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©2014 AUSTIN OAKLEY ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


“WHAT

SHOULD OUR DESIGNS TRY TO ACHIEVE? WE MUST TAKE A CRITICAL LOOK AT THE BRIEF, MAKE IT MORE COMPREHENSIVE. WE MUST LOOK BEYOND THE NARROW OBJECT AND ASK OURSELVES: WHAT WILL BE THE ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES? “– SIR OVE ARUP


A THESIS Presented to the UNDERGRADE Faculty of The NewSchool of ARCHITECTURE + Design

In Partical Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of BACHELOR of

ARCHITECTURE

by

AUSTIN OAKLEY June 2014 San Diego, Ca

v


“WE

USED TO BUILD HOMES TO LIVE IN, NOW WE BUILD HOMES FOR INVESTMENT.”-ROBIN BRISEBOIS


THESIS APPROVAL

by

AUSTIN OAKLEY

Approved by:

Undergraduate Chair:

Leonard Zegarski

Date

Thesis Instructor:

Robin Brisebois

Date

ix


this thesis is DEDICATED to...

M o ma n dG r a n d m a

My wonderful Mother! Without her I would not have grown up to be who I am. And my loving Grandmother because she has always given me support through the years. I couldn't be more proud to have them in my life! Thanks to the both of you!


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Grandpa, the most important! How I miss him dearly but know each

day he is there helping me out. I still remember the days when we would sit on the floor and play with the Hot Wheels cars. Today though my toys are a bit different and I am proud to say that it was his abilities, passed down to me that made me so fit for a career in design.

loving family who always support me. From my Aunt Harriet and Aunt Bonnie, who have helped out so much in making this journey I have been on less painful; to my Uncle Scott who has the technical know how and has taught me some important skills along the way. Thank you guys for being there pushing me along even when I was feeling stressed out.

Ken Trionfo my CC instructor for it was his idea that I should apply to this school and take this journey. It was him who introduced me to this place, letting me know how well my skills would fit in with their values. I am very grateful that he gave me the necessary guidance and taught me the appropriate skills so that I did not have trouble transitioning out here.

Candy Miskevich one of my favorite teachers. It was in her class that

I developed most of the skills I have today. She always helped me express myself and taught me very much in the many years I had her as a teacher, for it was also her that helped me decide that Architecture was my calling and I do not know where I would be today without her.

Father

it was him who started school in Architecture and now I am finishing in it.

Grandpa Bob Brother

supported me everyday and has been so generous towards helping me out.

has always had my back helping ensure that I didn’t lose site of my dream.

Others:

Miss Van Norman, Mrs. + Mr. Dowling, my church family, my studio instructors, and last but not least my beautiful school mates; they were the ones who kept me sane while working so hard!

ix


“THINKSIMPLE’ASMYOLDMASTER

USED TO SAY - MEANING REDUCE THE WHOLE OF ITS PARTS INTO THE SIMPLEST TERMS, GETTING BACK TO FIRST PRINCIPLES.”- FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT


TABLE OF

CONTENTS COPY RIGHT PAGE TITLE PAGE SIGNATURES DEDICATION

CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

CRITICAL POSITION THESIS TOPIC THESIS STATEMENT

RATIONAL FOR STUDY SCOPE OF STUDY

CHAPTER 3

CHAPTER 4

CHAPTER 5

CASE STUDIES

THE SUCCESS HERE FOR GOOD POSITIVES/NEGATIVES

PROCESS FINAL GREEN STUFF DOCUMENTATION

iii v vii ix

2 4 6

10 20 22

25

41 45 47 51 61 73 83

xiii


containers at port elizabeth NJ


CRITICAL POSITION Part of the “American Dream� is to own a home. Owning a home is the path to prosperity and success which will ensure our future. With a quest for wealth Americans moved into small rural areas because there was an assurance for economic benefits. This benefit was an investment that saw houses being built much larger than necessary. To build these large homes construction companies needed to use many resources, destroying many natural resources along the way. This continued depletion calls for a desperate course of action where designers need to rethink typical construction methods and use a more energy efficient more sustainability conscious approach.

2


photo by Euro-Way homes


THESIS TOPIC This thesis is taking a closer look at the American single family home, understanding its importance and re-evaluating its presence. First a review of the homes’ history is examined so to better understand how the American desire for wealth had them investing in huge homes which used up many natural materials. Secondly this thesis researches the waist of these natural materials and the cost of construction which when merged together will provide a more sustainable/cost effective means of living. Finally this thesis will examine similarly motivated projects evaluating their methods, as well as using the Solar Decathlon guidelines for a measurement of success in hopes to help shift the paradigm of the “American Dream� and make it more obtainable to everyone.

4


desert community by Bill Jones


THESIS

STATEMENT

Single family homes in America should be far more efficient, less wasteful, and less expensive than the current model.

6


in the

BEGINNING

8


THE DREAM

Every person reaches a time in their life when they have to make a decision on buying a house. This decision is one of the hardest but yet most quintessential decisions they will ever make. It is also part of the “American Dream,” for us to compel to buy a home because it gives us much pride to call ourselves home owners! But home ownership isn’t very easy to obtain. Today homes are getting more expensive and available jobs do not pay enough, so it is getting harder for the average person to buy one. Skip back to Post WWII times and we see a much different trend in America. This was the era where everyone was buying and owning single family homes. Home ownership was treated as an investment, much like it is today but with more success. After the war there was a boom in housing. Banks were giving out loans left and right which made it so anyone could afford the house of their dreams. Construction companies were on overload as the demand for single family homes became high. As time went on these homes started to get larger and larger because the bigger the house you had to more potential money you could make when you sold that house. The problem with this theory though is with an excess of large houses on the market, that market will experience a crash because there isn’t enough people to buy the homes and sustain the market. This downside continued for quite some time, fluctuating up and down right up until today where we are now experiencing one of the worst real estate markets of all time. The high prices of these big homes are only part of the problem that keeps American’s


from pursuing the dream and owning a home. Another problem, possibly even a more challenging problem with these homes is the amount of energy that is required to run them. Part of the reason behind energy costing so much is our carless attitude towards using energy. We act like there is an over abundance of it just floating around in the air, on tap anytime we need it. This isn’t the case as much of us know, but it is still a very important issue. Excessive energy use in the home is also not the whole issue; further reason our homes require a lot of energy is because of the poorly designed plan which has a volume that is too large to properly heat, cool, vent, and light the house forcing us to use lots of energy to make the home feel comfortable inside.

(top)1,(left) 2

74.3%

detatched home

3.3%

townhouse

4.2%

skyscraper condo

16.9%

lake front cabin

1.4%

other

LOCATION IDEAL HOME TYPE

10


(left)4,(top) 5

9.8%

The energy use of these homes have essentially the largest environmental impact of anything out there but with further look into what goes into the construction of these homes we find that the construction companies that build these homes are very wasteful with the materials they have. This creates a big problem in our world because studies show that 30% of all new material brought to site for construction will find itself sitting in a landfill, never used besides when it was cut off and throw away. Construction companies don’t pay any worry to throwing away these perfectly useful scraps because it would cost them both money and time to recycle the waste so why not just get rid of it? Pretty horrible way of approaching things I would say because all of that waste is brand new material and now it is going to just sit and rot in the

18-25

26.4%

26-35

AGE ANALYSIS

1k sq.ft 1-2k sq.ft 2-3k sq.ft 3-4k sq.ft 4k sq.ft

DOES SIZE MATTER?

2% 23.4% 44.2% 20.8% 9.6%


(top)6,(right) 7

26.7%

36-45

22.2%

46-55

14.9%

56+

5.5%

3.8%

6BR

2BR number of rooms

31.2%

3BR

15.7%

5BR 43.8%

4BR

landfill. As time goes on we are starting to realize our actions have some positive but yet also some pretty negative impacts on our world and there has to be something that we can do to help change things for the better.

12


CONTAINERS?

So now let us take a look at another major issue present in todays world... Back in the 70s the world saw one of the most important inventions of the modern era. This invention was the creation of the shipping container. Once the shipping container hit docks in the late 1950s the shipping industry would never be treated the same way again. We could now move far more product, more efficiently, and less costly than in the past. With the container, more countries could now be connected because the containers could easily be put on trucks or trains so even if you weren’t close to the ocean you could enjoy products from around the world. The containers were standardized as well so no matter what country you were from the containers were exactly the same, making it much easier for countries to trade with each other.

stacked double high, spread over 2 miles Photo: Gregory Weirich

Europe

China USA

The low cost of transport has increased the amount of containers in circulation

90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is moved by container ships

Cost of transporting laptop/ bottle of wine from China to Western Europe

.79

.17


vessel out at sea with thousands of containers onboard. Hamburg Sud Group

4,900 container ships today

up to

stacked up to 8 stories high

10,000 TEU per ship

14


steel frame

container door

teak floor

20’ container external dimensions interior dimensions

container wall

40’ container

45’ container

imperial

metric

imperial

metric

imperial

metric

length

19’10”

6.058m

40’

12.192m

45’

13.716m

width

8’

2.438m

8’

2.438m

8‘

2.438m

height

8’6”

2.591m

8’6“

2.591m

9’6”

2.896m

length

18‘10 5/16“ 5.758m

39’5 45/64” 12.032m

44’4“

13.556m

width

7‘8 8 19/32” 2.352m

7‘8 8 19/32” 2.352m

7‘8 8 19/32” 2.352m

volume

1,169ft³

33.1m³

2,385ft³

67.5m³

3,040ft³

86.1m³

maximum grosS masS

52.910lb

24,000kg

37,200lb

30,480kg

67,200lb

30,480kg

net load

48,060lb

21,800kg

58,820lb

26,680kg

area

56,620lb

25,680kg

exterior

158,972sq ft 14,769m²

339,041sq ft 31,498m²

359,934sq ft 33,439kg

interior

145,764sq ft 13,542m²

304,607sq ft 28,299m²

343,185sq ft 31,883kg


Today there are roughly 17,000,000 containers in existence with around 6 million of those containers circulating the oceans delivering goods at any given time. That means that 70% of all the containers in existence are not being used. So why are there so many containers but yet so few being used? That is because the containers are built in China, close to the factories where the products are being manufactured. These products are then loaded into the containers and shipped everywhere. Once the product is unloaded at its destination it is cheaper for a new container to be built and loaded than it is for the original container to be sent to China and then loaded up again. This is why there are so many unused containers because in the game of money making, companies rather let the containers sit at the docks than spend the money needed to have them exported out. So now there is an overabundance of containers filling up our docks, taking up tons of space, and no essential purpose to them anymore. This begs the question, is there a way designers could use the containers in design?

Malcom Mclean, father of containerism Photo: Maersk

Containers can with stand pretty much any type of condition out there. Cold, heavy rain, high winds.

Containers are standardized but yet can still be put together in endless ways like legos.

Containers are prefabricated, mass produced, and mobile for quick assembly.

16


PATH TOWARDS THE

FUTURE

18


The W’s: Who, What, Why & Where?

Because housing is very important and definitely something we cannot live without we need to make sure housing stays as affordable as possible. The single family home today accounts for 40% of our countries energy consumption. And that number is only going to increase as population grows and the demand for energy increases. Further studies show that building construction for homes produce 35% of the U.S. carbon dioxide (which remind you is a major contributor to global warming). Houses also account for 25% of the countries water usage. With homes having such a huge impact on the globe there needs to be a definite remodel of both the homes construction as well as major improvements to the way the home performs. This includes the energy use, water use, and the heating/ cooling, making it so there is less of an environmental impact from the home. A way that we could improve a houses impact environmentally would be to design or even retrofit them into green buildings where direct benefits are utility cost savings, healthier living environments, and increased durability. By addressing these factors we will be able to make single family homes more affordable and overall make them better places to live. One less beneficial way of making a green affordable house would be to recycle the

US home impacts electric

water

40%

25%


Wait!?

isn’t green.. a color?...

construction waste products generated at the job site. A good way to achieve this would be by setting up a construction waste recycling program through the local waste management plant which could give benefits to the companies that recycle their material. Another way to gain benefits would be to retain water on site and have water treatment facilities in the house that would create an improved water quality. Some global benefits from these would be reduced energy use in the house, this would lower the amount of carbon dioxide being emitted into the atmosphere, as well as lower our reliance on water mains reducing the impact we currently put on the water table.

CO2

35%

Being a designer of a sustainable, affordable house we must understand the full range of benefits created over the long haul so that we can have a unique opportunity to way their benefits and accommodate them accordingly, focusing on which ones would be the best fit for residents, the community, and the environment.

20


Step 1

There are many ways in which the issues caused by poor housing could be addressed so that we can make these homes greener. For the purposes of this thesis I will be using the principles set up by the US Department of Energy’s Program the Solar Decathlon as a tool of evaluation for creating an energy efficient, green home. What is the Solar Decathlon? The Solar Decathlon is a research and demonstration base project that challenges 20 domestic and international affiliated collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. The primary objective of the

Decathlon is, and I quote, “accelerate the development and adoption of advanced building energy technology into new and existing homes.” The winner of the competition is the team that best blends affordability, consumer appeal, and design excellence with optimal energy production and maximum efficiency. For a list of prior solar decathlon teams, including winners of past competitions, see: www.solardecathlon.gov. The Solar Decathlon is a two-year program that culminates with an on-site competition between each university team that submits a home for the competition. Multi-disciplinary teams of students are assembled on design for the first year while the second year involves materials selection, construction, and fundraising.


After construction is finished, the houses are disassembled and transported to the event site where they are reassembled and made ready for the competition. The Solar Decathlon event spans approximately 25 consecutive days where teams have 8-10 days to assemble their houses. During the assembly period, event organizers and sponsors install electrical grids, communication and internet equipment, infrastructure facilities, monitoring and scoring instrumentation, signage and walkways. The competition begins after everything is set up and lasts ten additional days, during these ten days the public is allowed to come in and tour the houses. After the competition is over the teams and organizers have five days to disassemble the village and return home. photo by: Marco Ulloa

photo by: Stephen Hansen

The Decathlon started in 2002. In recent years it was held on the National Mall in Washington, DC. While there the event saw about 150,000 visitors. By making the Solar Decathlon a public event the Department of Energy is hoping to increase awareness to the public on how to better use energy in a residential home. The competition demonstrates that a beautifully crafted and well-designed home can generate enough thermal and electrical energy to meet the households needs, these include electrical lighting, cooking, washing clothes/ dishes/self, powering electronics, and maintaining comfort levels inside house.

22


CASE STUDIES

24


Transformation

Transforming a shipping container into a habitable space is anything but hard, this is why there are many examples of do it yourself projects. The first thing that needs to be done after you select a container is you must disinfect it. After it is clean then you can use a circular saw to cut holes for windows or doors or to remove whole wall sections. The next step is to paint the container, followed by transportation to the site. Once on site you can now fit the windows and doors to the container as well as build any patios or roofs. If your project is a small build then you could do all the steps in a workshop otherwise they are primarily done onsite. Before you start finishing off the container you need to prepare the foundation. Now being a container it is not necessary to do a concrete slab or foundation CMU walls. If your ground is firm enough you mayjust put some blocks at the corners but if your on solid ground then you can just set the structure right on the ground. Once you have the containers in place you will then weld them together. With everything welded it is then time to start on the interior, first you will need to put in a sub floor. This can be anything from plywood to cement. You can then build the walls which are ofthen wood studs with insulation but can also be plywood or OSB if your project is a budget build. The walls are then usually finished with plaster so that they have that traditional home feel on the interior. With construction finished the last step is to hook up your power and plumbing then furnishings.

Transformation from empty container to finished house. c192 Nomad by HyBrid Architects


Recycled Shipping Container Home, Sullivan County NY: 11 steps of construction Bigprototype.com

2. cutting out openings

3. painting containers

1. selecting container

4. transportation

26


6 3 1

4

2

5

FLOOR PLAN 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Bedroom Living room Bath Entry Kitchen Existing container doors

5. concrete foundation

6. placing containers

7. assembly


The Sullivan County Container House is a good example on how containers can help you build on step terrain. by Bigprototype (John Nafziger + Sarah Strauss) and Tim Steele Design

8. welding into place

9. building roof

11. finished house

10. installing windows

28


Redondo Beach House Year 2007

Architect Demaria Design Associates

DeMaria used freight containers, airplane hangar doors and prefab roof panels. by: DeMaria Design Associates

In California’s Redondo Beach there sits a wonderful single family home that combines container architecture with typical stick framing and pre-fabricated elements. The core of the house is made up of containers which are used as the building blocks that both save on time and money in the construction of the house. Along with the containers the house also uses wood and other steel to fill in the in between areas of the rooms. With a mix of different types


of materials this house has some unique spatial qualities that distinguish it from other more traditional homes. Being built from containers also ensures that this house will have no problems even with it being built in earthquake country. Overall, 9 containers are used in this build with 8 making up the main house and one special container used in the yard. All 8 containers of the home are painted white and placed on a concrete base. They are then stacked up two levels where the smaller containers make up the bedrooms and kitchen and the larger ones make up the utility spaces such as the library, laundry and bathrooms. The 9th container is then buried in the backyard and filled up with water as the swimming pool. The

largest room in the house is a double height living room that has floor to ceiling glass that opens up to the back yard making for a wonderful indoor, outdoor area. This house celebrates its use of containers rather than hiding them with sheathing, which is allowable because it is covered with a special NASA developed paint that is used on the Space Shuttle which reflects heat from transferring into the home. This house also uses energy saving elements such as formaldehyde-free plywood, natural ventilation instead of air-conditioning, denim insulation, etc. The best part of this home is that it is a hybrid that meets the needs of both today and tomorrow but also does so in an expensive neighborhood at a very affordable price.

backyard container pool with two story open living room. by: DeMaria Design Associates

30


1. Library/Guest 2. Laundry 3. Balcony 4. Bath 5. Bedroom 6. Hallway 7. His Closet 8. Master Bedroom 9. Her Closet 10. Master Bath

1. Porch 2. Foyer 3. Storage 4. Mud Room 5. Powder Room 6. Kitchen 7. Pantry 8. Artist Studio 9. Covered Porch 10. Outdoor Room 11. Container Pool 12. Courtyard 13. Bi-Folding Doors 14. Living Room 15. Rock Climbing Wall

1. Garage 2. Closet 3. Hobby Room

(left)8, (top right) 9, (bottom)10


9

10 8 7

3 1

2

4

5

6 4

5

First Floor Plan

10 8

1

11 12

9

2

3

13 4

14

5 6 7

15

15

Ground Floor Plan

1

2

3

Basement Plan

32


by: Infiniski James + Mau repurposed pallets used to dress the buildings exterior


James + Mau architects

Infiniski Manifesto HOuse location: Curacavi, Chile use: Single Family home year of completion: 2009 photography: Antonio Corcuera no. of containers: 3

An innovative and contemporary family home based on bioclimatic and modular architecture. Wearing a coat made of recycled tranport pallets, it “breathes� with the seasons.

34


(top)Wooden slats camouflage the containers. by; Antonio Corcuera (right) pallets shade containers


Like a mansion this house is specifically placed on top of a hill side so that you can enjoy amazing views all around the house. With a total of 1720 ft2, this house has a living room, kitchen and bathroom on the ground floor and a master bedroom along with two other rooms on the second floor. The main structure is made up of 3 reused shipping containers. The ones used on the ground floor support the ones used for the top floor and are spaced apart so there is an open room in between them. This opened room is fully glazed and gets plenty of natural light and cross breezes and has a direct visual connection to nature. The signature element of this house is its wooden coat that has one side constructed out of horizontal wooden slates and the other out of recycled wooden pallets. These pallets have a symbolic relationship in the house because like the containers both have travelled far and transported lots. The wood exterior helps to blend the building into its surrounding and offsets the rustic look of the container making the whole house feel very natural. The exterior wood coat also can be put on or taken off depending on what season it is. In the summer the pergolas stay closed protecting the interior containers from overheating and also maximize the house ventilation while in the winter time the pergolas can be lifted up and the house can be open allowing the sun to flood the interior keeping the home warm. A mix of good insulation, proper orientation, alternative energy sources, and recycled materials make this house nearly 100% self-sufficient and off grid.

36


Second Floor Plan

Sections


(top) 11, (top right) 12, (right) stairway to second floor in middle of living room.

38


CONTAINITECTURE

40


Container:

Born to Succeed!

Container architecture even though it has been around for sometime it still is a pretty new concept. What makes them so special is they include a variety of different-purpose different-typology, and different-outlook buildings that have at least one thing in common: the ISO container, like LEGO blocks, can be combined into almost any creation. From temporary structures to family homes, containers have become very popular amongst architects and clients. And it is ok to love them because they are quick to assemble, ecofriendly and low cost. These containers are not just used because they maybe ‘different’ but rather because of the many advantages they have and when money is tight or time is short, or the terrain is demanding, they can answer to call without breaking a sweat. In the beginning containers were only really used by people within the design community but today they are being utilized by people from all walks of life. These containers are also rewarding, giving a user much delight from its success and much publicity from the media, putting their name out there. With so many advantages to using a container it is no wonder that so many are being used today.

Miranda Kerr can’t even outshine the container: runway to success


Winning Awards

Container architecture because of its fast assembly and high quality solutions for many of the world’s major issues, as well as their new and fresh approach to design, has judges awarding them top prizes for many of the container projects. Based on the number of projects done, container architecture is the most rewarded type of architecture, winning more awards per project than any other type of design. Container projects are also done by a wide range of people as well ,from your seasoned architect to your young college student and many of them are winning awards.

Container architecture continues to win the race forcing other’s to keep up!

42


Housing Project Containers can be used for many types of housing solutions, from your small country cabin to a much larger apartment building. At first architects would use them for artistic experiments where they would fit a whole apartment into one container. These would be ‘side projects’ that could be infilled into the urban nodes of our modern society. Later designers started to use them for their ‘getaway’ cabins but it took some time for this type of architecture to catch on in the general public. As a new type of home the containers were often not viewed as very appealing and that gave them a bad rep. Today these containers are being combined with other types of buildings to create wonderful homes, homes very similar to prefab houses. Since all containers are composed of the same monotonous elements their facades can be broken up by different materials. This can then make the house feel more like your traditional home.

2 stacked offset 1 single container

5 side by side

A container home has an endless way of arranging itself, from a simple single, Single container with attached deck in Texas. by Chris Cooper

DIY minimalist living room with valted central clearstory.


3 in combination w/ other materials

4 standard prefab

7 combination w/ smaller container

8 prefab response to terrain

to double side-by-side arrangement. The containers can also be combined with other types of materials or other smaller containers, to create an interesting architecture. To help make a container home feel more traditional, one could add a gabbled roof or even a traditional siding material to the outside.

6 offset

Nomad living by studio arte, a container retreat. by: Studio Arte

Open kitchen/entry/living roon quarters done by: Studio H:T

44


Here for Good

One part of using containers that makes them so great is they can easily be modified and sent to disaster relief areas. By pin pointing three major aspects like clean water, energy, and shelter;putting them into a container with a sink, fold down beds, a solid oxidizing fuel cell and a water tank we could make big differences to the areas that need help the most. The fuel cell/tank system will be able to produce ample energy while creating fresh water. By having clean water People now do not have to travel long distances in search for water, also they can bath and wash their clothes much, much safer than before since the water is cleaned/stored right on site. Part of the beauty of using the shipping container for a shelter is that in disaster relief situations resources have to be sent in which requires much energy and human effort. These containers will help to lower that need.


Hydrogen Tank Oxygen Tank Hot Water Heater Grey Water Tank Fuel Cell Electrolysis Compressor Clean Water Tank Sink Toliet Combo Kitchen Sink Minifridge 28”x75” Cot Full Size Bed Waist Water Tank

46


MODULARITY

STRENGTH

COST

Modularity All containers are made from standard measurements that include modular elements that make for easy combination into larger structures. Easy to Transport Containers are intermodal, which means that they meet strick ISO requirements on size, weight, and capacity. This makes it so they can be sent anywhere whether it be by truck, boat, or rail. Sustainability Containers are both recyclable and reusable. Also, if a building is built with containers there is less need for construction materials. Containitecture follows 3R design concept: reuse, recycle, reduce. Trendy By using old shipping containers buildings recieve alot of attention from media for being trendy green alternatives to conventional buildings. Lightweight Container based buildings weigh less than stone or concrete ones, which makes them safer during earthquackes. Cost A used container can be bought for on average $1500 which is low cost compared to labour-intensive construction


TEMPERATURE

PERMITS

CHEMICALS

Temperature Steel overheats easily meaning container buildings will require better insulation than most wooden or concrete buildings. A untreated container absorbs heat but once treated by high quality ceramic paint or secondary ventilated roof will prevent this. Waste Turning a container into a building usually requires modifications which will generate waste. Limited space A singular container has awkward dimensions making it feel confined especially after you add insulation. To create space more open a few containers need to be combined together. The architectural expression can be limited as well since the containers are built to be stacked one on top of the other. Building permits Since steel for construction is not typically used in residence, permits can be hard to pull based on not understanding application. Cargo spillages Since a variety of things travel in containers it is likely that contaminents will be found. Prejudice People often specultate that containers only work for third world countries and the homeless and don’t see them for their value.

48


the

BIRTH

50


First Thoughts

In the very beginning, when the design process started I knew the design needed to be modular because it was eventually going to have to be shipped so in the first few concept sketches I drew modules that could be connected together to make a full house. Each concept I drew was made of 2-3 modules for each house and these modules would make up the main program, like bedrooms, bathroom, kitchen, etc. Adjacent to the rooms there would be a central, open area which would connect the buildings together. This area would be outside and could make for a very nice deck space that would help bring the inside to the outside and vice versa. As I played around with the position of the modules I also tried different arrangements like having some parallel to each other and others angled which would create different feelings with in the spaces.


There were aspects of each design I liked but the one on the left was the one I eventually chose for this project. I chose it because there was a better defined entrance as well as I felt the relationship between what would be more private space compared to public space worked better. There was also interesting opportunities developed with this concept and I felt it was the one that deserved more exploration.

52


Initial

concept design 40’

LIVING ROOM

BED ROOM

16’

8’ 20’

15’

KITCHEN BATH

20’

MECH

8’

25’


Almost right away I decided that this was going to become a container home. Since containers have some tight spaces in them, with a interior dimension of 7’8” high and 7’7” wide, it was decided to put two containers together which created a more useable open space. This larger space could now accomedate a nice size living room and bedroom. To help break up the two spaces and add some storage space, a walk in closet is placed between them. Along with the closet there is also an interior small garden. This interior garden serves a few good purposes: first being that now light can enter through the garden into both the living room and the bedroom at most hours of the day. Second this garden brings a bit of the outdoors within the house walls adding a slice of nature into the house. Some other parts of this design are a third container that has the bathroom, mech closet, washer/dryer, and kitchen in it. Since the project has to be modular and shipped, creating a wet wall between these rooms and putting them into one container makes the build far more economical.

Top sketch depicts the cut section where the garden and windows would be for the bedroom and living room. Below that is a sketch showing how the light comes in during the day.

Below shows the North clear story windows, a planter concept for around the house and section showing change in heights of roofs.

Some further design elements are a large garden that is placed in front of the bedroom window which both adds a visual barrier from the outside by keeping people from looking into the room but also by giving someone living in the home a nice view when they wake up in the morning. Secondly the kitchen is designed so that it can open onto the deck which makes for a really nice indoor/outdoor room.

54


Preliminary

Design project commpleted in 501

Design

During 501 the group, which we called ourselves ‘Solar Deviance,’ designed 10 different Solar Decathlon homes. Each home had to be 1000sq. ft. or less and be NetZero, which means the house needed to produce all of its own energy eliminating need for an outside energy source. Furthermore the house would be judged on the ten decathlon guidelines, with this design focusing on Affordability, Architecture, and Comfort Zone. Affordability was addresed through the use of many recycled and reusable materials. For instance the floor was built out of recycled wood flooring composed of varying sizes and colors which also gives the floor an interesting appeal. Some walls and cabinetry were then built from inexpensive manufactured plywood. The main structural forms were shipping containers, which cut down on construction time and reduce the need for framing materials.

Kitchen rendering



Most of the design focus was on the Architecture. Containers can be so valuable to a project but at the same time they are hard to accept so it is a challenge to use them

Living room rendering



East Elevation 

West Elevation 


16’

Living Room

Kitchen W D

Mech

40’

H.O.

Bath

Bedroom

Floor Plan 

0

10

20

successfully. First main distinct feature of the house is its different roof heights. There are three main heights with the lowest being the standard container height. To reduce waste and to create more intimate, less expressive spaces the roof is left on the container over half of the bedroom and living room. This creates a nice spot that is more confined and will allow you to feel more relaxed when sitting in this space. The roof is also left on the container where the bathroom is located because it was not necessary to have a high ceiling here. The middle height would be where the kitchen and entrance to the house is. This ceiling is raised a couple feet above the container and allows for more light to enter the room as well as creates a more open space. The third ceiling height

56


is in the other half of the living room and bed room. By vaulting the roof towards the north, you get a grander space that now gets ample north light which will reduce the need for lighting during the day. The north windows also can be opened in conjunction with other windows in the room, to create a natural convection that pulls warm air out of the space, cooling the house (all of this also helps with the homes comfort zone). Another important architectural feature of this house is the play of inside space being outside and vise versa. One area where you can see this is the entrance. A way to achieve this was to leave the exterior siding on the wall next to the front door. By having the siding indoors you will start to feel like your outside even when you’re actually inside the house. To add to this the door is positioned at the middle of one of the container end making half indoors and the other out which creates a interesting play on what once was an object known for being beat up at sea is now inside the house. There is also a good use of different types of materials in the entrance, mixing interior drywall with container steel and exterior siding plus hardwood finished flooring.

Section Cut


Sketches

58


home SWEET home

60


The Approach

The entrance to the home is hidden from view, tucked away behind a large planter box at the front of the house. The door is then recessed back further to conceal the entrance from view. In the image on the right you can see a wood trellis that shades the walkway but more importantly also creates a wonderful approach into the house. Besides just providing a great piece of natural landscape to the exterior, the garden also serves a greater purpose of being a barrier to block an outsider’s view into the bedroom. There is a large window here that is lovely to look out of but not so great for people to be able to look in so by simply using the plants as the visual block a nice thing is created.


62


Kitchen

The kitchen is the heart of this house and has many great things happening here. First being the way the container is used. Next would be the higher ceiling and its exposed structural beams. Further more other exposed materials are the cabinets, made from inexpensive plywood, but also designed in a way that looks anything but cheap. Another nice detail is the planter on the center island which adds a nice touch to the kitchen. The third and most definitely best part of the kitchen is the view outside. Two whole sides of the kitchen open completely extending it onto the deck, making for a large indoor/outdoor room. Thanks to the long Nano wall the kitchen is quickly madeinto a spacial outdoor room.


detail sketch of island planter in the kitchen

64


Living Room

The living room is most likely a space where you will spend most of your time, so it is going to have to be an area that is very comfortable and enjoyable to be in and this living room is definitely a cake topper. Its crowning feature would have to be the long window seat along the back of the room. It is a perfect spot to sit, relax, and maybe even crack open a good book. With different heights to the ceilings this room will definitely have a good balance between large expansive areas to lower lying more intimate spaces. As in the kitchen, the living room also makes strong use of cheap and afforadable materials.

a man sitting and reading on the window seat.


66


Bedroom

Being a bedroom, this room needed to have its privacy so it was only fitting to put it in the back of the house off to the side, adjacent but not detached from the rest of the house. Since it is also a small home, for most likely just two people, it was not necessary for the bedroom to be closed off from the rest of the house. With space being limited as well a large walk in was put right next to the room for storage. Also a stand-alone closet for clothes and shoes is added inside the room. The bedroom is quite spacious and gets plenty of light and with the floor to ceiling doors it also gets plenty of air circulation. The view is not to bad too because of a large planter to look at every morning when you wake up.


VIEWS

guy sitting on bed looking out into the garden.

68


Other Importance

This is a site-less build that orients itself for efficiency but to prevent a lack of landscaping it was important to have plenty of planter boxes around the house. Rather than building a tall box that obstructs the view these boxes are built flush with the deck. There is also a vertical green garden at the northern most end of the house. These green walls are built out of old pallets. Some of their cross supports are removed and replaced with plastic planter boxes which allows you to plant your own food. Inside the house the bathroom is cool because the shower is part of the container which helped cut down on insulation cost.


The vertical garden is perfect for growing small vegtables reducing the amount of food needed from store.

the expansive deck is as much a part of the kitchen as the kitchen is of it.

Since this is a container house there is no need to buy a shower, rather you can just cut a hole in the floor for a drain then add some finish material and that’s it.

70


everything

GREEN

72


step 1

step 2

step 4


How to Ship

A big challenge in designing a modular home is figuring out how the thing comes apart and then goes back together? It definitely created a challenge in this design but by using a clever design, this challenge could easily be solved. To solve this issue this project took advantage of another good use for the ‘container’ (which it should be easy to guess what that was). Since the container was born ready for shipping it was decided, why not just design the house so it could all fit into each container and then just be shipped out to where ever it needed to go. This was a great concept since shipping costs can be very expensive, and let us not forget to that it is also very harmful to the environment. This green approach to design, where you think about how to minimize the affect created through shipping, also

helps gain points during the judging phase. Part of the evaluation is in the impact the house has during its travels. Think of this house in terms that are much like your typical camper or other modular home, by already being mobile you could literally take your house anywhere you go, something you surely could not do with your typical single family home. The assembly of this home could also be constructed very quickly because every part comes as either a readymade module or a pre-fabed panel which can easily be put together anyday, which is another benefit created from this project being constructed out of containers. Since a container is standardized you’re able to just send a finish module to anywhere you need to.

step 3 74


Green Energies

Being a net zero house, means that there are many different types of renewable resources used within. For instance this house has about 10 different types of sustainable features. First off there are 22 solar panels on the south facing roof. These panels produce 290kw each and provide plenty of energy to run the home. The panels along with gathering energy during the day also help to shade the roof, keeping the interior temperature at a more moderate range.

helps reduce the homes heat island effect while helping to replace the lost natural land taken up by the buildings footprint. With water in our world being so vital this house uses an electric insta-heat hot water heater which use electricity to instantly heat the water coming through the pipes, this both saves energy and water because now you do not have to run water until it is warm, you instead now get warm water right away!

Secondly this house uses many passive systems to keep it comfortable inside during warm days. To further help air circulate in the house there are ceiling fans hanging from the vaulted roof which can be ran in reverse to help push warm air out of the high clear story windows. When the house is cold, for instance during the winter, there is installed into the floors a warm board radiant heat flooring system that runs hot water through its pipes warming the floor and making you feel more comfortable. This radiant floor also helps keep temperatures at a better average range than forced air systems.

7.

Since energy is real expensive and easily wasted, this house uses all energy star appliances which help reduce the amount of energy required from the solar panels to run the house during peak hours. Another sustainable feature on this house is the green roof which is located on top of the kitchen. This roof helps to cool the kitchen by acting as a thermal mass that absorbs the sun’s rays. This roof also

3.

11.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

solar panels green roof water tanks hot water heater electrical box shower refrigerator

8. oven 9. sinks 10. stove 11. vertical gardens 12. warm board 13. ceiling fans

1. 2.

10. 6.

13. 8.

12.

9. 5.

4.

Furthermore the house also collects its own water through the green roof and under the porch and saves it in large water tanks. This water can then be filtered and used to water gardens, green roof, and also used for flushing the toilet.

76


Greenroof Layers

Greenroofs have many layers and can vary in size depending on building structure and plant choice: this being a typical 6� layer.

plantings substrate filter cloth drainage media felt protection water proofing insulation

vaper barrier plywood decking 2x6 rafters

Kniphofia

Allium Schoenprasum

Sedium Reflexum


diagram dipicting the capturing of rain water and storing in water tanks

Storm water 10-35% during wet season, 65-100% during dry

None

Urban heat island

Prevents temperature increase

None

Air quality

Filters air and stores carbon

None

Volumn retention

Energy consumption Insulates building

None

GreEn space

Replaces greEn space lost by building foOtprint

None

Habitat

For insects and birds

None

Livability

BufFers noise, eliminates glare, pasSive recreation

None

Cost ofFets

Reduced storm water facilities, energy savings,

None

higher rental value, adDed jobs and industry

78


Nano Wall

The Nano wall has two different modes: open or closed. When it is open the deck and kitchen essentially become one really large open room. With it closed then you still get the visual effect of being open but the room is now a more controlled environment. The floorceiling glass panels slide separately and can completely tuck into pocket walls making the whole system disappear.

Open

Closed


Vertical Garden These planters show that even the cheapest of materials can be used in ways that can make some pretty cool things.

reuse of old beat up pallet plus a plastic planter box and small plants

these reused materials could come together to make these planters whether they are vertical(left) or horizontal

80


CLOSING

82


Canadian Solar 22 panels 290kw ea. 6” green roof (2) 2x6 20’ @2ft o.c. Anderson double pane windows vertical cement board frammed drywall rough finish 40’ shipping containers 1/2”x4” shade screen wood lattice screen tub steel structure 6x6” (2) 350 gal. water tanks planter box verticle pallette garden engineered wood floor trex composite decking

house jacks

deck framing corrugated screen


a view into the kitchen when the nano walls are open and the morning sun is flooding kitchen

Your Turn!

The house is our investment, it is our baby, it is also going to be the most expensive decision we ever make within our lives; there is no excuse on why we cannot own a home of our dreams and there is no reason why we should settle for something that will just be a roof over our head because we feel our house will make us go belly up! This thesis studied how sometimes the simplest of things or materials can be combined together to create what in the end is something beautiful, something that you can be really proud of and enjoy living in. Hopefully with some of the tools shown in this book, maybe even you could chase after the dream of owning that perfect house. The options out there are endless; it is just up to you to pick the right one!

84


DOCUMENTATION

86


DE

BC

A

1

T. ST. 6x6

T. ST. 3x3

T. ST. 3x3

DBL. 2x6 @ 24” O/C

DBL. 2x6 @ 24” O/C

beam overlapped in plan. see A3. T. ST. 6x6

2

T. ST. 3x3

2’

1

2’

1

T. ST. 3x3

2x4 @ 16” O/C

5’ 6” T. ST. 3x3 3

T. ST. 3x3

T. ST. 3x3

1

T. ST. 3x3 T. ST. 3x3

T. ST. 3x3

T. ST. 3x3

T. ST. 3x3

1 A3

4

Roof Framing 10’

8’

5’

R 1

R 2

PLT. @ 15’ 6”

4’ 12’

6’

HDR. @ 12’ HDR. @ 10’

7’ 6”

HDR. @ 9’

FF. @ 2’ 6”

GD. @ 0-0

N 1

G 1

2’

L 1

Section 5’

10’

5


62’

36’

7’ 6”

16’ 6”

21’

7’ 6”

5’

3’ 6”

3’ 6”

7’ 6”

3’

PLANTER

DN 6’

32’ 6”

3’

DN

7’ 6” 3

LIV. RM.

KIT.

FF. +30”

2’

12’ 6”

9’

20’

15’

19’ 6”

PLANTER

15’ 6”

4’

3

3 2

D 1

4’

9’

5’

6’

1

1

1

40’ 2

4’

BATH

4

3 22’

1 WD 1

WT 3’

WT

HW

CLO.

PLT.

3

2’

14’

2’

5’

2’ 6”

STO.

REF.

4’

DOWN @ 1/12

1’

10’

S 1

1’

2’

1’

8’ 6”

12’

3’ 6”

15’

BR 5

6’

PLANTER

4

11’

20’

4

2’ 6”

2’ 6”

16’ 6”

First Floor Plan 5’

10’

88


recycled vert. siding

6x6 tube steel

recycled vert. siding

shipping container#3

shipping container#2

East Elevation 5’

10’

recycled vert. siding 6x6 tube steel

HDR. @ 12’ 7

6

6

6

6’ 6”

shipping container#1

recycled vert. siding

West Elevation 5’

10’


PLT. @ 15’ 6”

recycled vert. siding

HDR. @ 14’ 6” 6

6

6

6

6

6

HDR. @ 12’

HDR. @ 12’

HDR. @ 10’ HDR. @ 12’

recycled vert. siding recycled vert. siding

FF. @ 2’ 6”

FF. @ 2’ 6”

GD. @ 0-0

GD. @ 0-0

North Elevation 5’

10’

asphalt shingles

PLT. @ 12’

recycled vert. siding

HDR. @ 10’

HDR. @ 12’

FF. @ 2’ 6”

FF. @ 2’ 6”

GD. @ 0-0

GD. @ 0-0

South Elevation 5’

10’

90


2x4 ra ft er @ 24” o/c 1/2” t op/b ot to m 7 p ly 2x4 sleeper r19 ba tt s insul. shingles

2x6 fascha

2x6 leader Ra ft er see plan

roof

ve rt . tq . 1/2”x4” siding 3/4” 7 p ly 2x4 header 5/8” gypsum

ve rt . tq . 1/2”x4” siding Hg flashing strip

to p 5/8” PL Y.

vege ta tion m at

di r t bed w/ flashing strip Paving strip in gra vel bed

roofing membrane

2x4 sill

drainage m

at

3/4” 7 pl y 2x6 dbl stu d s @ 24” o/c L bo lt ed brack et rigid insul. 2x6” ra ft er 3/4” 7 p ly

5/8” gypsum

6x6” t.b.s.

ve rt . tq . 1/2”x4” siding

6x6” t.b.s. con tainer

5/8” gypsum

5/8” gypsum 2x4 door hd.

Roof Framing Detail 10’

20’

3/4” wood decking see f ound ation plan


n

nana

pex tubing 3/4” finish f l oor

wa ll track 3/4” wood decking

w arm b o ard

2x6 joist @ 24” o/c

2x6 joist @ 24” o/c 2x6 joist @ 24” o/c 2x4 channel

flashing

Nano wall Detail 10’2

di rt bed w/ flashing strip

0’

con ta iner

vege ta tion ma t 1 1/8” machine p l y we at her pr oofing

2x6 stringer 2x4 head b o ard 4x4 wood

po st

2x4 stud @ 16 o/c

house jack

2x4 stud plant

2x4 b ase pl

at e

Green roof Detail 10’

20’

92

er


Bibliography Wells, Walker, Ted Bardacke, and Matt Petersen. Blueprint for Greening Affordable Housing Global Green USA. Washington: Island, 2007. Print. Cassiday, B. (1977). The complete solar house. New York: Dodd, Mead.

Adams, A. (1975). Your energy-efficient house: building & remodeling ideas. Charlotte, Vt.: Garden Way Pub.. Bergdoll, B., & York, N. (). Foreclosed: rehousing the American dream. : . Hayden, D., & Wark, J. (2004). A field guide to sprawl. New York: W.W. Norton.

Kotnik, J. (2013). New container architecture: design guide + 30case studies. Barcelona: LinksBooks. Lee, V., & Main, R. (2000). Recycled spaces: converting old buildings Slawik, H. (2010). Container atlas: into new homes. San Francisco: SOMA a practical guide to container Books. architecture. Berlin: Gestalten. Laquian, A. A. (1969). Slums are for Kotnik, J. (2008). Container people: the Barrio Magsaysay Pilot architecture. Barcelona, Spain: Project in Philippine urban Links Books. community development. Manila: Local Government Center, College of Snodgrass, E. C., & McIntyre, L.(2010). Public Administration, University The green roof manual: a of the Philippines. professional guide to design, installation, andmaintenance. Portland: Timber Press. Cantor, S. L. (2008). Green roofs in sustainable landscape design. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.. Dunnett, N., & Kingsbury, N. (2004). Planting green roofs and living walls. Portland, Or.: Timber Press. Guzowski, M. (2010). Towards zero-energy architecture: new solar design. London, U.K.: Laurence King.


Index Ronin. “Container Yard.” container yard. Serrano, N. “American Dreamer.” The Life. Like it or not- Shipping Container 05 July 2011. 24 May 2014. http:// homes 30 Sep. 2010. 20 May 2014. nicoleserrano.wordpress.com/ http://renaissanceronin.wordpress. com/2008/09/30/like-it-or-notKahler, M. “ Intro to Freighter Cruise.” shipping-container-homes-are Tips for Cruising on a Cargo Ship. coming-to-a-lot-near-you/ 11 June 2014. 1 June 2014. http://budgettravel.about.com/od/ Jones, B. “Aerial Urban Sprawl.” urban cruisedealsdiscounts/ss/ sprawl. How does DSLR pioneer Freighter-Cruises-Can-Be-Cheaper shoot..24 June 2013. 20 May 2014. -By-The-Day.htm http://www.digitaltrends.com/ photography/how-one-dslr-pioneer- Mayor, A. “Monster-Train.” union shoots-for-the-big-screen-with-a- pacific. 20 Aug. 2002. 1 June 2014. little-cam/#!JVuo5 http://www.roadfood.com/Forums/ m535148-print.aspx Suburbman. “Suburbia 1949.” Suburban Soul. 2012. 23 May 2014. http:// Sin, E. “loading.” Modul Terminal. 18 suburbman.tumblr.com/post/ Mar. 2014. 3 June 2014. http://www. 23709122777/suburbia-1949-and modul.spb.ru/eng/resources/ 1949-dodge-coronet-station-wagon terminal.html Silver, J. “Euro-Way Homes.” Czech native still building homes.” 5 Feb. 2009. 24 May 2014. http://www.djc. com/news/co/cis.html?id=12002775

Cooper, C. “Container GUest House.” Poteet Architects. 14 Apr. 2011. 5 June 2014. http://www.archdaily. com/127570/container-guest-house- poteet-architects/

Chan L. “American Dream in 1950.” living- room kitchen. 3 July 2012. Gunem, G. “Shipping Container House.” 24 May 2014. http://tenement- Studio H:T. 3 Apr. 2012. 7 June museum.blogspot.com/2012/07/ 2014. http://www.archdaily.com/ american-dream-past-present-and- 222361/shipping-container-house future.html studio-ht/ Kueber, P. “American Home.” 1950American dream home. 20 Oct. 2008. 24 May 2014. https://www.flickr.com/ photos retrorenovation/2958286650/

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Glossary

Chin, A. “Design Boom.” Nomad Living. 29 Sep. 2013. 7 June 2014. http:// www.designboom.com/architecture/ nomad-living-by-studio-arte-is-a- 20’ Container- The most commonly used shipping-container-retreat-09-29- container size worldwide in the ISO 2013/ dimensions 1/w/h 20’/8’/8’6” Kalkin, A. “Minimalist.” Shipping 40’ Container- Basic module for the Container Homes. 11 June 2014. standardization of ISO containers. Today, 11 June 2014. http://stylusa.com/ it is the most commonly used container inspiring-home-design-withsize after the 20’ container shipping-container-house-ideas/ minimalist-interior-design-ofContainer Dimensions- Typical dimensions shipping-container-homes-designof containers according to the ISO ideas/ standard, refers paricularly to lengh dimensions quoted in units of feet(10’, 20’, 40’, etc.) Container Frame- Further develpment of existing container types with a consistent separation between frame and filling. Container Look- Architecture with replicated containers, i.e. conventionally constructed building components, the shape of which is reminiscent of containers. Cor-ten Steel- Very stong and weatherresistant steel alloy (CORrosion resistance and TENsile strength). Cross Member- Carrier beams made of steel profiles in the base of a container, which support transport loads. Freight Container- General terms for reusable conatiners for transporting all types of goods. Galvanization- Process for providing


corrosion protection for steel; the hot-dip galvanization process gives steel a surface coation of zinc; damaged areas must be treated again (cold galvanization).

Vapor Barrier- Sheeting that reducesthe transmission of water molecules in the form of vapor; necessary

Insulation- Material with a high heat transmission resistance that is used to reduce heat losses from a building. ISO- Abbreviation for the International Organization for Standardization, which prepares internationally valid technical “Normung� standards. Mobility- Movability, not tied to a fixed location. Module- Individual unit in an overall system. Prefabrication- Manufacturing process for building components that takes place in the workshop rather than on site; the greater the degree of prefabrication, the less work remains to be done on site. Raw Container- Unconverted version of a container Reinforcement- Component that ensures the stability of a body under horizontally acting loads. Standardization- Adapted to generalized requirements, commonization. Temporary- Provisional, for a short time.

96


PART OF THE "AMERICAN DREAM" IS TO OWN A HOME. OWNING A HOME IS THE PATH TO PROSPERITY AND SUCCESS THAT WILL ENSURE OUR FUTURE. WITH A QUEST FOR WEALTH AMERICANS MOVED INTO SUBURBS BECAUSE THERE WAS AN ASSURANCE FOR ECONOMIC BENEFITS. THIS BENEFIT WAS THE INVESTMENT THAT THEY COULD MAKE FROM SELLING THEIR HOME BUT AS THEY STARTED BUYING BIGGER HOMES BECAUSE THEY COULD AFFORD THEM, THESE HOMES STARTED GETTING TO LARGE TO USE. TO BUILD THESE LARGE HOMES CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES NEEDED TO USE MANY RESOURCES AND MATERIALS, DESTROYING MANY NATURAL RESOURCES ALONG THE WAY. THIS CONTINUED DEPLETION CALLS FOR A DESPERATE COURSE OF ACTION WHERE DESIGNERS NEED TO RETHINK TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION METHODS AND USE A MORE ENERGY EFFICIENT AND MORE SUSTAINABILITY CONSCIOUS APPROACH.


Importance of the Box