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T H E I N T E R N AT I O N A L M A G A Z I N E F O R PA S TA P R O D U C E R S

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www.professionalpasta.it

Pasta made with plantain

POSTE ITALIANE Spa - Spedizione in abbonamento postale - Aut. n. 1429/2020 del 7.08.2020 – Stampe periodiche in REGIME LIBERO

It’s extruded or drawn?

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N. 4 October / December 2020

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Year XXV


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Chairman Claudio Vercellone

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Year XXV - N. 4 October / December 2020 Editor in Chief Claudio Vercellone Scientific and technical committee Maurizio Monti Wheat and flours technician Roberto Tuberosa Agricultural Genetics Editing Avenue media Srl ufficiostampa@avenue-media.eu Advertising Massimo Carpanelli carpa@avenue-media.eu Edition, management, editorial, advertising and administration Avenue media Srl Viale Antonio Aldini, 222/4 40136 Bologna (Italy) avenuemedia@avenue-media.eu www.avenuemedia.eu Subscriptions office abbonamenti@avenue-media.eu Subscription Ue countries € 45.00 Outside Ue € 60.00 Back issues (if available): € 15.00 each plus postage

10 EDITORIAL

What about fake-meat tortellini? by the Editorial Staff

DEPARTMENTS

Facts & news MARKETS

Italian pasta is stronger than Covid-19 PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

Comparing extruded and drawn pasta

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by Stefano Zardetto

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by Daniela Spandri

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by Alessandro Massacesi

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Plantain flour for pasta production

24

CASE HISTORY

De Matteis Agroalimentare, pasta sales boost

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by the Editorial Staff

GUIDEBOOK

Supplier news Historical news

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EDITORIAL

What about fake-meat tortellini? by the Editorial Staff

October / December 2020

W

e have gone so far as to call hamburger a food that is free of meat, so does a future of food with misleading names await us? What is certain is that the road has opened up the possibility for us to find ourselves buying, in the not too distant future, lasagne with meat sauce that does not contain ground meat, or cannelloni that seem to be filled with the classic beef or pork mix, when actually they are not. In fact, what has recently been decided in Europe cannot leave all food producers unmoved, even those who apparently have little to do with the meat sector, such as pasta makers. But first things first.

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On the 23rd of October 2020, the EU took a non-binding vote on the designation of meat and meat products (hamburgers, salami, etc.) of vegetable origin. The initiative was launched on the basis of a decision of the European Court of Justice; in June 2017, in its judgment in case C-422/16, the Court had found that «purely plant-based products may not, in principle, be marketed under designations such as “milk”, “cream”, “butter”, “cheese” and “yoghurt”, which the Union law reserves to products of animal origin (EU Regulation No. 1308/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 December 2013 establishing a

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EDITORIAL

common organization of the markets in agricultural products). This also applies when these designations are supplemented by explanatory indications or descriptions indicating the vegetable origin of the product, except where expressly provided for». Three amendments to Regulation No.1308/2013 (eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUr iServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:347:0671:08 54:it:PDF) were submitted for consideration to the European Council: a) 165, which provided for the requirement that «names falling under Article 17 of Regulation (EU) No. 1169/2011 which are currently used for products with meat bases and preparations are reserved exclusively for products containing meat, in particular in the case of designations like steak, sausage, cutlet, hamburger and burger»; b) 264, which read «the names as well as the terms and trade descriptions relating to meat which are used to indicate meat, meat cuts and meat products in accordance with Article 17 of Regulation (EU) No. 1169/2011 are reserved exclusively for edible parts of animals and products containing meat»; c) 275, which suggested that Article 17 of Regulation (EU) No.1308/2013 should be completely replaced, introducing the wording «in addition to the marketing standards applicable, where appropriate, the definitions of cuts and sales cuts set out in Annex VII shall apply to beef, sheep meat, wine, milk and milk products for human consumption, poultry meat, eggs, spreadable fats for human consumption, olive oil and table olives, pork, goat meat, horse meat and rabbit meat». After two days of intense debate, the three amendments were rejected. As a result, it is up to

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each Member State to decide whether or not to call hamburger a hamburger that does not contain meat. This solution was opposed by national and European associations of farmers, breeders and processors, who have always argued that naming a food differently from its actual origin is misleading for consumers who usually expect products bearing the same name to be nutritionally comparable. In Italy, according to the president of the non-profit Association “Carni sostenibili” (“Sustainable meats”), Professor Giuseppe Pulina, «we missed the opportunity to promote transparency towards consumers since the demands for labels that guarantee correct information, also in favor of plant-based products, such as wine and olive oil, are a wasted opportunity. In this specific case, the great cultural heritage and production knowProfessional

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how that characterize the entire meat sector have not been clearly protected. There is no ban on those who, winking at marketing logic, will use the word “steak” to define something that contains anything (even too much) but meat. Yet, the game is still on and everything is back in the hands of each Member State. Therefore, by its national decrees, Italy will be able to carry on its battle in favor, first and foremost, of consumers’ informed choice». At Professional Pasta, we agree with the professor who points out: «Presenting to citizens a product of vegetable origin with the same name as one of animal origin (or vice versa) is like telling them that they are the same thing, which is (obviously) not true». The Editorial Staff

We would like to thank the Georgofili Academy for their kind cooperation

October / December 2020


FACTS & NEWS

TreeHouse Foods acquires pasta brands

Carrefour focuses on organic

TreeHouse Foods has agreed to acquire the majority of the Ebro-controlled US-brand Riviana Foods pasta portfolio for $ 242.5 million in cash. The acquisition includes several regional brands: Skinner, No Yolks, American Beauty, Creamette, San Giorgio, Prince, Light’n Fluffy, Mrs. Weiss, Wacky Mac, P&R ProcinoRossi and New Mill. These will include Riviana Foods’ manufacturing facility in St. Louis, which employs approximately 90 people. The agreement does not include the Ronzoni national brand, nor the Riviana Foods facilities in Winchester, Virginia and Fresno, California.

Carrefour buys the “Bio c’Bon banner” for 60 million euros, in order to strengthen its position in the French organic food market. The Paris commercial court accepted Carrefour’s offer to buy the French organic chain, which has over 100 stores. “Bio c’Bon banner” joins Carrefour’s organic shop division, together with So.bio and BioAzur, already acquired respectively in 2019 and 2020.

EU duties on American foods Valdis Dombrovskis, vice-president of the European Commission, in reference to the civil aviation dispute between Airbus and Boeing, which sees the US apply tariffs on European products since last year, said that the EU will enforce its rights of retaliation and it will impose tariffs on US products worth $ 4 billion. «We do not want an escalation we will follow the same approach of the US, so in addition to products from the aviation sector, tariffs affect agricultural, food and industrial products», Dombrovskis said.

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Fillo Factory deal with GeeFree Foods

A new flour mill in Syria

Food manufacturer The Fillo Factory acquires GeeFree Foods, a gluten-free frozen food manufacturer, for an undisclosed sum. GeeFree Foods caters to consumers with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity with its range of gluten-free products such as puff pastry sheets, bagel sheets and pizza pockets. Part of the deal is that The Fillo Factory will help grow the GeeFree brand by expanding its product line and sales team, creating more distribution channels and accelerating its social media efforts.

Qatar Charity (QC) has provided a grain silo site with a mill in Marea, a city in Syria that currently serves nearly 75,000 people. The facility is part of the project “Supporting the grain value chain in northwestern Syria”, funded by the Turkish office of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (Ocha). The mill, already in operation, works with a production capacity of 50 tons of flour per day, providing integrated services, from screening, cleaning, wetting and fermentation to grinding and packaging.

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October / December 2020


MARKETS

Italian pasta is stronger than Covid-19 by Alessandro Massacesi

In the EU three out of four pasta dishes are made in Italy

O

ctober 25th was the World Pasta Day 2020, an event created to celebrate and promote the consumption of one of the most famous Italian dishes in the world. This event took place even if we all are struggling against coronavirus. And yet, Italian pasta is one of the few winners of this catastrophic 2020. With 3.5 million tons (+4% compared to 2018), Italy, ahead of the United States and Turkey, is the world’s leading pasta producer. Data were released by Ipo-International Pasta Organization at World Pasta Day, the event organized every 25 October by Unione Italiana Food and Ipo-International Pasta Organization and now in its 22nd edition. Italians are also the top consumers, with 23.1 kilograms per capita per year, ahead of Tunisia (17), Venezuela (12) and

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Professional

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October / December 2020


MARKETS

Greece (11.4). The numbers also indicate that one out of four pasta dishes in the world is Italian, three out of four in Europe. In 2019 the export record was reached: over 2.1 million tons, +7.5% on 2018. Istat data processed by Unione Italiana Food indicate, in the first six months of 2020, a 25% increase in Italian exports. In absolute values: Germany, United Kingdom, France, Usa and Japan are the most strategic markets, but there was growth of over 40% towards the Usa, Canada, Australia and Romania, 30% towards the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, and above 60% to Hong Kong, Ukraine and Ireland. Other strategic markets, such as France, China and South Korea, record growth of over 20%.

October / December 2020

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Covid does not stop pasta Pasta marks another positive milestone being, in fact, one of the few production chains to have resisted the impact of Covid-19, and it is an understatement. Especially the made in Italy pasta industry has seen an increase in production and orders. The only risk issue for the Italian pasta sector concerns the supply of raw material, in the face of an everincreasing demand, both at home and abroad. During the lockdown, the milling and pasta companies had great difficulties, but the situation soon stabilized, thanks to the reserves and partly to the import of durum wheat. For Italy, the first pasta producing country ahead of the United States and Turkey, imports are therefore a necessity, aimed at satisfying the needs of the industry, which

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MARKETS

depends on foreign countries for 30-40% of its production.

B

The top 5 At World Pasta Day, FoodBev Media magazine collected five of the main innovations of new pasta products introduced on the market in the last year between producers and processing companies that have developed products that are particularly appreciated by consumers. Here they are: • Gluten-free vegetable pasta line with ancient grains - In October 2020, Ancient Harvest, owned by Quinoa Corporation, launched a new line of wheat-free vegetable pasta, containing only five “clean” ingredients. The Colorado-based company’s new gluten-free pasta now offers a blend of green lentils, kale, spinach and cauliflower, bound together with natural tapioca starch. One line of pasta includes variations of penne, rotini and spaghetti (A). A

Chester Cheetah brand mascot tail. This version taps into the growing trend of home consumption during Covid-19, which was reflected in PepsiCo's recent quarterly results by combining a “home-cooked food” with the classic cheese snack (B). • Tolerant range of legume-based pasta for children - Tolerant, a Us producer of organic pasta based on legumes and rice alternatives, launched in summer a new pasta line designed for children with single-ingredient pasta in “fun and unique” shapes. Tolerant Kids has three variations: Organic Kids Chickpea Alphaland, Organic Kids Red Lentil Galaxy and Organic Kids Green Lentil Safari. Made with organic lentils or chickpeas, it is vegan, non-Gmo, kosher and gluten-free. It is also free of major allergens and a source of plant-based protein and fiber (C).

early. Each product be cooked directly from frozen, including penne and spaghetti, and four varieties of filled pasta: ricotta and spinach tortellini, ham cappelletti, five-cheese tortellini and mushroom ravioli. There are also four sauces: amatriciana, tomato and mascarpone, tomato and basil, green pesto, separated into small portions to reduce food waste (D). D

• Barilla spaghetti with red lentils - Barilla expanded its pasta portfolio with Red lentil Spaghetti. Red lentil noodles are made with just one ingredient, have a flavor that would be reminiscent of hazelnut and an “al dente” texture. This product is E

C

• PepsiCo’s Cheetos Mac’n Cheese - In summer, PepsiCo’s Cheetos brand entered the pasta department with its latest combination launched in the United States, Cheetos Mac 'n Cheese. Made with authentic Cheetos dressing, the corkscrew noodles are also inspired by the

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• Napolina frozen pasta and sauces - The Italian cuisine brand Napolina launched a new brand of frozen pasta and sauces as Professional

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a good source of protein and fiber. Barilla of one-ingredient legumes line is available in five varieties: Spaghetti with red lentils, Rotini with chickpeas, Casarecce with chickpeas, Penne with red lentils and Rotini with red lentils (E). Alessandro Massacesi

October / December 2020


PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

Comparing extruded and drawn pasta by Stefano Zardetto Food technologist

Product aspects offered to the finished product

A

fter mixing the ingredients and creating the dough in the kneading machine, the production process of fresh pasta includes a stage in which the dough is laminated. The dough sheet is then sent to the forming machine, if pasta is filled, or for pasteurization and cutting in the case of long unfilled pasta (tagliatelle, fettuccine, etc.). The dough formed into a sheet to the desired thickness (typically between 0.8 and 1 mm) can basically take place in two ways: by extrusion or by sheet rolling by a cylindrical shape (Figure 1). The choice between these two techniques is fundamental for the quality and product aspects of the finished product. It is therefore important to carefully evaluate the impact of these two processing methods on pasta properties, before and after being cooked by

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Professional

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October / December 2020


PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

Figure 1

The lamination process

the consumer. Obviously, the choice between the two types of lamination only applies to “long” unfilled pasta obtained by cutting the pasteurized dough sheet (“long” pasta: tagliatelle, fettuccine, tagliolini, etc.) or to filled pasta, while for “short” fresh pasta (fusilli, penne, rigatoni, etc.) extrusion represents the only applicable process for pasta molding and production.

Extrusion The extrusion process consists in sending the dough into a chamber with a single screw, at the end of which a special head distributes the dough on a die. Therefore, the dough undergoes a more or less intense compression depending on the characteristics of the plant and the process affects the final quality of the product by raising the temperature of the dough and

October / December 2020

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Short fresh pasta extrusion is the only applicable process for pasta molding it making structural changes in the protein network, more or less intense depending on the operating methods.

Rolling the dough into a cylindrical shape In case of a rolling mill or cylinder, the dough is sent to a sheeter with two or three corotating grooved rollers (called “gramole”) that perform a kneading action, followed by a pair of smooth surface cylinders that press the dough into a compact pasta sheet that is about 1-cm thick.

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PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

The application of vacuum Recently, a new lamination system has been introduced which consists of a cylindrical process with vacuum application. The application of vacuum during the shaping processes and the subsequent air removal from the dough seems to reduce the free volume between the molecules, forcing their approach and favoring their interaction. The result is the production of a dough whose properties are halfway between those that can be obtained by extrusion and those given by the classic lamination (Carini et. al, 2009).

A new rolling system consists of a cylindrical process with vacuum application SME and how to “read” it The two shaping processes, precisely because of their machine characteristics, “transfer” very different amounts of mechanical energy to the dough being processed. A parameter often used

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to indicate the amount of energy transferred to the product during this stage of the process is the SME value, an acronym that indicates specific mechanical energy, i.e. the amount of mechanical energy (work) dissipated as heat inside the product, expressed in mass units. This process parameter, used in any extrusion process, is very important because it significantly defines the final characteristics of the product. Under normal operating conditions, the dough extrusion process transfers about 60-70 kJ/kg to the product (Zardetto & Dalla Rosa, 2006; Abecassis et al., 1994; Roux et al., 1995), while no data are available in literature on the SME value linked to the rolling process into a cylindrical shape, although it is certainly lower, considering that a vigorous kneading phase transfers a value of about 40 kJ/kg to the product (Axford et al., 1963). The SME value in the extrusion process is influenced by incoming dough hydration (it should range between 29 and 32% w/w), the flow rate (kg/h) and dough temperature. Hydration has a significant impact on the pressure (bar) that reaches the dough at Professional

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the die level, since product viscosity decreases as the water content increases, while the SME value shows a significant decrease as the operating flow rate of the system increases (Zardetto & Dalla Rosa, 2006).

The dough temperature Another fundamental parameter in the extrusion process is the dough temperature. The heat is generated by friction between the dough, the metal surface of the chamber and the screw. Its “adjustment” is made possible by a water jacket for water circulation located in the chamber. The flow adjustment during the extrusion process allows to reduce and/or increase the working temperature of the chamber and therefore of the dough. The temperature during the extrusion process should never exceed 50° C to avoid “damage” to gluten proteins. In this case, the cooked product would be “sticky”. All these parameters (hydration of the incoming dough, temperature and cutting effort applied) must therefore be carefully evaluated and controlled during the extrusion process.

October / December 2020


PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

From dish to chemistry The two types of shaping process influence the product structure, as it was confirmed by an analysis carried out on doughs with the same formulation, made under the same mixing conditions and submitted partly to extrusion and partly to lamination. The result was then analyzed using the FT-NIR technique (near infrared spectroscopy analysis). The two groups were clearly separated along the main component, with visible differences depending on the wavelengths (Zardetto et al., 2005). Without going into the differences in details, the technique analyzed provides a macroscopic picture of the changes induced by the two processes and allows us to understand the main effects of the two types of process on some bonds of the glutenstarch-water matrix components. How does this difference detected

at a macroscopic level explain then the qualities that are perceivable by the consumer? The variation translates into different levels of

gelation in the dough starch and product texture, a different cooking behavior, as well as differences in color.

Graph 1

Gluten-starch-water matrix variations

Trend of the gelation level in extruded dough according to dough humidity and applied pressure

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October / December 2020


PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

the results in the bibliography, is that the physico-chemical properties of the extruded or sheet rolled dough may change according to the subsequent treatment the dough undergoes after the lamination process (heat treatment, drying treatment...). To name but a few examples, with heat treatment, the color of the pasteurized dough is brighter for the extruded product compared to the cylindrical one, while the level of gelation increases more, as a result of the treatment, in the cylindrical rather than in the extruded dough (Zardetto & Dalla Rosa, 2006).

Starch gelatinization The level of starch gelatinization is significantly higher in the extruded dough than in the sheet rolled dough (Zardetto et al., 2005). This difference can be determined by starch degradation due to higher mechanical forces applied by the extrusion process, compared to the other process, with a subsequent temperature increase in the dough. However, the degree of extruded dough gelation can vary according to the operating modes applied (pressure) and to dough humidity (Graph 2).

Significant differences have also been found in the hardness and elasticity of the dough obtained with the two shaping systems. In fact, the extruded dough is more solid and elastic than the other one (Carini et al., 2009; Zardetto & Dalla Rosa, 2009); and significant differences have also been found in the color of the dough, i.e. color parameters a*, b* and L*, at the end of the process.

The physico-chemical properties What is interesting, and which also partly explains the differences in

Stefano Zardetto

Bibliography Abecassis, J., Abbou, R., Chaurand, M., Morel, M. H., & Vernoux, P. (1994). “Influence of extrusion conditions on extrusion speed, temperature, and pressure in the extruder and on pasta quality”. Cereal Chemistry, 71(3), 247-253. Axford, D.W.E., Chamberlain, N., Collin, T.H., Elton, G.A.H. (1963). “Continuos breadmaking-The Chorleywood process”. Cereal Sci. Today, 8, 265-268. Carini, E., Vittadini, E., Curti, E., Antoniazzi, F. (2009). “Effects of different shaping modes on physico-chemical properties and water status of fresh pasta”. Journal of Food Engineering 93, 400-406. Le Roux, D., Vergnes, B., Chaurand, M., Abécassis, J. (1995). “A thermomechanical approach to pasta extrusion”. Journal of Food Engineering, 26, 351-368. Zardetto, S., Dalla Rosa, M., Placucci, G., Capozzi, F. (2005). ”Effect of extrusion processes on chemical and physical properties of fresh egg pasta”. Tecnica molitoria, 56, 505-514. Zardetto, S., Dalla Rosa, M. (2006). “Study of the effect of lamination process on pasta by physical chemical determination and near infrared spectroscopy analysis”. Journal of Food Engineering, 74, 402-409. Zardetto, S., Dalla Rosa, M. (2009). “Effect of extrusion process on properties of cooked, fresh pasta”. Journal of Food Engineering, 92, 70-77.

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October / December 2020


NEW TRENDS

Plantain flour for pasta production by Daniela Spandri Food technologist

Plantain flour is similar to soft wheat flour but it has no gluten

G

reater attention paid to people with celiac disease and to a lifestyle with a low environmental impact are improving the use of food without gluten content. Here we will focus on plantain flour to replace wheat for the production of pasta. Have you ever eaten bananas? In fact, there are numerous types of bananas: dessert bananas (M. cavendish), plantain (M. paradisiaca) and cooking bananas. The latter and the plane tree are very similar to each other as they derive from two varieties, M. acuminata and M. bulbisiana. Dessert bananas are used only ripe, while cooking bananas and plantains are eaten both ripe and unripe, boiled, fried, or, only for plantains, also in the form of flour. In the developing countries of Central and Eastern Africa, plane trees are the main source of carbohydrates for about 70 million people.

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October / December 2020


NEW TRENDS

Nutritional composition The nutritional composition of the plane tree changes according to the cultivar, variety, soil and degree of ripeness of the fruit. The plane tree, raw, that is, not subjected to drying and milling process, contains about 61% of water if green, which increases up to 65-68% with maturation. This is due to the breakdown of carbohydrates during this phase. In both green and ripe plantains, carbohydrates represent about 30-35%, of which the predominant fraction is starch, in which the amylose and amylopectin ratio is 1:5. The starch in the unripe plantain is quantitatively double that of the ripe fruit as the ripening phase itself causes hydrolysis to simpler sugars such as sucrose, fructose and glucose. For this reason, the green product is used in order to produce flour. The protein content is reduced, and characterized by an amino acidic profile of low biological value, where alanine, aminobutyric acid, glutamine, asparagine, histidine, serine, arginine and leucine are predominant. Gliadins and glutenins are absent, so this food is suitable for those gluten-free formulations.

October / December 2020

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Green plantain contains mainly cellulose and hemicelluloses, and the lipid content remains quantitatively unchanged during maturation. It is also a good source of micronutrients, particularly iron, potassium, calcium, vitamin A, C and B vitamins; but remind that the drying process reduces vit-content. The production of the plantain is seasonal so, in order to make this food available all year round, it is necessary to develop forms of conservation that reduce its humidity.

How to produce flours The oldest method is to dry the pulp to produce flour. The term plantain flour refers to the product obtained from the pulp of the green, unripe plantain after drying and milling. The production process is still mainly manual and uncontrolled, although numerous studies are trying to standardize the various phases, developing ad hoc systems to make the same process and the finished product more uniform. This makes it possible to obtain a product that complies with hygienic-sanitary, quality, nutritional and shelf life standards and guarantees the well-being of workers.

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NEW TRENDS

A brief production flow sheet is shown below in Figure 1. The flour can be made with plantains, unripe green bananas, or cooking bananas. The fruits are washed whole, with the peel, in order to eliminate impurities, dirt, insects, etc., and to reduce contamination in the subsequent phases. After peeling, which is generally done manually with knives, the fruits are sliced to obtain slices of variable thickness between 2mm and 10mm. Subsequently, in order to avoid color changes in the subsequent stages of the process, a bleaching or a treatment with sodium metabisulphite in 1-2% solution is carried out. Bleached pieces are usually blended using a mill, to obtain a paste with a particle size of less than 10µm and with a solids content of 30 +/- 0.4%. Subsequently, both the pasta and the washers are dried and dried. There are different drying methods: in the sun, in the oven or dryers, in the microwave, on a foam mat. The most common method, and still mostly applied in the transformation of plantains into flour, is drying in the sun. In this case, the slices are spread on bamboo racks, or on concrete floors or swept ground, on a roof, or on corrugated metal sheets. Obviously, this method, being linked to the atmospheric climate,

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product temperature 94° C). The dried slices are stored in special containers, and pressed, sieved only when necessary because the flour obtained quickly loses its flavor, and being also very hygroscopic, it tends to mold easily. The final moisture content of the flour produced by drying should be around 2%. Another method that has recently been spreading is drying on a foam mat, where the paste is added with 20% glyceryl monostearate. The product thus obtained is whipped in order to obtain a foamy and homogeneous compound. Subsequently, this foam is extruded on metal nets and dried in the oven at 60° C for a time between 45 minutes and 90 minutes. Finally, the dried pasta is scraped off the metal nets, pressed, sieved and packaged. The finished product, in this case, has a humidity of 5-10%. Whatever type of drying is used, the modification of nutrients (vitamin C and carotenoids) must be taken into account, because the process involves the use of a heat source, which affects the nutrients of the fresh product, modifying or reducing them or making them more bioavailable.

presents unpredictability, drying irregularities, slowness of the process, possible damage and contamination of the product by bacteria, animals, stones. To overcome all this, in recent years conventional ovens, dryers, microwaves, or drying on a foam mat have been used to stabilize the process and standardize the finished product obtained in chemical-physical, rheological, nutritional and hygienic terms. As for drying in ovens or dryers, conventional or microwave ovens are used, or tunnel, spray dryers (from 30 to 32° C and less than 30% relative humidity under vacuum) or drum (maximum

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Sources: Agu et al., 2014 - Zakpaa et al., 2010

Professional

PASTA

October / December 2020


NEW TRENDS

Table 1

Plantain flour vs soft wheat flour: nutritional values (g/100g) (sun-dried plantain) Unripe plantain flour

Soft wheat flour

Humidity

10

14,2

Proteins

4,45

11

78,48

77,3

Total carbohydrates Total fiber

3,5

2,2

Fat

2,25

0,7

Ashes

1,33

nd

Source: Adegunwa et al., 2017 - INRAN 2000

What about pasta production?

Table 2

Plantain flour vs soft wheat flour: micronutrients (sun-dried plantain) Unripe plantain flour Calcium

Soft wheat flour

(/100G pulp)

2

3

mg

0.75

0.6

mg

Magnesium

41

37

mg

Phosphorus

31

34

mg

431

499

mg

2

4

mg

0.18

0.14

mg

0.116

0.081

mg

nd

1.5

mg

Iron

Potassium Sodium Zinc Copper Selenium

Source: Adegunwa et al., 2017 - INRAN 2000

This is accentuated the higher the drying temperatures are. Drying processes are able to remove about 70-75% of moisture from green and raw plantains, and among them, the method using microwaves is the most effective, while for nutrients, the method of drying in the sun is the least drastic.

usually mixed with other flours, in particular legumes (soy, chickpeas, peas, lentils), corn, rice, sorghum, teff, coconut, to obtain gluten-free pasta. Dosages vary from 15% to 50% and depend on two factors: the association of plantain flour with other flours and the use of emulsifiers and additives with a structuring function, such as gums (carboxymethyl-cellulose, guar, xanthan), proteins (egg white) and modified enzymes.

As previously mentioned, the protein content and biological value of the proteins of plantain flour are scarce. To increase its nutritional value, this flour is

Some studies focused their attention on the pasta-making properties of plantain flour and in particular on the absorption of water, on the diameter of finished spaghetti, on the color of the raw and cooked product, on the texture of the pasta (Tables 3 - 7). Plantain flour has good gelling, emulsifying, foaming and stabilizing capacities, up to dosages of 20%, then, beyond this percentage the trend is reversed. The presence of hydrophilic compounds, such as fibers, the reduced fat and protein content, favor its ability to absorb water from the dough. Proteins are rich in lipophilic groups that favor the absorption of oil, but prevent the absorption of water by the doughs. Therefore, the less proteins are contained in the flour, the greater the quantity of water

Comparing with wheat Nutritionally, plantain flour is very similar to soft wheat flour, except for the lower protein content, the absence of gluten and the higher micronutrient content (Table 1 and 2). On a technological level, it can be used in fresh, dry and filled pasta, savory and sweet baked goods, and as a thickener for sauces, soups, creams, puddings.

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October / December 2020


NEW TRENDS

Table 3

Chemical-physical properties of plantain flour - chemical analysis, mix with wheat flour 0 = only wheat/semolina; 100 = only plantain flour Plantain flour dosage (%) Physico-chemical property Water absorption (%) Oil absorption (%) Emulsifying capacity (%)

0

10

20

30

50

100

65

76

88

101

168

284

110

112

113

114

120

130

12,80

14,80

15,60

8,20

4,50

0,57

Stability of the emulsion (%)

18,60

5,20

10,40

8,60

3,80

2,40

Foaming capacity (%)

20,40

24,80

26,00

18,20

12,00

2,00

Foam stability (%)

63,20

65,60

67,50

67,20

67,20

0,00

Source: Mebpa et al., 2007

Table 4

Color (Konica Minolta) of raw and cooked spaghetti made with plantain flour, chickpeas, corn Recipe

L* (luminosity)

Semolina 100%

A* B* (red/green) (yellow/blue)

83,83

0,91

15,68

Physical state UNCOOKED

Plantain flour 30%, Chickpeas 70%, CMC 0,5%

78,84

1,17

14,08

UNCOOKED

Plantain flour 20%, Chickpeas 70%, Corn 10%, CMC 0,5%

78,98

1,31

15,11

UNCOOKED

Plantain flour 30%, Chickpeas 70%, Corn 15%, CMC 0,5%

79,59

1,22

14,54

UNCOOKED

Semolina 100%

81,66

0,95

16,52

COOKED

Plantain flour 30%, Chickpeas 70%, CMC 0,5%

70,83

1,66

14,75

COOKED

Plantain flour 20%, Chickpeas 70%, Corn 10%, CMC 0,5%

72,17

1,72

15,4

COOKED

Plantain flour 30%, Chickpeas 70%, Corn 15%, CMC 0,5%

74,47

1,61

16,34

COOKED

Source: Flores-Silva et al., 2015

absorbed and the finished product will be softer and with a less cohesive and difficult to work structure. The amount of total starch present also influences the characteristics of raw and cooked pasta. In fact, the diameter of the finished product is directly related

30

to the amount of total starch present. In the semolina pasta there is about 75% of starch, while in the plantain pasta this percentage varies from 55% to 59%. As a result, semolina-based products will have larger diameters both before and after cooking. Factors that determine the acceptability of the product by the consumer are color, water activity and texture. As for the color, there is a worsening compared to semolina alone, when plantain and legume flours are added to the pasta (Table 4). This worsening is less with legume flours, and more pushed to increasing doses of plantain flour and translates into a decrease in Professional

PASTA

brightness (L*) and b* (yellow/blue), and in an increase in the a* (red/green). In practical terms, this leads to a more reddish brown color of products with plantain and legume flours, compared to semolina alone. The water activity is related to absorption and it is an index of the product's microbiological safety (Table 5). In a dry raw semolina pasta it is around 0.63; while in a dry raw pasta with 50% plantain flour it varies between 0.42 and 0.56. In the same cooked products, the water activity is 0.87 for semolina pasta and between 0.82 and 0.88 for plantain. As for the texture, a very important parameter is the hardness (Table 6).

October / December 2020


NEW TRENDS

after cooking the pasta. In fact, it indicates what the pasta looks like visually: stuck to one another, distinct. The higher the value, the more we will have that the individual pieces of dough are stuck to each other. Chewiness indicates the quality of the structure and the loss of pasta in boiling water during cooking. High values are related to a weak structure, low in proteins and which suffers a great loss in cooking.

Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s taste Gnocchetti Some studies have shown that, in both raw and cooked pasta, it decreases as the percentage of plantain flour used in the dough increases. This trend is evident from dosages of 50% to 20%, then its value stabilizes. Furthermore, in uncooked pasta, the hardness is greater than in cooked pasta, while in semolina pasta the behavior is the opposite. Some studies have investigated this fact and it has emerged that in uncooked pasta the hardness is related to the

presence of proteins: the higher the protein percentage, the greater the hardness. In cooked pasta, however, it is due to the hydration of the starch granules and the consequent gelatinization of the protein matrix during cooking. Therefore, pasta prepared with plantain flours have a lower degree of starch gelatinization as a result of cooking, and consequently lower hardness. Cohesiveness provides information about the behavior

We conducted experimental tests on the production of plantain pasta in a home laboratory. Gnocchetti were first produced with a mix of plantain flour (30%) and potato flour (70%). The dough was enriched with whole eggs (1 egg per 100g of mix) and adjusted with water to obtain a firm and pasty consistency. The gnocchi were formed easily, without the dough breaking and falling apart. After cooking in boiling water until they float, they are slightly rubbery but with

Table 5

Water absorption and diameter of cooked and uncooked spaghetti Water absorption (%)

Recipe

Diameter (mm) uncooked

Diameter (mm) cooked

Semolina 100%

186,13

1,60

2,50

Plantain flour 30%, Chickpeas 70%, CMC 0,5%

163,20

1,59

2,43

Plantain flour 20%, Chickpeas 70%, Corn 10%, CMC 0,5%

168,43

1,58

2,33

Plantain flour 30%, Chickpeas 70%, Corn 15%, CMC 0,5%

175,53

1,58

2,34

Source: Flores-Silva et al., 2015

Table 6

Texture of pasta Hardness (g) Recipe

Adhesiveness (g/sec)

Uncooked dry pasta

Cooked dry pasta

Uncooked dry pasta

Cooked dry pasta

Semolina 100%

104,02

484,81

-1,15

-24,99

Plantain flour 47%, egg white, guar gum, xanthan gum

350,04

204,92

-5,35

-18,07

Source: Cheok et al., 2018

32

Professional

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October / December 2020


NEW TRENDS

Table 7

Texture of cooked pasta Recipe

Choesiveness

Elasticity

Chewiness (n)

Semolina 100%

0,63

1,10

Plantain flour 30%, Chickpeas 70%, CMC 0,5%

0,92

1,02

12,99

Plantain flour 20%, Chickpeas 70%, Corn 10%, CMC 0,5%

0,70

1,03

12,00

Plantain flour 30%, Chickpeas 70%, Corn 15%, CMC 0,5%

0,76

1,01

13,19

6,42

Source: Flores-Silva et al., 2015

good resistance both in cooking and in shape after serving. The taste is pleasant and similar to the traditional product. We then produced fresh pasta with a mix of 50% plantain flour and 50% 00 wheat flour. 2 whole eggs were added for 300 g of mix. The dough is firm, compact, not broken up, smooth and easily workable.Two formats were produced: tagliatelle and quadrucci. Both products cook quickly (about 5 minutes in boiling water or broth) and do not disintegrate during cooking and after serving. The taste is acceptable, with typical aromas of egg pasta and a slightly sweet aftertaste. We can so affirm that plantain flour is a nutritionally and technologically interesting product, which is gradually spreading also

in Europe. This is thanks to globalization, greater attention to the intolerant population, the spread of particular diets (such as crudism, fruitarians, etc.), the birth of new market niches, and culinary innovations such as carpotechnics. Carpotechnics, from the Greek karpos (fruit) and teknè (art), is one of the new techniques for processing vegetables and fruits, and allows to obtain a wide range

of food products, which are similar to the traditional ones and which are mainly made up of non-wheat flours, and therefore suitable for both celiacs and diabetics. Hence, while plantain flour is still little known, it could represent a new and stimulating challenge for the research and development of experts in the sector.

plantain flour, Cogent Engineering, Vol. 3, 2016, Issue 1, https://doi.org/10.1080/2331916.2016. 1191743 Cheok C. Y., Sulaiman R., Manan N. A., Zakora A. J., Chin N. L., Hussain N., Pasting and physical properties of green banana flours and pastas, International Food Research Journal, 25(6): 2585-2592, December 2018 Flores-Silva P.C., De J. Berrios J., Pan J., Agama-Acevedo E., MonsalveGonzález A., Bello-Pérez l.A., Gluten-free spaghetti with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize: physicochemical, texture and sensory properties, CyTA - Journal of Food, 13:2, 159-166, 2015, DOI: 10.1080/19476337.2014.929178 Mepba H.D., Eboh L., Nwaojigwa S.U., Chemical composition, functional and baking properties of wheat-plantain composite flours, African Journal of Food Agricolture Nutrition and

Development, Volume 7, n.1, 2007 Ndayambaje J.P., Dusengemungu L., Bahati P., Nutritional Composition of Plantain Flour of (Musa Paradisiaca): the Effect of Various Drying Methods in Rwanda, American Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 3, 99-103, 2019 http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfst/7/3/5 Zakpaa H. D., Mak-Mensah E. E., Adubofour J., Production and characterization of flour produced from ripe “apem” plantain (Musa sapientum L. var. paradisiacal; French horn) grown in Ghana, Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development, Vol. 2(6) pp. 92-99, June, 2010 www.fao.org ›faostat www.crea.gov.it www.vegolosi.it https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list Experimental tests conducted by Daniela Spandri

Daniela Spandri

Bibliography Abiodun-Solanke A., Falade K., A review of the uses and methods of processing banana and plantain (Musa spp.) into storable food products, Journal of Agricultural Research and Development, 2011 Adegunwa M. O., Adelekan E. O., Adebowale A. A., Bakare H. A., Alamu E. O., Evaluation of nutritional and functional properties of plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) and tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.) flour blends for food formulations, Cogent Chemistry, Vol.3, 2017, Issue1, https://doi.org/10.1080/23312009. 2017.1383707 Agu H., Okoli N. A., Physico-chemical, sensory, and microbiological assessments of wheat-based biscuit improved with beniseed and unripe plantain, Food Science & Nutrition, 2(5), September 2014 Ayodeji S.P., Conceptual design of a process plant for the production of

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PASTA

October / December 2020


CASE HISTORY

De Matteis Agroalimentare, pasta sales boost by Editorial Staff

High quality pays off: turnover, revenues and export are increasing

T

he Italian De Matteis Agroalimentare is one of the top 10 producers of dry pasta in the world. It has always been committed to improving the entire production chain from the wheat field to the finished product. Recently, it has confirmed the positive closing of 2019, with a turnover of 155 million euros and a 30% increase in revenues compared to the previous year. A result in line with forecasts and which attests to the achievement of the market positioning expected by the company. Let’s try to understand what’s behind this success. According to the company management, sales increasing was driven by the commercial branch which opened in January 2019 in the United States. De Matteis Agroalimentare is one of the first exporters of pasta in the Us, with an 11% share of the exports of the entire sector to that country. In addition, the pasta maker exports today to over 40 countries. The export share exceeded 80% of the company’s revenues, with a growth of +15% in 2019 vs 2018. From January to April 2020 trade went even better (another +15%), with revenues of 56 million euros and a performance of the Armando brand of +30%.

36

The factory in Italy with its own mill

Professional

PASTA

October / December 2020


CASE HISTORY

agricultural tradition, according to a very strict disciplinary». In 2018-2019 the company completed an impressive expansion plan of its factory in Flumeri (South Italy). Thanks to an an investment of 16 million euros the production capacity increased (+30%) and it was also finished the modernization of the packaging line. Last February there was the launch of the new production line with PastaSense: a technology by Bühler Group. So now the factory is one of the most innovative and technologically advanced in the world.

100% made in Italy Flagship brand is Pasta Armando. A kind of pasta that deserves a name, “Armando”, because of its own quality. It is made with 100% Italian wheat from the Armando supply chain. Over 10 foreign countries loves Pasta Armando. The idea to create the supply chain comes from President Armando Enzo De. It was an innovative project at the time and today in Italy it is still the only disciplinary that needs a direct agreement with each farmer: each producer has to

The secret? A great supply chain «We are very proud of the results achieved by our company, because they show once again how much the excellence of our agri-food production is appreciated in Italy as well as abroad», says Marco De Matteis, Ceo. «In the last few years, our aim was to increase quality and efficiency of what we do respecting the principles of sustainability. We got the goal when, ten years ago, we decided to create “Armando supply chain” with Italian farmers. Today we can count on 1,500 farms. Our partners produce the best quality of Italian wheat. Crops grow respecting the environment and the best

October / December 2020

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The aim is to get quality respecting nature accept to follow Armando’s Cultivation Protocol to grow up a very high-quality wheat in a sustainable way. For its part, De Matteis guarantees farmers field assistance with its agronomists and it buys the crop with a fixed minimum price.

The “Zero Method” Armando is also “Zero pesticides”. All started last year, when the company launched Armando pastas for soup. Made with 100% top quality Italian wheat from the

37


CASE HISTORY

company supply chain pastas for soup were the first ones following the “Zero pesticides, zero glyphosate method”. It guarantees De Matteis’pastas for soup contain less than 0.00001 g (technical zero) of residues from the most widely used plant protection products (pesticides) normally involved in

Marco De Matteis, Ceo of De Matteis Agroalimentare

38

growing and storing durum wheat used to produce them, such as glyphosate. It was a success, so since last March all Armando brand pastas follow the “Zero method”.

About the company De Matteis Agroalimentare was founded in 1993 by two entrepreneurial families operating the Construction business for more than 50 years. The commitment and dedication of the families lead what was initially just a mill with a small pasta factory to become one of the main world player in the pasta sector, with a growth rate still unmatched in the field. The factory is situated in Campania, at the foot of the Appennine Mountains near places where the largest fields of durum wheat can be found: Irpinia, Apulia and Basilicata. Like a small number of Italian pasta factories, De Matteis follows Professional

PASTA

a wheat-pasta integrated production cycle. Having a mill allows the company to have total control over the raw material and so the quality of the product.

There is a strict tie between the company and the world of agriculture At the quality control laboratory inside the mill best wheat is we selected to be sure it meets strict standards of quality. This is how good and quality pasta is produced. They say: «Our pasta is expression of an integrated system between Industry and Agricultural sector on the basis of shared values and principles». Editorial Staff

October / December 2020


PRODUCT FOCUS

The “little one” with a big heart

S

torci presses summarize high level technique solutions, flexibility, reduced footprint, complete functioning automation and long-lasting characteristic. The company has always stood out in the world market of pasta production plants, boasting a reputation for great reliability and professionalism. Such reputation comes from the multi-year experience obtained in manufacturing presses, either for the great extruders exclusively made for its partner Fava, and for all the other models not only destined for dry pasta production, but also couscous, ready meals, fresh pasta, gluten-free pasta and instant pasta. Storci top of the range? Innovative kneading systems such as Premix and Beltmix, tempered stainless steel extrusion screws with 3-coil terminal and variable pitch for special shapes, long-lasting performance, head made by the best materials and the most advanced working techniques (just to mention some). All presses are made of stainless steel and destined to processes with circular and linear dies. To meet the needs of the American market and comply with the Usda norms, Storci has realized also the WD (wash down) presses, that can be 100% washed for a regular cleaning. Moreover, Storci hasn’t just experimented its presses in the pasta sector, but the company has expanded the scope of activity reaching the confectionery sector for the production of sugar grains,

40

liquorice, chocolate grains as well as the pharmaceutical sector, with the production of citrate-based digestive grains.

Press V90-250G In this large family of presses, the model V90.250G represents a solution particularly suitable for the small-medium pasta factories that need a high flexibility for the usage of different raw materials and the production of several pasta shapes. The press V90-250G has been created focusing on the following aspects: • maximum safety for the operator; • high mechanical reliability even when used for several daily shifts; • construction details specifically created to ease the cleaning operation; • possible automation to function with no operator. Its main features: • production capacity: 150-350 kg/h in extrusion, depending on the pasta shape; • made of Aisi 304 stainless steel; • double kneading basin with continuous welding and independent motorization; • kneading basins capacity: 65 kg each basin; • automatic dough unloading from the upper basin into the lower one, without overturning the upper basin, with safety lids closed; • kneading paddles made of Aisi 304 micro-fusion steel , mirror polished; • thrust bearing unit with a great loading capacity;

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• special tempered stainless steel extrusion screw, rectified and mirror polished; • inverter to change the rotation speed of the extrusion screw; • extrusion cylinder with stainless steel cooling jacket; • closed cooling circuit with chiller; • holding-die ring hinged to the extrusion cylinder to ease the die changing operation; • short pasta cutting group with inverter and cutting knives; • fan for short pasta cutting, fixed onto pasta cutting crankcase. The main optional items are: the press can be automated if equipped with automatic systems of semolina, water and/or egg supplying, for a functioning with no continuous presence of an operator.

October / December 2020


HISTORICAL NEWS

The legacy of women in the pasta industry

W

omen have contributed to the industry in many ways by helping companies and organizations achieve their goals and promote pasta as a nutritious choice for feeding a family. In the era when pasta companies were primarily family owned, it was common for wives, daughters and sisters to work alongside their husbands, fathers and brothers in running the business. Josephine Santoro Gallo from Santoro Macaroni in

Brooklyn, New York often spoke about how she and her sisters “rolled up their sleeves” and helped their father and brother with a wide variety of duties both in the office and the factory. Their contributions became especially important during World War II when the company became “really busy” filling orders for the military. When men were not available, women filled non-traditional roles in the workplace, and excelled in these positions. Many women mastered

the fine art of making high quality pasta, earning the title “pastaia”, or pasta specialist. Women also led marketing efforts, for example, by holding events to promote pasta. In the 1950s, Mrs. Viviano of Vimco Macaroni in Carnegie, Pennsylvania hosted factory tours for women to show them how pasta was made. Women also held a variety of high-level positions. In 1982, Connie Foster became owner of Costa Macaroni Mfg. Company in Los Angeles,

Mrs. Viviano hosts the “Mothers of America” event at the Vimco Macaroni factory, 1957. Photo credit: Vimco Macaroni (digitized by Leonard J. DeFrancisci)

42

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October / December 2020


HISTORICAL NEWS

California and served as the Vice President, providing leadership to the company until selling it in 2005 to Pasta Montana(1). Her efforts helped make Costa a leading food service brand in the United States. As the industry changed, the roles women filled also evolved. Today women have prominent responsibilities throughout the industry by serving in a diverse range of leadership, technical, research, engineering, educational, operational and professional positions at large and small companies as well as pasta associations worldwide. Leonard J. DeFrancisci, National Pasta Association History Committee

Santoro Macaroni catalog featuring Josephine Santoro Gallo on the cover, circa 1936. Photo Credit: Refined Macaroni Company (digitized by Leonard J. DeFrancisci)

Note (1) Interview with Stephen D. Zoccoli, Costa Brand, Pasta Montana, November 2020

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Professional Pasta N. 4 October/December 2020  

The International Magazine for pasta producers

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The International Magazine for pasta producers

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