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LEARNING = OBSERVABLE, EXTERNAL BEHAVIORS Skinner: Operant conditioning – use rewards & punishments to change behavior Anything can be taught if the environment is structured to teach the desired behaviors

Behavioral Rules    

Follow behavior with rewards and behavior will increase Follow behavior with withdrawal of negative consequence and behavior will increase Follow behavior with negative consequence and behavior will decrease When reinforcements diminish, so does the frequency of behavior

LEARNING = INTERNAL PROCESS mind operations, memory, attitudes, motivation, etc. INFORMATION-PROCESSING: the senses and brain follow a set of rules/patterns and learning can be facilitated if we understand those rules/patterns. SEMANTIC NETWORKS: the brain is like a spiderweb or network and all learning is based on and connected to prior knowledge  Assimilation – new information is modified to fit the existing knowledge  Accommodation – existing knowledge is modified to accept the new knowledge SCHEMA THEORY: collections of knowledge, ie. Home, school, shopping, work, etc. Perception & Attention • competing stimuli • info must be easy to receive • design affects attention • contrast attracts attention



• transform inforamtio n for storing in the brain • completme ntary codes

• organizatio n • show natural organizat ion • imposed (mnemo nics, songs, etc). • repetition • drill & practice


Active Learning

• Info is interpreted and integrated • Comprehen d and apply

• learn by doing • Gavora & Hannafin • physical/ mental • how much effort? • auto or intention al? • extent of learning?

Motivation • • • •

Intrinsic Extrinsic Macro Micro • Keller: ARCS • Attention • Relevanc e • Confiden ce • Satisfacti on

Locus of Control • Control of instruction al factors • learner • program • combinat ion

Mental Models • working memory


Learning over teaching Learner actions are more important than teacher actions Active learning Construct information and projects Situated cognition and anchored instruction Cooperative & Collaborative Authentic activities Learner choice, control, and evaluation Reflection Ownership Real world application & complexity Personally relevant, build on prior knowledge


Transfer of Learning

Individual Differences

• aware of own cognition • remind learners to stop & reflect

• Apply knowledge in real world

• Match learners with appropriat e lessons • learning style • cognitive style

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Learning Theories  

A brief overview of behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism.

Learning Theories  

A brief overview of behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism.