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INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNER’S

IDT 8070: Instructional Design Process Angela Christopher Fall 2009 University of Memphis Reference Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., & Kemp, J. E. (200_). Designing effective instruction (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Instructional Design Job Aids A. Christopher, Fall ‘09

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Guidelines for Suggested Use

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Identifying the Need for Instruction Needs Assessment Goal Analysis Performance Assessment

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Learner Analysis Contextual Analysis Task Analysis

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Instructional Objectives

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Test Items

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Sequencing

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Strategies

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Pre-instructional Strategies

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Instructional Design Job Aids A. Christopher, Fall ‘09

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FOR SUGGESTED USE The Instructional Designer’s Job Aids have been developed for user ease and according

to the Morrison, Ross and Kemp (MRK) model for instructional design (5th edition). The job aids serve to guide the instructional designer to develop training that will not only shorten training time but will also improve performance. The complete MRK ID model contains nine elements; all nine steps or elements are briefly described. The ID plan is presented as a step-by-step approach; it is possible however, that a designer may start the process anywhere on the continuum. It is also likely, that the designer will revisit some of the steps during the design process in order to ‘tweak’ the instruction. Each job aid is intended to provide the basic information and prompts for an experienced instructional designer. New designers may prefer to use or refer to the full MRK text.

Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., & Kemp, J.E. (2007). Designing effective instruction (5th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Instructional Design Job Aids A. Christopher, Fall ‘09

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Instructional Design Job Aids A. Christopher, Fall ‘09

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STEPS FOR IDENTIFYING A NEED FOR INSTRUCTION The KEY is correct identification of the problem!

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STEPS FOR CONDUCTING A NEEDS ASSESSMENT

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Goal analysis is used when a needs assessment is not realistic (financial or time factors). Goal analysis begins with the suggested problem or need. The need is assumed to exist and goals are developed to meet the need. It takes less time than needs analysis, has a more narrow focus and is designed to find a solution to the identified problem.

UPON COMPLETION OF THE GOAL ANALYSIS; MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TRAINING. Instructional Design Job Aids A. Christopher, Fall ‘09

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TIPS 

Causes of Performance Problems

Focus on the cause of the problem (do not be deterred by symptoms, treating symptoms will not cure an illness). Is instruction the right solution? (Training is not always the answer.)

Use interviews, observations, questionnaires, and focus groups to determine the cause for the performance problem.

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Conduct a learner analysis using interviews, document review, or survey.

        

Instructional Design Job Aids A. Christopher, Fall ‘09

Skills Computer Reading Level Math Abilities Attitudes Required attendance New method Background knowledge Previous Training

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ACADEMIC INFORMATION

LEARNING STYLES   

 

How: Auditory, visual? Sensory or Intuitive (external or internal?) Organization o Inductive (facts to principle) o Deductive (principle to fact) Process o Active (discuss) o Passive (reflect) Final Understanding

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Highest level of education GPA Test Scores Training

NON-CONVENTIONAL

PERSONAL AND/OR SOCIAL

LEARNER CHARACTERISTICS Determining which characteristics are important will depend on the nature of the instructional activities Cultural diversity (p. 59) Instructional Design Job Aids and when the variables could affect A. Christopher, Fall ‘09  Language barriers, the "design and delivery" of the examples, bias-free material.  Disabilities 

Age/maturity level

Ease of access (hearing,

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HOW TO: 1. Identify important contextual factors

D e f i n i t i o n : A contextual analysis provides the instructional designer with "information about environmental factors that will affect the design and delivery of the instruction." p. 68. Contextual analysis is the process used by the instructional designer to collect information about contextual variables that might inhibit or improve the learning experience.

(positive and negative). 2. Determine methods for data collection, design instrument and collect data Questionnaire:  Environment, perceptions & attitudes, opportunity & support  Available equipment in work stations  Training environment (site visit, request photos, etc.)  Is there a site coordinator?  What equipment/technology will be available?  Opportunities for application of new knowledge & skills? 3. Data analysis: determine if contextual factors inhibit or promote learning and plan accordingly.

CONDUCTING A CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS Orienting Context

Instructional Context

 ORIENTING CONTEXT: Reasons for participating in training? 

F u n cTransfer t i oContext n:

What are the learners' goals? What is REALLY motivating the learner participation?  Do the learners believe the training is necessary? What is the perceived value?  The contextual analysis and learner analysisIs there accountability for the learning?

are usually conducted simultaneously. Participants' learning

 INSTRUCTIONAL CONTEXT  TRANSFER CONTEXT and attitudes are improved when instruction is built around

 familiar Environmental contexts. Scrutiny of the instructional contextContinual application of new knowledge and skills. o provides aLighting background from which to design realistic Perception examples is of key importance (will this training help me do my job?). o noise and scenarios. o temperature  Create an engaging and comfortable learning o seating environment o accommodations  What is needed?  Scheduling (time of year & day; location, etc) p. 65 o appropriate tools and resources o equipment o opportunities o transportation o support

Conduct a contextual analysis with surveys, on-site visits, and/or interviews. Instructional Design Job Aids A. Christopher, Fall ‘09

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3 TECHNIQUES Key Points 

Work closely with the SME to identify and define content for instruction. Think from the learners’ perspective. Collect data. o Review the literature. o Interview SME. Develop a comprehensive outline for the instruction; include main topics and subtopics.

Note: More than one technique is often necessary and task analysis can be quite lengthy. Instructional Design Job Aids A. Christopher, Fall ‘09

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Topic Analysis IDENTIFIES THE CONTENT AND THE CONTENT STRUCTURE FOR THE INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT

o o o o o o

Facts Concepts Principles or Rules Procedures Interpersonal Skills Attitudes

How are the content and content structures related?

COGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE

Decide how much detail to include… o o o

Review the learner analysis Discuss with SME The final evaluation will allow for adjustments Instructional Design Job Aids A. Christopher, Fall ‘09

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Procedural Analysis COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIORAL STEPS NECESSARY TO COMPLETE THE TASKS - OBSERVABLE & NON-OBSERVABLE -

Key Points o Walk through all steps with SME (on location, if possible). o Outlines & flowcharts are helpful when record procedures. o Organize the procedures in a logical or linear sequence.

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Critical Incident ANALYZE VARIOUS APPROACHES TO A PROBLEM AND LOOK FOR DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW.

ALLOW COMMONALITIES TO DRIVE INSTRUCTION.

Primhoff (1973) suggested 2 questions… o Identify 3 instances of success. o Identify 3 instances of failure.

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D EFINITION : Identify knowledge and skills necessary to solve a performance problem.

3 F UNCTIONS : 1) Organize Instruction, 2) Guide the learner, 3)Provide framework to evaluate the learning.

D ESIGNING I NSTRUCTIONAL O BJECTIVES S TEP BY S TEP

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o COGNITIVE: knowledge, mental actions o PSYCHOMOTOR: physical, bodily actions o AFFECTIVE: attitudes & values

WRITING OBJECTIVES FOR EACH DOMAIN…

E XPANDED P ERFORMANCE -C ONTENT M ATRIX CONTENT Fact Concept Principle or Rule Procedure Interpersonal Attitude

PERFORMANCE Recall Basic association between things (memorization, recall) Group of similar facts Relationship between concepts Sequence of steps necessary to perform an action Verbal and non-verbal communication skills Beliefs and values

Application Generate examples or compare with others Provide or identify examples of a principle or rule. Explain rationale for the rule. Describe the process, outline the essential steps and relate them to the overall task. Explain the skills, recognize the presence of the skill in others, demonstrate in role-play. Expressed in an observable manner.

Instructional Design Job Aids A. Christopher, Fall ‘09

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I NSTRUCTIONAL O BJECTIVES

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D EFINITION : Test items evaluate the effectiveness of the instructional unit.

F UNCTIONS : Test items directly correspond with instructional objectives and provide a valid evaluation of learner mas tery. Depending on the instruction, test items may be formative, summative or a combination of both.

Key Points 

 

Test items evaluate the instructional objectives (I.O.). o Content o Type (knowledge, skills, attitude) I.O. verbs guide the test questions. The activity must match. Well written questions, provide a valid assessment of learner knowledge.

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W RITING T EST I TEMS S TEP BY S TEP -

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T ESTING K NOWLEDGE (C OGNITIVE O BJECTIVES ) M E TH O D

I N S T R UM E N TS & T I PS

O BJECTIVE T EST I TEMS

CONSTRUCTED/ OPEN RESPONSE ITEMS

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T ESTING S KILLS

AND

B EHAVIOR (B EHAVIORAL O BJECTIVES )

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T ESTING A TTITUDES (A FFECTIVE O BJECTIVES )

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D E F I N I T I O N : Sequencing instruction is the procedure in which the designer determines the order of instructional content.

F U N C T I O N : The designer decides on the sequence of instruction after the task analyzes and instructional objectives have been defined. The designer must consider the most efficient and effective way to present the content to the learner in order to maximize learning. The MRK Model details two methods for sequencing instruction: Posner & Strike, 1976 and English & Reigelut, 1996. The Posner & Strike method suggests arranging the content around naturally occurring phenomenon or elements. And English & Reigelut’s elaboration theory recommends basing the instructional sequence on the learner’s need to develop task expertise or concept expertise.

STEP

BY STEP:

1. Review the task analysis and use it as an outline for sequencing the content. 2. Look at the objectives grouped by type and performance necessary. 3. Choose the sequencing strategy appropriate for each objective.

POSNER & STRIKE LEARNING RELATED

WORLD RELATED

Student related

Identifiable prerequisite (#1 skill needed before #2) Familiarity (begin with known, move to less familiar) Difficulty (teach less complex before more difficult) Interest (start with most interesting) Development (make sure learner has reached appropriate developmental level prior to the next)

real world, events, people

Spatial (physical organization: top to

bottom, left to right) Temporal (chronological, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, fast to slow, alphabetical) Physical (physical similarities; shape, color, texture i.e. red wines)

CONCEPT RELATED

how people organize the world around them conceptually Class relations (teach the characteristics of the class or group before teaching the parts or members of the class) Propositional relations (show examples, then rule; shows relationships) Sophistication (start with simple; move to complex) Logical prerequisite (begin by teaching the skill necessary in order to understand the next)

ENGLISH & REIGELUTH; ELABORATION THEORY CONTENT EXPERTISE

TASK EXPERTISE

Start with the observable and move to the more complex.

Start with the simplest task and build to the more detailed and involved task.

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D E F I N I T I O N : a prescriptive approach to instruction; deliver methodology that will produce the best results based on the content.

F U N C T I O N : The MRK model suggests that learning occurs when meaningful relationships are formed between new information and pre-existing knowledge. Instructional strategies are effective when learners make new connections therefore, initial presentation of content as well as generative strategies are imperative to quality instruction. Attention to this stage of instructional design permits the designer to reliably predict learning.

STEP BY STEP 1. Use the expanded content-performance matrix to decide the content and performance type for each instructional objective. Classify each objective. 2. Assign an instructional strategy for each objective, based on its classification. Determine and write a description of prescriptive strategies for: a. Initial presentation of content b. Generative strategy (learner practice with content)

GENERATIVE STRATEGIES 4 strategies identified by Jonassen, (1988) outlined by MRK

Recall Facts, numbers, lists o Repetition o Rehearsal o Review o mnemonics

Integration Simplify the information o Paraphrase o Generate questions o Generate examples

Organization Make connections between new ideas and prior knowledge o Analyzing key ideas o Outline o Categorize o Create tables

Instructional Design Job Aids A. Christopher, Fall ‘09

Elaboration Learner adds own ideas to new information o Mental images o Create diagrams o Sentence elaborations

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INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

INITIAL PRESENTATION STRATEGY

GENERATIVE STRATEGY

Facts:

Experience with the object or fact. Use concrete representations. Concept name, definition and quality example followed by additional examples to further define the nuisances of the concept. 1. Rule followed by examples. 2. Examples presented and learner generates the rule.

Rehearsal-practice Elaboration Mnemonics Recall: use fact strategies Application: Integration (generate examples) and Organization strategies (key ideas, categorize‌) Recall: fact strategies (rehearsal or elaboration) Application: Integrative (paraphrase), organizational (identify key parts and compare), elaboration (create a diagram) Recall: rehearsal of steps, mnemonics Application: 1. paraphrase steps or elaborate 2. practice the procedure

the association between two things

Concepts:

groups of similar ideas or things

Principles & Rules: relationships between concepts

Procedures:

sequence of steps to accomplish a task

Cognitive: demonstration/modeling an example

Psychomotor: model/demonstrate task (preferably live or with motion).

Recall: fact strategies Application: 1. Learner is encouraged to develop mental pictures. 2. Practice

Interpersonal Skills:

development of communication skills

Present the model behavior (live demos, video, scenarios)

Attitudes:

Model the behavior

Recall: rehearsal of step names, mnemonics Application: 1. Create verbal and mental models 2. Mentally rehearse 3. Practice 1. Develop verbal and mental models. 2. Mental rehearsal 3. Practice

belief and related behaviors

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D E F I N I T I O N : The method by which the designer introduces the content to the learner. FUNCTION: Pre-Instruction serves to provide the learner with a forward look into the upcoming instruction. It provides an overview or framework for the learner to understand what they should know and be able to do after completing the instruction.

STEP-BY-STEP: Pre-instruction is developed after instructional sequencing. The designer should chose the strategy that best matches the content, learners and tasks. MRK outlines four types of pre-instructional strategies by Hartley and Davies (1976). STRATEGY

FUNCTION

CONTENT STRUCTURE

LEARNER

TASK ATTRIBUTES

Pretests

Insight to what is coming; increase learner’s awareness to what is coming

Content is short, little structure

Higher IQ, mature or older

Content is somewhat familiar

Objectives

Defines with expectations precision

Used when content is less than 2,500 words

Mid-level ability

General preparation

Little or no structure

Lower-level or high-level abilities

Traditional instructional methods (lecture). Facts

Not an assessment! Keep short Answers not provided Open ended questions

Simple sentences No jargon Keep to 7 or less

Overviews

3 approaches: Summary Pose a problem Describe benefits of instruction

Advance Organizer Higher level of abstraction Comparative: use when the content is familiar Expository: new content

Conceptual framework, clarify content

Dominate structure

Instructional Design Job Aids A. Christopher, Fall ‘09

High-level, highIQ, mature, sophisticated

Concepts

Facts

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MRK Job Aids  

The Instructional Designer’s Job Aids have been developed for user ease and according to the Morrison, Ross and Kemp (MRK) model for instruc...

MRK Job Aids  

The Instructional Designer’s Job Aids have been developed for user ease and according to the Morrison, Ross and Kemp (MRK) model for instruc...

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