Professional Pasta N.1 January/March 2018

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T h e i n t e r n at i o n a l m ag a z i n e f or Pa s ta P r o d u c e r s



The pasta drying process

Herbs and spices for pasta filling

Tariffe R.O.C. Poste Italiane - Spedizione in abbonamento postale - D.L. 353/2003 ( L. 27/02/04 n°46) Art. 1 comma 1 DCB Bologna

ThE deTAIl hERE lIES ThE dIffeReNCe



N. 1 January/March 2018



WITH MULTIDRIVE ONLY MULTIDRIVE TECHNOLOGY PROVIDES BEST FLEXIBILITY FOR A SUPERIOR PRODUCT QUALITY With Pavan new MULTIDRIVE technology you can obtain long-cut pasta of unrivalled quality. These results are achieved through a number of innovative features providing improved accuracy on processing parameters throughout the entire production line with best performances in the pre-drying and drying process. The final product will stand out not only for its flexibility, but also for its stability, structural strength, perfect colour and cooking performance.


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Year XXIII - N. 1 January/March 2018

Editor in Chief Claudio Vercellone

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Contents Editorial

The Uk loves its pasta despite Brexit 5 by Roger Gilbert


Pasta static drying process by The experts of Professional Pasta


Small ingredients that make a big difference by Elio Di Curzio

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12 26


Corn pasta is linked to the struggle against aflatoxins by D. Rogolino et al.



Facts & news Pasta’s friends Supplier news Events

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Future proof technology, for pasta.

Thanks to 40 years of experience and constant technological evolution, Anselmo has become one of the most important companies worldwide. Today our pasta factory equipments, fully manufactured in the two Italian production sites, are present in 25 countries of 4 continents: we reached this goal thanks to the quality of our production, the use of advanced technologies, the commitment and expertise of our staff.

Anselmo Impianti S.r.l. - Bene Vagienna (Cn) - ITALY - Tel. +39 0172654755 - Fax +39 0172654811 -

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Quando nel 1990 abbiamo progettato e realizzato Cartrapen/500, il primo gruppo di taglio con testa girevole non pensavamo soltanto ad un sistema di taglio automatico con coltello, ventilatore ed illuminazione. Abbiamo anche pensato come rendere più agevole e sicuro il lavoro degli operatori durante le quotidiane operazioni di cambio trafila, cambio coni di taglio, pulizia e controllo di qualità.



NICCOLAI TRAFILE S.p.A. Via Cardarelli, 19 - 51100 Pistoia - Italy Tel +39 0573 92731 Fax +39 0573 934394




tutta la flessibilità che stavate aspettando Dagli ideatori dell’innovativo sistema con testa girevole, subito il più imitato, oggi nasce la nuova famiglia PRESSTRAPEN, i rivoluzionari gruppi di taglio automatici che sfruttano la struttura portante della pressa evitando ingombri a terra, per una flessibilità, facilità di pulizia ed un’efficienza di impianto mai viste prima.



La flessibilità arriva ad un punto di svolta. Dall’esperienza che ha reso la famiglia CARTRAPEN il gruppo di taglio più apprezzato dai pastifici nasce PRESSTRAPEN, il nuovo sistema che si integra con la linea di produzione, per avere tutti i vantaggi della tecnologia Niccolai Trafile con il minimo ingombro e lavorare ancora più velocemente.




L’inimitabile più imitato, più versatile che mai. La famiglia CARTRAPEN è cresciuta! Vi presentiamo le nuove soluzioni per qualsiasi esigenza di installazione e utilizzo, sempre basate sulla caratteristica vincente da più di 15 anni: la testa girevole a 360 gradi che facilita l’operatore per tutte le operazioni di cambio formato in assoluta sicurezza. Per questo da 15 anni CARTRAPEN è il gruppo di taglio più amato dai pastifici. E il più imitato.

NICCOLAI TRAFILE S.p.A. Via Cardarelli, 19 - 51100 Pistoia - Italy

Niccolai Trafile

Tel +39 0573 92731 Fax +39 0573 934394





Niccolai Trafile S.r.l. Via Cardarelli, 19 - 51100 Pistoia - Italy - Tel +39 0573 92731 - Fax +39 0573 934394

Via Cardarelli, 19 - 51100 Pistoia - Italy Tel +39 0573 92731 Fax +39 0573 934394

Cartrapen since 1990 and Presstrapen since 2001 are still

the most imitated Cutting Groups but always


Fiera Milano - Milan, Italy May 29 - June 1 2018

HALL 3 - Stand D18





The Uk loves its pasta despite Brexit A

by Roger Gilbert Publisher Milling and Grain magazine

trained journalist is required to report news in a balanced and nonpassionate way, avoiding personal beliefs and bias so that the reader can make up his/her own mind about the validity of the issue being reported and what opinion to form. That’s how we should handle “news”. Journalists can express an opinion where the story they write is under their byline and the reader has an appreciation of their view-point. Then the reader can formulate his/her option based on the know position of the writer and the publication in question. The decision taken by British voters to leave the European Union in its 2016 referendum, in my personal opinion, was based on years of misinformation and imbalanced reportage that considered an anti-Eu position far more newsworthy and open to comment than anything of a positive nature emanating from Brussels. After all, the Uk has been a net contributor to the Eu’s annual budget since it joined. Little of the benefit of being a member of the Eu, financial or otherwise, has received the same “column inches” in the media. Negative Eu rhetoric, published by a range of media over a long period of time, has dulled the British mind to sound reasons for continue membership.

Pasta consumption in Uk is about 90-100 grams per person per week

January/March 2018





The outcome of a democratically-held vote in a democracy is binding, unless of course voters elect to change their minds. Taking us out of the Eu is a political as well as an economic gamble - a decision many businesses would not opt for given the Eu is our largest trading partner. How might this impact the milling industry and pasta products in particular? That’s a question no one can accurately answer, although as a journalist - and under my byline - I am entitled to express an option. But first some facts. Uk pasta consumption in the home is about 90-100 grams per person per week. This has been fairly constant over recent years. Out-of-home consumption is on top of this. Italy accounts for 80% of Uk pasta imports - whether dried, ready prepared or stuffed. Total imports are around 300,000 tons per year and account for the majority of the Uk market. The main other source of “imported noodles” - rather than pasta - is from Far Eastern Countries including China. The declaration of origin of grain used to make pasta in Italian legislation, from a Uk point-of-view, looks lot like protectionist intent to keep foreign goods out of that market within Italy. However, I don’t think the Uk is likely to be very aggressive on PDOs and PGIs, provided that the Eu is equally accommodating on reserved names of Uk origin. This discussion is well down the list of issues for consideration on the Uk side of the channel given the current climate. Despite the urge to leave the Eu, it’s surprising how many of us have accepted and appreciate the cultural differences that being a member of the Eu has brought us. This is particularly true in the cuisines we now consume in restaurants, take aways or find in our supermarkets or in specialist food shops. And nowhere is this more so than with Italian foodstuffs. In fact, outside Indian and Pakistan dishes, Italian dishes rank highly when eating out or on our weekly shopping list. We appreciate not only pizza but pasta. If anything pasta has a growing reputation for balance and enticing meals choices that can include the whole range of meat inclusions, including fish, shell fish and vegetables dishes. What doesn’t go with pasta? What will Brexit mean for the pasta industries of both the Uk and Italy? Hopefully, Britons will continue to enjoy pasta, the growing range and quality of both local and imported pasta products and the choice of restaurants when eating out. Many equipment companies are providing food processing machines designed to emulate authenticated food products that are representative of the Country they emanated from. Pasta is no exception. What we currently by understand is that there is likely to be a two-year transition to allow the Uk to leave the Eu which might mitigate many of the concerns our industry currently has, although if talks fail this month it might result in a “hard-Brexit”, meaning no deal for the Uk and therefore no transition period. For business including the milling industry, a transition period might offer some comfort of an organized adoption of new rules. A “hard-Brexit” will not.

After Brexit Britons will continue to enjoy pasta

Roger Gilbert




January/March 2018


hErE liEs ThE dIffEREnCE



ThEy arE Our COmpany




Researchers and businessmen getting together at “From Seed to Pasta”

The third edition of “From Seed to Pasta” (FSTP3), is timely in view of the remarkable progress in durum wheat science and the increasing concern on the future availability of durum grain due to climate change, a matter with fundamental socio-economic implications in the Mediterranean countries where durum-derived products are a staple. The awareness of the crucial importance of the food security issue and the role played by research-based innovations is highlighted by the launching of the EU-funded program Prima (Partnership for Research and Innovation in the Mediterranean Area) aimed at enhancing crop productivity and sustainability in Mediterranean countries. The recent release of the durum wheat sequence coupled with advances in precision farming and modeling provide unprecedented opportunities toward the release of climateproof cultivars for a more sustainable and profitable durum wheat value chain. Equally impressive has been the progress in enhancing the nutritional and safety features of durumderived products made possible by an increasing capacity to tailor gene functions and genotypes via the new breeding technologies (Nbt). The interdisciplinary nature of the FSTP3 congress will provide a unique opportunity to learn and debate the latest achievements in durum wheat production and processing and to assess the impact of the durumvalue chain on the environment and our health (


Ebro takes 70% stake in Bertagni 1882 Following its strategy to become a worldwide reference in premium food, Ebro Foods, through its 100% subsidiary Panzani, and Pastificio Lucio Garofalo (52% subsidiary of Ebro Foods and 48% Italian family company) has reached a binding agreement for the purchase of a majority shareholding (70%) in the Italian company Bertagni 1882. Bertagni, with production plants in Vicenza and Avio (Italy), is known as the oldest brand of filled pasta in Italy and a specialist of the fresh pasta premium segment, with outstanding know how and products. Its gross sales in 2017 will exceed € 70 million, with over 90% of its business out of Italy. The transaction is valued at € 130 million. The transaction must be approved by the anti-trust authorities; it is expected to be concluded within the first quarter of 2018.

Rana to acquire Nestlé Italy pasta plant Rana has reached an agreement with Nestlé Italy to acquire the latter’s pasta production plant in Moretta, Italy. The nearly 270,000-square-foot facility makes fresh stuffed pasta and sauces under the Buitoni brand. Under terms of the agreement, Rana will distribute and market the pasta and sauces throughout Europe, Middle East and North Africa. Nestlé, meanwhile, will distribute the Buitoni brand pasta and sauces in Italy and Spain, the companies said.

Barilla launches Blu1877 The Barilla Group, Parma, Italy, has launched a venture capital fund and innovation hub called Blu1877. The name of the initiative reflects the color of Barilla’s product packaging as well as the year the family-owned pasta company began business. Blu1877 will provide investments and nurture innovations at a state-of-the-art pilot plant owned by Barilla, which has a 40% share in the Italian pasta market. Companies that work with the group will be able to test concepts in small-batch production runs. They will also be able to access the company’s extensive food industry expertise through a virtual network. Areas of interest include bakery products, pastas, condiments, sustainable diets, fruit-based products, the Mediterranean diet and meal solutions. Professional


January/March 2018

we take

pasta to heart Since 1925 we have taken pasta to heart and we have made our contribution to global development and sustainability learn more about our commitment at

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pa sta’s friends In Us, millennial views of grain-based foods take shape

Bühler AG appoints new grain milling sales manager

In an exploration of how millennial consumers’ purchasing patterns differ from older generations, the Usda discovered that this generation devotes a smaller share of its food expenditures on grains than the three older generations probed in the survey. Overall, the grains category in 2014 accounted for 9.6% of millennial (consumers born between 1981 and 1996) spending on food at home, versus 10.4, 11.3 and 10.7%, for Gen X’ers (born 1965-1980), baby boomers (1946-64) and traditionalists (born pre-1946), respectively. The spread for pasta was particularly strong. Pasta accounts for 4.1% of food at home spending for millennials, versus 2.9% for traditionalists. Spending on pasta declined among millennials as income levels increased. In general, the millennials were more predisposed toward processed foods than older generations.

Martin Ellegast has been named manager of sales and marketing for the grain milling business unit of Bühler AG. He holds an engineering degree in mechanical engineering/process engineering and an Executive Mba. During his studies at the University of Applied Sciences in Constance, he became acquainted with Bühler as an intern and wrote his thesis about the company. He has been permanently employed at Bühler since 2005. Ellegast got to know the company from the bottom up, first in project management in grain milling, then in Bühler Yokohama / Japan during a two-year stay abroad, followed by sales for England and South Asia. In 2015, he took over the management of the bakery and ingredient Martin Ellegast handling business unit. As manager of sales and marketing for grain milling Ellegast will combine his knowledge of a graduated engineer with his Mba skills in marketing and sales in an ideal way.

Vegan options are set to increase Consumer concern about processed foods, and the desire for natural produce has led to consumers adding more fruit and vegetables to their diet. Lactose has also received negative press, linked with digestive issues. This makes clean label vegan foods attractive to health-conscious consumers; observes GlobalData, a leading data and analytics company. GlobalData research from the first quarter of 2017, has found that 3% of the British population now describe themselves as vegan, compared with 0.8% in 2014. In the Us the difference is even bigger: 5.5% of Americans now claim to eat vegan, compared with 1% in 2014.

Indofood to build new flour mill in Indonesia Indofood Sukses Makmur, one of Indonesia’s largest food companies and the country’s largest integrated flour miller, plans to build a new flour mill in Cibitung (West Java) for the company’s Bogasari milling unit. Construction of the new mill will allow the company to mill 200,000 tonnes more flour per year. Bogasari currently operates two flour mills in Indonesia, one in Jakarta and one in Surabaya (East Java), with grinding capacity of 10,450 and 6,000 tonnes per day, respectively.

Campbell to close Toronto Soup Plant Campbell Soup Co. in Camden (New Jersey, Us), plans to close its soup and broth manufacturing facility in Toronto to improve the operational efficiency of its North American thermal supply chain network. Campbell will also move its Canadian headquarters and commercial operations to a new location in the greater Toronto area. Significant productivity improvements and volume declines of canned soup in North America led to the decision to cease operations at the facility. Soup and broth production will be moved to the company’s existing plants in Maxton, North Carolina; Napoleon, Ohio and Paris, Texas.




January/March 2018

Hall 3 Stand C12

Product ion t echniques

Pasta static drying process




January/March 2018

Product ion t echniques

Criteria to technically manage it by The experts of Professional Pasta


he static drying process of pasta is probably the most popular stabilization method of this product, since small and medium homemade discontinuous systems are much more common and widely-spread that industrial continuous plants. Stabilization means that by lowering pasta water content below a given limit value (for the Italian legislation and general weather conditions of planet Earth, this limit is 12.5% on the product mass), pasta having a water content residue below that value maintains its biochemical, chemical and physical characteristics unchanged over time, also including its organoleptic characteristics that are directly related to properties perceived on a sensorial level (colour, smell and taste).

If dried pasta is stored in a humid environment, its stability will be threatened

January/March 2018



The “time� parameter for dried pasta stability depends on variables that may somehow modify the balance that has been reached with a given water percentage (12.5%). What does this mean? For instance, if dried pasta is stored in a very humid environment, the 12.5% specific stability limit of residual water will inevitably be exceeded and the biochemical balance that has been reached through the drying process will be threatened, as well as its stability. What is biochemical balance? Any microbial and enzymatic activity that needs water - even in very small quantities - is inhibited and blocked, and therefore nothing significant will occur in relation to pasta chemical and physical profile determined by its drying process, which is very different from fresh pasta drying process (moist). Certainly, it may seem that this principle is then explained in a very simple way, but it is by doing so that it can be easily understood.

Residual moisture In a nutshell, I will try and explain another aspect which is certainly not secondary, i.e. the concept of residual



Product ion t echniques

moisture. In dried pasta, this concept is meaningful, but it does not say all or not enough. In order to be more precise, the quantity of available water for the above-mentioned biochemical activities - both microbiological and enzymatic - should be specified. In fact, if residual moisture is below 12.5%, activities will be inhibited; as a matter of fact, this result is achieved because of a specific condition according to which those 12.5 grams of water still present in 100 grams of dried pasta are not “free”, and therefore not “available” for biological activities of microorganisms nor for chemical activities of enzymes. In fact, the residual water contained in dried pasta is “owned exclusively” by the product structure, in particular by its protein matrix made of gluten.


Dried pasta is a sort of “dry desert” in which bacteria cannot be active So? Well - for those biochemical actions that might change the product stability over time - it is as if there was no residual water at all. Dried pasta is a sort of “dry desert” in which bacteria, fungi, yeasts and enzymes cannot survive and if they do, they do it only lying latent, since they cannot be active. This introduction might seem long and pointless to some, but actually, it is important not only to know why pasta gets dry, but also to understand how the drying process Professional


shall be technically and, above all, functionally managed. Properly and consciously, to be perfectly clear.

Technological stages The actual “stages” of the pasta drying process are essentially four (1): 1. The heating of pasta and the increase in the air relative humidity inside the dryer; 2. The pre-drying of pasta - Pasta humidity is lower than its starting value, which has already dropped by losing water during the “heating” stage, up to 22-21%, with pasta average temperature between approximately 40-45 °C during this stage. Pre-drying is not a particularly critical stage, but it shall be properly carried out, that is to say with suitable parameters for temperature, January/March 2018

Product ion t echniques The characteristics of the static dryer

relative humidity, ventilation and time. If pasta temperature values are lower than those stated above, there will be no pre-drying (technologically speaking), but only a partial pasta dehydration that will have a negative impact on the following drying stage; 3. Drying - This stage asks for a substantial change in the dryer operating parameters - still within the above-mentioned humidity and temperature values. The reason being that, below the above mentioned humidity level (22-21%) and with product temperature between 40-45 °C, the physical state of pasta gradually changes, going from “plastic” to “elastic”. Pasta dehydration (drying) in its “elastic” state is very critical and if dryer operating parameters are not suitable, pasta will unavoidably crack, will become fragile and will break up. The drying stage will be definitely completed when the product reaches a residual moisture level between 12.5 -12.7% approximately; 4. Stabilization of the dried product (residual moisture <12.5%). At this stage, water residual particles


are evenly re-distributed in dried pasta over the whole mass, thus avoiding any differences in moisture concentrations among product layers (from outer to inner layers). If this redistribution does not take place and different moisture concentrations remain “frozen” in the dry product, pasta can break up even a few days or weeks later, and even inside the package or its structure may become fragile and pasta will inevitably break up while being cooked in the pot.



At this stage, before analyzing each single step, it is necessary to explain something about the design and functional characteristics of the static dryer. There are quite a few old static dryers, e.g. those that were directly designed sic et simpliciter after traditional dryers used to dry fruit and vegetables. These tools are not relevant when it comes to pasta drying process; therefore, they should be updated or replaced. The efficiency of a pasta static dryer mainly depends on: • the heat generator and exchanger; • the distribution of hot air inside. Its intensity shall be adjusted to different product positioning levels (up, middle, down close to the floor); • the removal of excess humidity, that shall always take place in

With stabilization, water residual particles are re-distributed in dried pasta

January/March 2018


De Mari

Extrusion dies and equipment for the food industry 978.454.4099

Product ion t echniques

the lower part of the drying chamber, since the waste moist air (after releasing heat) is heavier and concentrates right there; • the right position of the probe that detects temperature and relative humidity, which is all too often and simplistically installed near the chamber ceiling, i.e. the least suitable place, since probe values will always be misleading compared to the actual hygrothermal situation inside the chamber. In the analysis of each stage, temperature and relative humidity data reported as an example, as well as ventilation and break times, are characteristic data of “low temperature” slow drying process. To be clear, with this technology, dried pasta quality completely depends on the quality of raw materials used in the dough (semolina quality) as well as on proper dough preparation, design accuracy and extruder functional quality.

The heating of pasta At this first stage, pasta is prepared for hygrothermal conditions that


Suitable environmental hygrothermal values are created inside the drying chamber, in order for the drying process to start properly



will occur inside and on its surface during the whole drying process. At the same time, suitable environmental hygrothermal values are created inside the drying chamber, in order for this drying process to start properly. Actually, during this stage, a first partial pasta dehydration takes also place, but this shall not be considered as relevant, in relation to the whole drying process and to the main goals of this stage: the heating of pasta and the increase in the relative humidity (RH) inside the dryer. With 6 kW thermal power and a standard performance of the heat exchange system, this stage lasts on average from 40 to 60 minutes, depending on the pasta load in the dryer chamber, size, intensity/speed of hot air inside at the three pasta position levels (up, middle, down close to the floor). This applies both to short pasta, distributed on looms, and long pasta, distributed and hung on racks, even if in this case one should consider a larger free volume for air circulation inside the chamber. With temperature set at 55-60 °C, the actual pasta temperature (in case of no pre-heating before putting it into the dryer) gradually (and slowly) October/December 2017

product ion t echniques

Ventilation If, as it is often the case, pasta is ventilated at just 35-40 °C at the beginning of the process or even less, as some pasta makers do,


Diagram 1


Values in joule

Temperature of humid air inside the static dryer

Diagram 2

Values in grams/cubic meter of air

increases, if compared to pasta factory temperature, reaching about 40 °C during the first half an hour, up to approximately 45-48 °C once this stage is over. This is due to water evaporating quickly from pasta surface and from the outer layer, thus causing two side effects: 1. the increase in the air absolute humidity (2) inside the drying chamber; 2. the simultaneous partial heat loss in the pasta inner layers. The reason being that - by evaporating only from the surface of the mass containing it, by the laws of physics water exchanges thermal energy (heat) from the inner part of the mass. This phenomenon is called “latent heat of vaporization(3)” and is almost always neglected by pasta makers, even if it is important. As described in the second part of the article that will soon be published, during pre-drying and drying stages, the latent heat of vaporization may have a negative impact on the thermal energy (heat) that is inside pasta. In fact, the drying dynamics completely depends on the enthalpy (4) of the drying system, in which thermal energy related to pasta is extremely important. diagrams 1 and 2 display and underline the differences in thermal energy in the moist air inside the drying chamber in relation to temperature and air humidity related to temperature. Moreover, diagram 2 displays vapour masses (in grams) for each cubic meter of dry air inside the drying chamber, always according to temperature and relative humidity value taken as a reference.


Vapor weight in g/cubic meter with RH 50% Vapor weight in g/cubic meter with RH 75% Vapor weight in g/cubic meter with RH 90%

Temperature of humid air inside the static dryer

the heat of pasta inner layers will remain approximately at initial environmental values. Therefore, ventilation actually increases the air relative humidity inside the chamber, but the thermal energy in the pasta inner layers remains low, far too low for the following dehydration processes to occur according to a suitable dynamics. In practice, the whole technological Professional


If pasta is ventilated at 35-40 °C inner layers will remain at initial environmental values process is uselessly slowed down and - above all - potentially damaged. With such low temperature, pasta will go on evaporating on the January/March 2018

New technology to obtain the

full potential of raw materials


Product ion t echniques

surface, but in smaller and smaller quantities, since water in inner layers will have too low thermal energy to move towards the surface and, subsequently, surface evaporation will not be suitable for actually increasing the air absolute humidity inside the chamber, an essential condition to efficiently and properly control the following “pre-drying” stage. Pasta makers think that this slow start of the process is useful for pasta final quality, but they make a mistake, since - on the contrary - the original

potential quality of semolina is subject to deterioration, in particular due to the inevitable enzyme greying, but also to the microbiological risk that potentially comes from it. With heating temperature at 55-60 °C (and possibly some degrees higher for sizes having an unfavorable mass/surface ratio and/or high thickness), the initial evaporation is more intense, the air inside the chamber quickly integrates vapour, thus increasing its absolute humidity (AH), while relative humidity (RH)

soon reaches high values, close to saturated vapor pressure. Therefore, water evaporation from pasta surface decreases, in favor of thermal energy in its mass, which is less involved in the “latent heat of vaporization” process, bearing also in mind that moist air transports and transfers more heat than dry air. During this stage, it is not necessary (actually, it may be counter-productive) to introduce long breaks in the ventilation process, and therefore in the air-pasta heat exchange; small breaks will do (4-6 minutes max. repeated every 20-25 minutes of total ventilation for both air circulation directions) in order to allow air moist to be redistributed and concentrate in the free spaces among overlapped looms or in the spaces between supporting racks of long pasta curtains. From what has been said, it appears that during heating (stage 1), moist air shall not be extracted from the drying chamber, and therefore RH value shall be set at 90%. At the end of this stage - and under standard conditions reported at the beginning of this article this moment should reasonably occur about 40-60 minutes after the process has started (depending on pasta size), suitable parameters for the pre-drying process can be set. The experts of Professional Pasta

Notes (1) Contrary to popular belief, pasta static drying process is more delicate and critical than the one that takes place inside continuous dryers - which is only conceptually similar. In continuous (and automatic) plants, pasta transport allows it to progressively go through environments with specific hygrothermal conditions for each of the four stages, that can continuously be managed along the path inside the plant. In terms of design and construction, the machinery setting up turns out to be more complicated, but technologically speaking, its control is simplified compared to a static dryer. In fact, in a static dryer,


the pasta static condition in the only environment in which all process stages take place, makes the setting and control of technological parameters more critical. (2) Air absolute humidity inside a static dryer is water vapor density in its mass/air mass ratio. Absolute humidity (AH) changes depending on air temperature inside the dryer and ambient atmospheric pressure. (3) The quantity of energy exchanged through heating during the state transition of a substance is defined as “latent heat” in thermodynamics.



“Latent heat of vaporization” means the exchange of thermal energy that occurs during the transition of a liquid into a gas (vapor). In this case, it is the energy exchange (heat) related to pasta evaporation surface and its inner layers. (4) Enthalpy is a state function of a thermodynamic system that indicates the measure defined by the system inner energy in relation to volume and pressure. For pasta drying, the enthalpy considered is the one of moist air, that is to say the sum of dry air enthalpy and the vapor associated to it.

January/March 2018



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Herbs & spices

Small ingredients that make a big difference The expert suggestions for pasta producers by Elio Di Curzio President of Di Curzio Fine Ingredients for the Food Industry


few grams per thousand of all you eat: this is the average quantity of herbs, spices, and aromatic blends used in general food products. If we’re only considering weight, then it would be true to say spices and herbs are rather insignificant. It’s therefore understandable that purchasing and QA managers may prefer to focus on “heavier” ingredients such as flour, cheese, and meat, whilst relegating the importance of herbs and spices to the point where only their price and conformity to health and safety regulations are taken into account. Such an approach, however, is mistaken. It would be as if we




January/March 2018

Herbs & spices

decided to value a perfume based on the shape and attractiveness of its container, rather than its actual fragrance. Here is why we’d be so mistaken with regards to herbs and spices.

About the aroma… An often-cited fact is that 60% of consumers choose their food according to its aroma. Bakers know this all too well, as they let the fragrance of their freshly-baked bread to waft through the air to bring in new customers. Coffee-shop owners, furthermore, are well aware of the importance of smell,

fearing that they may lose their longstanding and loyal customers if they changed their standard, “boring”, coffee that they’ve been using for years. The principal reason why we use herbs and spices is to improve the aroma and flavour of the foods we eat. With this in mind, their aromatic and functional properties should

Herbs, spices and their blends are widely used in fresh pasta fillings

be the first parameters by which we value them, determining their strength and consistency over time. The effect on the final products and the congruity of the price paid to the suppliers hinge on these important parameters. The cost of good quality herbs and spices, whilst often considered high on account of their weight ratio in final products, is never going to break the bank. Wiley businesses, indeed, can even save money by buying higher quality herbs and spices for their food products. Herbs and spices can only contribute fully to food products, and end up saving money for businesses, if they are authentic and properly processed. This is a topic that we shall return to time and again during the course of our column, if only for the fact that herbs and spices have ranked as the most adulterated foodstuffs in the EU over the past few years.

The food safety of the end-products Aside from the obvious benefits to flavour and aroma, using higher quality herbs and spices may also have a positive impact on the food safety of the end-products. No need to mention the Sudan Red scandal of years ago, or the clamour of the recent market recalls of foods containing adulterated oregano: to understand how vital the correct assessment of the risks related to spices and herbs is, one should bear in mind where these products are grown and harvested: their environmental conditions are often, though not always, those depicted in photos in the next page. One may contend that this is already happening: nowadays all manufacturers have in place watertight systems and checks to prevent ingredients bringing food contaminants into their final January/March 2018




Herbs & spices

In some areas of the world, peppercorns are processed like in this picture: hence the importance of the steam sterilization before marketing the product

products. After all, spice suppliers are increasingly regulated and are bound to provide extensive documentation to attest to their safety. By experience, this is not always true: sometimes manufacturers’ attention is prompted more by factors of

Peppercorns drying under the sun, at the mercy of birds spreading pathogens like salmonella

little or no impact, like allergens contaminating spices, and less by others, like some pathogens, which are the big ones responsible for food-borne diseases recorded each year throughout the world. In a nutshell, we all live today under the prevailing tyranny

of the part per billion: hence, small ingredients are no longer such, and it is time to give them a closer look. Efficient procurement and food safety demand it. Elio Di Curzio

Di Curzio - Fine Ingredients for the Food Industry -

Authentic spices and herbs at Cibus 2018


regano, pepper, and nutmeg are quite much used in fillings and sauces for pasta. Unfortunately, amongst all herbs and spices, they are also the most frequently adulterated or manipulated ones, probably because of their substantial economic value. An educational seminar on the value of authenticity and on the risks related to the adulteration of herbs and spices will be held on May 9th at Cibus in Parma (Italy): this event, sponsored by Kutas, the world leader in Mediterranean herbs, is specifically tailored to the needs of the food production companies and will offer serviceable answers the following questions: 1) why adulteration? 2) what risks do food companies take? 3) how can adulteration be detected and avoided? The full program of the seminar is at the address

Pasta with shirimps and oregano




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Corn pasta is linked to the struggle against aflatoxins




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This Aflatox study opens new opportunities for the development of aflatoxin inhibitors

by Dominga Rogolino, Mauro Carcelli, Giorgio Pelosi, Franco Bisceglie, Francesco Maria Restivo, Francesca Degola, Annamaria Buschini, Donatella Feretti, Claudia Zani Parma and Brescia University (Italy)


he presence, in corn and other cereals, of molds that can produce mycotoxins is a serious problem from an health and economic point of view. In particular environmental conditions, such as hot and humid weather, these molds, especially Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria genera, proliferate and may lead to the production of secondary metabolites - mycotoxins - which are hazardous to human and animal health since they are hepatotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic. Food security and preservation are therefore ongoing concerns: it is estimated that about 40% of the food produced worldwide is lost or spoiled. More efficient farming practices are required and, as a consequence, agrochemicals have become essential to protect the plants from pests, diseases and weeds, and to improve the production of crops.

Flours & pasta Aflatoxins can contaminate a wide variety of important agricultural products, such as corn and wheat, and strict thresholds are imposed for food consumption since mycotoxin contamination is at the origin not only of mutagenic and theratogenic effects but also of estrogenic, gastroenteric, renal and hepatic disorders. Aflatoxins persist also in processed products, like milk or cheese, and therefore represent a great risk for January/March 2018




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Some of the researchers of the group on the Aflatox study: From the left, standing: Mauro Carcelli, Nicolò Orsoni, Giorgio Pelosi, Jennifer Bartoli, Marianna Pioli, Annamaria Buschini, Donatella Feretti, Francesco Maria Restivo, Francesca Degola. In the front: Dominga Rogolino and Claudia Zani

human health. All kinds of crops are at risk: aflatoxins may contaminate various food and feed commodities (cereals, soybeans, dried fruits, etc.). Some of them, such as flour, are used in the manufacture of a great numbers of products, causing a high risk of contamination for a wide range of foods (from bakery products to milk and cheeses). Contamination of flour, both corn and wheat, is therefore a very high level of health risk. Corn is highly subjected to contamination, due to climate conditions favorable to pre-harvest mould proliferation. Much attention in recent years has been devoted to mycotoxin contamination of corn, since it is widely used not


only in zootechnical application but also in the production of glutenfree products, whose consumption is rapidly growing. Corn pasta is probably the most widespread glutenfree pasta suitable for celiacs and is usually produced with corn flour from organic farming. Moreover, it is often consumed by those who want to change their own feeds with products other than the classic wheat products. In fact, consumers are increasingly paying more attention to introduce alternatives to grain into their diet to make it richer and less monotonous. But this could lead a higher risk to come in contact with mycotoxin and aflatoxin in particular. Professional


Great risk for corn Principle contaminants are aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A, respectively classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as human carcinogens (group 1) and possible carcinogen to humans (group 2B). Other mycotoxins have been detected, for example, in wheat, including deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, nivalenol and others Fusarium toxins. All the conditions of stress, both climatic (summer drought) and agronomic ones, contribute to increase the content of mycotoxins. Recent studies pointed out an increased risk of contamination for corn, as a result of the climate changes in progress. January/March 2018

Hau t e cuisine

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Flour and other raw materials used for the pasta production can also be contaminated with aflatoxin, producing fungi and aflatoxin itself. One aspect that is recently receiving great attention is the different level of maximum daily mycotoxin intake for children and adults, with a particular focus on pasta, cake, biscuits and bread. The amount of mycotoxins found in pasta and cerealbased food normally complies with the limit prescribed by law, but there are products containing high levels of mycotoxin, often deoxynivalenol, and they are therefore not suitable for prolonged use for children, who are likely to take a daily dose higher than the tolerable threshold, even by eating products perfectly in line with the regulations. Prevention is the strategy of choice to manage the problem that, in the presence of contaminants, is otherwise very difficult to overcome.


For producers, the only way is to implement good agronomic practices and to look at the products that the research has developed in recent years. The direct control of fungi and bacteria by using synthetic pesticides is still the most effective way to intervene, but their extensive use generates long term residues in food and in the environment. Concerns on food safety and environmental health, combined with the global issue of emerging resistant pest strains, make urgent to develop novel crop-protective agents.

Bioactive natural sources In this scenario, the exploitation of bioactive natural sources to obtain new agents with novel modes of actions may represent an innovative, successful strategy to minimize at the same time bacterial and fungal proliferation, and the use of harmful pesticides. The development of novel compounds Professional


Corn pasta is the most widespread gluten-free pasta that incorporate natural molecules, known to be mould proliferation inhibitors, and endogenous metal ions, to inhibit aflatoxin production and fungal germination is the core of an ongoing research founded by Cariplo Foundation (http://www. and carried out by a group of researchers of the University of Parma, together with a research group of the University of Brescia (Italy). The project is intended to modify naturally occurring molecules that are already known for their antifungal performances, trying to increase their activity by exploiting the interaction (coordination) with metal ions, such as copper, that is widely used in January/March 2018

Dal 1978 produce macchine professionali per la pasta, interamente made in Italy, ad uso di laboratori e industrie del settore. Progetti esclusivi, studiati e sviluppati internamente per realizzare pasta di ogni tipo nel nome della facilità d'utilizzo, della qualità e della genuinità del prodotto finale. P2 PLEASURE is much more than a combined machine and it can be described as a complete workshop for pasta professionals,“tailor-made" for meeting all the production needs. P2 PLEASURE, in its basic version includes: single vat, automatic sheeter and ravioli unìt. It can also be supplied with double vat , as well as with double vat with extruder suitable to produce all kinds of short and long shapes of extruded pasta, by simply changing the extruding die. The ravioli unit equipped with ìnterchangeable moulds carries out the production of different shapes and dimensions of pre-cut ravioli.

imperia & monferrina SOCIETA’ PER AZIONI

Divisione La Monferrina: S.S. n. 457 - Via Statale 27/A - I - 14033 Castell'Alfero AT Tel.: +39.0141 276002 -

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agriculture as antifungal. In a work, recently published in the journal Scientific Report ( articles/s41598-017-11716-w), vanillin and some of its derivatives have been taken under study. A panel of molecules and their copper complexes have been analyzed for the ability not only to inhibit the germination of A. flavus, but also to block toxin production. These new potential

antifungals are based on a class of molecules, the thiosemicarbazones, known also for their antiviral, anticancer and antibacterial properties.

The Italian study Some of these new compounds showed effective aflatoxigenic inhibition (up to 90% reduction of aflatoxin accumulation for the best hit), still maintaining a moderate

Scanning Electron Microscopy image of A. flavus reproduction structure


fungistatic activity. This lastest aspect is particularly important. Indeed, the prevalent economic and sanitary issue posed by A. flavus colonization of cereal crops is essentially dependent on mycotoxin release by the mould on the contaminated substrate rather than to a plant pathogenic effect. Specifically targeting the aflatoxin biosynthetic apparatus of A. flavus, by using a compound

A. flavus infected caryopsis



January/March 2018


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with generic fungistatic activity as low as possible, may avoid possible deleterious outcomes due to unwanted modification of the microbiota composition in the environment. In the scientific literature, it is claimed that metal complexation leads to species more active than the corresponding ligand in term of both fungistatic and aflatoxigenic profile. This is also the case of the copper derivatives tested in this study. However, in the development of cropprotective agents, it is not sufficient to obtain efficient aflatoxigenic inhibitors, but at the same time risks for humans, animals and plants must be taken into account. Fungal and aflatoxigenic inhibitors have to be used in agriculture and, obviously, they have to be safe for the operators and for the environment. Thus, a screening of the cytotoxicity of the most active compounds in term of aflatoxin inhibition was performed over a panel of human cell lines. Three cell lines derived from colon, skin and lung tissues plus one tumoral cell line were taken into consideration. These cell lines were chosen to represent the different routes of exposure by which this kind of chemicals can come in contact and/or enter human bodies, i.e. epidermal contact, inhalation

The research group of University of Brescia at work in the microbiological laboratories

and ingestion. Only one of the tested compound has a good cytotoxicity profile, while, unfortunately, all the copper complexes showed important cytotoxicity already at low concentration, and cannot be further evaluated. However, one hit was selected for analysis of mutagenicity and genotoxicity on bacteria, plants and human cells. The mutagenic action of a hit compound, in fact, has to be carefully evaluated for the development of new agrochemicals safe for the environment and human

health. The hit identified by the research group joins interesting fungistatic and antiaflatoxigenic activities, with a good cytotoxic profile and it seems a promising starting point for the development of efficient crop-protective agents. However, further studies are ongoing, because deeper assessments on its genotoxity on human cells and plants highlighted possible chromosomal aberrations induction. In conclusion, it is possible to observe that the thiosemicarbazone scaffold seems to be a promising chemotype for the development of aflatoxin inhibitors. Moreover, attention has to be paid when searching for efficient aflatoxin inhibitors, in particular of metal complexes, to assess the genotoxic potential risks of these substances for environmental and human health. D. Rogolino, M. Carcelli, G. Pelosi, F. Bisceglie, F. M. Restivo, F. Degola, A. Buschini, D. Feretti, C. Zani This study was supported by a grant from “Fondazione Cariplo� (Project N. 2014-0555;




January/March 2018

supplier news

Storci Pasta Center is made for customers’ tests


et’s start with Storci Pasta Center Training & Research: it is located in Italy, in Ferrara countryside. Here machines are designed and tests are carried out inside a real pasta making factory, that is Pasta di Canossa.

The Training center is basically an instrument made available for all those customers who would like to see at first hand Storci’s technology and try new recipes and products using varied raw materials.

Storci Pasta Center

January/March 2018



It is a permanent Training center and being also a pasta making factory, is equipped with an Omnialine and an Instant Pasta production unit. Tests - using standard pasta as well as gluten-free pasta - can be carried out. What’s more is that drying process analysis can be done into the Training center along with assessments for improving very special shapes cutting. The customer is discreetly supported and reassured, while he is planning his own investment, with full transparency. This is why Storci is often linked to the customization concept, that means modifying a product or a service to specific requirements, meeting all customers’ demands and expectations. This is undoubtedly a value-added factor.


supplier news


Bühler achieves strong profitable growth

017 was a successful year for the Bühler Group which has its global headquarters in Uzwil, Switzerland. It organically increased its order intake by 10% to Chf 2.8 billion, its turnover by 9% to Chf 2.7 billion, and its earnings before interest and tax by 18% to Chf 205 million. As of year end, its order backlog amounted to Chf 1.7 billion (+9%). «Our innovation power

provides the basis for this positive development of our organisation», said Ceo Stefan Scheiber. These results mirror Bühler’s positioning as a provider of integrated process solutions for sustainable mobility and healthy food. «In 2017, this clear focus has enabled us to continue to expand our technology and market positions and to further increase our competitiveness», he went on.

Both Bühler businesses contributed to this strong growth. Grains & Food increased its order intake and turnover by 7% to Chf 2.1 billion and Chf 2.0 billion, respectively. Advanced Materials boosted its order intake by 21% to Chf 672 million and its turnover by 19% to Chf 640 million. Growth was also strong in the service business and the business for single machines, which together now

Bühler Group Ceo Stefan Scheiber




January/March 2018

supplier news

New production site in Changzhou, China

account for 32% of total turnover. Market share gains were achieved in particular by milling, feed, optical sorting, aluminium die casting, and

optical coatings. In regional terms, order intake growth was especially pronounced in the Middle East & Africa (+48%) and Asia (+18%).

Bühler service engineer in Ruanda

January/March 2018



Bühler also further expanded its global production network. The focus here was on the opening of the new factory in Changzhou, China, which serves as a global manufacturing and R&D centre for animal feed production systems. The company celebrated the groundbreaking of its innovation campus in Uzwil (Cubic) in September 2017. The innovation campus is made up of two elements: the updated technology labs and the new innovation building. The campus is scheduled to open in the first quarter of 2019. Bühler faces the future with confidence. For the current fiscal year, the group expects to continue its present profitable growth path. «Our market foundations are sound. With our leading technologies and solutions we intend to achieve above-average performance in 2018 as well» Scheiber concluded.




Ipack-Ima warm up their engines

he forthcoming exhibitions Ipack-Ima and Meat-Tech 2018, the two events organised by Ipack-Ima Srl, were presented to exhibitors on Monday 5 February at the Club House in the Fiera Milano exhibition centre. Riccardo Cavanna and Domenico Lunghi, respectively Chairman and Managing Director of Ipack-Ima Srl, outlined the new features of the programme to the more than 100 people present. The 2018 edition will mark a turning point for the two shows, which are set to be larger, more international in scope and packed with more innovative content than ever before.

The showcased sectors A few months before the shows are due to begin, more than 90% of the exhibition space has been assigned to leading Italian and international companies. The two events are growing in terms of both occupied space and number of exhibitors. Ipack-Ima in particular will extend over eight halls divided up according to exhibitor business communities or the specific types of products. Halls 1 and 3 will be devoted to technologies, materials and accessories for the pasta, bakery, milling and confectionary industries. The presence of leading Italian and international companies confirms Ipack-Ima’s position as the most important exhibition in the world for this sector. In the adjacent halls 5-7, visitors will have a chance to


discover the latest new products for food processing and packaging, with a special focus on fresh & convenience. Offerings will also include machinery, equipment and devices relevant to different product sectors. Technologies for labelling, coding & tracking will be located in hall 14 while companies operating in the end-ofline stage will occupy halls 6 and 10, complemented by the products showcased at Intralogistica Italia, the event devoted to internal logistics organised by Deutsche Messe and Ipack-Ima. All halls will showcase specific materials for the various Professional


business communities. The leading companies in the field of technologies for automation and robotics will also be present at Ipack-Ima.

Major themes The circular economy and sustainability will take centre stage in the space organised by Conai, while the products competing for the Packaging Oscar will be displayed in the area set up by the Italian Institute of Packaging. Digitisation and themes relating to e-commerce will be discussed at a conference organised in January/March 2018


collaboration with the Italian e-commerce consortium Netcomm. The appointment follows on from the successful event organised in late January. The exhibition companies will showcase solutions specially designed for sale through digital channels. Other transversal themes that will be explored through dedicated events and product offerings will include anticounterfeiting and serialisation in the food, fashion and personal care sectors. Production specifications for “free from” food and sanitary design, own brands and private labels will also be amongst the offerings targeted at food and beverage industry companies.

Exhibition 2.0 B2B meetings will be organised as part of an innovative online matching platform called My Matching, which will allow for a high level of user profiling and will make suggestions for meetings. Another tool that is already facilitating meetings between exhibitors and visitors is the smart catalogue. This innovative online catalogue combines

the classic information provided in trade fair catalogues with the information published by companies on their web channels. It also integrates seamlessly with promotional activities conducted through the two exhibitions’ official social channels on Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn.

The Innovation Alliance Ipack-Ima and Meat-Tech will also benefit from being held concurrently with the other exhibitions in The Innovation Alliance, namely Plast, Print4All and Intralogistica Italia, which together will occupy a net exhibition space of more than 140,000 square metres extending over almost the entire Rho-Fiera Milano exhibition centre. The Innovation Alliance is also expecting around 1,000 selected buyers who have been invited to the five trade fairs with the support of the Italian Ministry for Economic Development and the Italian Trade Agency ITA. In particular, Ipack-Ima and Meat-Tech will host buyers from Europe, Africa, the Middle East, South America

and the United States. The recently initiated pre-registration process is also seeing excellent results with an increase in the number of professionals applying for entrance tickets. These results owe much to the intense international promotional campaign carried out in recent years, including participation in around 50 exhibitions worldwide, 5 press conferences organised in major markets, partnerships with 230 Italian and international publishers, activities on social networks and partnerships with associations and international organisations, all of which have generated more than 1 million contacts. The quality of these activities and the importance of the exhibition as an international showcase for companies has been endorsed by the US Commercial Department Certification, the prestigious Trade Fair Certification (TFC) granted exclusively to international exhibitions capable of offering US companies access to expanding markets with excellent business opportunities and export growth potential.

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