December, 2009 - Issue #3
FREE One e k a T
South Florida Autism Newsletter
How can electromagnetic waves affect us?
路 How can electromagnetic waves affect us? 路 Understanding self-stimulation behaviors 路 Recipe of the month 路 And much more...
Inside This Issue... Articles
How can electromagnetic waves affect us? .. Page 4 Retained Primitive Reflexes May Be the Culprit for Learning Disabilities ............................. Page 6 Understanding Self-Stimulation in Children with ASD ..................................... Page 8
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How can electromagnetic waves affect us? By Francisco Camacho Everything in the universe has an energy field, including human bodies. Tissues and organs produce specific magnetic pulsation, known as biomagnetic fields. Unfortunately, the body is being affected by different electromagnetic fields that alter the direction of the energy flow modifying cells, tissues, and organs. These electromagnetic fields are also known as electromagnetic pollution o electro smog. Electromagnetic fields are formed when electrical waves (static –like the ones that make your hair stand) couple with magnetic waves (refrigerator magnet). There are different types of radiation that can affect the human beings health particularly children, because their body is in process of formation and ripeness of tissues and nervous system. 1 Geopaties are radiations that come from the subsoil. They radiate to the surface and vibrate in a similar frequency of the human being. Meaning that they are silent and we cannot notice if we are being affected by them.
· Use EMS shielding paint to protect your house from electromagnetic fields. Like power lines or cell phones towers. · Check for electro smog and different types of frequencies and radiations. Electro smog detector from Sensory Perspective, HF or Digital Electrostress Analyzer from Gigahertz Solutions. · Protect the house or an individual from harmful effects of electromagnetic exposure by changing the vibration frequency of electromagnetic field, through special cards. More information (305) 248-7825 Electricity unlike air pollution is invisible to the eye, and permeates the world. If we could see the electro smog that surrounds us, we would be taking precautions to protect our health. Unfortunately, most of electromagnetic hypersensitivity symptoms start to appear one we have been exposed for a long period of time (month to years). It is important to understand that all life is sensitive to electromagnetic fields or artificial radiated frequencies.
2 Cosmopaties are radiations that come from the cosmos, they also affected human beings. They can originate directly from the cosmos or artificially by the number of satellites around the earth. 3 Microwaves are use to heat foods, in radars to do weather forecast, and in telephone towers. They are good for transmitting information from one place to another; because they can penetrate haze, light rain, snow, clouds, and smoke. 4 Radio waves have the longest wave length in the electromagnetic spectrum; they can be longer than a football field or as short as a football ball. Radio waves not only bring music to radio, they also carry signals for your television, cell phone and cable. The exceeded growth of electromagnetic radiation used in different industries has led the state of Colorado, Florida and Connecticut to declare May as the month of electromagnetic sensitivity (EHS) awareness. Electromagnetic sensitivity is a condition in which people have medical symptoms due to excessive exposure to electromagnetic fields. Currently this condition is recognized as the new disease of the 21st century. Some of the symptoms that EHS can present are: sleep disturbance, fatigue, depression, headaches, restlessness, irritability, difficult concentrating, forgetfulness, learning difficulties, nerve and soft tissue pains, difficulty finding words, hormonal disturbances, and impaired balance. It is very important to value the pro and cons of the new technology in order to protect ourselves from the different types of radiation. At home: · Try not to use the microwave oven to heat foods. Research has shown that when food is heated in the microwave, the cellular information of the food is altered and the vitamin content depleted. Also the majority of microwaves ovens leak some radiation. · Wireless telephones use waives. If you have wireless phones, do not keep any base stations in your bedroom. · Wi-Fi base stations conduct lots of microwaves and most of the time we tend to keep the station on at all times. If you are not using the internet, try to keep the station off. · Compact fluorescent bulbs contain mercury vapor, they produce ultraviolet radiation, and radio frequencies from a transformer that is used to excite the gas inside the tube, which provides the light. They may save you money on your electrical bill, but could end up increasing your medical cost.
How to limit exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted from cell phones: Cell phones are very useful for society. As technology grows, so do cell phones and the features they have. Unfortunately, technology does come with changes in regards to their safe use. Electromagnetic fields from cell phones are estimated to penetrate the brain, especially in children (look at picture below). Here are some recommendations to limit exposure to electromagnetic radiation from cell phones: 1. Do not allow children to use cell phone, except for an emergency. The developing organs of a child are more likely to be sensitive to any possible effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. 2. While using your cell phone, try to keep it away from the body as much as possible. Try to use speaker-phone mode, which may reduce exposure. 3. Avoid carrying your cell phone in your body at all times. Do not keep it close to the body at night time, like under the pillow or in the bedside table, specially if pregnant. 4. If you have to carry the cell phone on you, make sure the key pad is positioned toward your body and the back is positioned toward the outside; in order for the transmitted waves to move away from you instead of through you. 5. Switch sides regularly while communicating on your cell phone to spread out your exposure. 6. Avoid using your cell phone when signal is weak, or moving at high speed, such in the car or train. This automatically increases exposure, as the phone repeatedly attempts to connect to a new relay antenna. 7. Try to communicate via text messaging rather than making a call. Decreasing the exposure and the proximity to the body. 8. Choose a device with the lowest SAR possible (SAR: Specific Absorption Rate), which is the measure of the strength of the magnetic field absorbed by the body. You can search online SAR ratings cell phones for the different ratings.
· Power lines are being corrupted with many other frequencies that can be damaging for our bodies, especially with long time exposure. There are filters that can be place in the electrical outlets, which will eliminate the unwanted frequencies from the electricity that is feeding the house. 5 year old child
10 year old child
Book Review. By Sarah Sweeney Autism is a Blessing A family’s Struggle with Autism and How They Found the Blessings Here is a song by Mark Schultz that inspired Patty and became her prayer to her son Charlie: by Patty Corrigan Myers. “He’s My Son” Patty’s book is about her family’s story on how they tackled autism and managed working together with only one goal in mind: to help Charlie. This book talks about Charlie and his family journey through autism. Patty open up her heart in this book and she lets the reader experience what parents of children with special needs go through. From the beginning in which Charlie started to have medical problems to the official diagnosis and the roller coaster of emotions that came with it. She also explains her personal experience with school, IEP and therapies. One of the most important advices in the book is having a support group. Her support came from the church (her faith), her family, friends and parents of children with autism. This book has a positive vision, interlaced with other parent’s testimonials and anecdotes of touching stories they have lived with their family members, that have autism. Autism is a Blessing shares a personal experience of how a mother through the autism journey realized that “God uses these special needs situation in life to help others”, bringing strengths and mercies to a family and a community.
Down on my knees again tonight Hoping this prayer will turn out right See there is a boy that needs your help I’ve done all that I can do myself His mother is tired, I’m sure you can understand Tonight as he sleeps she goes and holds his hands And she tries not to cry as the tears fill her eyes Can you hear me through tonight? Can you see him? Can you make him feel alright? If you can hear me Let me take his place somehow See he’s not just anyone He’s my son Sometimes late at night I watch him sleep I dream of the boy he’d like to be I try to be strong and see him through God who needs right now is you Let him grow old, live life without this fear
Retained Primitive Reflexes May Be the Culprit for Learning Disabilit By Dr. Leah Light, Audiologist and Neuro-Developmental Specialist Learning begins before birth. Ultrasound technology has enabled us to see a developing fetus moving in patterns that will be intertwined with their neurological development throughout life. Primitive reflexes, as they are called, shape our earliest form of self-knowledge, the knowledge of our relation to space, time, movement, resistance, fear, comfort, and pleasure. They are essential for a baby’s survival in the first few weeks of life and serve to provide protection and sustenance. They also form the foundation upon which thinking, reasoning, and problem solving skills are based. Within the first year of an infant’s life, primitive reflexes become integrated. This means that the lower brain structures have now connected with the higher level of the brain, the cortex, where awareness and understanding take place. When the primitive reflexes remain active beyond the first year of life, they are considered to be evidence of a structural weakness or immaturity within the Central Nervous System (Goddard, 2005). Each reflex plays an integral role in setting the stage for later functioning. As a child develops deliberate, more controlled movements, the primitive reflexes become inhibited or integrated. The child no longer moves in a stimulus-driven, reactive or protective manner, but can now initiate more purposeful, goal-directed behaviors. As the reflexes become integrated, lower level sensory and motor brain areas connect with higher level cortical areas that are responsible for attending to signals, fine tuning, interpreting, and developing a plan of action based upon this information. Hence, retained primitive reflexes can lead to faulty brain connections, resulting in impaired learning, frustration, anxiety issues, and behavioral outbursts. Retained primitive reflexes result in a waste of time and energy with the child developing compensatory movements around the reflex.
A child with a retained Moro or startle reflex, for example, may present with clumsiness and show an overreaction to certain stimuli, such as covering their ears whenever loud sounds are present. When the Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex (TLR) persists, the child will have trouble sitting, often resorting to standing while eating or using strange body postures to keep from falling out of a chair, such as hooking their feet around the chair legs. Furthermore, when the TLR is not integrated, the Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (STNR) will remain locked in the system, in an attempt to override the TLR, which may prevent appropriate crawling on hands and knees, a critical milestone for developing neural connections between the visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems. A retained Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR) will contribute to a child’s difficulty establishing hand dominance, crossing midline, tracking eyes horizontally for reading, learning to write, playing sports, and a multitude of other skills. These are only a few of the developmental consequences that can result from poorly integrated primitive reflexes and affect performance in school as well as on the playing field. What causes primitive reflexes to persist beyond the first year of life? The possibilities are many, including prematurity, trauma, sensory and/or motor deprivation, illness, etc. The important thing to recognize is that when a cluster of retained primitive reflexes persists beyond the first year of life, a developmental delay results, leading to impaired learning, social, and academic skills. The good news is that primitive reflexes can be retrained using specific movement techniques provided by professionals with special training in this area. Parents can also learn these simple techniques to use with their children on a daily basis for faster results. The activities take only minutes per day and are enjoyable and easy to do. The results can lead to happier, better coordinated, more organized and able to learn youngsters who are prepared for future growth and development. For more information about primitive reflexes visit www.brainchildinstitute.com.
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ties BioMedical Q&A: Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy By Ms. Mellen 1.
HBOT has been reported to possess strong anti-inflammatory properties and has been shown to improve immune function.
There is evidence that oxidative stress can be reduced. This means that the specific molecules that attack and injure cells or tissues are reduced.
There is an increase in the function and production of mitochondria (Mitochondria provide each cell with an energy center).
How does the hyperbaric chamber work?
The hyperbaric chamber is a great way to increase oxygen levels in the body. To help you understand try to picture two empty glasses in front of you. In one glass we will fill it with plain water. In the other glass we will fill it with carbonated water. One is bubbling with air bubbles, the other is not. The carbonated water is bubbling because it was exposed to a gas (carbon dioxide) under pressure. The increased pressure causes the gas to diffuse into the liquid. Science explains it by Henry’s Law of Physics: An increase in atmospheric pressure allows for more gas to be dissolved into any given liquid. Up to 60 percent of the human body is water, the brain is composed of 70 percent water, and the lungs are nearly 90 percent water. About 83 percent of our blood is water. Let’s discuss this further.
Improvement in neurotransmitter abnormalities. Behavioral problems can be linked to commonly seen neurotransmitter abnormalities including acetylcholine, dopamine, endorphins, adrenaline (epinephrine), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), amino acids, such as glutamate and glycine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, and substance P.
HBOT “turns on” enzymes that can help with detoxification problems specifically found in autistic children.
Dysbiosis (an imbalance in the digestive tract flora) is common in autistic children and HBOT can improve this.
Impaired production of porphyrins in autistic children might affect the production of heme, and HBOT might help overcome the effects of this problem.
HBOT has been shown to mobilize stem cells from the bone marrow to the systemic circulation. Recent studies in humans have shown that stem cells can enter the brain and form new neurons, astrocytes, and microglia.
Dear Ms Mellen, I have a 7 years old boy and I somebody recommended hyperbaric therapy for him. How does it work, what are the benefits? Is there any side effects???
This same principal applies to oxygen and plasma (the liquid component of blood). When the body is under pressure, plasma, cerebral fluid (fluid in the brain), and other bodily fluids will absorb much more oxygen than they would if they were not under pressure. Not only does this increase the amount of available oxygen to the tissues, it pushes this absorbed oxygen to reach areas of the body and brain that would normally be difficult to reach, such as areas of impaired circulation or damaged brain cells. While in the chamber we get oxygen from breathing it in, and we can absorb oxygen directly into our body fluids while in the chamber. Using a hyperbaric chamber delivers pressurized oxygen to the body in a safe and painless way. When you breathe while relaxing in the chamber, your tissues are getting bathed in oxygen which results in some unique benefits that cannot be achieved by any other therapy. Oxygen can get directly into all the tissues. This is really great for places in the body that may not be getting oxygenated properly because of a poor blood supply. If you are wondering what that would feel like; it is really not noticeable. Have you ever flown in an airplane? Then you have been inside a pressurized cabin. When the pressure inside the cabin changes with the ride up and down in an airplane your ears may make a ‘pop’ sound. This is harmless and is letting us know that your ears are adjusting to the pressure changes. Likewise, in a hyperbaric chamber your ears may make that ‘pop’ sound.
New research in today's BMC Pediatrics givesHBOTcredibility as a treatment for autism. The study of 62 children found that those who received 40 hours of treatment over a month: 1.
Were less irritable,
More responsive when people spoke to them,
Made more eye contact and were more sociable than kids who didn’t receive it.
They were also less sensitive to noise (some autistic children experience a kind of sensory overload from loud sounds and background noise).
Any contraindications or side effects of HBOT? While most children tolerate the treatment well, it can cause claustrophobia, bruising of the eardrums, sinus pain, and rarely seizures. Debbie Mellen Nurse Practitioner
What are the advantages for hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) for children on the autism spectrum? The increased pressure allows the blood plasma and other liquids of the body to absorb additional oxygen. This greatly increases oxygen uptake by cells, tissues, glands, organs, brain and all the fluids of the body. The resulting uptake of oxygen increases circulation reaching areas with swelling and inflammation, and decreasing them. Dr. Rossignol, who has done research in this area, reports that autistic individuals have several problems that can be helped with HBOT. For example, decreased blood flow to the brain, or areas of the brain, has been associated with repetitive, selfstimulatory and stereotypical behaviors, and impairments in communication, sensory perception, and social interaction. HBOT might be able to improve each of these problems in autistic individuals. From his extensive studies, Dr. Rossignol shares the following results:
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Understanding Self-Stimulation in Children With ASD By Luciana C Leo Human beings need to have free time to participate in activities that will relax and energize them on order to keep up with the demands of their lives. People have different ways of engaging in these activities like going to the gym, reading the newspaper, listening to music, smoking, watching TV or taking a walk to the park. However, when considering activities for children with special needs, the tendency is to make them participate in “play-work”. This type of activity consists of learning to play games, participate in arts or sports, group therapy and many other activities that will reinforce their academic development, but do not necessarily meet their needs for relaxing or energizing their body. Most activities that children in the autism spectrum find to be relaxing and pleasurable are often unacceptable to other people, like hand flapping, making repetitive sounds, rocking back and forward, humming, or covering their ears. These self-stimulation behaviors are consider negative because they do not look “normal”, can become self injurious, interfere with education, and on-task responding; when in reality they help the child overcome strong emotions. Children are more likely to participate in self-stimulatory behavior if they are under stress, inactive or bored. Think about it, everybody (including adults and children) present self-stimulatory behaviors. The difference is that most of these behaviors became ritualized over time and socially acceptable. For example, what is so different about a man flipping channels with the remote control and a child pushing buttons over and over on the same toy, or what about the nervous person that bites her nails and the child that bites his arms or hands under stress. Each activity provides us with a particular sensory input. Therefore, the self-stimulation behaviors that a child can present have a positive purpose for the individual. In order to identify a self-stimulatory behavior and modify it, first we need to know why the behavior is occurring and how we can help the child manage it in a more socially accepted way:” 1. Rule out any medical problems. Sometimes self stimulation behaviors are triggered in response to real physical problems that the child is not capable of communicating. These behaviors may indicate pain or a decrease in sensation. For example, the child that bangs his head with his hands can be having headaches, or the child that likes to put pressure on his tummy can have stomach pain. 2. Take time to observe the types of self-stimulation that your child participates in and when this behavior occurs. Watch him/her and make notes about what you see and when you see it. 3. Emotional and environmental conditions can also trigger selfstimulation behaviors. Many children with autism do not know how to express their feelings properly. Behavior can get worse if the child is happy, sad, angry, mad or excited. 4. Any types of changes can also increase self-stimulatory behaviors. For example, going to a new school, moving, having a new teacher, changing their schedules, having a new member of the family, having a big brother or sister going away for college, etc. Helping the child anticipate these changes and preparing him/her for them can help reduce the behaviors. You can use calendars to let them know in advance and event is coming (like going to cut their hair, first day of school or vacation), the use of story books (to prepare them received a baby in the family), or using a timer just to help them transition from one activity to another. 5. If the behavior appears due to stress, find different ways to help your child relax. In class, try to give the child a 5 minutes break at least every hour by getting up and stretching or by giving an activity that the child enjoys doing, like painting or ripping paper. 6. Keep your child engaged in activities or with other children during the day. Remember that attention span in children is very short, rotate activities and try to make them interesting for the child. 7. Try to contain the behavior by limiting to certain locations or certain times. Using calendar symbols to represent this favored activity and
scheduling it as part of the child’s day may help refrain from the self stimulation behavior for longer periods of time. 8. These behaviors can be use as a way to explore the child’s preferred sensory channels for receiving information from the world. Once the behaviors are understood, then you can begin to look for ways you can offer your child other stimulatory activities. For example, a child that jumps and flaps his hands if excited may enjoy a trampoline and any up and down movement activities, or the child that has more visual stims like moving his fingers in front of his face may enjoy watching TV without sound or going to arcades. 9. Last, but not least physical activities. A jogging or a walk in the park, riding the bicycle or just doing basic animals imitations to stretch can decrease subsequent levels of self-stimulatory behaviors, and produce an increase in appropriate play and academics. Self stimulation is common to all humans and serves as an important tool to calm, to avoid, to energize or to get feedback in between others. Children with special needs engage in these types of activities in ways that are not completely understood by society. Observing and learning to interpreter your child’s behaviors will help you respond to them better. Therefore, you can help your child find other ways to reduce his needs to find stimulation on his own.
Masturbation: The forbidden topic Masturbation is a form of self-stimulation. While making parents and care givers embarrassed or uncomfortable, this is a very common behavior in children. It is not a sexual behavior as much as a calming and relaxing behavior from the child’s perspective. Children discover masturbation while exploring their bodies when they are in between three or four years old. Once this form of self-stimulation starts, it never stops completely. However, by age of five or six, children learn to be more discrete and do this in private. During the teen years and with the changes in hormones, masturbation becomes almost universal. If your child is itchy or has pain in the genital area, that is not masturbation. Check your child for any rashes and look for medical assistance. The pain or rash can be cause of a bacterial or fungal infection. Rule out any medical problems. Steps to follow to help your child understand that masturbation is not a bad behavior, but it has to be done in private: 1. Relax 2. Don’t overreact 3. A reasonable goal is to control where it occurs. Explain to your child that it is ok to do it, but that it has to be done in private in the bathroom or bedroom. You can use a schedule to show them that there is a particular time assigned for self-stimulation before bedtime, this will help avoid problems in school or public places during the day 4. When masturbation occurs outside of the bathroom or bedroom. Try to engage your child in an activity that require both hands. If he/she does not respond, politely move his/her hands away and try to distract them with something else 5. Develop cue words or phrases to draw his/her attention from the behavior in public places. For example, “we are not at home” 6. Ignore masturbation at nap time or bedtime. Try to avoid checking up on him. Remember, this is often a comfort measure to the child All children masturbate to some degree and they do not think of it as sexual behavior. Most of the time, children do not realize that they are engaged in this behavior. Masturbation can only cause emotional harm (guilt, embarrassment, sexual hang-ups) only if adults overact to it and make it seem dirty or wicked.
Autism Chatter By Francisco Roche, father of Andres (6) I wonder if parents really know what is an IEP? Why our children need one? And what is its purpose? I am going to try to answer these questions and tell you about my experience at my son’s IEP meetings. If you do a fast research on the web, you will find that the 2000 guide from the U.S. Department of Education defines the Individualize Educational Program (IEP) as “Each public school child who receives special education and related services must have an Individualized Education Program (IEP). Each IEP must be designed for one student and must be a truly individualized document. The IEP creates an opportunity for teachers, parents, school administrators, related services personnel, and students (when appropriate) to work together to improve educational results for children with disabilities. The IEP is the cornerstone of a quality education for each child with a disability..” An IEP in good and responsible hands is a useful tool for children to develop their full potential. In order for this to happen you, as a parent, need to have an active role in your child’s IEP. My own experience has taught me that it is no enough to attend the meetings as an observer. In the past when I attended my son’s IEP meetings, I had not assumed an active role. I sat down and listen to what the teacher consider goals for him to reach and which ones he had achieved, and so on. I felt so lost and unprepared. My last son’s IEP was worst, even though we were prepared and brought reinforcement (my son’s therapist). Everything started as usual, formal presentation, reading of goals; but then, we began to hear complains and issues about my son, I was upset and speechless. Previously, his teacher and school coordinator, had never said a word about it, and they waited until the IEP to describe behavioral problems
and concerns. Furthermore, the worst situation was a physical and occupational evaluation that was done to my son, some time before the IEP meeting. This evaluation was done by an external therapist that my son didn’t, know; it was performed the same day he had swimming classes. He was taken out of the bus for the evaluation. You can imagine what happened. Going back to the IEP, this therapist (on the phone) agreed with the goals established for my son after her evaluation. At the end this last assessment is part of my son’s IEP, and because we completely disagree with what it says we need to obtain an independent evaluation to fight the school evaluation. The IEP is very important. It is an educational guide for your child’s school year. Remember that the IEP will define what skills your son will learn, how, and when, but also it becomes your child’s label. Therefore, take it seriously and be on top of it. Don’t take anything for granted. My suggestion is creating an IEP with a 360 degree evaluation. For example, parents, teacher, and therapist should fill out a questionnaire, with specific inquires of areas of development. You can schedule interviews if desired, even video tape different activities in your child’s life. Your goal is to enhance and obtain accurate information that will describe your child’s development and needs. This document should be a comprehensive guide that will help parents, teachers, school members, therapists, and everybody who cares about your child and not just another requirement to fulfill. Like the IEP definition establishes “cornerstone of quality education”, so don’t give up on them!
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Recipes of the Month. How to make Yogurt in the oven
This yogurt is GFCF and SCD legal.
This yogurt is GFCF and SCD legal and it can be used in different recipes like muffins or cakes and it will soften the mixing. It can also be given with vegetables, crackers or chips for snacks.
Ingredients * 2 liters of goat milk * Progurt Yogurt Starter (www.progurt.com)
Ingredients * 2 cups of Yogurt and salt
1) Put two liters of milk into a clean pot and heat slowly on a medium heat until the temperature reaches 180 degrees F. Stir the milk from time to time to keep the bottom from scorching, and again before you take a final temp reading to make sure that the entire contents have reached 180 degrees. The purpose in heating the milk to this temperature is to kill any bacteria that might be present and interfere with the yogurt making culture.
Making homemade yogurt cheese is a great way to use up extra yogurt. Simply line a couple of layers of cheese cloth or coffee filters over a colander, and place the colander in a bowl. Allow the yogurt to drain for 12 to 24 hours in the fridge. the yogurt will thicken appreciably, and when salted, will taste like a fresh cheese (which it actually is).
2) Turn the heat off and allow the milk to cool. The heated milk needs to be cooled to ROOM TEMPERATURE. The range for room temperature is 20–25 °C (64-77 °F). Stir well before determining the final temperature. You may cover the pot with a clean dish towel while it cools. 3) In a separate bowl, place 1/4 tsp of Progurt yogurt starter and slowly add some of the cooled milk, mixing it well with a whisk or electric hand mixer. When this solution is blended well, add it slowly back into the pot, again mixing it well. 4) Place the covered pot in oven with a 60 watt light bulb on. Keep a thermometer in the oven and maintain the temperature at 100 to 110 degrees F. If the oven becomes too warm, keep open the oven door just a bit. Once you have done this a few times, you will get a feel for how your oven best maintains this temperature. Ferment the yogurt this way for 24 hours. (Casein takes 24 hours to be destroyed) 5) After 24 hours, remove the pot from the oven and put it in the fridge for about 8 hours. Do not disturb the yogurt until it is set up properly, or you will change the consistency. 6) Gently but thoroughly, stir the yogurt with a spoon or metal whisk to make it smooth. You can put it in individual container (Gerber’s glass containers). The cultures will remain active for about 2 weeks if properly refrigerated. This recipe can be used with a yogurt maker also, just do steps 1 to 3 and then follow yogurt maker’s instructions. SPECIAL THANKS TO:
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