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Communities and Ecosystems The Greenhouse Effect Populations Classification

Wallpapperbase.com http://www.wallpaperbase.com/space-earth.shtml accessed 12.08.07


A. Ecological Levels B. Ecosystems C. Trophic Levels D. Transfer of Resources

Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History http://www.mnh.si.edu/museum/news/woodpecker/index.htm accessed 26.04.07


A. Ecological Levels 1. Ecology- the study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment 2. Species- a group of organisms which can interbreed and produce fertile offspring 3. Habitat- the environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism_

The University of Texas at Austin http://www.micro.utexas.edu/courses/levin/bio304/biomes/SAVANNA/savanna.madagascar.html accessed 26.04.07


4. Population- a group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time 5. Community- a group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area 6. Ecosystem- a community and its abiotic environment a. plants and animals b. light, temperature, and water_

Phoenix College http://www.pc.maricopa.edu/Biology/ppepe/au/AU%20Blog%2006/coralreefblog.htm accessed 26.04.07

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B. Ecosystems 1. Ecosystems contain a variety of organisms, all of which have different modes of nutrition a. autotrophs (producers) b. heterotrophs (consumers)

1) herbivore 2) carnivore 3) detritivore 4) saprotroph_

Photoblog 2.0 http://www.digitalfieldguide.com/blog/491 accessed 22.08.07


2. Autotroph- an organism that synthesizes its organic molecules from simple inorganic substances (plants, algae, and phosynthetic bacteria) 3. Heterotroph- an organism that obtains organic molecules from other organisms (animals, fungi, protozoans, and bacteria)_

Idle type http://www.idletype.com/2004_02_01_archive.htmlindex.php/image/grass/ accessed 20.08.07


4. Consumer- an organism that ingests other organic matter that is living or recently killed (gazelle, leopard, and vulture)_

Cosumnes River College http://instr.crc.losrios.edu/scotts/Biology400/labs/identify_each_picture.htm accessed 02.05.07


5. Decomposer- break down the remains of dead organisms

a. detrivore- an organism that ingests dead organic matter (millipedes, woodlice, and earthworms) b. saprotroph- an organism that lives on or in dead organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion (fungus and bacteria)_

Adnet- Web Builders to the Desigh Industry http://www.adnet.ie/blogs/index.php/2006/06/ accessed 07.05.07


C. Trophic Levels 1. Trophic level- the position that an organism occupies in a food chain or a group of organisms in a community that occupy the same positions in food chains a. primary producermanufacture their own food b. primary consumer- eats primary producers

c. secondary consumer- eats primary consumers d. tertiary consumer- eats secondary consumers_ Pack 152 http://pack152.net/AcademicsAndSports/BeltloopsAndPinsReqs.php accessed 29.04.07


2. A food chain shows the position of an organism relative to other organisms, within their respective trophic levels a. A  B indicates that A is being “eaten” by B b. the arrow indicates the direction of energy flow_

Virtual Homeschool International http://www.vhomeschool.net/mambo/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=243&Itemid=571 accessed 26.04.07


3. Food web shows interconnected food chains

a. feeding relationships are often too complex to be displayed as a simple food chain 4. Each organism within a food chain/web represents a trophic level_

iClass http://yennadon.sd42.ca/online/science/ecology/animalfoodweb.html accessed 26.04.07

Microscopy-UK http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artjun05/etmacro.html accessed 29.04.07

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5. Although decomposers play an important role in the ecosystem, they are not typically included in food chain/webs_

Nature Wallpaper http://www.exterpassive.com/naturewallpapers/index.php/archives/179 accessed 14.05.07


D. Transfer of Resources 1. Within an ecosystem, there is a movement of both nutrients and energy a. nutrients cycle i.e. travel in a “circle� as they are passed from one organism to the next and eventually recycled back to organisms again by decomposition_

Garden Pond and Wildlife Garden http://www.glaucus.org.uk/Pond.htm accessed 03.09.07


b. saprotrophic bacteria and fungi (decomposers) recycle nutrients_

Funky Pixel http://www.funkypixel.com/fotolog/images/mushroom_rotting.jpg accessed 03.09.07


c. energy flows i.e. in a “line� and is temporarily stored and used by organisms and eventually lost to the environment in the form of heat d. energy can enter and leave an ecosystem, but nutrients must be recycled_

Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/8082004@N08/1542729910/ accessed 12.09.09


2. Energy flows in a food chain a. light is the initial energy source for almost all communities 1) only a fraction of the suns energy is captured by plants 2) the sun is not included in food chains b. energy enters food chains through the process of photosynthesis_

VisitUSA.com http://www.visitusa.com/california/photos/mojave-nationalpreserve.htm accessed 08.05.07


c. energy is lost when transferred between trophic levels 1) some material is not consumed 2) other material is not assimilated 3) material used in cell respiration produces CO2, H2O, and heat_

author unknown address unknown accessed unknown


d. only energy used to create new body mass is available to the next organism in the food chain e. when energy transformations take place, including those in living organisms, the process is never 100% efficient, commonly being 10-20%_

Ecology Island Adventure http://www.tc.umn.edu/~brop0011/Final%20project-Ecology/FP-Food%20Energy.html accessed 23.07.08


3. The flow of energy from one trophic level to the next in a community can be shown in a pyramid of energy a. the pyramid shape results from the stacking of increasingly smaller trophic levels b. the base of the pyramid is formed by primary producers which retain the greatest amount of energy as they obtain energy directly from sunlight_

University of Michigan http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/gctext/Inquiries/Inquiries_by_Unit/Unit_4.htm accessed 28.04.07


c. primary consumers make up the second level of the pyramid which is smaller in size due to energy lost at and between levels d. secondary and tertiary consumer levels are stacked consecutively at the top and are increasingly smaller e. the units of pyramids of energy are based on energy (joules) per unit area (square meter) per unit time (year) and are written J m-2 yr-1_ University of Michigan http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/gctext/Inquiries/Inquiries_by_Unit/Unit_4.htm accessed 28.04.07


A. The Carbon Cycle B. Atmospheric CO2 C. The Greenhouse Effect D. Precautionary Principle E. Global Warming

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute http://www.mbari.org/benthic/tour1.htm accessed 13.08.07


Theory of Knowledge WHAT DIFFERENCE MIGHT IT MAKE TO SCIENTIFIC WORK IF NATURE WERE TO BE REGARDED AS A MACHINE, FOR EXAMPLE, AS A CLOCKWORK MECHANISM, OR AS AN ORGANISM, THAT IS, THE GAIA HYPOTHESIS? HOW USEFUL ARE THESE METAPHORS.

A. The Carbon Cycle 1. The carbon cycle is the interaction of living organisms and the biosphere through the processes of a. photosynthesis b. cell respiration

c. fossilization d. combustion_

ORACLE ThinkQuest http://library.thinkquest.org/11226/why.htm accessed 14.08.07

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B. Atmospheric CO2 1. Changes in concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide have been recorded for the past 50 years a. CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is currently about 390 parts per million (ppm) United Nations Environmental Programme http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/co2_concentration_in_the_atmosphere_mauna_loa_curve accessed 14.07.08

United Nations Environmental Programme http://www.grida.no/climate/vital/06.htm accessed 14.08.07

b. an increase of more than 30% since 1750_

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C. The Greenhouse Effect 1. The greenhouse effect (gasses in the atmosphere trapping heat) is a natural phenomenon a. essential to the evolution of life on Earth b. without it, average surface temperatures would be between -17ËšC and -23ËšC_

Hartley Botanical http://www.hartley-greenhouses.co.uk/ accessed 15.07.08


2. CO2 and other greenhouse gasses (methane and oxides of nitrogen) are linked to an enhanced greenhouse effect a. transmission of incoming shorter-wave radiation (light) penetrates the atmosphere and strikes the Earth’s surface b. re-radiated longer-wave radiation (heat) is reflected back to earth_

The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research http://www.ucar.edu/communications/newsreleases/2001/learnweb.html accessed 15.07.08


2. Current CO2 levels could double, possibly leading to an estimated 2.5ËšC increase in average global temperature_

United Nations Environmental Programme http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/historical-trends-in-carbon-dioxide-concentrations-and-temperature-on-a-geological-and-recent-time-scal accessed 14.07.08

USA Today http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-12-27-polar-bears_x.ht accessed 15.07.08

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Theory of Knowledge PARALLELS COULD BE DRAWN HERE BETWEEN SUCCESS IN DETERRING CRIME BY INCREASING THE SEVERITY OF THE PUNISHMENT OR BY INCREASING THE CHANCE OF DETECTION. IF THE POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES OF RAPID GLOBAL WARMING ARE DEVASTATING ENOUGH, PREVENTIVE MEASURES ARE JUSTIFIED EVEN IF IT IS FAR FROM CERTAIN THAT RAPID GLOBAL WARMING WILL RESULT FROM CURRENT HUMAN ACTIVITIES.

D. Precautionary Principle 1. The precautionary principle holds that, if the effects of a human-induced change would be very large, perhaps catastrophic, those responsible for the change must prove that it will not do harm before proceeding 2. This is the reverse of the normal situation, where those who are concerned about the change would have to prove that it will do harm in order to prevent such changes going ahead_

Mittal Steel http://www.mittalsteel.com/dynamic/dynamicdefault.asp?langId=&sec=matrix&menu_key=&writeprod=1&prod=99&comp=11 accessed 15.07.08

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E. Global Warming 1. The consequences of a global temperature rise on arctic ecosystems are potentially devastating 2. Effects include: a. increased rates of decomposition of detritus previously trapped in permafrost_

League of Conservation Voters http://www.lcv.org/president-and-congress/issues/ accessed 15.07.08

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b. expansion of the range of habitats available to temperate species c. loss of ice habitat, changes in distribution of prey species affecting higher trophic levels d. increased success of pest species, including pathogens_

Oxbow Park Naturalization Project http://chat.carleton.ca/~hcampbe3/Insects_of_the_Ottawa_Area.html accessed 15.07.08


DRAW AND LABEL A DIAGRAM OF THE CARBON CYCLE TO SHOW THE PROCESSESA. INVOLVED The Carbon Cycle 1. The carbon cycle is the interaction of living organisms and the biosphere through the processes of a. photosynthesis b. cell respiration

c. fossilization d. combustion_

ORACLE ThinkQuest http://library.thinkquest.org/11226/why.htm accessed 14.08.07

TIMES UP! A. Allott, Biology IB Study Guide, Oxford University Press 2007

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A. Population Growth B. Sigmoid Growth C. Limiting Factors D. Human Population

Ontario http://http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/ENGLISH/exhibits/parade/big/big_72a_large_crowd.ht accessed 11.08.07


A. Population Growth 1. Populations are dynamic, constantly changing components of ecosystems 2. Population size may be limited by environmental factors such as: a. natality- births b. immigration- moving into a population c. mortality- deaths

d. emigration- moving out of a population_

University of Alabama http://bama.ua.edu/~rypel001/undergrads.htm accessed 11.08.07


B. Sigmoid Growth 1. Under ideal conditions, a population may display sigmoid growth 2. Sigmoid growth is divided into several phases a. slow growth- initially the growth is slow 1) few reproducing organisms Michael Kent Advanced Biology (Page 514) Oxford University Press (2000)

writing and difference http://www.eshin.com/node/36 accessed 11.08.07

2) unable to find a mate_

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b. exponential growth phasegrows at its maximum rate (biotic potential) 1) population size doubles at regular intervals c. transitional phasedecelerating growth (due to environmental factors) Michael Kent Advanced Biology (Page 514) Oxford University Press (2000)

d. plateau phase- population growth rate eventually stops 1) carrying capacity_

author unknown address unknown accessed unknown

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C. Limiting Factors 1. Population growth curves can vary with respect to one or more limiting environmental factors 2. Density-dependent factors: a. competition or availability of food b. disease c. predation or starvation 3. Density-independent factors: a. weather b. climate_

author unknown address unknown accessed unknown

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C. Limiting Factors 1. Population growth curves can vary with respect to one or more limiting environmental factors 2. Density-dependent factors: a. competition or availability of food b. disease c. predation or starvation 3. Density-independent factors: a. weather

Allott and Mindorff, Biology Course Companion, Oxford University Press 2007

b. climate_

author unknown address unknown accessed unknown

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D. Human Population 1. Does human population follow the same pattern as other species? 2. What are the limiting factors for human population? 3. United Nations has data based on a variety of assumptions showing projected population growth_

Minnesotans For Sustainability http://www.mnforsustain.org/energy%20punctuation%20marks%20morrison.htm accessed 23.08.08

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A. Classification B. Taxon Hierarchy C. Kingdom Plantae D. Kingdom Animalia E. Binomial Nomenclature

Alex Maisey Wildlife Photography http://alexmaisey.com.au/monotremes.ht accessed 06.09.07


A. Classification 1. Taxonomy is the branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying diverse life forms a. organization of data assists in identifying organisms b. show evolutionary links c. enables prediction of characteristics shared by members of a group_

University of Calgry http://lofi.forum.physorg.com/Problems-with-Evolution_3414-300.html accessed 06.09.07

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B. Taxon Hierarchy 1. Organisms are classified into on o 5 kingdoms:

a. Prokaryotae b. Protoctista c. Fungi d. Plantae e. Animalia 2. The kingdom is the most general of seven levels in the hierarchy of taxa_

author unknown address unknown accessed unknown


Taxa Hierarchy of a Sunflower Kingdom (Plantae) Phylum (Magnoliophyta) Class (Magnoliopsida) Order (Asterales)

Family (Asteraceae) Genus (Helianthus) Species (annuus)_

author unknown address unknown accessed unknown

DECLAN MCCULLAGH PHOTOGRAPHY http://www.mccullagh.org/photo/1ds2-5/sunflower-closeup accessed 06.09.07

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C. Kingdom Plantae 1. Distinguish between the following phyla of plants, using simple external recognition features: a. bryophyta b. filicinophyta

c. coniferophyta d. angiospermophyta_

Bioimagesa http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/pages/cones.htm accessed 14.01.08


D. Kingdom Animalia 1. Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external recognition features: a. porifera b. cnidaria

c. platyhelminthes d. annelida e. mollusca f. arthropoda_

Pharyngula http://pharyngula.org/index/weblog/comments/fluorescing_dogfish/ accessed 17.01.08


Theory of Knowledge THE ADOPTION OF A SYSTEM OF BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE IS LARGELY DUE TO SWEDISH BOTANIST AND PHYSICIAN CAROLUS LINNAEUS (1707– 1778). LINNAEUS ALSO DEFINED FOUR GROUPS OF HUMANS, AND THE DIVISIONS WERE BASED ON BOTH PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL TRAITS. BY 21STCENTURY STANDARDS, HIS DESCRIPTIONS CAN BE REGARDED AS RACIST. HOW DOES THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF SCIENTIFIC WORK AFFECT THE METHODS AND FINDINGS OF RESEARCH? IS IT NECESSARY TO CONSIDER THE SOCIAL CONTEXT WHEN EVALUATING ETHICAL ASPECTS OF KNOWLEDGE CLAIMS?

author unknown address unknown accessed unknown

E. Binomial Nomenclature 1. Binomial nomenclature- each organism is given a name based on two words a. generic name (genus) begins with an uppercase letter b. specific name (species) begins with a lowercase letter c. the two words are printed in italics (biological name) 2. Accepted by scientists around the world_

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3. The species name is always written in full, whereas the genus name is often abbreviated a. Homo sapiens b. Drosophila melanogaster

c. Escherichia coli 4. Each organisms belongs to a different species (a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring)_

marion kaplan http://www.marionkaplan.com/idx_africa1pp.htm accessed 08.09.07


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