Children Eat...For Life!.” Changing The Way Children Eat...For Life! | Edible Schoolyard NYC partners with public schools to build gardens and kitchen classrooms in New York City.. http://esynyc.org/ learn/story/. Etchells, Frederick. The city of tomorrow and its planning. 3rd ed. London: Architectural Press, 1971. Franck, Karen A.. Food + the city. Chichester: Wiley-Academy, 2005. Gorgolewski, Mark, June Komisar, and Joe Nasr. Carrot City: Creating Places for Urban Agriculture. New York: Monacelli Press, 2011. Growing Power, Inc.. “Grow.” Growing Power. www.growingpower.org/growing.htm Hanson, David, and Edwin Marty. Breaking Through Concrete: Building an Urban Farm Revival. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012. Howard, Ebenezer. Garden Cities of Tomorrow. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1902. King, Jennifer. Food and the City: Urban Agriculture and the New Food Revolution. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 2012. KONO DESIGNS. “KONO DESIGNS - Urban-Farm.” KONO DESIGNS. http://konodesigns.com/portfolio/Urban-Farm/. Ladner, Peter. The Urban Food Revolution: Changing the Way we Feed Cities. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers, 2011. Lehrer, Mia. “Urban Agriculture: Practices to Improve Cities - Urban Land Magazine.” Urban Land Magazine. http://urbanland.uli. org/default-category/urban-agriculture-practices-to-improve-cities/. Meinhold, Birdgette. “ECOLABORATORY: Seattle’s Exemplary Eco Community.” inhabitat. inhabitat.com/eco-laboratory-by-we ber-thompson/. Mougeot, Luc J. A.. Growing Better Cities Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Development. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, 2006.
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Avi Bankim Patel | Final Study Proposal | 2013-2014