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YAK-130 COMBAT TRAINER CHOICE CHOICE OF OF RUSSIAN RUSSIAN AIR AIR FORCE FORCE june 2005 • special edition for 46th Paris Air Show

combat trainer of the new millennium Victor Subbotin about

Russian Regional Jet programme LAAD 2005 exhibition

NEW GENERATION OF TRAINERS AND COMBAT TRAINERS LOW OPERATING COST – HIGH EFFICIENCY OF TRAINING AND COMBAT OPERATIONS

Yakovlev Design Bureau 68, Leningradsky pr., Moscow, 125315, Russia Tel.: +7 (095) 158-34-32 Fax: +7 (095) 787-28-44 E-mail: yakokb@cityline.ru http://www.yak.ru

Rosoboronexport State Corporation 21, Gogolevsky Blvd., Moscow, 119992, Russia Tel.: +7 (095) 202-66-03 Fax: +7 (095) 202-45-94 http://www.rusarm.ru

Irkut Corporation 68, bld. 1, Leningradsky pr., Moscow, 125315, Russia Tel./fax: +7 (095) 777-21-01 E-mail: inbox@irkut.com http://www.irkut.com

Sukhoi

Su-27SKM upgraded fighter


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KAMOV

8a, the 8th March St., Lyubertsy, Moscow Region, 140007, Russia Tel. +7 (095) 700-30-71 Fax +7 (095) 700-31-10 E-mail: kb@kamov.ru http://www.kamov.ru

Phazotron-NIIR Corporation JSC 1 Elektrichesky Pereulok, Moscow 123557, Russia Phone: +7 (095) 253-5613, Fax: +7 (095) 253-0495, Telex: 412159 PHAZA RU


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Dear readers,

June 2005 Publisher Aeromedia Publishing House Editor-in-Chief Andrey Fomin

Deputy Editor-in-Chief Andrey Yurgenson

Columnists Alexander Velovich Vladimir Shcherbakov

Special correspondents Andrey Zinchuk Alexey Mikheyev Victor Drushlyakov Piotr Butowski Yury Ponomarev Sergey Popsuyevich

Marketing manager Nadezhda Kashirina

Design and pre-press Grigory Butrin

Web support Georgy Fedoseyev

Translation Yevgeny Ozhogin

Published with support from Russian Knights foundation

Executive director Yury Zheltonogin

Cover photo Alexey Mikheyev

News items for “In Brief” columns are prepared by editorial staff based on reports of our special correspondents, press releases of production companies as well as by using information distributed by ITAR-TASS, ARMS-TASS, Interfax-AVN, RIA Novosti, RBC news agencies and published at www.avia.ru, www.aviaport.ru, www.lenta.ru, www.gazeta.ru, www.finmarket.ru, www.strana.ru, www.regions.ru, www.cosmoworld.ru, www.strizhi.ru, www.armscontrol.org, disarmament2.un.org web sites

The magazine is registered by the Federal Service for supervision of observation of legislation in the sphere of mass media and protection of cultural heritage of the Russian Federation. Registration certificate PI FS77-19017 dated 29 November 2004

© Aeromedia, 2005

P.O. Box 7, Moscow, 125475, Russia Tel. +7 (095) 198-60-40, 798-81-19 Fax +7 (095) 198-60-40 E-mail: info@take-off.ru http://www.take-off.ru

You are holding special Le Bourget supplement to the new magazine Vzlyot (Take-off), Russia's first national monthly aerospace publication. The Take-off project was launched in late 2004 by a likeminded team of editors, columnists and managers of the Russian English-language magazine Air Fleet headed by its editor-in-chief. The name of our magazine is symbolic. What has happened to Russian aerospace industry over the decade since the USSR's collapse can hardly be called anything but an uncontrolled spin. But now certain positive tendencies have finally emerged. The first buds of industrial integration are striking through, new aircraft development programmes have been reanimated, the average annual flying time of military pilots is growing, and Russian aerospace businesses have secured milestone international contracts. The industry definitely shows signs of improvement, so we have every right to state that Russian aviation is taking wing again. We see our mission in providing the Russian-speaking part of the global aviation community with current and comprehensive information about the latest developments in Russian and CIS aerospace industry, activities and performance of military and civil aircraft operators, and key trends in space technology. Major international aviation events are also given proper attention. Our magazine brings to our readers aviation-related news, review and analysis of aerospace technology development and operation, and interviews with key industry newsmakers. With six issues of Vzlyot (Take-off) published to date, we are now launching an English-language supplement. The first issue will coincide with the Paris Air Show, the most authoritative and prestigious parade of aviation achievements in the world. Our aim in producing this issue was to provide objective and exhaustive coverage of the major aviation programmes currently under development in Russia and the CIS, with a special focus on those to be presented at Le Bourget this year. One of the articles that you will find in this issue is dedicated to the Sukhoi Su-27SKM upgraded fighter, which is being actively promoted to overseas markets. This particular aircraft will be first revealed to general public at Le Bourget this year. The Paris Air Show is historically an excellent venue for strengthening and expanding international cooperation in aerospace technology. This year's exhibition will serve as a backdrop to the signing of numerous international aviation contracts. One of the largest-scale examples here is the RRJ Russian Regional Jet programme under joint development by Russian, French, US and other companies. An interview with Viktor Subbotin, Director General of Sukhoi Civil Aircraft and RRJ programme Director, will bring you up to date with the progress of the RRJ programme. Other Russian aviation efforts availing of foreign participation are the Mikoyan MiG-AT and Yakovlev Yak-130 jet trainer programmes. Our feature article will familiarise you will the Yak-130 aircraft. We would like to wish all participants of the 46th Paris Air Show interesting meetings, useful contacts and advantageous contracts; not least, a thrilling eyeful of air displays in the skies over Paris. We hope that you will find our magazine helpful in guiding you through the Russian exposition at the show, and look forward to meeting you at further aviation exhibitions all over the world!

Sincerely yours, Andrey Fomin Editor-in-Chief


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contents

EVENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 june 2005

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Victory Air Parade over Red Square Tu-204-300 awarded Type Certificate Belarus celebrates Victory Day and demonstrates upgraded aircraft Su-27UBM1 debuts near Minsk

COMMERCIAL AVIATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Second An-148 prototype joins flight test programme RRJ to first fly in autumn 2006 An-140 operated in three countries now A380 makes first flight Airbus considers outsourcing A350 development work to Russia Boeing promoting 787 to Russian market

Viktor Subbotin: The aircraft we are developing will meet the highest western standards

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The Russian Regional Jet (RRJ) project, under development by Sukhoi company subsidiary Sukhoi Civil Aircraft, is one of the most dynamic aviation programmes - and certainly the most ambitious one - in the newest history of Russia. It sets quite a number of precedents in contemporary Russian aircraft industry, what with its heavy reliance on western partners, the plan to promote the airplane in the western market, and the unusually tough self-imposed timeframe. Quite understandably, the RRJ programme faces many sceptics in Russia. We asked Viktor Subbotin, Director General, Sukhoi Civil Aircraft and RRJ Programme Director, to update our readers on the status of the programme and explain the reasons behind the developers' optimism

CONTRACTS AND DELIVERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

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Russian 2004 arms sales topped $5.6 billion Su-30MKM replace US fighters Flying testbed for China Russian helicopters for Venezuela India waits for three A-50Es Mi-171A obtains Brazil's Certificate Spain takes in two more Ka-32s IAF MiG-21bis upgrade contract fulfilled KSAMC plans new An-74 deliveries to Africa Kiev resumes An-32 production

Paris debut of Su-27SKM

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Warplanes developed by the Sukhoi design bureau have long been known to participants and visitors of the world's leading air show at Le Bourget. As far back as 1989, production Su-27 and Su-27UB fighters made their debut here. 1993 saw the Su-30MK multirole fighter's demonstrator unveiled here, 1995 - the Su-32 (Su-34) multirole tactical strike aircraft and 1997 - the Su-37 super-manoeuvrable fighter. The Su-30MKI super-manoeuvrable fighter arrived to Le Bourget in 1999 and the Su-30MKK in 2001. Alas, the latter's full-scale demonstration was disrupted by legal claims of Swiss company Noga. The aircraft had to return home urgently. There were no Sukhoi fighters at the 45th Le Bourget air show for the same reason. Now that all legal claims have been settled, Sukhoi again demonstrates a combat aircraft of its own in the skies of Paris. This time it is the Su-27SKM upgraded singleseat multirole fighter. The RusAF has recently reinducted the first Su-27 fighters upgraded to Su-27SM standard. Simultaneously, Russia has begun international promotion of the Su-27SKM version. Andrey Fomin reviews the Su-27SM upgrade programme and details the new capabilities of the RusAF's advanced single-seater and its export mate, which will be displayed at this year's Paris Air Show for the first time

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AIR FORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

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RusAF CINC on 2004 results and objectives for 2005-06 Spring is time for training The Kuznetsov again to sea Su-34 production launched RusAF to receive new Ka-50s RusAF can get about 50 Mi-28Ns by 2010 MiG-29OVT undergoing tests China tests AWACS

Yak-130: combat trainer of new century

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A second production-configuration aircraft of prospective combat trainer Yakovlev Yak-130 has entered the flight trials in April this year. Work is underway under the contract with the Russian Air Force that selected the Yak-130 for service with its flight schools. In May, the new aircraft was submitted for the official trials slated to wrap up next year, after which the aircraft will be fielded. Under the concept of the Yakovlev design bureau, the Yak-130 designed for advanced flight training of military pilots, as well as for training them in combat tactics, is an element of the training complex comprising the Yak-152 (Yak-52M) primary trainer, a ground simulator and a computerised classroom. Having landed the contract with RusAF, Yakovlev is concurrently promoting the Yak-130 on the global market in cooperation with the Irkut company, with the Rosoboronexport state-owned company as an intermediary. India, Malaysia and, possibly Algeria, as well as some other countries, are believed to be potential buyers of the advanced combat trainer. The Yak-130 is promoted on the market along with the Irkut-manufactured Su-30MK multirole fighters. Thus, the customer is offered a set of a world-best fighter and a full set of training hardware for pilots to fly it. Of the hardware, the key thing is the Yak-130 combat trainer that can be used as a light combat aircraft, if need be. Andrey Yurgenson and Andrey Fomin review the RusAF trainer contest in which Yak-130 became an eventual winner, dwell on Yakovlev's cooperation with Aermacchi, end describe the parameters and market prospects of the Yak-130

INDUSTRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

42

44

Tu-334 to be built in Kazan Ansat goes into series production R-R and Turbomeca for Kamov Mi-38 testing continues Redesigned Su-80 preparing for trials Be-103 setting off for long road Il-114 flying testbed First Il-76TD re-engined with PS-90s Burlak accomplishes first ground testing phase

LAAD 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Not on coffee alone. Notes from LAAD 2005 Brazil's role in the contemporary world is increasing by the year. Suffice it to mention that the country is currently seeking permanent membership of the UN Security Council, alongside Germany, India and Japan. This makes the LAAD (Latin America Aero & Defence) exhibition, held in Rio de Janeiro every odd spring, all the more important. Our observer Alexander Velovich was among the few Russian aviation journalists to visit this year's LAAD. In this article he shares his impressions of the event.

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COSMONAUTICS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 New crew at ISS Baikonur marks 50th anniversary

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events

Victory air parade over Red Square

Vadim Goydenko

On 9 May, Russia and many other countries solemnly celebrated the 60th Anniversary of the Victory in WWII. For the first time in the past several decades, RusAF warplanes took part in the traditional Red Square Victory Day parade in Moscow. The air parade comprised a nine-ship Su-27 and MiG-29 formation of the RusAF Russian Knights and Swifts display teams with the Kubinka-stationed 237th Aircraft Demonstration Centre, and also three Su-25 ground attack aircraft with the Buturlinovka-stationed 899th Regiment. A diamond formation of five Su-27s and four MiG-29s was led by Colonel Igor Tkachenko, Commander of the Russian Knights. The three Su-25s, fitted with smoke generators specially for the occasion, trailed white, blue and red smoke to match the colours of the Russian flag. To ensure security of the celebrations in Moscow, which were attended by numerous foreign delegations with respective heads of state, fighters at air bases of the Moscow Military District were put on heightened alert. More than two dozen Su-27, MiG-29 and MiG-31 fighters as well as Mi-24 and Mi-8 helicopters were patrolling the airspace of the Moscow region. An eight-strong MiG-29 group of the Andreapolbased 28th Fighter Regiment was redeployed to Kubinka, from where it guarded the Moscow skies for nearly two weeks.

Tu-204-300 awarded type certificate On 14 May, the Interstate Aviation Committee granted Tupolev Type Certificate No. ST238-Tu-204-300 for the Tu-204-300 long-haul passenger aircraft. Powered by two PS-90A turbofans, the type is intended for carrying 142 passengers, baggage, mail and freight on domestic and international short-, medium- and long-haul routes. The type certificate acknowledges the Tu-204-300's compli-

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ance with the requirements of the certification basis specified by the AP-25 Airworthiness Standards for Transport Category Aircraft, with Amendments 10-4. The AP-25 standards are harmonised with the EU CS-25 and US FAR-25 regulations. In addition, the Tu-204-300 was on 6 December 2004 awarded Noise Type Certificate No. SSh149Tu-204-300, which acknowledges the aircraft's meeting the AP-36

standards and the environmental noise standards of ICAO Chapter 3 Annex 16, thus clearing the type for unrestricted operations into the EU and USA. The Tu-204-300 is a 6m (20ft) shrink of the Tu-204 baseline model. With a maximum range of 8,500km (4,590nm), the modification can fly non-stop from Moscow to Vladivostok. The first prototype (RA-64026) made its maiden flight on

18 August 2003, the second one (RA-64038) first flew on 25 November 2004. Ulyanovsk-based Aviastar-SP factory has launched series production of the Tu-204-300 for Vladivostok Air, on order from Ilyushin-Finance Co. leasing company. A week after certification, on 20 May, the first aircraft (RA-64038) was delivered to the customer. Overall, Vladivostok Air is to receive four Tu-204-300s during 2005.

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AVIASALON Joint Stock Company M.M. Gromov Flight Research Institute Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140182, Russia Phone: +7 (095) 787 6651 +7 (095) 556 7786 Fax: +7 (095) 787 6652 +7 (095) 787 6654 e-mail: maks@aviasalon.com


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events

Belarus celebrates Victory Day and demonstrates upgraded aircraft The Belarusian Air Force (BAF) held a large-scale air parade on 9 May in Minsk in commemoration of the 60th Anniversary of the end of WWII. Despite poor weather, all types of combat aircraft in service with the BAF flew over downtown Minsk. The parade opened with a flypast of two Mil Mi-8MT helicopters trailing Belarusian state flags. The No. 24 lead helicopter was an upgraded version of the Mi-8MT featuring a chin-mounted gyro-stabilised optronic turret and an upgraded avionics suite which includes colour multifunction displays. Belarusian Mi-8MT helicopters are upgraded to this standard by Baranovichibased 558 Aircraft Repair Plant with assis-

tance from Russian specialists; the modernisation programme is generally similar to that used in upgrading Russian Mi-8MT helicopters to the Mi-8MTKO standard. The May 9 air parade was the first time that the Belarusian Mi-8MT upgrade was revealed to general public. The helicopters were followed by fourship formations of Mil Mi-2, Ilyushin Il-103 and Yakovlev Yak-52 trainers. After these, formations of army aviation transports and combat helicopters – Mi-8MTs and Mi-24Ps – flew over the centre of Minsk. Then came the turn of formations of Sukhoi Su-24M, Su-25 and Mikoyan MiG-29 supersonic warplanes, and a pair of Sukhoi Su-27s. The No. 64 lead Flanker

was a upgraded Su-27UBM1 multirole fighter shown to general public for the first time. The eight-minute air parade ended with a flypast of a BAF Ilyushin Il-76MD transport bearing civilian registration (EW-78802), escorted by a pair of Mikoyan MiG-29 fighters. All the aircraft

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proceeded over Minsk at an altitude of only 200m (650ft), at a speed of 600km/h (325kt). The lead airplanes were piloted by the commanders of all the eight BAF air bases. Piotr BUTOWSKI photos by the author

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events

Mikhail Alekseyev

Su-27UBM1 debuts near Minsk

Su-27UBM1 fighter performed a capability demonstration at a practice range near Minsk. The warplane released KAB-500L laser-guided bombs and launched S-8 rockets. All the targets were successfully hit, demonstrating high efficiency of the upgrading solutions.

www.take-off.ru

of an improved information management system, digital aircraft and engine control system, realtime information analysis system, video flight data recorder and expanded armament capabilities. The upgraded fighter can use KAB-500Kr and KAB-500L guided bombs, Kh-29T, Kh-29L, Kh-31A and Kh-31P air-to-surface missiles and also RVV-AE air-to-air missiles. The original monochrome radar/IRST TV display is replaced with a large-screen colour liquid crystal MFD with bezel keys. The relatively inexpensive addition of advanced computers, new software and separate new modules to the basic avionics suite of the production aircraft offers a significant improvement in precision of the aiming system, extends functionality of the navigation system and enables utilisation of a wide range of guided and unguided weapons. In addition, new radar

A similar programme is offered to upgrade Belarusian MiG-29 fighters to the MiG-29BM standard. The aircraft is additionally fitted with a portside non-retractable air refuelling probe. The MiG-29BM's upgraded N019 radar detects a fighter at 150km (81nm), a bridge at 100km (54nm) and an aircraft carrier at 350km (190nm). As part of the MILEX 2005 exhibition, an upgraded

Mikhail Alekseyev

The 17-20 May MILEX 2005 exhibition in Minsk included a capability demonstration of the upgraded Sukhoi Su-27UBM1 fighter at a practice range near the capital of Belarus. The Belarusian Air Force (BAF) has recently launched a programme to upgrade its fighter fleet. MiG-29 fighters with the 61st fighter base in Baranovichi were the first to undergo upgrades (four such MiG-29BM upgraded fighters were first revealed to public during a July 2004 air parade in Minsk). The BAF then decided to similarly upgrade the Sukhoi Su-27 fighters operated by the same air base. Documents related to upgrade of Belarusian MiG-29s and Su-27s were first made available at the MILEX exhibition. The Su-27 upgrade programme, which is being carried out by Baranovichi-based 558 Aircraft Repair Plant jointly with Russian Avionics Co., includes introduction

Mikhail Alekseyev

Mikhail Alekseyev

modes improve the detection range for ground and airborne targets: the upgraded N001 radar can detect a tank at a distance of 40km (22nm), an airborne helicopter at 70km (38nm), a cruise missile at 80km (43nm), a railway bridge at 100km (54nm), a fighter at 200km (108nm) and an aircraft carrier at 350km (190nm).

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commercial aviation | in brief

Antonov

The second prototype of the Antonov An-148-100 regional passenger jet made its first flight on 19 April. The aircraft, registered UR-NTB, took off from the Svyatoshin airfield in Kiev at 12:19 local time, and landed uneventfully at Antonov's Gostomel Flight Test Centre airstrip 37min later. The crew consisted of Captain S.M. Troshin, co-pilot A.V. Spasibo and test engineer N.V. Sidorenko. The aircraft, whose construction was completed on 7 April, is the second flying prototype to join the An-148 certification tests. The first airplane (UR-NTA) first flew on 17 December 2004 and had performed 75 flights by 19 April. The An-148's two-class cabin arrangement seats 68 passengers (eight in the 2–2 business class, equipped with seats by Italian company Geven, and 60 in the 3–2 economy class seating configuration). The first An-148 prototype has by now successfully passed two essential certification phases. The high AoA tests were accomplished on 6 April: a set of nine flights included intentional stalling at various altitudes and in various flap and gear configurations. Test pilots reported clearly identifiable natural stall warning in almost all configurations; in separate cases the aircraft exceeded the stall angle by 5–6deg. The aircraft's stall and recovery behaviour proved benign and within specifications. On 9 April, the first An-148-100 prototype was repositioned from

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Antonov

Second An-148 prototype joins flight test programme

Kiev to Arkhangelsk for icing tests. The machine performed 14 flights for a total duration of 40.5h. The purpose of the icing trials was to test deicing and anti-icing operation of the wing, empennage and engine air intake anti-ice system, verify effectiveness of the windshield antiicing system, check correct operation of ice detectors and anti-ice subsystem control units, and study effects of anti-icing measures on the shape and size of wing and empennage icing. The An-148's aerodynamics were tested in flight with the anti-icing system engaged and disengaged. The icing trials were completed on 29 April. An-148 equipment and systems are undergoing parallel certifica-

tion tests. The new IvchenkoProgress D-436-148 turbofan has already demonstrated high reliability and performance. The engine was developed from the D-436T model, certificated in 2000 as the power plant for the Tu-334 and Be-200 aircraft. The D-436-148's take-off thrust is somewhat derated as compared to the baseline (depending on the settings of the power control system, it is 6,400kgf (14,100lb) for the short-range An-140 version or 6,830kgf (15,050lb) for the longrange executive modification, while the D-436T1 and D-436TP engines have a take-off thrust of 7,500kgf (16,500lb)). This thrust reduction extends service life of the engine and reduces fuel consumption. The An-148's underwing engine configuration forced the developer to redesign the accessory gearboxes and other reversers. High commonality with the certificated D-436 and D-36 engines (the latter has long been operated on An-72, An-74 and Yak-42 aircraft) will ensure prompt and problem-free certification of the D-436-148 modification. Production engines will be built by Zaporozhye-based Motor Sich enterprise and two Russian

plants: MMPP Salut (Moscow) and UMPO (Ufa). Meanwhile, the first An-148 customers have emerged. Under a 28 April agreement, KrasAir will take ten An-148-100V baseline, 68-seat aircraft on financial lease from Ilyushin-Finance Co, with an option for five An-148-100E modifications with the maximum range extended from 3,500km (1,890nm) to 5,000km (2,700nm). KrasAir will take the first five An-148-100Vs in 2006, and the remaining five on firm order will follow during 2007. If the carrier firms up the option, the five longer-rangers may be delivered in 2008. KommersantDaily estimates the contract value to be slightly over $270 million, which yields a mean unit price of about $18 million ($17.85 million per An-148-100V and $18.35 million per An-148-100E). KrasAir Director General Boris Abramovich said at the rollout ceremony for the second An-148 prototype that the airline is already slotting the new aircraft into its 2006 schedule of operations. Two aircraft manufacturing facilities are preparing for An-148 production entry: Kiev's Aviant plant and the VASO factory in Voronezh, Russia.

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commercial aviation | in brief

On 25 March, four large Russian banks – Vneshtorgbank, Vneshekonombank, Russian Savings Bank and Roseximbank – signed an agreement with Sukhoi company on funding the Russian Regional Jet (RRJ) programme run by the aircraft manufacturer's subsidiary Sukhoi Civil Aircraft. The banks agreed to grant Sukhoi syndicated loans, including 2.7 billion rubles (about $100 million) against the government guarantees stipulated in the 2005 federal budget. Sukhoi Director General Mikhail Pogosyan said at a media briefing after the signing ceremony that Sukhoi Civil Aircraft has already received a deposit from Russian carrier Sibir Airlines, the RRJ launch customer, which ordered fifty 95-seat regional airliners in July 2004. Such advance payment from a commercial carrier for an aircraft that is still being developed is viewed as a precedent-setting move for Russia. According to Sergey Drobyshev, deputy Director General of the

KnAAPO aircraft building factory which will build the first RRJ prototypes and the batch for Sibir, the enterprise received the first design documents from Sukhoi Civil Aircraft this spring and has already launched production of separate aircraft parts (wing and fuselage components). In early February 2005, KnAAPO received over 300 digital models of such parts; by early May the number of models received amounted to about 600. The factory has identified suppliers and signed contracts for delivery of additional equipment to support the existing production capacities. KnAAPO has detailed all processes to be used in RRJ production, including concurrent engineering, jiggles assembly, precise manufacturing of wing and fuselage structures etc. These technologies will reduce workload and cut unit production time to one year. On 8 March, Sukhoi Civil Aircraft and French company Sogitec agreed to jointly develop specifications and guidelines for the creation of interac-

Andrey Fomin

RRJ to first fly in autumn 2006

tive electronic technical publications, with participation of all RRJ suppliers, as part of aftersale support. In the meantime, the PowerJet joint venture of NPO Saturn and Snecma Moteurs is building the first SaM146 engines for the RRJ, and testing separate components. Assembly of the first prototype began in France in April. The engine will enter ground tests early in the fourth quarter of 2005, to coincide with the beginning of ground tests on the first Saturn-built example.

On 3 March, Snecma Moteurs and Gromov Flight Research Institute signed an agreement on developing an Ilyushin Il-76-based SaM146 flying testbed. The first flight of the Russo-French engine is scheduled for March 2006. Pogosyan confirmed at the briefing that the first RRJ prototype is expected to fly in the fourth quarter of 2006; the previously announced plan for service entry in late 2007 also remains on target, he added.

An-140 operated in three countries now

www.take-off.ru

KSAMC

On 29 March, Azerbaijan's stateowned company AZAL received its second Antonov An-140-100 regional aircraft under a four-ship order placed with Kharkov State Aviation Manufacturing Company (KSAMC) in 2004. The first aircraft was delivered to the company in late November 2004; the remaining two An-140s on order will enter service with AZAL's subsidiary Azerbaijan Hava Yollari within several months. Apart from Azerbaijan, An-140s are currently operated in Ukraine. In November 2004, Iran's Safiran Airlines launched scheduled passenger operations with two IrAn-140 aircraft built by national aircraft manufacturer HESA with participation of KSAMC. Safiran will shortly add two more Iranian-assembled airliners of the type. The first An-140 assembled at the Samara, Russia-based Aviacor plant will take off this summer. The aircraft will later be delivered to a Russian carrier.

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commercial aviation | in brief

A380 makes first flight type's systems were first powered up. Since then, Airbus specialists had been busy meticulously testing all onboard systems. The A380 was formally revealed on 18 January, followed by airfield tests of the first flying prototype in early spring. Highspeed taxi trials began on 20 April,

only one week prior to the maiden flight. Five A380 prototypes will participate in the flight testing programme. Together, they will spend 2,500h in the air. After the FAA and EASA certifications have been obtained, in the second half of 2006 the first A380s

will enter service with launch customer Singapore Airlines. Fifteen airlines have by now together ordered 154 A380s (127 airliners in passenger version and 27 in cargo configuration). The first A380F freighters are expected to enter service in 2008.

Airbus

In the morning of 27 April the Airbus A380 world's largest long-haul passenger aircraft took off for its first flight from Toulouse Blagnac airport in France. The crew consisted of Claude Lelaie, Senior Vice President Flight Division, and Chief Test Pilot Jacques Rosay. Also on the crew were Fernando Alonso, Vice President Flight Division, and Flight Test Engineers Jacky Joye, Manfred Birnfeld and Gorard Desbois. The No 001 prototype, registered F-WWOW, took off at 421,000kg (927,300lb). The aircraft, powered by four Rolls-Royce Trent 900 engines, carried an instrumentation package on both desks to record thousands of parameters for further detailed performance analysis. The flight test engineers monitored aircraft performance from workstations installed on either deck. Prior to the first flight, A380 No 001 was put through a series of ground tests. Testing began in the summer of 2004, when the proto-

Airbus considers outsourcing A350 development work to Russia

Airbus

In December 2004 Airbus heeded to airlines' requests and started developing the A350 airliner, a longerrange derivative of the A330-200 long-haul passenger aircraft. Airbus aims for a 8,000kg (17,620lb) decrease in airframe weight against the baseline model through application of advanced tech-

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nologies, including profound use of aluminium-lithium alloys in fuselage and wing ribs, a modified horizontal stabiliser, extensive employment of carbon fibre-reinforced plastics and introduction of laser-beam-welded lower fuselage structures. Other improvements include a more aerodynamic wing and more efficient,

new-generation General Electric Genx 72A1 engines. These innovations will extend the new model's range to 15,900km (8,585nm) for the A350-800 variant (with 245 passengers in standard three-class cabin layout), and 13,900km (7,500nm) for the A350-900 version (with 285 passengers in three classes).

One of the measures planned by Airbus to reduce A350 development costs is expanding cooperation with Russian aviation manufacturers. The annual turnover of services between the European manufacturer and Russian aviation industry reached $80 million in late 2004; this figure might amount to $110 million by 2007. Cooperation may also be promoted to a higher level if Airbus implements its current plan to outsource part of A350 development and production work to Russian enterprises. It remains for a special workgroup to decide on the amount of possible outsourcing, but the manufacturer believes such collaboration will provide Russia with �revenues for the entire period of A350 production and operation�. A350-800 deliveries are planned to start in mid-2010; the first A350-900 aircraft may enter operation later that year.

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commercial aviation | in brief

Boeing's massive 16 May electronic presentation in Moscow was dedicated to its major prospective passenger project, the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. The event was attended by Boeing Commercial Airplanes executives who had arrived in Russia for the occasion: the 787 programme Director Michael Bair, Vice President, Manufacturing and Quality, Scott Strode and 787 programme Financial Director Craig Saddler. Attending journalists were shown a multiscreen promotion film, which included 3-D models of the 787 airframe and cabin interior to highlight the advantages of the airplane. Posters deployed in the lobby presented Boeing's joint projects with Russian enterprises, including products made with assistance of Russian specialists or from Russian raw materials, such as Russian-made titanium. Bair told attending journalists that the presentation had previously been staged in Berlin and Dubai. To all appearances, the event was targeting potential customers and partners in Russia rather than the press. The 'target audience' was invited to arrive at a later hour, and the journalists failed to witness the most interesting part of the presentation. Said Fred Jones, Boeing Commercial Airplanes specialist responsible for sales in Russia and CIS: "We have a strong competitor in Europe, but truly advanced products can only be created in a strong competitive environment. The 787 is our largest and most outstanding programme. It is an absolutely new product." Jones added that the Russian market had managed to survive through years of 'depression', showing an uninterrupted annual growth of 15–20 per cent even during those hard times. Boeing predicts a Russian and CIS market for around 1,500 passenger aircraft, including 400 widebodies, over the next 20 years. The company hopes that

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local carriers with prior experience of operating widebody passenger airliners, such as the Boeing 767, will get interested in the 787. An additional factor here is that the currently high fuel prices show no sign of dropping, and the Dreamliner promises 20 per cent fuel efficiency over its predecessors. Boeing is developing three members of the 787 family. The B787-8 baseline will carry 223 passengers to 15,700km (8,500nm) at a cruise speed of about 900km/h (485kt, M=0.85). The B787-9 stretch will have a capacity of 259 passengers and a range of 15,400km (8,300nm), whereas the B787-3 'short-haul' version will seat 296 passengers and have a range of 6,500km (3,500nm). The three family members will share a twin-aisle cabin layout; the baseline and stretch will offer a three-class cabin, whereas the shorter-range modification will seat passengers in two classes. The B787 will have a 5.74m (18.8ft) diameter fuselage cross-section, 56m (183.6ft) length (62m (203.3ft) for the B787-9 stretch) and 60m (196.7ft) wing span (50m to 52m (164 to 170ft) for the B787-3 modification). The B787-8's cargo hold will accommodate five standard pallets or LD3 containers. The maximum take-off weight will be 217.7t (479,500lb) for the B787-8 and 226.8t (499,500lb) for the B787-9. Boeing especially stresses the Dreamliner's efficiency, projecting a 20 per cent reduction in maintenance costs and a 10 per cent improvement in operating cost per passenger-kilometre over existing same-class airliners. The new aircraft will be more environmentfriendly due to a 20 per cent cut in emissions. It will offer a cabin width enlargement for 350mm (1.2ft) at eye level than contemporary same-class airplanes; economy-class aisles will be 550mm (1.8ft) wide and business class aisles 650mm (2.1ft) wide.

Andrey Yurgenson

Boeing promoting 787 to Russian market

Economy class seats will measure 470mm (1.54ft) in width. Cabin design will help passengers to relax after airport bustle. A brightly lit doorway, high ceilings, wide bulkhead archs, sky-blue floor covering and large windows will add to the overall passenger comfort. Cabin pressure at the cruise altitude of 13,100m (43,000ft) will correspond to that at 1,800m (5,900ft), and humidity levels will be set high enough for dry throat prevention. Cabin climate will be controllable by the crew. The first B787 flight is planned for 2007; certification of the

Carrier (country)

B787-8 baseline model is expected in 2008, after which deliveries will begin. Service entry of the B787-3 version is scheduled for 2010, and that of the B787-9 version for 2012. The market volume for the family is estimated by Boeing as 3,500 aircraft over the next 20 years; the entire programme will cost over $400 billion. The list price for the B787 is about $120 million. Twenty carriers from four continents have already ordered the Dreamliner (see table). Andrey YURGENSON

Boeing 787 orders (as of late May 2005) Order placed in

All Nippon Airways (Japan) Air New Zealand (New Zealand) Blue Panorama (Italy) First Choice (UK) Primaris (USA) Japan Airlines (Japan) Continental Airlines (USA) Vietnam Airlines (Vietnam) Air China, China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Hainan Airlines, Shanghai Airlines, Xiamen Airlines (China) Ethiopian (Ethiopia) Icelandair (Iceland) Korean Air (Korea) Air Canada (Canada) Air India (India) Northwest Airlines (USA) Total

Aircraft ordered*

April 2004 June 2004 July 2004 July 2004 October 2004 December 2004 December 2004 December 2004

50 (50) 2 (2) 4 (4) 6 (6) 20 30 (30) 10 4

January 2005 February 2005 February 2005 April 2005 April 2005 April 2005 May 2005

60 5 2 (2) 10 14 20 18 (18) 255 (112)

* firm orders in brackets

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commercial aviation | interview The Russian Regional Jet (RRJ) project, under development by Sukhoi company subsidiary Sukhoi Civil Aircraft, is one of the most dynamic aviation programmes – and certainly the most ambitious one – in the newest history of Russia. It sets quite a number of precedents in contemporary Russian aircraft industry, what with its heavy reliance on western partners, the plan to promote the airplane in the western market, and the unusually tough self-imposed timeframe (Sukhoi Civil Aicraft and its parent company say the first prototype will enter testing in late 2006, and that deliveries may start in late 2007). Quite understandably, the RRJ programme faces many sceptics in Russia. We asked Viktor Subbotin, Director General, Sukhoi Civil Aircraft and RRJ Programme Director, to update our readers on the status of the programme and explain the reasons behind the developers' optimism.

The first order for the RRJ was announced at the Farnborough International 2004 exhibition, almost one year ago. How has the programme progressed since then? What is its current status? Since the initial contract with Siberia Airlines, the RRJ programme has successfully completed two important stages. In autumn 2004 we passed Gate 4 (under the Boeing-recommended development and construction technology, the entire programme will comprise of eight such stages, or gates), and started large-scale production launch of prototypes. In late March – early April 2005, following an unanimous go-ahead from the technical board, we passed Gate 5. This is the stage in the programme at which all the major technical decisions have already been made, most systems have been integrated, and detailed designing ensues. Past Gate 5, no further radical changes can be introduced into the project. We still have the so-called critical review ahead of us – the stage in development when the digital mock-up is 90–95 per cent ready. We need the critical review to take a last look at the general design, define all critical issues,

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eliminate all defect, improve the digital mockup if necessary, and minimise the number of further changes to the design. This stage is scheduled to begin in mid-July, when Boeing specialists arrive in Russia. By then we should have handed documentation on all embedded parts – around one thousand digital models – over to the manufacturing plants. How long will it take you to finish the electronic mock-up? Last February we began handing documentation on embedded and long-production-cycle parts over to Komsomolsk-onAmur Aviation Production Association (KnAAPO). We sent out about 300 digital models then. By mid-May we had brought that figure up to 600. We will deliver the last package by July, but KnAAPO has already begun manufacturing components for the first prototypes. They will assemble the first fuselage section by year-end. In the meantime, we continue to work with system suppliers and potential customers. We are working to finalise Siberia's order, discussing their preferences for each aircraft on order and detailing the delivery schedule.

What other Russian carriers are you negotiating with? Our most tangible contract at this point is with Siberia Airlines. Among potential customers are Aeroflot and FLC leasing company. We are discussing the pricing and performance parameters with these two. I hope we will eventually sign contracts with them. The fact that we have started selling an aircraft that is still being developed is a precedent in Russian aircraft construction. Following the examples of major aircraft manufacturers, we have set up an airline council consisting of such leading Russian and foreign carriers as Siberia, Aeroflot, Pulkovo, UTair, Air France, SAS, SN Brussels and many others. Regular meetings and consultations help us to define all requirements and recommendations of potential customers while still developing the aircraft. We consider such recommendations and make corresponding changes to the design if necessary. This way we will launch production of an aircraft that is best optimised to meet the requirements of our potential customers. We also remember that an air-

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Andrey Fomin

commercial aviation | interview equipment and systems will be of western manufacture. However, a number of wellknown foreign companies have partners here in Russia. Thus, Liebherr Aerospace cooperates with Teploobmennik, so the RRJ's air conditioning system by Liebherr will include parts made by Teploobmennik. One of these days we will sign the avionics contract with Thales; the contract will be announced at the Paris Air Show. Thales will integrate the RRJ avionics. We have deliberately chose to order a turnkey avionics solution, and I believe it will save us money. If we were to integrate all systems on our own, we would first have to test them and have them certificated; then, post-integration, we would have to obtain another certificate. But we have decided to order a ready avionics suite. The RRJ power plant is being developed by Snecma Moteurs (Safran Group) in partnership with Russia's NPO Saturn. The two companies have recently set up the PowerJet joint venture for this purpose. The fly-by-wire system will be a joint product of Liebherr and Russian design bureau Voskhod. The APU will be by Honeywell, fuel system by Intertechnique, fire protection by Autronics and electrics by Hamilton Sundstrand. The landing gear will be a joint product of Messier Dowty and Aviaagregat, the hydraulic system has been developed by Parker. The interior, whose style will be uniform for the passenger cabin and pilots cockpit, has been ordered from B/E Aerospace. As we can see, several Russian companies are subcontractors on a

by Boeing and Rosaviakosmos on 13 April 2001, in March 2003 we signed an agreement on long-term cooperation with Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Under this agreement, Boeing provides us with consultancy services in the primary aspects of the RRJ programme: in marketing, programme management, design and development, interaction with suppliers, production and aftersale support. More than 50 Boeing experts are working closely with corresponding specialists of Sukhoi Civil Aircraft. We are currently negotiating with Boeing its possible assistance in organisation of the aftersale support system, because we understand that independently deploying a large-scale system in the western market, within a short period of time, would be a very difficult task. We are therefore seeking a partner to assist us in this field during the next three to four years, until we have caught up on the process and developed our own full-scale RRJ aftersale support capability. Participation in this process of a well-known company like Boeing is called to make potential western customers certain that they will have no problems operating the RRJ. Who works for Sukhoi Civil Aircraft? Are you fully outfitted with qualified personnel? The prime contractor on the RRJ programme is Sukhoi Civil Aircraft, which is 100 per cent owned by Sukhoi. However, we also have access to resources of the parent company. Sukhoi does part of work on the programme. As for the personnel of Sukhoi

THE AIRCRAFT WE ARE DEVELOPING WILL MEET THE HIGHEST WESTERN STANDARDS craft has a long life cycle and must therefore meet both current and future requirements. So we base the main parameters, capabilities of each system, economic criteria and aftersale support system on prospective requirements of airlines. Have you already defined the final composition of RRJ's avionics suite? Have you identified the requisite vendor systems? Who are your major suppliers? The specification has already been defined; otherwise we would not be marketing an airplane that still remains on the drawing board. As for avionics and suppliers, we are working with leading foreign companies. Virtually all www.take-off.ru

number of systems, but the general responsibility for deliveries of ready systems is with western companies. We believe this will ensure quality and reliability of the aircraft. This fact allows us to hope for the RRJ's success in the international market. What are your relations with Boeing? Prior to launching the RRJ programme, which was aimed at marketing the end product in the international market, we were fully aware of the necessity of cooperating with an aircraft manufacturer that would enjoy substantial authority in that market. So we started negotiating with Boeing. As part of the agreement on long-term cooperation signed

Civil Aircraft, most of our employees come from Sukhoi; we also employ specialists of Tupolev, Ilyushin and Yakovlev. When forming task-specific teams of specialists we try to bring together experienced personnel and freshly graduated employees, to ensure continuity of expertise. This method has enabled us to form a good team (about 1,200 employees now) which, on the one hand, has extensive expertise in aircraft development, and on the other hand can promptly grasp new information and quickly adapt to advanced design technologies. We pay higher wages than the average levels across Russian aircraft industry, because ours take-off june 2005

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commercial aviation | interview is a commercial project, and working for it must be prestigious and competitively waged. Our employees know and understand this. Nevertheless, the project is very dynamic, and we do experience personnel shortages from time to time. The programme is gaining pace rapidly, and we are starting to feel the need for certain structures but cannot man them in time. Currently, some divisions of Sukhoi Civil Aircraft are staffed by 30 to 40 per cent of the requisite level. We are therefore forced to charge the existing team with extra tasks. Of course we reimburse such extra work. What sources are you currently drawing funds from? Until recently, all funding we got came from Sukhoi. Our parent company had invested about $70–75 million in the programme by 2005. Now that we are preparing for production launch and taking associate re-equipment measures, in late May we got access to several credit lines for the total of about $200 million. A pool of four leading Russian banks are also offering us additional loans, so we have no financial problems nowadays. The production facilities that will launch RRJ production are also contributing to the programme. KnAAPO has contributed significantly by paying the greater part of the $50 million's worth of new equipment and reconstruction work. Expenses related to pre-production and production operations will be for us to care about; we have allocated one of the credit lines specifically for this purpose. The Novosibirsk-based NAPO plant, the other production facility to build the RRJ, has purchased part of new equipment with the loan it took out for this purpose. Once centralised crediting is available, pre-production operations will continue at an even faster pace. Is the programme on target, or are you running late? We are trying to be on schedule. We have indeed experienced certain delays in several aspects of the programme, but we do intend to observe our schedule through speeding up its delayed parts. This way we will make sure that even if there is an overall delay it will not exceed several months. As was previously announced, we expect to begin flight-testing the first RRJ prototype in late 2006. This is a precedent-setting tight deadline for Russian Industry. In my 30-year career in aerospace industry I have never seen such a fast-paced programme. Indeed, the timeframe is unheard of in our traditional perception – and this is the main cause of many people's scepticism…

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These people's doubts come from poor understanding of contemporary technology, which helps us skip separate phases of the traditional development process. Consider for example the development of design documentation and its subsequent delivery to the production enterprise. How was it done before? You would make a wooden mock-up, use it to try out various layouts of onboard systems and mechanisms, rebuild the mockup many times in the process; then you would compile drawings and hand them over to the production facility, only to receive them and be told to redesign – and this process would repeat over and over again before the aircraft would finally go into production. Quite a waste of time and effort, wasn't it? Nowadays, it's different. The digital mock-up enables us to skip some of these lengthy and tiresome stages. Boeing mates the wing to the fuselage inside an eight-hour shift – something that would take a month to complete in Russia! Herein lies the difference. Boeing relies on digital technology, whereas we in Russia are used to old techniques and do not accept new solutions all too easily. There are also legal hitches for the digital technology in this country: it has not yet been authorised. A paper drawing remains the only official document determining the development process. When we presented our project to the Aviation Register of the Interstate Aviation Committee we used our digital mock-up. This was something completely new for them. There were doubts at first, but after they had worked with us for a week they all came to like this way of interaction. To return to your question, all the doubts about our planned deadlines stem from poor understanding of the new technologies that we use. Digital technologies considerably reduce the time and cost of project development, pre-production processes and construction of prototypes. Marketing a brand-new aircraft type is definitely a challenge. How are you planning to enlist customers, especially now when Antonov may begin deliveries of production An-148 aircraft to Russian carriers from 2006? We have strong advantages. We are developing a principally new aircraft with a new power plant that meet both current and future requirements. Depending on the RRJ modification, the SaM146 engine will have a noise margin of 9dB to 15dB against the ICAO Chapter 4 limits. The aircraft will be more fuel efficient, even as compared to western analogues. It will offer 10 to 15 per cent lower direct maintenance costs. We will equip the airplane with integrated modular avionics that will provide Cat IIIB landing

capability, will be easy to upgrade and will enable further capability expansion. Carriers have persuaded us to replace traditional steering columns with sidesticks, thus reducing aircraft weight, making the flight deck more ergonomic and expand the pilots' workspace. The RRJ has better aerodynamic characteristics than existing analogues. All these advantages are proven by Boeing's methods: as we pass every new stage of the programme Boeing employs its evaluation methods to verify our calculations. The programmes they use are fairly merciless: if you are evaluating an absolutely new aircraft with new engines, the risk level rises.

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Sukhoi

commercial aviation | interview

Nevertheless, the RRJ's design parameters have been corroborated time and again. Already at this point we are allocating significant funds for the creation of an aftersale support system that would meet the highest standards of the international market. Aircraft of the RRJ family are a combination of advanced technology, good performance and economic criteria, and also an advanced customer support infrastructure. We offer an integrated product that fully meets the requirements of carriers. Speaking of potential orders from western customers: what is your perception of a foreign market for the RRJ? How many aircraft are you planning to sell abroad? www.take-off.ru

Recent studies reveal an overall market for about 800 RRJ aircraft over the next 15 to 20 years. Of these, 300 to 350 will be demanded in Russia. The rest will be sold abroad. We view Europe and America as our primary foreign markets. We thoroughly study the experience of our foreign rivals (and there are not many), we know their weaknesses, and target potential western customers with an aircraft offering better fuel efficiency, better comfort and even better performance in separate cases. Just one example: we know that the existing RRJ-class aircraft offer insufficiently spacious overhead bins and baggage holds, causing dissatisfaction of passengers. The RRJ will have no such

problem – we have collaborated with Boeing to identify the optimal volume of bins and baggage holds. And this is only one example. We used feedback from carriers to repeatedly revise the technical requirements, for the sole purpose of best meeting the market requirements. We look into the future too. Contemporary RRJ-class aircraft can do with Cat II landing capability, but we have from the very start designed our aircraft for Cat IIIA as the primary landing category. Another advantage of the RRJ is that in the western market it will be priced 10 to 15 per cent cheaper than its rivals. Thank you for this interview, and we wish you every success with your programme! take-off june 2005

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contracts and deliveries | in brief

Russian 2004 arms sales topped $5.6 billion Russian arms traders see last year's results as successful. According to Mikhail Dmitriyev, head of the Federal Service for Military-Technical Cooperation of the Russian Federation, Russia's arms exports in 2004 reached a singular record of $5.6–5.7 billion, surpassing the total of 2003 ($5.4 billion) by 4 to 6 per cent. Russian military sales in 2004 preserved their traditional make-up by equipment categories. Nearly half of the total hard currency revenue was earned through aviation exports, mainly products of Sukhoi company – the Su-30 family fighters. The last year's largest aircraft batches were delivered to China (a total of 24 Su-30MK2s in accordance with the contract of 2003), India (the last 10 Su-30MKIs in conclusion of the contract of 1996) and Vietnam (four Su-30MK2Vs in accordance with the contract of 2003). More than 15 Mikoyan MiG-29 fighters were

exported in 2004: 12 MiG-29SEs were delivered to Sudan last summer in completion of the contract, and Yemen started to take delivery of MiG-29SMTs in the second half-year. Nearly 90 per cent of the hard currency earnings (some $5 billion) from arms sales in 2004 came in from contracts signed by the major Russian special exporter – Rosoboronexport State Corporation. Its Director General Sergey Chemezov notes, however, that there is a 4 to 5 per cent decrease compared to the previous year's total when this state-owned intermediary corporation had managed 94 per cent of arms export takings. One of the biggest arms sales events in 2004 was Russia's signing of a package contract on delivery to India of the modernised Gorshkov aircraft carrier and MiG-29K fighters for its onboard air wing. The contract has provided a solid workload portfolio of many Russian enterpris-

es for years to come. 2005 will also see implementation of the continuing contracts with India on the Su-30MKI license production, and Malaysia – on the Su-30MKM fighter development. Regretfully, the disaster that hit the South East Asia late last year and inflicted huge losses to a number of states in the region, upset their plans of military-technical cooperation with Russia in 2005. Thus, it has been announced that the signing of a new contract on delivery to Indonesia of additional batches of Sukhoi Su-27SK/Su-30MK fighters and Mil helicopters planned for this year is postponed. Chances of concluding a contract on delivery of Su-30MK type aircraft to Thailand are also largely diminished. Nonetheless, some Russian specialists believe that after a while Indonesia and Thailand will recover and return to talks about Russian aircraft procurement.

Nor is it improbable that in 2005, new contracts on aviation materiel deliveries to China may materialise. Information agencies reported that a protocol on Russo-Chinese cooperation up to 2010 was signed last December during the visit of the Russian Defence Minister Sergey Ivanov to China, providing, according to some observers, in particular, for conclusion, already in 2005, of a contract on delivery to China of an additional batch of the Su-30MK2 aircraft, as well as continuation of deliveries of assembly sets from Russia for licence production in China of the Su-27SK fighters in accordance with the contract of 1996 (probably in the Su-27SKM upgraded version). As is known, the latter contract has been suspended some time ago in the middle of its implementation. So it may well happen that Russia overcomes the unfavourable tendency this year.

Su-30MKM to the US F-18F, and being an importer who traditionally diversifies its arms foreign suppliers, it is also believed to plan procurement of some number of the US Super Hornets for the RMAF. In this light the above statement of the high-ranking Malaysian military may be seen as an attempt to win

some concessions in future talks with Americans about a possible contract. Anyway, the Su-30MKM contract is already in force and, according to Sukhoi's leadership, “its implementation meets all milestones”.

On 4 March this year Malaysian media published a statement issued by the deputy Defence Minister of Malaysia Zainal Abidin Zin that the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) plans to phase out seven out of 15 Northrop F-5E US-made fighters and replace them with the Sukhoi Su-30MKM multipurpose fighters. As is known, the contract on delivery to Malaysia of 18 Su-30MKMs to be built by the Irkut corporation was signed in August 2003. At present the Sukhoi company is conducting research and development work for the Su-30MKM project, and the Irkut corporation is preparing for their series production. There are indications that pre-production Su-30MKI No 05 might become a prototype for the Malaysian Su-30MKM (shown in the picture taken at the LIMA 2003 aerospace exhibition in the Malaysian island of Langkawi). Deliveries of the Su-30MKM aircraft are scheduled to start in the middle of 2006 with the

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implementation of the contract to be completed by the end of 2007. In the meantime, some experts suppose that a certain underlying reason exists for such an overt announcement as made by the deputy Defence Minister of Malaysia. Malaysia is known to have preferred in 2003 the

Andrey Fomin

Su-30MKMs replace US fighters

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contracts and deliveries | in brief

Voctor Drushlyakov

Flying test-bed for China

A new flying test-bed aircraft intended for engine flight testing has been developed on the basis of the Ilyushin Il-76MD aircraft and flighttested in the LII Flight Research Institute named after M.M. Gromov. The flying test-bed is based on airborne command and tracking system “976” No. 76456, built by the Tashkent Aircraft Production Corporation (TAPC) in the second half of the 1980s and widely used later on for new aircraft and missile

testing. The aircraft retrofit carried out in 2004 included dismantling of the radar system in the above-fuselage radome, and mounting of a special naccelle for test engines instead of the left-wing inner D-30KP standard engine. After completing flight testing in the Flight Research Institute, at the end of this spring flying test-bed No.76456 was handed over to the customer – China Flight Test Establishment (CFTE), with its logos painted on the aircraft sides.

Russian helicopters for Venezuela A contract on delivery of 10 Russian-made helicopters to the Ministry of Defence of Venezuela was signed on 11 March this year by Rosoboronexport's head Sergey Chemezov and Venezuelan leaders. The Brazilian Internet portal www.defesanet.com.br informs that this lot is made up of six Mil Mi-17V5 medium-class transport helicopters, three Mil Mi-35M combat transport helicopters and one Mil Mi-26T heavy-lift helicopter, costing in total as much as $120 million (whereas the Russian Internet-publication gazeta.ru has revealed different data: nine Mi-17s and one Mi-26). It has been reported that an agreement on delivery to Venezuela of a large batch of Russian weaponry, including four dozen helicopters, estimated at $0.5 billion was reached on 26 November 2004 during the visit of the Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez. The agreement has developed thus far – to signing the first contract. Eddie Rios, head of the Venezuelan parliamentary commission on defence, stated that in accordance with the contract the first six helicop-

ters would be supplied in the nearest half-year, and the remaining four by the beginning of 2006. He believes that during four years Venezuela will be taking delivery of a total of 44 helicopters, costing some $500 million: that is exactly what Presidents Chavez and Putin agreed upon, when meeting in Moscow last November. The contract will be executed by Russian joint stock company OPK Oboronprom which combined Mil helicopter designers and manufacturers from Russia. The Oboronprom's head Denis Manturov thinks that, given a minimal domestic order, the export is the only means for the enterprises of the holding to survive and retain their industrial potentials. That is why successful accomplishment of this contract is seen by both Russian helicopter builders and, generally, defence enterprises as extremely important for their prospective contracts. Latin America is one of the most promising markets for Russia, and, thanks to its specifics, a success with one country of the region may encourage gainful orders from others.

Their positive evaluation might have led to delivery of several such systems to India, but a Soviet-era version of the A-50 failed to meet requirements of the Indian Side for smooth interoperability with India's ground-based air defence systems and guidance of its Air Force fighters. As a result, India decided to develop an indigenous AEW system based on the HAL 748 transport aircraft produced locally under the British licence. Two prototypes based on the HAL 748 aircraft were built in the second half of the 1990s, but after one of them crashed the programme was eventually suspended, and the IAF subsequently came to a decision to review the Russian A-50 option. In December 1999 the two Sides agreed that India would receive one Russian Air Force's A-50 to per-

form familiarisation flights over its territory. The aircraft was hosted at the Chandihang airbase in Pendjab, India, in April 2000. Ten flights, each of around six hours long, were performed by the Russian crew accompanied by Indian specialists who were satisfied with the results in total. During the ensuing talks the two Sides agreed on developing a new AEW aircraft for the Indian Air Force equipped with a more advanced propulsion plant and sophisticated radar system of Israeli origin. The contract to this effect was finally signed in 2003. The delivery of the first A-50EI AEW aircraft to the IAF is scheduled for June 2007. Market experts estimate that the contract cost of three such aircraft might be around $1.1 billion, thus making some $350 million per aircraft.

India waits for three A-50Es It has been revealed late last March that the contract on delivery of three Ilyushin/Beriev/IAI A-50E airborne early warning (AEW) systems to the Indian Air Force (IAF) signed before has finally obtained all required endorsements and come into force, with the Indian Side having made all advance payments due. The AEW aircraft is developed around the Ilyushin Il-76TD airframe by a cooperative effort of Russian, Uzbek and Israeli teams (the Il-76 transport aircraft is manufactured at Chkalov's Tashkent-based Aircraft Production Corporation (TAPC), Uzbekistan, in accordance with the documentation provided by Ilyushin Aviation Complex, Russia). The A-50E is equipped with the new Russian PS-90A-76 turbofans developed and manufactured by Perm

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Engines, and Israel’s Elta Phalcon radar system featuring phased array antennas in a fixed abovefuselage disk-shaped radome. Some of the A-50E's electronic systems are supplied by the developer of the Russian early warning radar system – Moscow-based Vega Scientific and Production Association (MNIIP). Taganrogbased Beriev company is in charge of the airframe modification, installation of the new engines and other Russian-origin equipment, as well as its adaptation to the new Israeli radar system. The history of an Indian Il-76-based AEW aircraft began more than 15 years ago. The first A-50 AEW aircraft with the Shmel radar operated by the then Soviet Air Defence Forces was presented to Indian experts as early as 1988.

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Mi-171A obtains Brazil's certificate The Mi-171A certification in Brazil was assisted by the Aviation Register of the Interstate Aviation Committee of the Commonwealth of Independent States (IAC) in line with the working procedures of the Technical Agreement on Airworthiness approved by the IAC and the Brazilian Aerospace Technical Centre (CTA) on 28 April 1998. Following the above procedures the CTA did not conduct a “full-scale” certification but submitted to the helicopter's designer the Supplementary Specifications, thus taking credit of evaluations and

Alexander Velovich

The Mil Mi-171A multipurpose helicopter, designed by the Moscow Mil Helicopter Plant and manufactured by the Ulan-Ude Aviation Plant (UUAZ), made the news of the Russian exposition at the LAAD 2005 Latin America Aero & Defence Exhibition held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, this April 26–29. Just prior to the exhibition's opening, the helicopter obtained Brazil's airworthiness certificate, becoming the first Russian aircraft officially certificated for flight operations in Latin American countries.

summaries made by the IAC Aviation Register during the Mi-171A's initial certification in Russia in summer 1997 (the helicopter obtained Airworthiness Certificate No 132-171A dated 3 July 1997). The Supplementary Specifications comprise a minimal set of additional requirements taking account of existing differences between the certification systems of the IAC Aviation Register and the CTA. To meet the requirements of the CTA's Supplementary Specifications, a few modifications were incorporated into the standard helicopter airframe as well as additional tests performed. Thus, the Mi-171A-1 helicopter was fitted with twochamber actuators in the flight control system, a separate engine fuel supply system without a feeder tank and with greater capacity external fuel tanks, steel fire-resistant engine cowls, a steel oil tank in the engine oil system, modern Western flight and navigation equipment , as well as a separate electric power supply wiring. Mi-171A No 1311, built to these requirements at the Ulan-Ude Aviation Plant, made its maiden flight on 11 August 2004 with the flight crew headed by the test pilot

of the Moscow Mil Helicopter Plant P.N. Akkuratov, and after that was handed over for certification tests. In accordance with the above-mentioned procedures, the IAC Aviation Register evaluated compliance of the standard helicopter airframe characteristics with the requirements set by the Brazilian CTA. The latter accepted test materials only if they had been approved by the Aviation Register. The certification process was completed this April when the Brazilian aviation authorities issued the Type Certificate for the Mi-171A-1 helicopter. Leonid Belykh, Director General of the Ulan-Ude Aviation Plant, told our magazine that the Mi-171A certification in Brazil would open the entire Latin American regional market to it. The Brazilian airworthiness standards almost fully conform to FAR-29 regulations of the US Federal Aviation Administration and are recognized by all countries in the continent. Regional market capacity for the Mi-171A's civilian version is estimated to be several dozens of helicopters at least, with first deliveries expected in the coming months. In addition to these, some Latin American countries consider its military version – the Mi-171Sh.

in East Europe. He is a test pilot, a Hero of the Soviet Union, heading a Spanish crew of first-class professional pilots. The Ka-32A11BC helicopters, certificated by international airwor-

thiness rules, are successfully operated in Canada, Switzerland, South Korea and some other countries, besides Russia and Spain, carrying out most demanding tasks in harsh weather and climatic conditions.

The Spanish Helicopteros del Sureste (HSE) Company took delivery of two more Kamov Ka-32A11BC helicopters in accordance with the delivery contract signed late last year. The first two Ka-32A11BC helicopters, supplied to the HSE earlier, in July 2004, have had opportunities to prove their excellent fire-fighting capabilities. It means that the four Kamov helicopters will take part in fighting future fires in Spain. HSE's technical director Aurelio Martinez Pillet claims that the year 2004 was one of the most fire-unsafe periods – the two Ka-32A11BC helicopters logged more than 300 total flight hours. The Kamov helicopter

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has demonstrated its best qualities in fire-fighting where it has no rivals, he says. It should be noted that Spaniards have a large practical experience of carrying out combined fire-fighting actions with the use of Sikorsky and Mil helicopters. Although now they give preference to the Ka-32s. Aurelio Martinez insists that the Ka-32 helicopter surpasses all other helicopters of the same class by its performance which is corroborated by the helicopter's operational records with the HSE since 1995, when Kamov helicopters won the tender. “Spaniards have come to believe that Ka-32s are the very helicopters they need”, says Nikolay Melnik, HSE's representative

Alexey Mikheyev

Spain takes in two more Ka-32s

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contracts and deliveries | in brief

spring, so the entire contract signed in 1996 became finished. Alongside with Kopyo radar fitted with slotted array and having an increased target detection capabilities as well as air-to-surface modes, the upgraded fighter received new Russian-built guided weaponry (including RVV-AE and R-73E airto-air missiles, KAB-500Kr TV-guided bombs, etc.), a French navigation system, an Israeli ECM system, and a variety of Indian-made systems. The upgrade measures are expected to preserve the MiGs' combat potential and enable them to efficiently counteract later-generation warplanes for at least ten more years. By the time, India is expected to be able to decide on the upgrade of another 50 MiG-21bis aircraft (now about 85 planes of the type are in use with six IAF squadrons). Phazotron-NIIR is ready to offer even more sophisticated radar, the Kopyo-M, to fit them.

Andrey Fomin

Andrey Fomin

In the first quarter of 2005, Russian companies fulfilled the 1996 contract for upgrading 125 MiG-21bis fighters in service with the Indian Air Force (IAF) to the MiG-21-93 standard, dubbed Bison by IAF. By early 2005, upgraded Bisons had been fielded with at least four IAF squadrons (3rd, 21st, 32nd and 51st Sqn), with the Russian side having delivered a total of 105 upgrade kits based on the advanced Kopyo radar (means Spear in Russian, see the upper photo) from the Phazotron-NIIR corporation. The last 20 upgrade kits have been shipped to India this

KSAMC plans new An-74 deliveries to Africa

KSAMC

IAF MiG-21bis upgrade contract fulfilled

The Kharkov State Aviation Manufacturing Company (KSAMC) plans delivery of five Antonov An-74 family light multipurpose transport aircraft to Egypt and Libya in 2005: three An-74T-200A upgraded transports are destined for Egypt, and two An-74T-200C medical evacuation aircraft for Libya. The first An-74T-200A transport aircraft (see photo) was assembled by the end of the last year and made its maiden flight of one hour 45 minutes on 28 April this year. The aircraft was flown by a crew of six: chief pilot - leading test pilot of the Antonov Scientific and Technical Complex A.I. Tatarchuk, second pilot – test pilot of KSAMC A.V. Dobrorodny, flight navigator D.A. Chernyshev, leading engineer S.V. Chernyshov, flight engineers S.N. Belokon and V.V. Bychkov.

In contrast to the An-74TK-200 standard series-production aircraft, the new version is equipped with a modernised digital flight and navigation system allowing for reduction of its crew to two persons. The cabin instrumentation and aircraft documentation are made in English. The aircraft is powered by the D-36 4A series engines, designed by the Ivchenko-Progress design bureau and mass-produced by the Motor-Sich, meeting modern ICAO noise and emission standards. The An-74T-200A aircraft can be converted into any one of 13 utility configurations directly at the basing airfield. The first An-74T-200A aircraft are to be handed over to the customer in 2005. In accordance with the contract of 2003, KSAMC shall deliver to Egypt nine An-74T-200As.

Kiev resumes An-32 production

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aircraft already manufactured (most of them exported to countries with hot-air and mountain climates). Altogether, four new An-32Ps for Libya will be built in Kiev according to the contract. The first Lybian An-32P was flown on 25 January this year from the Svyatoshino plant's airfield in Kiev by the crew of the test pilot Nikolay Misyuk.

Andrey Fomin

The Aviant Kiev State Aviation Plant continues implementation of the contract with Libya on production of the Antonov An-32P firefighting aircraft. After nearly a decade-of-years' break Kiev resumed series production of these aircraft. An-32 assembly works were suspended by the Aviant Plant in the middle of the 1990s, with 337

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contracts and deliveries | project

PARIS DEBUT OF SU-27SKM

Andrey FOMIN

Warplanes developed by the Sukhoi design bureau have long been known to participants in and visitors of the world's leading air show at Le Bourget. As far back as 1989, production Su-27 and Su-27UB fighters made their debut here. 1993 saw the Su-30MK multirole fighter's demonstrator unveiled here, 1995 – the Su-32 (Su-34) multirole tactical strike aircraft and 1997 – the Su-37 super-manoeuvrable fighter. The Su-30MKI super-manoeuvrable fighter arrived to Le Bourget in 1999 and the Su-30MKK in 2001. Alas, the latter's full-scale demonstration was disrupted by legal claims of Swiss company Noga. The aircraft had to return home urgently. There were no Sukhoi fighters at the 45th Le Bourget air show for the same reason. Now that all legal claims have been settled, Sukhoi again demonstrates a combat aircraft of its own in the skies of Paris. This time it is the Su-27SKM upgraded singleseat multirole fighter. This is its first demonstration at Le Bourget. As is known, the Russian Air Force (RusAF) and several other air forces operate several hundred Sukhoi Su-27 fighters, which export versions designated as Su-27SK are being used by China, Vietnam, Indonesia and several other countries en masse. Given that most of them are to remain in service for at least 10–15 years until nextgeneration fighter acquisition begins, a key near-term task to develop the fighter fleets of Russia and several other nations is to maintain their Su-27 fleets' combat capabilities via gradual upgrade and service life extension.

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To ensure a systemic approach to upgrading its combat aircraft fleet, RusAF in 1999 devised an aircraft and associated armament upgrade programme that has been further reflected in the 2001–10 national military materiel programme approved by Russia's President Vladimir Putin in early 2002. Under the programme, upgrade of the Su-27 fourth-generation fighters was vested in their manufacturer, the Komsomolsk-onAmur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO). In 1999–2000, KnAAPO commercialised the Su-30MKK multirole twinseater followed by the Su-30MK2 featuring

the modernised avionics and weapons suites. The upgraded singleseat fighter was designated as Su-27SM, with its export version known as Su-27SKM. On the whole, the number of modifications to the Su-27SKM meets the latest technical solutions embodied by the Su-30MKK and Su-30MK2. However, there are a number of peculiarities as well due to the plane being flown by a crew of one. Trying upgrade approaches on the singleseat fighter began with the production Su-27 No 38-02 (side number 56) on loan from a combat unit – the RusAF fighter air regiment sharing the Dzemgi airfield with the Su-27 manufacturer. Retrofitting was over in late 2002, with Sukhoi's test pilot Yevgeny Frolov taking the plane off for its maiden mission in the new capacity on 27 December 2002. Following several flights in Komsomolsk-on-Amur and then in Zhukovsky, the first Su-27SM was redeployed to Akhtubinsk for the official trials. In early 2003, it was joined by another upgraded aircraft (No 40-02) that had been used under the Su-27SK export fighter upgrade programme and retrofitted with the www.take-off.ru


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Sukhoi/Sergey Pashkovsky

contracts and deliveries | project

Andrey Fomin

Left: Su-27SKM export version demonstrator with air-to-air and air-to-surface weapons Top: Su-27SM first flying prototype during the tests in Zhukovsky, 2003 Bottom: one of the seven Su-27SMs handed over to the RusAF’s 23rd fighter regiment in December 2004 at the KnAAPO plant

Basic specifications of the Su-27SKM upgraded fighter Length, m (ft) 21.9 (71.8) Wing span, m (ft) 14.7 (48.2) Height, m 5.9 (19.3) Wing area, sq.m (sq.ft) 62.04 (666.9) Normal take-off weight with two R-27R1 and two R-73E AAMs, with normal fuel load of 5,270 kg (11,600lb), kg (lb) 23,740 (52,290) Maximum takeoff weight, kg (lb) 33,000 (72,690) Maximum fuel load, kg (lb) 9,400 (20,700) Maximum payload, kg (lb) 8,000 (17,620) Maximum speed at sea level, km/h (kt) 1,400 (756) Maximum high-altitude speed, km/h (kt) 2,300 (1,242) Maximum Mach number 2.15 Maximum rate of climb, m/sec (ft/min) 270 (53,100) Service ceiling, m (ft) 17,750 (58,200) Maximum operating g-loading 9 Max range with max fuel load, with two R-27R1 and two R-73E AAMs launched halfway, km (nm): - at sea level 1,340 (720) - at high altitude 3,530 (1,900) - at high altitude with single in-flight refuelling 5,400 (2,920) Take-off run (normal take-off weight), m (ft) 450 (1,480) Landing roll (drag chute deployed), m (ft) 700 (2,300) Engines type 2xAL-31F Thrust in full afterburning, kgf (lb) 2x12,500 (27,530)

KnAAPO

Bottom: one of the destinctive features of the Su-27SKM upgrade is its glass cockpit with three multifunctional colour LCDs

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contracts and deliveries | project Basic Su-27SKM upgrade measures 1. Fire control system improvement to boost the aircraft's air-to-air and air-to-surface capabilities 2. Advanced cockpit management system built around three colour multifunction liquid crystal displays on the instrument panel and the head-up display 3. Navigation system's upgrade and mating with the GLONASS and NAVSTAR satnav systems 4. Introduction of the L150 radar warning receiver able to feed target designation data to Kh-31P antiradiation missiles 5. Introduction of the advanced IRST with the laser illumination capability to paint targets for semi-active laser homing air-to-ground missiles 6. Automation of preparing and entering the mission profile to the avionics suite's computer, improvement in the efficiency of built-in check and recording equipment and increase in maintainability 7. Beefing up the weapons suite with the RVV-AE active radar homing air-to-air missile, Kh-29T/TE, Kh-29L, Kh-31P and Kh-31A air-to-surface missiles and KAB-500Kr and KAB-1500Kr guided bombs, with all these weapons mounted on 10 hardpoints. Combat load can include six RVV-AEs, four air-to-surface missiles, for 500-kg guided bombs and one 1500-kg guided bomb, with the aircraft remaining able to use all air-to-air and 'dumb' ordnance it used before 8. Introduction of the midair refuelling system

midair refuelling system and improved navigation aids (at the time, it was dubbed Su-30KI). Now that it has undergone another stage of upgrade and been given side number 305, the fighter is viewed as the standard Su-27SKM upgraded singleseat fighter. Before the first two prototype planes completed the trials, KnAAPO in early 2003 won the order from the Russian Air Force for full-rate upgrade of the Su-27s in service with combat units. As a result, as early as 26 December 2003, the first five Su-27SM upgrades were accepted by RusAF and hopped to the Combat and Conversion Training Centre (CCTC) in Lipetsk. Thus, a group of combat aircraft upgraded to Generation 4+ standard entered RusAF's inventory for the first time in the service's history. A year later, CCTC military pilots converted to the upgraded warplanes, the Lipetsk CCTC devised recommendations for their operation and combat employment and combat-unit flying and ground crews were converted. This allowed the first RusAF regiment on alert duty – the 23rd Fighter Air Regiment at Dzemgi AFB – to start converting to the Su-27SM. Under the three-year contract signed by RusAF and KnAAPO in 2004, the manufacturer is to overhaul and upgrade 24 Su-27s stationed at Dzemgi AFB. All of them are to return to

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base compliant with Su-27SM standard, with the 23rd Reg't becoming the first RusAF regiment to convert to the upgraded warplane. The handover ceremony for the first seven-ship batch of Su-27SMs to the regiment at Dzemgi AFB was held at Komsomolsk-on-Amur on 23 December 2004. Under the contract, the seven fighters delivered will be followed by 10 Su-27SMs in 2005 and by another seven fighters in 2006. Possibly, the 24 fighters will be upgraded ahead of schedule. This done, upgrade of more Su-27s operated by combat units may commence. KnAAPO is ready to upgrade similarly the Su-27SK fighters operated by foreign users to bring them up to Su-27SKM standard. The company can also make brandnew Su-27SKM singleseat fighters for export. Last autumn, it became known at the Zhuhai air show that Sukhoi was intent to offer China Su-27SKM assembly kits, with China pursuing Su-27SK (J-11) licensed production programme since 1998. Under the 1996 contract, the aircraft factory in Shenyang was to assembly a total of 200 Su-27SK fighters. To date, Russia has delivered about 100 kits to assemble Su-27SKs. At least 50 Su-27SKs assembled in China are believed to have entered inventory of PLAAF. No contract for another

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100 Su-27SK assembly kits for the Shenyang factory in line with the 1996 licence agreement have been signed yet. Experts believe that in the wake of China's acquisition of Su-30MKK and Su-30MK2 multirole fighters, the delay has been caused by China becoming somewhat less keen on not so multirole Su-27SKs. China is interested in more advanced aircraft carrying a wide range of air-to-air and air-to-surface weapons and featuring a more advanced avionics suite. It is the Su-27SKM that meets these criteria. In upgrading the Su-27SK to Su-27SKM standard, the fire control system undergoes the most profound modification. The SUV-27E fire control system is turned into the SUV-VEP1 air-to-air fire control system that provides the additional Kh-31A antiship missile capability. The SUV-VEP1 comprises the RLPK-27VEP1 radar fire control system, OEPS-27MK optronic targeting system, SILS-27ME head-up display and an IFF interrogator. The RLPK-27VEP1 is a derivative of the RLPK-27E radar fire control system mounted on the Su-27SK. The RLPK-27VEP1 is provided with the air-toground attack capability. The modernised optronic targeting system, the OEPS-27MK, includes the OLS-27MK (“52Sh�) advanced infrared search and track (IRST) system and Sura-K advanced

helmet-mounted target designator. In addition, the Su-27SKM's systems include the SUV-P-E air-to-surface fire control system comprising the BTsVM-486-2M computer, two MFI-10-6M colour 6x8-inch multifunction liquid crystal displays (MFD) with the 640x480-pixel resolution, MFPI-6 multifunction control panel with an LCD display, A-737-010 satellite navigation system and SUO-30PKR-E weapons management system. To video-record outside airspace via the HUD and data on MFDs as well as record

the pilot's talking, the aircraft is fitted with the Berkut-1 video-recording system. Other avionics are subject to some improvement too, including the navigation and electronic countermeasures systems. Upgrading the Su-27SK to Su-27SKM standard allows a substantial increase in its combat capabilities that become identical to those of Generation 4+ warplanes. This would permit the aircraft of the type to be operated efficiently for years to come even if radically novel fifth-generation fighters emerge abroad.

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Andrey Zhirnov

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air force | in brief

At the traditional meeting with the media, Russian Air Force Commander-in-Chief General of the Army Vladimir Mikhaylov summed up the principal results of the service's operations in 2004 and spoke of the objectives set for this year. Gen. Mikhaylov said that the Air Force had retained the skills at the level reached last year and improved them in some respects. About 400 operative and combat training events were conducted in 2004, with about 150 units having been subjected to various organisational transformations. In 2004, the tactical aircraft fleet conducted about 100 flight exercises, with about 50 per cent of the fighter air regiments conducting livefire exercises involving live aerial targets. The bomber and attack aircraft regiments flew over 300 bombing exercises. The long-range bombers launched more than 10 air-launched cruise missiles. Surface-to-air missile (SAM) units conducted more than 150 tactical vignettes. Over 90 per cent of SAM regiments conducted live-fire exercises. More than 10 times, SAM battalions on alert duty were ordered suddenly to deploy to firing ranges for live-fire exercises. AD radar units trained together with SAM and aircraft units. In all, AD radar units participated in about 300 exercises in 2004. More than 40 military cooperative events and combat training sessions took place within the framework of the Joint CIS Air Defence System in 2004 to bolster the CIS member

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states' defensive capabilities. The Joint CIS Air Defence System turned 10 in February 2005 and was tested in a large-scale command-post exercise (CPX) in April (for detail, see Spring Is Time for Training). Exercise Combat Commonwealth 2005, a combined live-fire exercise of CIS air forces and air defence forces, is to be conducted in several stages from June to September 2005. In 2004, the units on alert duty to defend the Russian airspace had their hands full. Drifting balloons strayed into the Russian airspace five times. RusAF's air defence assets detected and tracked more than 200,000 aerial targets, of which 100,000 were foreign ones, including more than 700 warplanes and about 140 reconnaissance aircraft. To prevent intrusion of neighbouring states' planes into the Russian airspace, interceptors were alerted more than 900 times, SAM units more than 100 times, air defence radar units over 2,500 times, with interceptors being scrambled four times. Gen. Mikhaylov noted that 2004 was a turning point for the service in terms of upgrade of the existing fleets and developing advanced aircraft. The upgrade of RusAF's in-service fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft began. Early in 2004, the first five upgraded Mil Mi-24PN attack helicopters arrived to combat units, with seven Sukhoi Su-27SM upgrades following suit on the eve of the New Year. Modernisation will carry on in 2005, with more Mi-24PNs and Su-27SMs to be subject to it. In addi-

tion, 2005 is to see the Air Force receiving two Tu-160 strategic bombers (see the photo) overhauled and upgraded by the Kazan Aircraft Production Association (KAPO). At long last, the modernisation of the existing Mikoyan MiG-29 fighter fleet has resumed, with the upgrade of the Sukhoi Su-24M tactical bombers to resume and the upgrade programme on Sukhoi Su-25 attack aircraft to kick off. The first upgraded Su-24M2, Su-25SM and MiG-29SMT aircraft are slated for delivery in 2006. Moreover, in 2006, the Sukhoi Su-34 advanced tactical bomber that has entered production at the Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association (see Su-34 Production Launched) will be fielded in 2006. The bomber's joint official trials are nearing the end. Tests of the advanced Army combat helicopter, the Mil Mi-28N, will continue in 2006, with two more aircraft to join the first machine made by the Rostvertol plant (see Mi-28N Undergoing Tests). The first example of the Yakovlev Yak-130 combat trainer built by the Sokol plant in Nizhny Novgorod entered testing in 2004. This year, the trials shall continue, with Sokol to make another two planes. The second Yak-130 started its test programme in April 2005. Combat units are to receive the first Mi-28Ns and Yak-130s in 2006–07. Gen. Mikhaylov emphasised that RusAF had not rejected the Kamov Ka-52 helicopter and Mikoyan MiG-AT trainer but would place emphasis on the Mi-28N and Yak-130. Ka-52 deliveries will be

limited to the requirements of special units, with the Yak-130 – MiG-AT ratio in the field to be roughly 70 to 30. Work continues on developing the Kamov Ka-60 medium transport helicopter to be acquired by the Air Force. The upgraded piston-engined trainer, the Yakovlev Yak-52M, is to be fielded with the service's flight schools. It will allow savings of fuel and, thus, more flying hours to be logged by cadets. In 2006, RusAF is to receive the first Tupolev Tu-214 transport aircraft. Reengining of the current Ilyushin Il-76MD fleet and fielding brand-new Il-76MF airlifters is high on the shortterm priority list of the Military Transport Aviation. Actually, according to Gen. Mikhaylov, the philosophy of refining the RusAF aircraft fleet is a reasonable combination of upgraded plane and helicopter deliveries and a gradual increase in advanced aircraft acquisition. A case in point is the Mi-24PN and Mi-28N helicopters, Su-24M2 and Su-34 tactical bombers, Su-27SM fighter and fifthgeneration aircraft known as PAK FA. Work on the latter made good progress in 2004, and RusAF approved its initial design late in the year, with the PAK FA prototype to fly its maiden mission before year-end 2007. Summing up the Air Force's development in 2004, the service chief, Gen. Vladimir Mikhaylov, underlined that RusAF remained combat-ready and able to fulfil orders of the supreme commander-in-chief, defence minister and chief of the General Staff.

Alexey Mikheyev

Alexey Mikheyev

RusAF CINC on 2004 results and objectives for 2005–06

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air force | in brief

In early April, the Russian Air Force (RusAF) conducted several major exercises involving many combat aircraft. Aircrews with the 4th Combat and Conversion Training Centre (CCTC) in Lipetsk conducted live firings on their Sukhoi Su-27SMs at the firing range in Akhtubinsk. On 5 April, RusAF conducted a largescale command-post exercise (CPX) of the Joint Air Defence System (JADS) of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), which took place in eight CIS member countries – Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine. According to Lt.-Gen. Aitech Bizhev, RusAF Deputy Commander-in-Chief for Joint Air Defence System, more than 60 sorties were flown by Su-27, MiG-29 and MiG-31 fighters, Su-24M tactical bombers and eight LongRange Aviation aircraft – Tu-160s, Tu-95MS's and Tu-22M3s. The CPX's feature was three Beriev A-50 airborne warning and control aircraft operating in the sky over Russia, Belorussia and Tajikistan at once. Long-range bombers acted as the notional enemy during the CPX. They were intercepted by Belarus Air Force fighters supported by the A-50

AWACS plane operating out of the RusAF airbase in the vicinity of Ivanovo. During the vignette, two RusAF Tu-95MS's and two Tu-160s hopped from Engels AFB in Russia to BelAF's Machulishchi airbase, with four RusAF Tu-22M3s to BelAF's Baranovichi airbase. Joint manoeuvring of Russian and Belarus Su-24M tactical bombers and Russian and Kazakh MiG-31 interceptors also took place during the exercise. Belarus Su-24Ms departed Ross airbase vic. Gomel in Belarus for Siverskaya AFB in the Leningrad Region of Russia, with Russian Su-24Ms reciprocating. Kazakh MiG-31 interceptors based in Karaganda and their Russian counterparts from Perm intercepted notional intruders in the skies of Kazakhstan and western Siberia, with the Kazakh aircraft then proceeding to Novosibirsk (Russia) and back and the Russian interceptors to Karaganda and back. The CPX also involved RusAF aircraft stationed at Russia's Kant airbase in Kyrgyzstan and Erebuni airbase in Armenia. RusAF Commander Gen. Vladimir Mikhailov, who is chairman of the Air Defence Coordination Committee under the auspices of the CIS

Andrey Zinchuk

Spring is time for training

Defence Ministers' Committee, was in charge of the exercise at the command post in Dushanbe. “All tasks set for the exercise have been fulfilled. The Joint CIS Air Defence System has proven once again its being a reliable shield for the CIS airspace,” Lt.-Gen. Aitech Bizhev said. With the CIS air defence CPX barely completed, Exercise Rubezh 2005 of the Collective Rapid Deployment Force (CRDF) kicked off in Tajikistan. RusAF was represented by Sukhoi Su-25 attack aircraft and Mil Mi-8 utility helicopters with the 670th Air Group and 303rd Independent Helicopter Squadron stationed in Dushanbe, as well as aircraft operating out of Kant airbase in Kyrgyzstan. Upgraded Sukhoi Su-24M2 bombers (see the photo), which arrived from

Lipetsk, were involved in the exercise too, having proven themselves in Exercise Rubezh 2004 in Kyrgyzstan last summer. Tajikistan furnished a mountain/air assault battalion for the exercise, with Kyrgyzstan allocating a Spetsnaz company and Kazakhstan – an air assault company and four Su-27S fighters. During the exercise, the preparation and conduct took place of a combined CRDF operation to upheld the sovereignty and territorial integrity of a member state of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) – Tajikistan this time around. The exercise's active phase, including live firings, took place at the Tajik training ground called Eshakmaidon where it wrapped up with success on 6 April.

landing approaches, landings on deck and takeoffs from deck. Flights involving the Kuznetsov were conducted without prior training at the land-based training facility and for the first time they took place in winter. In all, the pilots logged about 50 take-offs from and landings on the Kuznetsov. 279th Reg't pilots' operations were supported by crews furnished by the 830th Independent Carrierborne Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) Helicopter Regiment. Two Kamov Ka-27PS helicopters were stationed on the carrier permanently and a few more were taking turns on duty to provide search-and-rescue support to the Kuznetsov's fighter, flying out to the training area.

On 7 April, the carrier returned to her berth at the 35th shipyard in Murmansk and was inspected by the Navy's commander-in-chief, Adm. Vladimir Kuroyedov. Next time the Kuznetsov is to go out to sea in late July and in the late summer the flagship of the Russian Navy is to go for another cruise with her air group on board. The Northern Atlantic is most likely to be the area for the carrier to pull her duty, just like it was last year. In addition to veterans of the 279th regiment, rookie pilots will take part in the cruise too. Another training session at the Saki airbase in the Crimea is slated for June, with the pilots to train on the Nitka facility. Several new pilots are to be trained for solo flights there.

The Kuznetsov again out to sea

Victor Drushlyakov

Following a four-month stay in Murmansk for scheduled repair, the Kuznetsov aircraft carrier late in March put out to sea, heading for the training area in the Barents Sea. The trip was aimed at testing the carrier's preparedness for the cruise slated for the summer, as well as for the pilots to train. Despite adverse

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weather conditions, about a dozen pilots with the 279th Independent Carrierborne Fighter Air Regiment were brushing up their flying skills by flying Sukhoi Su-25UTG trainers and Su-33 fighters off the deck of the Kuznetsov. Flights conducted from the regiment's Severomorsk-3 airbase included flypasts, training

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air force | in brief

Su-34 production launched

Sukhoi

The Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association named after Valery Chkalov (NAPO) has launched construction of the first production Su-34 tactical bomber. As is known, NAPO made six prototype and low-rate initial production (LRIP) aircraft of the type in 1993–2003. Their official testing programme is nearing its end (see the picture). The Su-34 is to enter the Russian Air Force's inventory in 2006. According to NAPO's Director General Alexander Bobryshev, the company is to make another five tactical fighters in the coming two years. The first of them is expected to go into testing in autumn this year.

RusAF to receive new Ka-50s As is known, the Ka-50 in its day won the tender for the future combat helicopter for the Russian Army based on the outcome of the state comparative tests. The official trials

Andrey Zinchuk

Despite RusAF command's plans for ordering a large batch of advanced Mil Mi-28N helicopters, the service is not about to abandon limited acquisition of Kamov Ka-50 and Ka-52 helicopters.

complete, the machine entered inventory by the presidential decree dated 25 August 1995. Alas, the economic problems of the 1990s and virtually nonexistent defence acquisition prevented the helicopter from being fielded as many as planned. To date, the Arsenyevbased Progress aircraft company named after N.I. Sazykin (located in the Far East of Russia), which launched full-sale Ka-50 production in the early 1990s, managed to manufacture only nine machines. Some of them were given to Army Aviation's 344th Combat and Conversion Training Centre (CCTC) in Torzhok, with the Kamov company using the rest for tests to further refine the aircraft. The plant ground to a halt due to the lack of money several years

ago. It has been kick-started recently: the State Duma's Security Committee reviewed launching Ka-50 production and productionising its twin-seat variant, the Ka-52. The Defence Ministry responded to the committee's request by saying that the current plans provided for completing five Ka-50s by the Arsenyev plant, with the Defence Ministry being able to buy three of them as early as this year. In addition to delivering several brand-new Ka-50s (in all, there are about 10 completed airframes lacking engines and avionics at the plant), the Ka-52 official acceptance trials are to be completed, with the FY2005 defence acquisition programme and the 2006-15 state armament programme to be duly amended.

RusAF can get about 50 Mi-28Ns by 2010

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The first aircraft of the type (side number 014) was built by Mil. It completed its maiden flight as far back as 14 November 1996. For several years on end, the Mi-28N test programme had not been financed, and only owing to personal contribution by Russian Air Force Commander-in-Chief Gen. Vladimir Mikhailov, the programme has resumed recently.

Two more machines to be built by Rostvertol this year are to facilitate the trials. In 2006, Rostvertol is to launch full-rate production of the Mi-28N night-capable combat helicopter. The first machines are slated to be fielded with combat units of the Russian Air Force in 2007–08. Under the service chief's order, RusAF is to have taken delivery of as many as 50 Mi-28N helicopters by 2010.

Alexey Milkheyev

Earlier this year, the first newgeneration combat helicopter, Mil Mi-28N, built by Rostvertol in Rostov-on-Don completed its factory trials launched on 25 March 2004. It flew to the flight test facility of Mil's Moscow Helicopter Plant near Moscow where it is going to continue its joint official test programme. The aircraft, which side number is 02, is the second Mi-28N prototype.

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air force | in brief

The MiG Corporation continues its trials of the Mikoyan MiG-29M side number 156 prototype, also known as the MiG-29OVT. The aircraft is powered by modified RD-33 thrust vector controlled (TVC) engines and is fitted with an improved digital fly-by-wire flight control system. The aircraft was the sixth prototype of the MiG-29M fighter (type “9-15”). It was made in July 1991 and had logged 86 missions before the test programme was put on the backburner in September 1993. Suspension of the programme had had the MiG-29M mothballed for almost a decade. In 2001, it was decided to demothball the MiG-29M prototype No 156 and use it for test-flying prototype engines fitted with 360-degree

Victor Drushlyakov

MiG-29OVT undergoing tests

swivelling nozzles. August 2001 saw the fighter with RD-33 engine mockups unveiled at the MAKS 2001 air show. It resumed flight tests in

spring 2002 following quite a lull. The MiG-29OVT flew its first vectorcontrolled missions in July 2003. Its tests intensified in spring 2005, with

their results to be used in developing the MiG-29M and MiG-29M2 fighters that may be fitted with TVC engines.

flew to Israel on 26 October 1999 to be fitted with the radar system. It was given a new registration number, 4X-AGI, there. The aircraft had been furnished with the Phalcon radar system by July 2000 when Israel had to pull out of the programme due to the pressure exerted by the United States. The radar was dismounted from the aircraft that had remained in Tel Aviv's Ben Gurion Airport until 10 June 2002 when it flew to China to be handed over to the customer without the Phalcon radar.

Experts believe that soon after Israel withdrew from the programme, China decided to fit the aircraft with an indigenous phasedarray radar system designed by the 14th research institute in Nanjing. The aircraft was equipped with the new Chinese radar system by the Xian Aircraft Industry Company in Xian during 2002-03. According to Chinese web portal www.sinodefence.com, the Chinese AWACS was designated KJ-2000 (Kongjiing-2000) and made its maiden flight in November 2003. It has been undergoing tests at the China Flight Test Establishment (CFTE), which logos it sports. The aircraft's side number is 762. Aviation experts believe that China's military can buy at least four KJ-2000 AWACS planes (it is this number of Phalcon-fitted A-50Is that was specified by the 1997 contract). It looks like that Chinese will use their Ilyushin Il-76MD airlifters for conversion to KJ-2000 standard. China got about 14 Il-76MDs from Uzbekistan in the 1990s. According to experts, this is how the second KJ-2000 prototype was made in China.

China tests AWACS

www.sinodefence.com

Chinese Web sites have published pictures of an airborne warning and control system (AWACS) aircraft derived from the Russian-made Beriev A-50I aircraft's airframe and an indigenous radar system. As is known, as far back as 1997, Russia, Israel and China signed a contract on joint development, manufacture and sale of A-50I AWACS planes to China. Russia's Beriev company was expected to derive a carrier platform from the production A-50 to mount the Israeli-made

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EL/M-2075 Phalcon phased-array radar in a 11.5m (37.7ft) diameter static disc fairing fitted on top the fuselage. Conversion of a standardissue A-50 to the A-50I prototype, during which the airframe underwent a number of modifications, were completed by Beriev in the city of Taganrog during 1997–99. The aircraft, which was given registration number RA-78740, flew its maiden mission from Beriev's factory airfield on 28 July 1999. Following a series of test flights in Taganrog, the plane

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YAK-130 COMBAT TRAINER

OF NEW CENTURY A second production-configuration aircraft has entered the flight trials of prospective combat trainer Yakovlev Yak-130 in April this year. Work is underway under the contract with the Russian Air Force (RusAF) that selected the Yak-130 for service with its flight schools. In May, the new aircraft was submitted for the official trials slated to wrap up next year,

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after which the aircraft will be fielded. Under the concept of the Yakovlev design bureau, the Yak130 designed for advanced flight training of military pilots, as well as for training them in combat tactics, is an element of the training complex comprising the Yak-152 (Yak-52M) primary trainer, a ground simulator and a computerised classroom.

Having landed the contract with RusAF, Yakovlev is concurrently promoting the Yak-130 on the global market in cooperation with the Irkut company, with the Rosoboronexport state-owned company as an intermediary. India, Malaysia and, possibly Algeria, as well as some other countries are believed to be potential buyers of the advanced comwww.take-off.ru


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Alexey Mikheyev

air force | project

bat trainer. The Yak-130 is promoted on the market along with the Irkut-manufactured Su-30MK multirole fighters. Thus, the customer is offered a set of a worldbest fighter and a full set of training hardware for pilots to fly it. Of the hardware, the key thing is the Yak-130 combat trainer that can be used as a light combat aircraft, if need be. www.take-off.ru

Background It has been 40 years recently since the Soviet Air Force and several other air forces fielded the Czech-made L-29 jet trainers. In 1961, the L-29 was selected in a competition (mostly, due to political considerations) for the future trainer for the Warsaw Pact countries, having one-upped the Soviet Yak-30 and Polish Iskra. Since then, Czech-made trainers have made up the mainstay of the air force academies in many countries. In 1974, the L-29 was ousted by the more-advanced L-39 powered by the Soviet-built AI-25TL turbofan. By the time the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact dissolved, the Soviet Air Force had had about a thousand L-39 in its inventory. They constituted the backbone of the trainer fleets operated by the military flight schools. In the early 1990s, the Czech Republic ceased to supply new aircraft and spares. The in-service trainers were growing old, with their service life nearing expiry due to their being used heavily. In addition, given the en-masse conversion to the fourth-generation Su-27 and MiG-29 fighters with radically novel characteristics and given the even more capable fifth-generation fighter's development underway, the L-39 was unable to provide adequate training to advanced fighters' pilots. These considerations prompted the Soviet Air Force in the early '90s to have the development of a new tactical flight crew trainer launched. The need for replacing the L-39 with a brand-new trainer was voiced by the Soviet Air Force's commander-in-chief, Air Marshal Yefimov, on 20 April 1990. In the summer 1990, the first official document was issued. It was the resolution by the State Military Industrial Commission, dated 25 June 1990 and tasking the Mikoyan design bureau with developing the future trainer. Under the specifications requirements approved in October 1990, the advanced aircraft was to be powered by two engines as well as have a landing speed of within 170km/h (92kt), run and roll measuring 500m (1,640ft) at the most, unprepared airfield basing capability, a ferry range of 2,500km (1,350nm) and a thrust-to-weight ration of 0.6–0.7. In addition, the customer wanted the reprogrammable stability and controllability for the aircraft to be fit for training pilots from all branches of the Air Force. The requirement for the trainer to be made of Russian parts only was high on the customer's wish list. According to RusAF command's estimates, at least 1,200 advanced trainers were necessary to oust the L-39 fleet. The first new trainers were to be received by users in 1994. To reduce technical risk and obtain the best aircraft, the military called for a trainer aircraft competition among major Soviet air-

craft developers. In January 1991, specifications requirements for a trainer for future tactical aircraft pilots were sent to MiG, Sukhoi, Yakovlev and Myasishchev. On 25 November 1991, Air Force CINC Col.-Gen. Pyotr Deynekin ordered a commission set up to review the conceptual designs submitted by the four bidders. The outcome of the tender was to be known on 15 January 1992. Competition Rather loose specifications requirements caused the bidders' different approaches to resolving the same problem. Each developer offered a concept of the complex as a whole and an aircraft in particular. Sukhoi submitted the conceptual design of the S-54 aircraft – a single-engined derivative of the Su-27 fighter. It was to be powered by a single NPO Motor's R-195FS engine that was to be developed as an afterburning version of the production R-195 turbojet powering the Su-25 attack aircraft and producing supersonic speed of Mach 1.55. Unlike other contenders, the S-54 was intended for basic and advanced training. Sukhoi suggested the very concept of training on the 'common' aircraft be reconsidered. In the opinion of Sukhoi's design team, a combination of requirements for the initial, basic and advanced training capabilities in a single aircraft could be achieved at the expense of either safety or training quality. The Mikoyan design bureau strived to minimise the cost of the future trainer's development, which left its imprint on the style of its programme as a whole. Mikoyan submitted the conceptual design of the Aircraft 821 fitted with the straight wing and manual control system. The aircraft was designed 'around the engine': the Ivchenko-Progress AI-25TL was the only feasible option at the time. Special attention was paid to the plane's economic efficiency. Thus, while the annual training cycle on the L-39 called for 24.4t (53,750lb) of kerosene, Aircraft 821 could ensure a drop down to 20t (44,000lb) a year. The hope for developing the most efficient trainer was seen as a solid argument for Mikoyan's design dubbed later MiG-AT. Myasishchev placed emphasis on technical training aids, offering its conceptual design of the UTK-200 trainer complex comprising the M-200 trainer aircraft and the complex's ground segment – NUTK-200. The latter included technical and flight crew training classrooms, simulators to train in general and special flight regimes, an integrated flight simulator with the moving cockpit and an air combat simulator with the fixed cockpit in a sphere. These were integrated through compatible software and the common supervision system. The M-200 trainer looked similar to take-off june 2005

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Yakovlev

Andrey Yurgenson

Left: a model of Yak-130 (then UTK-Yak), 1992 Bottom: projects of alternative trainer aircraft for RusAF tender, top to bottom – Sukhoi S-54, Myasishchev M-200 and Mikoyan MiG-AT, 1992

the West European AlfaJet while featuring the reprogrammable control system. The M-200's powerplant was to include two future RD-35 engines had been under development at the Klimov plant. The Yakovlev design bureau opted for an integrated development of the training complex designated as UTK-Yak. The complex comprised technical training aids (computer display classrooms, PC-based procedural simulators, functional simulators integrated through the use of common software) and the UTS-Yak aircraft later rechristened Yak-130. To enable the aircraft to fly at high angles of attack, it was to be fitted with a moderatesweep wing featuring low aspect ratio and large leading-edge root extensions (LERX). Early in the development, the Yak-130 was to be powered by Ivchenko-Progress AI-25TL engines proven on the Yakovlev's Yak-40 passenger aircraft. Later, the AL-25TLs were to be replaced with a pair of Klimov RD-35s or Soyuz R120-300s. Close attention was paid to making the trainer's operation easier and self-sustained.

Prospective trainer specifications approved on 27 March 1993 Normal take-off weight within 5,500 kg (12,100lb) Thrust/weight ratio 0.6–0.7 Maximum speed at least 850 km/h (460kt) Maximum Mach at least 0.8–0.85 Service ceiling over 10,000 m (32,800ft) Minimum speed 210–220 km/h (113–119kt) Range 1,200 km (650nm) Ferry range over 2,000 km (1,080nm) Maximum angle of attack at least 25o Takeoff speed 190–200 km/h (103–108kt) Landing speed 180–190 km/h (97–103kt) Run within 500 m (1,640ft) Roll within 700 m (2,300ft)

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The Air Force commission faced the aggressive pressing of the contenders. Sukhoi's conceptual design earned the top aggregate points, but was rejected anyway. It failed to meet one of the specifications requirements as the single-engine design. Still, the commission's resolution submitted to the Air Force chief for approval stated, “The conceptual designs of the Sukhoi and Mikoyan design bureaux do not meet the specifications requirements”, suggesting that “the development and mock-up manufacture of the UTK-Yak and UTK-2000 be continued”. However, Mikoyan did not put up with the failure and insisted they should be allowed to carry on with their bidding. In July 1992, the Air Force's scientific and technical committee summed up the outcome of the trainer conceptual design competition and took a decision worthy of Solomon: “The trainer's initial designing shall be conducted on the competitive basis by the Yakovlev design bureau in cooperation with the Myasishchev experimental plant and Mikoyan design bureau.” However, the Air Force awarded only two contracts in late 1992 – one with Yakovlev and the other with Mikoyan. They were to submit their initial designs in the fourth quarter of 1993. In Search of Allies Due to insufficient financing by the Air Force, Yakovlev and Mikoyan had to look for investors interested in their trainer programmes. The MiG-AT programme proved to be of interest to the French who offered their Turbomeca Larzac 04 engines and Thomson avionics to fit the trainer. The hardware offered had proved to be unneeded due to the termination of production of the AlfaJet ousted by the UK's Hawk from the market.

Italian company Aermacchi took interest in the UTS-Yak programme. Aermacchi's MB-326 and MB-339 had been operated in 14 countries by then but its AMX combat trainer developed in cooperation with Brazilian Embraer had been mostly sidelined on the market. And the Hawk was about to gobble the Italian chunk of the market again. In summer 1993, RusAF's command, concerned about the two Russian developers' apparent eagerness to build a plane for any Western buyer, decided to remind them that it still existed by setting up a commission for a preliminary review of the initial designs. The commission highlighted the UTK-Yak programme as more thoroughly detailed in autumn 1993. As far as the MiG-AT is concerned, the Larzac 04 was noted for its obsolescence and the problems inherent in any deriving a Russian engine from it. The two initial designs were reviewed in March 1994. By then, both developers had started making their first prototypes. Despite the obvious preference for the UTK-Yak, the commission noted in its report a 'special opinion' of the Air Defence Force leaders in favour of the MiG-AT programme. The discussion that followed ended up in the approving the competitive pursuance of the programmes, which was to be paid for by means of non-budgetary investment until comparative Russian engine-powered aircraft flight tests were conducted. The budgetary monies were to be spent on developing future Russian engine RD-35. Teaming Up with Italians Yakovlev were allowed by the Russian president and the government to team up with foreign developers and potential buyers. Says Yak-130 programme chief designer Konstantin Popovich: “In 1993, we started working with Italian company Aermacchi that from the outset showed keen interest in our www.take-off.ru


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trainer, having seen its bright prospects. The joint research started with outlining the configuration of the trainer to adapt it to both international and Russian Air Force standards. Based on all trainers in the world, which we were going to rival, the Italian partners proved that there would be no demand for pure trainers in 2001–05, with combat trainers to be in demand only. Therefore, the maximum speed of the Yak-130 had to be increased at least to 1,050 km/h (570kt) to enable it to rival the Hawk. The second consideration touched upon the payload that had to be at least 1,500–2,000kg (3,300–4,400lb). Another key requirement was to enable the aircraft to operate from austere (Category 3) airfields with runways 1,000m (3,280ft) tops. The plane's range was important too. Therefore, selecting characteristics for the Yak-130, especially the wing area, we proceeded from the requirements normally set for combat trainers and provided seven hardpoints in the design from the outset. There are nine of them now. “The shape of the aircraft evolved accordingly. We decided against the sharp nosecone in favour of the one accommodating the Osa or Kopyo radar or an IRST (infrared search and track) station depending on the customer requirements. These considerations were taken care of as early back as the early designing stage. “Standard manoeuvres of up-to-date fighters, e.g. the F-16, MiG-29, Su-27, were analysed. It turned out to be that they used 20–25 deg. angles of attack pretty often even at transonic speeds. Designers figured out that there was the trend of available alpha growing to 40 deg. and more. Hence, the combat trainer had to be super-manoeuvrable. Therefore, we went for the aerodynamic configuration typical of fifth-generation aircraft, hence, the shape of the wing, all-moving stabiliser, good high-lift devices to ensure excellent takeoff and landing performance and manoeuvrability, and vertical tails shifted fore of the stabiliser to provide good spin handling characteristics. These considerations were taken into account at the designing stage, i.e. we were developing a trainer and a combat trainer wrapped in one from the very beginning. These characteristics of the aircraft's export variant were approved by the Air Force.” The joint Yakovlev-Aermacchi programme was designated as Yak/AEM-130. Demonstrator The first prototype - the demonstrator built by Yakovlev and Aermacchi - was dubbed Yak-130D. Its airframe had been completed by late 1994, with the Yak-130D making its debut at the Le Bourget air show in June 1995. It had not flown yet and was shown as a static display, having been airlifted to Le Bourget by a transport plane. www.take-off.ru

Alexey Mikheyev

air force | project

Yak-130D demonstrator plane during demo flight at MAKS ‘97 air show

The demonstrator's powerplant was built around two RD-35 (DV-2S) turbofans 2,200 kgf (4,850lb) each. The RD-35 was a derivative of the Slovak-made DV-2. The DV-2 was developed by Ivchenko-Progress (Zaporozhye) in 1984 to power new Czechoslovak L-39MS trainers and combat trainers. In 1990, the DV-2 underwent state tests, with its full-rate production kicking off at Slovak company Povazske Strojarne. The development of the DV-2S (RD-35) version adapted to power the Yak-130D was handled by the Klimov plant in St. Petersburg under the 1994 license agreement with the Slovak company.

The Yak-130D completed its maiden flight on 25 April 1996 from the LII Flight Research Institute in Zhukovsky with Yakovlev's test pilot Andrey Sinitsyn at the controls (the first MiG-AT prototype took off for its first mission from the same airfield on 16 March 1996). In 1997, the aircraft was successfully demonstrated as part of the MAKS '97 air show. By then, it had logged more than 150 flights, many of which had taken place in Italy. The Yak-130D also flew in Slovakia that was mulling over the RussoItalian combat trainer as the alternative to its ageing planes. take-off june 2005

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Yakovlev

Yakovlev

Yakovlev

Piotr Butowski

air force | project

Says Konstantin Popovich: “Over the five years of cooperating with Aermacchi, we had conducted a huge number of flight tests at the excellent testing facility of Aermacchi. The flight test tempo was rather high – 120 missions over six months. The aircraft was fitted with telemetric equipment down-linking telemetry to ground facilities in real time”. In all, the Yak-130D's flight tests included about 450 test flights. 1999 saw the demonstrator undergoing special flight tests at the GLITs State Flight Test Centre in Akhtubinsk, involving military test pilots. The aircraft completed the bulk of its test flights in 2002, and a decision was taken in mid-2004 to mothball it: the demonstrator had done its job. The Yak-130D test programme provided a huge amount of data on how such a configuration influenced the plane's behaviour. The experience gained was used in refining the production aircraft's configuration. In addition, a number of test programmes completed by the demonstrator became unnecessary for the production Yak-130 to undergo. As far back as January 1997, RusAF announced it was going to order a low-rate initial production (LRIP) batch of 10 Yak-130s to be made by the Sokol plant in Nizhny Novgorod.

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Italian Divorce Starting from a certain stage of the programme, Yakovlev and Aermacchi had strived to develop a common aircraft. However, the requirements of the Russian Air Force and Aermacchi were different in principle, with RusAF rejecting an aircraft comprising foreign-made components and Italians rejecting components made in CIS member countries. Hence, a decision to develop common documentation, the so-called baseline model of the aircraft, which would be used by each party to build a national version of the Yak/AEM-130. That suited Yakovlev though some rights for the aircraft had to be relinquished to Aermacchi. However, this earned Yakovlev some money. The programme would have had to be terminated but for the money. This also allowed the Russian government to pay its debt to Italy. The government encouraged Yakovlev developing the Yak-130's Russian version and paid off the debt in rubles without transferring money abroad. This is how the problem of funding the Russian variant of the Yak-130 was resolved. In late 1999, the Russian and Italian programmes went their own ways finally. Based

on the design documentation provided by Yakovlev, Italians began to develop and build their own trainer, M346, with Yakovlev carrying on with developing the Yak-130 combat trainer and its further derivatives for the Russian Air Force. The former partners under the Yak/AEM-130 programme did not terminate their cooperation. The parties agreed to divide markets and cooperate on promoting the Russian and Italian successors to the Yak/AEM-130 on the global market.

Governmental Acquisition The dire straits the Russian economy found itself in after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, coupled with the reform of the Russian Air Force, adjusted the Yak-130 programme's timescale and the demand for trainers. By the late 1990s, RusAF had retained only three flight schools instead of 12. The flying hours totalled by their cadets dropped by an order of magnitude. Due to that, the need for replacing the L-39 fleet (about 650 aircraft) was not as urgent as before, with their expected upgrade allowing an extension of their service life till 2010–15. www.take-off.ru


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Aeromacchi

М346

Left top: Yak-130D in demo flight at MAKS 2001. After separation of Yakovlev and Aermacchi programmes the aircraft got new camouflage paintjob Left bottom: Since 2000 Yak-130D was used in favour of development of the Yak-130 production standard combat trainer. The picture shows aircraft’s capabilities to carry various combat load. R-60 AAMs and B-8M1 and B-13L rocket pods are under the wing with R-73 AAM, KMGU pod and UPK-23-250 gun pod are on the ground In the centre: Nizhny Novgorod-based Sokol plant began manufacturing Yak-130 aircraft in 2001. Pictures show the first airframe assembling Top: The first Yak-130 of series configuration in the hall of Sokol plant, 2003

However, the L-39 was only good as a basic trainer. This and the experiences in local armed conflicts highlighted the need for RusAF to field a combat trainer, rather than a pure trainer. Minor modifications would turn the combat trainer into a light combat (strike) aircraft. Such an aircraft could come in handy to both RusAF flight schools and combat and conversion training centres (CCTC). This would ensure a five to six-fold drop in combat and conversion training costs: let alone the plane's price itself, a huge amount of avgas would be saved through using Yak-130s to accomplishing the missions previously handled by other warplanes. The Yak-130 burns as little as 600kg (1,320lb) of fuel on a standard mission, i.e. almost by an order of magnitude less than, say, the Su-27. On the verge of the new millennium, the Russian Air Force finally made up its mind on its future main combat trainer. The Yak-130 was named the winner of the protracted competition. RusAF ordered the first batch of four Yak-130s from the Sokol production plant. At first, two flying examples and two examples for static tests were to be made in 2001–02. Later, the plan was adjusted, as was the schedule. www.take-off.ru

The first production Yak-130's airframe was made by Sokol in January 2004 and given to Yakovlev for static tests. The first flying Yak-130 was completed soon afterwards. The aircraft numbered 01 was flown on its first mission by Yakovlev's senior test pilot Roman Taskayev from Sokol's airfield on 30 April 2004. Another two flying examples were about to be completed. The second aircraft (side number 02) joined the flight trials in spring this year. It first flew controlled by Yakovlev's test pilots Vassily Sevastyanov and Roman Taskayev. The third flying example is to start its flight tests in autumn 2005. Unlike the two first production aircraft, which construction was paid for with non-budgetary money, the third one is to be fully financed by the Air Force. To date, its airframe has been completed and is to be fitted with avionics and other systems. All Yak-130 examples flight tests have been insured by the Russian Insurance Centre. In February this year, RusAF Commanderin-Chef Gen. Vladimir Mikhailov ordered the Yak-130 official testing commission established and the first two Yak-130s submitted for trials in May 2005. Phase 1 of the trials, which

The Italian spin-off of the Yak/AEM-130 programme – the M346 trainer – started its tests a bit later than the production variant of the Yak-130. Its development kicked off in January 2000, with the first example rolled out on 7 July 2003. From the airframe design standpoint, the M346 is very similar to the experimental Yak/AEM-130. Principal differences are Honeywell F124-GA-200 engines and a western avionics suite. A substantial difference from the current Yak-130 is the M346's being a trainer, rather than a combat trainer. The M346 technology demonstrator first flew on 15 July 2004. A second M346 is to enter testing this year, with the M346 prototypes to total three. There have been no specific customers for the M346 so far.

is to underlie the preliminary authorisation for Yak-130 full-rate production, is slated for December 2005. The full cycle of the official trials, including spin, combat tactics and other tests, is to be completed in 2006, following which RusAF will start taking deliveries of the advanced combat trainer.

Production Combat Trainer The production Yak-130 is somewhat different from the Yak-130D technology demonstrator. This is due, first of all, due to the change in its purpose – the Yak-130 turned from a trainer into a combat trainer. Its fuselage nose section has changed noticeably, with its cross-section becoming more rounded, which indicates its ability to house a radar. Additional launch pylons appeared on the wingtips to mount short-range air-to-air missiles or electronic warfare (EW) pods. The production aircraft's configuration has been optimised considerably, with aerodynamics becoming superior to those of the technology demonstrator. The Yak-130 became shorter, and its wing area and midsection shrunk. Its configuration become tighter and its weight diminished. take-off june 2005

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Alexey Mikheyev

air force | project

Alexey Mikheyev

The first series-configuration Yak-130 and its weapons: R-73 air-to-air missiles, B-13L rocket pod and KAB-500Kr guided bomb (under the wing); RVV-AE air-to-air missile, B-8M1 rocket pod, KMGU small-calibre munitions pod, Kh-25M ait-to-surface missile, free fall bomb and UPK-23-250 gun pod (on the ground, right to left)

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bility and controllability of virtually any upto-date warplane to be simulated. Owing to this, the Yak-130 allows 80 per cent of the pilot training programme to be covered. The Yak-130 is a key component of the training complex comprising ground training aids, simulators, the Yak-152 or Yak-52M initial trainer and the training control and supervision system. At the initial stage of training, the Yak-130 can be more forgiving of rookies' errors, which will make it easier for them to acquire flying skills. For training in special flight regimes and air combat tactics, the reprogramming capability will enable the Yak-130 to simulate the dynamic characteristics of many planes, e.g. the MiG-29, Su-27, Su-30, etc. Actually, any warplane can be simulated, including the F-15, F-16, F-18, Mirage 2000, Rafale, Typhoon and future fifth-generation US fighter F-35, etc. All the pilot will need to do is enter the software model of the simulated plane's control system in the onboard computer. There may be several such models stored in the onboard computer, which can be selected in flight at will. The Yak-130 has the 'all-glass cockpit'. The pilot stations are fitted with three 6x8-inch colour multifunction liquid-crystal displays (LCD), with the fore station having a headup display (HUD) as well. The LCDs can display any controls of any fighter. The concept of the combat trainer provides for a weapons suite and the ability to simulate tactics of different combat aircraft. The eight underwing and one underbelly hardpoints can mount a 3,000kg (6,600lb) payload, including four R-73 air-to-air missiles, four Kh-25M air-to-surface missiles, 57mm (2.24in), 80mm (3.15in), 122mm (4.8in) or 266mm (10.5in) rockets in four UB-32, B-8M1, B-13L or PU-O-25 pods respectively, four 250kg (550lb) or 500kg (1,100lb) bombs (FAB-500, BetAB-500, ODAB-500 or OFAB-250-270), RBK-500 disposable cluster bomb units, ZB-500 incendiary canisters, drop tanks, underbelly podded guns and pods housing targeting systems, reconnaissance, electronic warfare (EW) equipment, etc. The Yak-130 could also be provided with the mid-air refuelling system. This will expand its capabilities as trainer and combat aircraft. To be able to fight, the modified Yak-130 can be equipped with the integrated Osa (Wasp in Russian) or Kopyo (Spear) radar and podded IRST targeting system, e.g. the Platan (Plane tree). However, cadets had not to fire live missiles and rockets and drop live bombs to learn to fight. The integrated combat employment simulation system simulates aerial combat, air-to-air heat-seeking and

Yak-152 and Yak-52M

Yakovlev

Another important difference between the production Yak-130 and the Yak-130D is the former's advanced AI-222-25 engines producing 2,500kgf (5,500lb) of thrust each. The AI-222-25 was developed by IvchenkoProgress and is being productionised jointly by Motor Sich (Zaporozhye) and MMPP Salut (Moscow). According to Yakovlev's Director General/President Oleg Demchenko, the AI-222-25 “has proven itself well enough, which proves that our choice was right. The engine meets our requirements in full. In addition, we know the capabilities of Ivchenko-Progress and Motor Sich well, because Yakovlev's Yak-40 and Yak-42 are powered by their engines. The AI-222-25 is made in cooperation with the Salut plant in Moscow, so the Russian Air Force will receive Yak-130s fitted with engines made by a Russian company in line with the customer's requirement�. In addition, the production Yak-130 is the first Russian aircraft to feature the all-digital avionics suite. This is a matter of principle because no other Russian aircraft can boast such a degree of avionics' digitisation. All of the Yak-130's avionics are latest advances of the Russian aircraft industry. The aircraft is fitted with the integrated digital fly-by-wire control system allowing stability and controllability to be altered for the training purposes depending on the performance of the aircraft being simulated, as well as to alter the automatic control system's and the active flight safety system's characteristics. The control system's reprogramming capability allows the Yak-130's dynamics to be altered and the sta-

The Yak-152 and Yak-52M piston-engined initial trainers are part of the training packaged wrapped around the Yak-130 combat trainer. The Yak-152 is designed for initial training and professional selection at the early stage. The avionics allows rookies to learn using advanced flight, navigation, communications and targeting equipment. The aircraft is to be used by aviation clubs and military flight schools to train skilled military and aerobatic pilots quickly and inexpensively. Until the Yak-152 next-generation plane is fielded, initial training will have been conducted on the Yak-52's upgrade, the Yak-52M, which official trials were completed this spring. The Yak-52M differs from the production Yak-52 trainer, of which 1,800 have been made, in better performance and the range that has increased up to 900km (490nm). About 30 per cent of its avionics have been upgraded. An important feature of the Yak-52M is the SKS-94MYa ejection system and an advanced canopy cockpit with a better vision. The 308th aircraft repair plant in Ivanovo has learnt to upgrade Yak-52s to Yak-52M standard. The Russian Air Force plans to buy about 20 Yak-52Ms before 2006.

radar-homing missile launches, deployment of the integrated self-defence aids, ground attacks with smart, dumb and gunnery weapons and use of self-defence aids in the face of simulated enemy surface-to-air missile (SAM) launches and electronic countermeasures (ECM). Owing to its aerodynamic configuration and performance, the Yak-130 can fly in virtually all flight modes that up-to-date and future combat aircraft are capable of. Large leading-edge root extensions (LERX) and the design of air intakes ensure stable controlled flight at alpha up to 40 deg. The air intake covered by special meshing during take-off, landing gear designed for unpaved airstrips and excellent take-off/landing performance make it possible for the Yak-130 to operate from small austere airfields, while the oxygen generation system wrapped around the oxygen generator boosts its selfcontained operation capability. The TA-14 or Saphir-5 auxiliary power unit allows the engines to start. This increases the plane's self-sustained operation capability. take-off june 2005

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The Yak-130's simple design, high airframe and systems reliability, long service life and complete self-contained operation capability, coupled with its high maintainability, lowcost life cycle and superb flight performance, permit quality training of flight crews in the tight timeframe.

Customers Today, the principal customer for the Yak-130 is the Russian Air Force. According to Yakovlev's First Deputy Designer General/Technical Director Nikolay Dolzhenkov, RusAF “has ordered four aircraft so far. An order for another 10 in being finalise. As far as further plans are concerned, the Air Force CINC mentioned 200–300 aircraft”. The number indicates RusAF's requirements for the coming 10–15 years, during which almost all remaining L-39s will be written off due to the expiry of their service life.

L-15

Another 'relative' of the Yak-130 (a remote one, frankly) is the L-15 supersonic trainer China develops with Yakovlev's assistance.

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Although the number of planes ordered by RusAF has not been specified yet, Sokol has already landed a contract for a 12-ship pilot batch to be manufactured during 2005–07, with production expected to kick off once Phase 1 of the official trials is complete and the preliminary report is issued. The first aircraft of the pilot batch may be delivered in mid-2006 and the last one by late 2007. Then, the Yak-130 output at the Sokol plant may be about 12 planes a year. “RusAF is making up its mind as for the order volume,” says Nikolay Dolzhenkov. “The number has not been named yet but it far exceeds the current four planes. Yak-130s will replace L-39s in the first place. A regiment or even two regiments should be activated at the Air Force academy in Krasnodar to train pilots to fly the Su-27SM upgraded fighters and fifth-generation aircraft expected by 2015. By that time, the training air regiments will have had to be activated in Krasnodar to train rookies to fly future aircraft.”

Mention should be made that RusAF command, especially the service's chief, Gen. Vladimir Mikhaylov, pay close attention to the Yak-130 programme, doing their best to expedite the fielding of the combat trainer. Gen. Mikhaylov has recently tried his hand at the Yak-130 in flight, having completed a 30min. familiarisation mission. He was very pleased with the aircraft: “I have spent 25 years in the back seat, training rookies, but I have not seen such a superb aircraft before. It is easy to control and meets up-to-date requirements. Having trained on this aircraft, rookie pilots will feel confident in the cockpits of advanced planes.” The RusAF highlighted the Yak-130's top-notch manoeuvrability and safety at high angles of attack (AoA) and within the 200–800km/h (108–430kt) speed bracket and ability to mount up-to-date weapons, “which none of the aircraft in its class will be able to carry”. On the same day of

Says Yakovlev's Director General Oleg Demchenko: “Our full-scale cooperation with the Chinese aircraft industry dates back to 2000 when the AVIC II corporation, based on Yakovlev's advances in Yak-130 development, invited us to join the L-15 supersonic trainer development programme. The L-15 developer is the Hongdu company in the city of Nanchang, a specialist in developing such planes. Its K-8 trainer is in production and sells well enough on the global market. “The L-15 is being developed to meet the requirements of the People's Liberation Army (PLA). Yakovlev's role is consulting, which

can be called scientific and technical support of the aircraft development programme. We are participating at the preliminary design stage, while the Chinese side is fully in charge of working out the design documentation and making the aircraft. This is a Chinese plane. The Chinese designers just correlate their technical solutions with the opinion of ours.” A full-scale mock-up of the new-configuration L-15 was unveiled at the Zhuhai air show in November 2004. Hongdu plans to build its first flying L-15 in 2005. Its flight trials are slated for the same year. www.take-off.ru


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air force | project

Alexey Mikheyev

Outlook

11 February 2005, Yak-130 familiarisation flights at Sokol's airfield were flown by RusAF's CINC deputy chief for aviation, Lt.-Gen. Alexander Zelin, and Lt.-Gen. Yury Tregubenko, chief of the 929th State Flight Test Centre where the Yak-130's Phase 2 of the official trials is to be conducted. The familiarisation ride completed, Gen. Mikhaylov said that building another two production Yak-130s, stepping up their tests and completion of the latter's main phases in 2006 would enable the first production planes to arrive to the 4th CCTC in Lipetsk and the Air Force academy in Krasnodar as early as next year. “The service needs around 300 such aircraft, and we will buy them gradually,” the RusAF chief opined. However, the domestic market is just one of the many for the Yak-130 to conquer. Several countries - Russia's traditional partners in arms trade - are keen on the aircraft. For instance, talks are underway with and presentations have been held in India, Algeria, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and several African states. Yakovlev and Sukhoi have reached agreement that the Yak-130 will be offered as part of the package order to buyers of Sukhoi's warplanes. The Yak-130's components have been heavily commonised with those of the aircraft of the Sukhoi Su-27 and Su-30 families.

Actually, developing and launching production of the combat trainer is only the first step in implementing the Yak-130 programme. Its airframe's excellent design, topnotch aerodynamic characteristics and advanced avionics suite allow a whole family of Yak-130 derivatives to be developed with minor modifications. Among them are a light strike aircraft, a light multirole combat aircraft, a reconnaissance aircraft, an EW platform, a carrierborne trainer, etc. The Yak-130's derivatives are being sketched out in both twin-seat and singleseat versions. According to the press, the twinseat combat trainer with a more sophisticated targeting system (e.g. integrated radar) may be designated as Yak-131 and the family of singleseaters (light attack, recce and EW aircraft) may be dubbed Yak-133. In addition, another Yak-130 spin-off may be the Yak-135 supersonic light attack/multirole aircraft. Such warplanes can be very effective in limited and local wars at far less cost than fourth- and fifth-generation dedicated combat aircraft.

Yak-130 production combat trainer specifications Length, m (ft) Wingspan, m (ft) Height, m (ft) Wing area, sq.m (sq.ft) Wheelbase, m (ft) Main wheel track, m (ft) Overnose, deg.: - front seat - backseat Maximum take-off weight, kg (lb) - trainer - combat trainer Normal take-off weight (trainer), kg (lb) Fuel load, kg (lb): - normal - maximum Maximum payload, kg (lb) Maximum speed, km/h (kt) Maximum Mach number Service ceiling, m (ft) Operating g-load Maximum sustained g-load (H= 4,570 m (15,000 ft), M=0.8) AoA, deg. Operating range without drop tanks, km (nm) Ferry range, km (nm) Combat radius, km (nm) - without drop tanks - with drop tanks Take-off run, m (ft) Landing roll, m (ft) Take-off speed, km/h (kt) Landing speed, km/h (kt) Assigned life, flight hours Number of landings Calendar life, years

11.245 (36.9) 9.72 (31.9) 4.76 (15.6) 23.5 (252.6) 3.95 (13.0) 2.53 (8.3) 16 6 6,500 (14,300) 9,000 (19,800) 5,700 (12,600) 880 (1,940) 1,750 (3,850) 3,000 (6,600) 1,050 (570) 0.95 12,000 (39,300) +8…-3 5.6 up to 40 1,060 (570) 2,000 (1,080) 540 (290) 870 (470) 335 (1,100) 490 (1,600) 195 (105) 180 (97) 10,000 20,000 30

Alexander Drobyshevsky

However, practice proves that every specific order leads to fitting the aircraft with avionics preferred by the customer's air force. Yakovlev is prepared for this. The Yak-130's avionics suite meets MIL-STD-1553 standard, hence there is no problem with fitting the plane with new avionics. In so doing, the avionics suite is not rebuilt, but adapted to the customer's requirements, because all systems meet the same standard. According to expert estimates, the market capacity for aircraft in the Yak-130 class is about 1,000.

RusAF’s Commander-in-Chief General of the Army Vladimir Mikhaylov (right) and Yakovlev’s chief test pilot Roman Taskayev after familiarisation flight in the Yak-130, 11 February 2005: CINC is satisfied with the new aircraft

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industry | in brief

Tu-334 to be built in Kazan

Alexey Mikheyev

handed an almost finished fuselage of this particular aircraft over to the manufacturer as far back as the spring of 2000. RSK MiG blames this poor performance on its failure to secure firm orders for the new short-haul airplane. This is why the current MiG management, which aims to pursue only those projects supported by orders, does not make a big issue of the government decision that abrogates the 1999 and 2002 resolutions.

Alexey Mikheyev

On 15 April, Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov signed the resolution on production entry of the Tupolev Tu-334 short-haul aircraft and its versions at Kazan Aircraft Production Association (KAPO). This long-awaited document legitimates the proposal by the Russian Ministry of Industry and Energy, which has been heavily lobbied by Tupolev and KAPO, of moving Tu-334 production from RSK MiG corporation facility in Lukhovitsy to Kazan.

RSK MiG was identified as the prime Russian manufacturer of the Tu-334 by the 5 October 1999 government resolution and subsequent 31 October 2002 government decree. However, despite strong support from the then MiG top management, the type never entered production at Luchovitsy: up to now, the facility has not assembled a single Tu-334. Even MiG's first Tu-334 (No. 94003) remains unassembled, although TAVIA Taganrog Aviation Company

Hopefully, KAPO will manage to breathe a new life into the Tu-334 programme. There are good omens, too: the Tatarstan government has expresses readiness to support Tu-334 production in Kazan (the Russian government's resolution specifically states that 2005–06 preparations for production entry at KAPO will be co-financed by Tatarstan). Additionally, KAPO enjoys long-standing cooperation with Tupolev: the Kazan-based enterprise has long been engaged in

series production of the Tu-214 long-haul jet, which has close fuselage commonality with the Tu-334. Firm orders remain a problem, but Tupolev and KAPO believe the previous troubles to have been largely caused by unclear production entry prospects. If the developer, manufacturer and the Russian and Tatarstan governments now join efforts, this uncertainty might be eliminated. The Russian government's resolution calls for production launch in 2007.

Until then, potential customers can only choose from Ukrainian-built Tu-334s. Back in the Soviet times Kiev-based Aviant plant was assigned as the prime manufacturer of the type. Aviant built the second flying prototype (No. 94005) in 2003 (above); this aircraft may soon be delivered to a Russian airline for operational testing. Aviant is currently building the remaining three Tu-334s of the five-strong batch launched in 2002 (left). Ironically, the enterprise is anticipating production entry of the Antonov An-148 airliner, a primary rival of the Tu-334. Simultaneous production of two aircraft types of similar class but absolutely different design, appears very strange. Given the well-known (and understandable) patriotism in the Ukraine, we may estimate the Tu-334's prospects of Kiev production as fairly bleak. This means that the only way of saving the heavily delayed Tu-334 programme is to speed up production entry at KAPO. Otherwise, what with the fast-paced progress of An-148 production and the expected emergence of Sukhoi's RRJ as another rival, the Tu-334 can surely be forgotten.

Ansat goes into series production

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aircraft type. The Ansat prototypes and preproduction aircraft were equipped with componentry examples supplied by respective developers. Ansat was certificated to Russian AR-29 airworthiness standards on 29 December 2004. Until that, Kazan Helicopters had held a temporary

certificate of 20 June 2003. This, however, did not preclude the manufacturer from landing the first orders: South Korea ordered three of the type even before AP-29 certification. Kazan Helicopters plans to build and deliver six Ansats this year, including one to Tatarstan Airlines.

Kazan Helicopters

According to Kazan Helicopters Director General Alexander Lavrentyev, this spring the company started handing documentation for series production of separate Ansat components over to subcontractors. The move signifies the soon production entry of the new Kazan Helicopters

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industry | in brief

R-R and Turbomeca for Kamov

Alexey Mikheyev

order makes Gazpromavia the largest customer for the Ka-226 to date. Lukin believes Kamov will annually require 50-60 R-R engines over the next several years. The Allison-powered Ka-226 baseline model first flew on 3 September 1997. The type was awarded certificate on 31 October 2003, and entered production at Orenburg-based Strela factory and Kumertau Aircraft Production Enterprise. Five Ka-226As were

Alexey Mikheyev

On 13 April, Kamov Holding Director General Valery Lukin and James Payton, Rolls-Royce Director for strategic planning, announced a five-year contract for a large batch of engines to power twin-engined Ka-226 helicopters. Already by year-end, R-R will deliver 24 Allison 250-C20R turboshafts for installation on Kamov rotorcraft, including for the 22 Ka-226AG helicopters currently under construction for Gazpromavia (right). The

ordered by the Russian Ministry of Emergencies, another three by the Moscow city administration. Overall, Kamov has landed at least 65 orders, including options, for the R-R-powered Ka-226A. Meanwhile, the Ka-226T version passed the first phase of flight tests in mid-April. The helicopter's power plant comprises more powerful Snecma Turbomeca Arrius 2G2 engines. The test flights were attended by Turbomeca specialists. Kamov ordered two 670hp Arrius

2G2s in April 2002; after delivery in late 2003 the engines were installed on a Ka-226. The French power plant extends the Ka-226T's operational ceiling to almost 7,000m (22,950ft), facilitating mountainous operations. The agreement with Turbomeca covers licence production of Arrius 2G2 engines for Kamov Ka-226 and Ka-115 helicopters at the NPO Saturn facility in Rybinsk. Kamov believes that the Turbomeca-powered Ka-226T modification (left) may enjoy great demand in hot and high climates.

The baseline model of the Mi-38 will be powered by Pratt & Whitney Canada PW127T/S engines. A cheaper Mi-382 version is proposed for the domestic market under the federal programme to develop national civil aviation

through to 2015. The Mi-382 will be fitted with Russian-made turboshafts: initially with the Klimov VK-3000Vs (TV7-117VM), and later on possibly with the prospective Klimov VK-3500 (TVa-3000) models.

The first prototype of the Mil Mi-38 twin-engined medium utility helicopter being developed by Euromil international consortium is continuing flight tests at the Mil flight test station near Moscow. The prototype was built by Kazan Helicopters, and first flew from the company airfield on 22 December 2003. By October 2004 the aircraft had gone through extensive ground tests and performed a dozen test flights from the Kazan Helicopters airfield. The flight testing programme was relocated to Mil's testing facility in late 2004. Mil Designer General Alexey Samusenko says the Mi-38 has yet to make several hundred test flights to accomplish the AP-29 certification programme, and that the certificate will not be obtained until

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2007. Meanwhile, Kazan Helicopters plans to build another three or four prototypes for the testing programme. Kazan Helicopters Director General Alexander Lavrentyev believes the Mi-38 can go into series production in 2008, with a production rate of 10 to 12 a year. The company forecasts a potential market of 300 helicopters; of this number, Mil plans to secure 100 export orders. Lavrentyev is convinced that the Mi-38's attractive price will give it an edge over western competition. The two direct foreign rivals, the Sikorsky S-92 and Agusta/Westland EH-101, sell for $20–22 and $25–27 million apiece respectively, whereas the Mi-38 is predicted by experts to be priced at $12–16 million.

Piotr Butowski

Mi-38 testing continues

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industry | in brief

Construction of the new Sukhoi Su-80 prototype (c/n 01-05) was completed by the Komsomolskon-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO) in midMay. The aircraft is the first flying prototype of the production variant of this multirole transport/passenger regional aircraft. As is known, the Su-80's first experimental flying prototype (c/n 01-02, registration number RA-82911) has been undergoing flight tests at Zhukovsky since September 2001. Another aircraft (c/n 01-01) has completed its static tests at SibNIA institute, with aircraft c/n 01-03 having been submitted to the mock-up evaluation commission. During the development and at the first stage of trials, a decision was taken to modify the design drastically. The improvements were embodied in aircraft c/n 01-04, which began its static tests at

SibNIA in December 2004, and in further flying prototypes made by KnAAPO. The first of them was aircraft c/n 01-05, sent to the factory's flight test workshop in May this year. It is fitted with engines and avionics and additionally is to be equipped with anti-spin rockets and anti-spin chute for testing in extreme flight modes. According to KnAAPO's Su-80 and Be-103 Programmes Director Sergey Drobyshev, two more aircraft (c/n 01-06 and 01-07) have been virtually completed by KnAAPO. The three planes are to be used in the Su-80 certification programme. Two aircraft (c/n 02-01 and 02-02) of the next, 2nd, series are being completed by KnAAPO in anticipation of future deliveries (see picture). Launch customers for the Su-80 may become Russian Far Eastern air carriers. China, Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia have shown interest in the airplane too.

Be-103 setting off for long road 6 June saw a long hop of three Beriev Be-103 amphibians, starting in Komsomolsk-on-Amur in the Russian Far East, to St Petersburg where the aircraft are to be shown at the IMDS 2005 international naval show slated for 29 June – 3 July. The amphibians, built recently by the Komsomolskon-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO), are to cross the country east to west stopping for refuelling at Bratsk, Krasnoyarsk, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Kurgan, Ufa, Kazan and Yaroslavl. They are to be controlled by KnAAPO's test pilots. The flight is being supported by KnAAPO's technical and operating personnel. The Be-103 lightweight multipurpose amphibian developed by Beriev in Taganrog has been in production at KnAAPO since 1996. All the prototypes of the type, as well as production aircraft, were made by KnAAPO. The Be-103 was typecertificated by the Aircraft Registry of the Interstate Aviation

Committee (IAC) on 26 December 2001 and on 11 July 2003, it was issued with a FAR-23 airworthiness certificate. In summer 2003, three Be-103s were delivered to a US customer, with another 20 amphibians being under construction at KnAAPO under a contract with China (at the photo). In addition, a preliminary agreement has been reached with Brazil on 14 aircraft, with the order's growing up to 50 aircraft being a possibility. Malaysia and several other nations of Southeast Asia and Latin America are interested in buying the Be-103 lightweight multipurpose amphibian. The several-day-long flight will span about 8,000 km (4,300nm) and include en-route stops at Siberian, Urals and European airfields. It is designed to underline the high degree of reliability featured by Be-103 amphibians KnAAPO makes, as well as their ruggedness, excellent flight performance and versatility.

Andrey Fomin

Andrey Fomin

Redesigned Su-80 preparing for trials

Il-114 flying testbed A new Ilyushin Il-114 (RA-91003) arrived at the Gromov LII Flight Research Institute in Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, in mid-May. The aircraft is unusual, because it was made by the Tashkent Aircraft Production Corporation named after Valery Chkalov (TAPC) on order from the Russian Navy. In Zhukovsky, it is to be converted to a flying testbed to test advanced

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avionics that the Radar-MMS company (St Petersburg) develops for the Russian Navy. The Il-114 differs from previous aircraft of the type in its more refined TV7-117SM digital control system turboprop engines from the Klimov plant (St Petersburg). Two Il-114s powered by TV7-117S turboprops have been operated with success by Russian airline Vyborg, with three such regional

airliners to be delivered to Vyborg this year, according to TAPC Director General Vadim Kucherov. The Il-114 No 91003 was handed over to the customer in a ceremony in Tashkent on 28 April. The aircraft then completed a unique non-stop flight to St Petersburg covering 4,500 km in over 8 hr, which proves its high economic efficiency, reliability and fitness to handle the tasks

the Russian Navy has it store for it. Interestingly, the flight to St Petersburg completed, there remained enough fuel in the Il-114's tanks to fly about 2,500 km more. Once the customs were cleared, the aircraft went to Zhukovsky on 14 May. Converted to the flying testbed, the Il-114 is to return to the Leningrad Region to join tests being run by Radar-MMS company.

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First Il-76TD re-engined with PS-90s Ilyushin and Perm Engine Company, aims to ensure that the Il-76TD aircraft fully meet ICAO's noise and emissions standards. The refurbished modification will be designated Il-76TD-90VD. TAPC began ground testing the first re-engined aircraft in May, following the installation of all onboard systems; the first flight is scheduled for June. Volga-Dnepr Group will receive its first upgraded transport in September.

Volga-Dnepr

Tashkent Aircraft Production Corporation (TAPC) will shortly start flight-testing an Ilyushin Il-76TD-90VD transport fitted with Solovyev PS-90A-76 engines in lieu of the standard D-30KP-2s. TAPC is re-engining the type under a contract from VolgaDnepr carrier. Installation of new engines on the first Il-76TD was completed in mid-March. The re-engining project, conducted jointly with

Burlak accomplishes first ground testing phase

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can be referred to as a downright new turbofan. While sharing 75 per cent of components (including a highly reliable gas generator and the fan turbine) with the production D-30KP-2 engine, Burlak features a new wide-chord fan of larger diameter (1,662mm (5.45ft) against the baseline's 1,455mm (4.77ft)), a low-emission combustor, sound absorbing ducting, an improved fuel flow system and a modernised thrust reverser. A more efficient, FOD-resistant fan provides an increase in air flow from the original 280kg/sec (617lb/sec) to

387kg/sec (852lb/sec); its fortunate design enables field blade replacement and fan balancing. The aforementioned improvements increase the D-30KP-3's take-off thrust to 13,000kgf (28,630lb) from the baseline D-30KP-2's 12,000kgf (26,430lb) in ambient temperatures of up to 30oC, while reducing specific fuel consumption in cruise from 0.71 to 0.643kgf/kgf-hr(lb/lb-hr). Unlike the baseline model, the new engine complies to ICAO Chapter 4 noise standards and ICAO emissions norms that came into force on 1 January 2004.

As compared with the current proposal to re-engine the Il-76 fleet with PS-90A-76 engines, installation of D-30KP-3 Burlak engines on the type would result in nearly similar performance while costing a fraction of the PS-90 re-engining price tag: apart from manufacturing all-new Burlak engines, the original equipment manufacturer can upgrade production D-30KP-2s to new standard during scheduled overhaul of the aircraft. The first phase of Burlak ground tests was completed in April 2005. Certification is planned for 2006; after that the engine will be offered to customers.

NPO Saturn

Ground testing of the D-30KP-3 Burlak upgraded turbofan began at the Rybinsk-based NPO Saturn's testing facility in early March. The engine is intended for freighter aircraft, primarily for the Il-76 military transport and its versions. The D-30KP-3 is a deep upgrade of the D-30KP engine in production at NPO Saturn since 1972. The enterprise launched production of the D-30KP-2 hot-and-high enhanced reliability derivative in 1981. These engines power more than 850 Ilyushin Il-76 aircraft of various versions operated in Russia and around the world; they are also installed on Ilyushin Il-78 air tankers, Beriev A-50 airborne early warning and control aircraft and Beriev A-40 amphibious airplanes (the latter type is powered by D-30KPV version engines). At least 340 Il-76s fly with D-30KP engines in Russia alone (as of 1 January 2005, the civil aircraft register of the Federal Air Transport Agency listed 128 Il-76s of all versions; additionally, over 200 Il-76MDs serve with the Russian Air Force's Military Transport Aviation). These aircraft will remain in service for decades to come. The necessity of enhancing performance and ICAO-mandated environmental friendliness of these airplanes' D-30KP-based power plants has prompted NPO Saturn to further upgrade the engine. The resultant derivative

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Alexander Velovich

LAAD 2005 | report

NOT ON COFFEE ALONE NOTES FROM LAAD 2005

Brazil's role in the contemporary world is increasing by the year. Suffice it to mention that the country is currently seeking permanent membership of the UN Security Council, alongside Germany, India and Japan. This makes the LAAD (Latin America Aero & Defence) exhibition, held in Rio de Janeiro every odd spring, all the more important. Our observer Alexander Velovich was among the few Russian aviation journalists to visit this year's LAAD. In this article he shares his impressions of the event.

Russians in Rio The LAAD slogan, "One continent. One show", epitomizes the aspiration of Brazil to promote the exhibition to a dominating position in Latin America. So far, however, FIDAE remains comparable in size; and although the Santiago, Chile-based rival exhibition has lately been forced to relocate from its traditional venue, it is not intent on giving up its competitive position. A fellow colleague, himself an avid supporter of FIDAE, made a joke on LAAD's slogan: 'One continent. One show. One pavilion", alluding to the fact that last year's forum in Santiago maintained several pavillions. Andy Braley, Director Aerospace & Defence Group of London-headquartered LAAD organiser Reed Exhibitions, argued: "So FIDAE may

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have more pavilions, but we have already outstripped them in overall floorspace sold. Besides, all LAAD performance figures suggest a steady growth, which is quite the opposite to FIDAE." Indeed, LAAD 2005 occupied the fourth, largest pavillion of the Riocentro Exhibition Centre, with the overall area of 23,000sq m and the aggregate rented floorspace reaching 8,500sq m; either of these two figures was 30 per cent up on the 2003 levels. This year's exhibition hosted 301 businesses from 28 countries (+20 per cent) and over 12,000 business visitors (+18 per cent), including official delegations from 39 countries. The Russian exposition comprised two stands, those of Rosoboronexport and Sukhoi. Its aggregate floorspace totalled 184sq m,

Alexander VELOVICH almost 1.5 times smaller than back in 2003. In spite of Rosoboronexport's efforts and apparently promising prospects in the Brazilian and Latin American markets, Russian companies are reluctant to exhibit in Rio. This is evident from the number of Russian exhibitors: there were only seven this year, against 11 at LAAD 2003. The generally sad impression of this nominal Russian presence in the regional market was amended, to a degree, by an excellent presentation of the Mil Mi-171A Baikal helicopter built by the UUAZ factory in UlanUde. Shortly before the LAAD exhibition the aircraft was awarded a Brazilian airworthiness certificate (see a separate story in this issue); its top-notch demonstration in Rio could compete on a par with the best western promotional actions. A marvellous joint stand of UUAZ and Mil, organised with assistance from their Brazilian partner Clapham, was situated on the premises of LAAD's Helitech Latin America section. www.take-off.ru


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Left: Demonstration flights of Russian Mil/UUAZ Mi-171A helicopter were very popular in Brazil Top and right: At HELITECH Latin America, now incorporated into LAAD, 11 helicopters were demonstrated, including AgustaWestland Super Lynx (top) and HELIBRAS/Eurocopter Esquilo (right) of the Brazilian Navy

Previous exhibitions in Rio de Janeiro were called LAD. Another letter 'A' was added to the name this year to reflect an important expansion of the exhibition's scope. Now LAAD will also present a regional meeting point for civil aviation professionals. Reed Exhibitions jointly with Airline Business, a leading magazine dedicated to air transport business, availed of this innovation to introduce the ABC Club (Airline Business Club), which held a representative conference dedicated to problems of regional civil aviation. Among the conference speakers were the IATA regional director, executive director of Latin American International Air Transport Association, top managers of the Brazilian carriers Gol and Varig, and chief executives of all the four leading civil aircraft manufacturers: Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier and Embraer.

Military diplomacy LAAD's regional scope was stressed by the fact that the exhibition included the International Symposium on Military Logistics, organised by the Brazilian Defence Ministry and attended by several hundred officers with defence procurement agencies of nearly all Latin American countries. Such massive presence of top-ranking military officials, who make decisions on procuring armament from all over the region, contributed significantly to the overall appeal of www.take-off.ru

Alexander Velovich

Alexander Velovich

LAAD 2005 | report

LAAD in the eyes of participating businesses. Incidentally, we cannot fail to congratulate the Rosoboronexport marketing team on their strategic vision in having cleverly deployed the Russian exposition directly opposite the entrance to the conference hall: a more conspicuous location could hardly have been chosen. The symposium programme included reports by procurement officers with the defence ministries of Brazil, Chile, China, France and the UK. Quite pleasantly, a Russian speaker was also present: Lieutenant General Vladimir Mikheyev, first deputy chief of the head office on armament acquisition under the Russian defence ministry, highly praised the organisation of the symposium in a later conversation with the author. Speaking of the organisation: LAAD 2005 director Juan Pablo de Vera confided that hospitality services for official delegations had presented one of the largest items of cost. This is understandable: the LAAD organising committee routinely reimburse three defence ministry officials of each participating country for business-class return tickets, five star accommodation, ample meals, transport, recreation and other accompanying expenses.

Flagship of Brazilian industry Quite predictably, the most active participants at the exhibition were Brazilian compa-

nies, first of all Embraer. The airframer has a variety of reasons to be proud of its achievements. The company posted $763.3 million sales in the first quarter of 2005, up 21.9 per cent on the same period for 2004. During the first three months of the year, Embraer delivered 30 aircraft – 28 passenger airliners and two Legacy business jets. On 28 February the company delivered, to European carrier Luxair, its 900th ERJ 145 regional jet. Also in February, Embraer signed a MoU with India's Defence Research and Development Organisation on joint development of an Indian AEW & C aircraft. Embraer's joint venture in Harbin, China is also progressing successfully. In March 2005 it announced a contract for five ERJ 145s from China Eastern Airlines Jiangsu. Deliveries will start in the second half of 2004. This order will bring the overall Chinaoperated ERJ 145 fleet up to 16, adding to previous deliveries of five such airplanes to Sichaun Airlines and six to China Southern Airlines. Embraer's total portfolio for passenger aircraft comprised 383 firm orders as of 31 March 2005 (see table). Inspired by favourable prospects, Embraer announced on 3 May, after the LAAD exhibition, the launching of a large-scale programme to develop and manufacture new Light (L) and Very Light (VL) corporate jets, to seat 8–9 and 6–8 passengers respectively. Embraer President and CEO Mauricio Botelho commented on the decision: "The Legacy has paved the way for Embraer to build a name in the business aviation market. This has been an enriching experience from which valuable lessons were learned. The accrued knowledge will shape our entrance into the Very Light and Light Jet segments, keeping Embraer at the forefront of product development and innovation." Embraer's Board in April approved the launching of the L and VL programmes. The total development investment of $235 million will be funded from Embraer's own resources, by partners of the company and by financial institutions. A market research run by Embraer projects a market for around 3,000 light and very light jets over the next ten years, not to include the demand for air taxi jets. Said Luis Carlos Affonso, Embraer's Senior Vice-President for the Corporate Aviation Market: "Embraer is committed to making long-term investments in this business to offer revolutionary products and completely integrated solutions to a sophisticated customer base. Our goal is to build a robust business aviation unit and a global infrastructure to support it." Embraer asserts its new aircraft will offer premium comfort, outstanding performance and low operating cost. High reliability will take-off june 2005

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Embraer

LAAD 2005 | report

The success of Legacy corporate jet paved the way for Embraer to other market segments of business aviation

be given special priority. The pilot-friendly cockpit and easy handling will enable singlepilot operation and facilitate transition for less experienced pilots. The VLJ aircraft will be powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PW617F engines flat rated at 1,615lb. The jet will have a range of 1,160nm with four people on board, and will have a maximum operating speed of Mach 0.7. It will be able to fly at 41,000ft. Embraer expects the aircraft to be ready for operation in mid-2008. The VLJ can be priced at $2.75 million apiece. The LJ aircraft will be powered by two 1450lb PW535E engines. It will comfortably accommodate up to nine people. The aircraft will have

a range of 1,800nm with six people on board, and will have a maximum speed of Mach 0.78. Embraer believes the LJ model can enter operation in mid-2009, and can be priced at $6.65 million. Both the VLJ and LJ will be designed for short runway operations. Embraer's choice of Pratt & Whitney Canada engines as the power plants for its new aircraft is not accidental. Said Mauricio Botelho: "P&WC provided us with engine solutions that give us proven, reliable technology, high performance and excellent economics, making our new jets very competitive in this new, growing market. We have a long association with Pratt & Whitney Canada and we are happy to have them as partners in a new program."

Embraer orders and deliveries Aircraft ERJ 135 ERJ 140 ERJ 145 Embraer 170 Embraer 175 Embraer 190 Embraer 195 Total

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Firm orders 123 94 681 172 15 155 15 1255

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Options 2 20 211 137 230 20 620

Delivered 108 74 634 56 872

Firm order backlog 15 20 47 116 15 155 15 383

Alain M. Bellemare, President, P&WC, was certainly pleased with Embraer's choice. He said: "The contracts with Embraer solidify our presence in the Very Light and Light segments, which are fast emerging sectors of the aircraft market. These latest wins reflect our significant investment and ongoing commitment to develop new products and technologies, and our ability to anticipate and strategically plan for emerging market opportunities." The FADEC-controlled PW617F engine is a derivative of the PW625 demonstrator, whose development was launched in August 2000. Flight tests began in October 2002. The PW617F modification is expected to be certificated in 2007. The PW535E version combines the proven technologies of the PW500 family with the latest achievements of P&WC, including the FADEC system. Certification of this modification is scheduled for 2008. Embraer's plans to advance to yet another market segment did not amuse its main competitor Bombardier. The Canadian manufacturer gains a significant portion of revenues from selling its Learjet light business jets. A number of reports that appeared in the press quoted Bombardier spokespeople as expresswww.take-off.ru


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Embraer

LAAD 2005 | report

Embraer spent about $1 billion on the development of E170/175/190/195 family, having not received a centime of government support. By the way, this picture is not a collage but a real photo of all four models in formation flight

ing concern that orders from the Brazilian Air Force secured by Embraer were in fact disguised subsidies to facilitate the company's market expansion. Embraer was prompt to refute these assertions. The company statement of 19 May reads, inter alia: "The facts show the accusations are unfounded. In the last five years, Embraer's revenue totaled US$ 13.8 billion, with sales to the Brazilian Air Force representing US$ 500 million, or 4 per cent of the Company's total revenue. During the same period, deliveries to the Brazilian Air Force totaled 16 airplanes, including eight ISR aircraft, seven Super Tucanos and one AMX... "Why doesn't Bombardier abide by the rules like Embraer? The total development cost of the successful EMBRAER 170/190 family was about US$ 1 billion without any government support. The Company will follow the same legal, transparent proceedings to expand its executive jet portfolio to include aircraft of the Very Light and Light segments, the launch of which has begun to worry our competitor." The achievements of Brazilian aviation industry demonstrate that the country has more than just coffee beans to contribute to global economy. The author is convinced www.take-off.ru

that aerospace cooperation between Russia and Brazil might become the core element of further bilateral relations - and not mutually beneficial trade alone but also mutual technology transfers. This, however, requires a forward-looking political philosophy on the part of Russian officials ranked

much higher than CEOs of Russian aircraft manufacturing corporations. The upcoming visit to Brazil by Russia’s Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov might bring some good news in this sphere. Whatever happens, we will keep updating you on further developments.

Embraer's new development programme of Light (LJ) and Very Light (VLJ) business jets will require about $235 million of investment

take-off june 2005

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cosmonautics | in brief

New crew at ISS neer-2/ISS-11 flight engineer John Phillips and spacecraft flight engineer-1/visiting flight engineer Roberto Vittori. The launch was aimed at bringing the 11th main expedition crew to the ISS, replacing the previous crew and Soyuz TMA-5 spacecraft that had been acting as a rescue capsule since 16 October 2004, conducting the 8th visiting expedi-

RKK Energia

On 15 April 2005, Roscosmos's launch teams supported by combat personnel of the Russian Space Force launched a Soyuz-FG LV mounting the Soyuz TMA-6 manned spacecraft from the 5th launch site of the 1st launch pad of the 5th State Test Cosmodrome, or Baikonur. The LV inserted the crew of ISS-11 mission chief Sergey Krikalyov, spacecraft flight engi-

RKK Energia

tion's programmes, including space experiments and research under the Eneide programme, and maintaining the orbiter. On 17 April, the Soyuz TMA-6 spacecraft docked with the ISS automatically, with the 11th mission's crew, cosmonaut Sergei Krikalyov, astronaut John Phillips and visiting crewmember Roberto Vittori, coming on board the ISS. Following a week of a joint flight, the Soyuz TMA-5 spacecraft manned by Salizhan Sharipov,

Leroy Chiao and Roberto Vittori docked off the ISS. On 25 April, its landing craft landed safely in Kazakhstan. According to SAR personnel, the cosmonaut and astronauts feel well. The time they had logged is as follows: Sharipov and Chiao – 192 days 19 hours 1 min 59 sec and Vittori – 9 days 21 hours 21 min 2 sec. Another shift is to go to the ISS in autumn on the Soyuz TMA-7 carrying the ISS-12 crew slated for 27 September 2005.

Baikonur marks 50th anniversary The Baikonur launch centre situated in Kazakhstan marked its 50th anniversary on 2 June 2005. On that day in 1955, the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces approved the TO&E of the cosmodrome dubbed then Research and Testing Facility No 5 of the Defence Ministry. Baikonur is a major symbol of the space glory of Russia. It is here that the first Sputnik was inserted in orbit in 1957, and Yuri Gagarin was the first earthling to leave the Earth on 12 April 1961. Later, Baikonur handled all manned launches and many unmanned military and commercial spacecraft. Over the 50 years in service, Baikonur launched about 2,500 military and commercial rockets hauling over 3,000 satellites and spacecraft and more than 130 Soviet/Russian and foreign cosmonauts. Last year, Russia handled almost half the space

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launches in the world, with 17 of 54 of them having been handled by Baikonur. According to Roscosmos chief Anatoly Perminov, in 2004, “Baikonur was the world's major space launch centre in terms of launches, leading the US launching facility at Cape Canaveral and other similar facilities of the planet”. Baikonur marked its anniversary with more launches. On 31 May, the 5th launch site of the 1st launch pad inserted a Soyuz-U LV hauling the second Photon-M research spacecraft (Photon-14) from TsSKB Progress, designed for experiments in the fields of space technology and manufacture of materials and biological compounds in support of industry and science. On 22 May, Baikonur's 39th launch site of the 200th launch pad launched a Proton-M LV mounting a Breeze-M booster on order from International Launch

Services (ILS). The LV inserted US company DirecTV Inc.'s DirecTV-8 telecom satellite into orbit. More launches from Baikonur are slated for the near future. 17 June is to see a Soyuz LV to insert the Progress M-53 automatic cargo spacecraft. The transport is to bring about 2,500kg (5,500lb) of cargo to the ISS. A Proton-K launch vehicle with the DM booster is slated for 23 June to orbit Russia's ExpressAM3 telecom satellite developed by the Reshetnev Applied Mechanics Research and Production Association. According to Anatoly Perminov, not only Russia is interested in further progress of Baikonur, but other countries as well, including Kazakhstan, the United States and Ukraine, since its launch pads operate in support of such international programmes as the ISS, Ground Launch, etc.

On 25 May 2005, The Russian Sate Duma (parliament) ratified the agreement between Russia and Kazakhstan on promoting cooperation on efficient use of the Baikonur space launch centre. The agreement extends Russia's lease term until 2050. Under the agreement, the rent is to be $115 million a year. At the same time, Russia is to do its utmost to facilitate Kazakhstan's participation in programmes to build and launch from Baikonur advanced environmentfriendly launch vehicles. The Baiterek space rocket system programme is to become one of the above. It is going to include a nextgeneration modular LV family, the Angara, now under development with the Moscow-based Khrunichev State Space Centre. The Baiterek space rocket system is expected to have been developed by 2008 or 2009.

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