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The Millennium Development Goals CBM’s disability-inclusive development work


Editor: Catherine Naughton CBM Lead consultant and author: Charlotte Axelsson ETEO Co-author: Mary Keogh Technical advisor: Diane Mulligan CBM CBM contribution and case studies: Alexis Joseph, Aurélien Daydé, Benjamin Dard, Christian Lohse, Fairlene Soji, Gordon Rattray, Johanna Kern, Karen Heinicke-Motsch, Katharina Pfortner, Lars Bosselmann, Luisa Fenu, Nirmi Vitarana, Soumana Zamo, Teeraphong Kunklangdone, Sara Varughese, Tigabu Gebremedhin, Tushar Wali, Valérie Scherrer. Partner contribution: Centre for Disability and Development (CDD), Bangladesh Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania (CCBRT), Tanzania Copy-edit: Loveday Murley Design and layout: Wendy Barratt Cover photo: ©CBM/Hayduk Beatrice participates in business management training through the support of the Association of Women with Disabilities in Togo (APROFETHO). This will enable her to access a micro-credit, which she plans to use to start a restaurant in the Bé neighbourhood of Lomé. For a more accessible version of this document: www.cbm.org/Disability-Inclusive-Post-2015 ©CBM, September 2013

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Contents

CBM’s disability-inclusive development work

4

Working towards disability-inclusive development

5

Case study. Pioneers in inclusive community development – MDG 1 Building knowledge and gaining experience Case study. The right to education for children with disabilities – MDG 2 CBM Disability and Development Policy Case study. Gaining confidence and skills for self-employment – MDGs 1 and 3 Strategy and action for international advocacy

6 7 8 9 10 11

Case study. Disability-inclusive early recovery and reconstruction

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Case study. Disability-inclusive disaster risk management

13

A future inclusive of persons with disabilities

16

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CBM’s disability-inclusive development work

”Beyond 2015 we expect governments to take the lead in ensuring that development includes all people, especially persons with disabilities. This is completely coherent with commitments made by our governments under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. We cannot eradicate poverty without including persons with disabilities” Dr Rainer Brockhaus, Director of CBM Germany

CBM is an international Christian disability and development organization with more than 100 years experience in improving the quality of life of persons with disabilities in the poorest communities. Together with a global network of partners, CBM aims to promote inclusion and make comprehensive healthcare, education and livelihood services available and accessible to persons with disabilities who live in low and middle-income countries. CBM addresses disability as a cause and consequence of poverty and promotes a world where each and everyone enjoy their human rights and reach their full potential. This is the reason why CBM is involved in advocating for a post-2015 development framework that excludes no one – a framework that is inclusive of and accessible for persons with disabilities. In this part of the publication, CBM describes its work on disability-inclusive development by following key milestones as the MDGs have evolved. The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) – a unifying set of developmental objectives for the global community – were adopted at the Millennium Summit in 2000. The MDGs bring together United Nations (UN) agencies, governments and civil society around eight key development issues with the aim of cooperating in efforts to reduce poverty, improve health, address educational and environmental concerns, and achieve gender equality across the world. The MDGs were specifically designed to address the needs of the world’s poorest and most marginalized people to achieve a commitment of “human rights and development for all”. Despite this initial intention, the MDGs exclude more than 15% of the world’s population: persons with disabilities, whose capacities and right to development have been overlooked in the main goals and targets. With 2015 around the corner, the UN is reviewing the progress made so far in achieving the MDGs. Global progress has been made for most of the goals but this has not occurred evenly or equitably. Inequality continues to affect all countries, rich or poor, and it is increasingly recognized that the most marginalized and poor have been the least able to access or benefit from development programs.

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Millennium Declaration and MDGs; Mexico propose developing a treaty on disability rights

First meeting of governments on the potential for a treaty on disability rights

UN Millennium Campaign

2000

2001

2002

UN events timeline

Working towards disability-inclusive MDGs In the year 2000, when the Millennium Declaration was adopted, CBM was already present in Africa, Asia and Latin America with a support base through member associations in Europe, North America and Australia. CBM was also becoming more involved in international advocacy and creating alliances, such as co-founding Vision 2020, and the International Council for Education of People with Visual Impairment (ICEVI) and through membership of the International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC). A partnership with WHO was also formalized and in 2002 CBM was awarded consultative status by the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). CBM worked for inclusive community development before the MDGs were adopted through supporting Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR). CBR was developed in the 1980s as a way of supporting persons with disabilities to access all community services through the joint efforts of persons with disabilities themselves and community workers. Throughout these early years, CBM built up diverse experience on how to include disability into community development, which would later lead to worldwide advocacy on disabilityinclusive development. In 2001, a global review of the CBR approach was initiated, following a general shift in the paradigm of international development to incorporate a human rights approach. Increasing pressure from persons with disabilities to have ownership of their own development process also contributed to this review.

CBM took an active role in the review from the beginning, contributing with its long experience of supporting CBR projects in Latin America, Asia and Africa. In 2010, when the CBR Guidelines were published, jointly by International Labour Organization, WHO, UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and IDDC, CBR officially became a key implementation method for disabilityinclusive development, following a human rights approach and aligned with the CRPD.

ŠCBM

Parallel to this, in 2000, the President of Mexico had proposed to the United Nations that a human rights convention for persons with disabilities be developed; the first meeting of member states and partners on a Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) was held in 2001.

CBM work timeline

2000

2001

2002

Working on community based inclusive development through CBR

Participation in first CBR review

Consultative status with UN ECOSOC

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Millennium Declaration and MDGs; Mexico propose developing a treaty on disability rights

First meeting of governments on the potential for a treaty on disability rights

UN Millennium Campaign

2000

2001

2002

UN events timeline

Case study Pioneers in inclusive community development – MDG 1 In 1996, long before the review of CBR, the Centre for Disability in Development (CDD) in Bangladesh decided to bring the results of CBR experiences in Asia a step forward and developed Community Approaches to Handicap in Development. This was one of the first practical attempts to include disability in mainstream development activities and is built around a framework of action, which can be implemented at local, national or international levels: • Social communication – raising awareness and providing knowledge to the general population, to community groups such as women, access to microcredit, and self-help groups on disability-inclusion. • Inclusion and rights – advocating for equal opportunities and rights in all aspects of life for persons with disabilities.

CBM and Handicap International supported this initiative, which was later expanded to Nepal, India and the Philippines. Over time CDD became well known for their expertise in disability-inclusive development in Bangladesh; requests to CDD for training increased from 50 organizations in 1997 to 300 in 2004. By 2006, grassroots organizations had been trained by CDD to deliver disability-inclusion services in an estimated 8,000 villages in Bangladesh. As a result of CDD’s work, disability is increasingly being considered an integral part of development by many development organizations, and with CBM’s support CDD was invited to share its wide experience at the 2013 Conference of States Parties on the CRPD.

• Rehabilitation – training field workers to identify and support persons with disabilities with daily life skills, mobility training, referral to specialized care and basic education. • Management – strategic planning, monitoring and evaluation of activities but also inclusion of disability into the design and decision-making process of activities. This requires network building, experience sharing, and documentation and ensure access to information.

CBM work timeline

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2000

2001

2002

Working on community based inclusive development through CBR

Participation in first CBR review

Consultative status with UN ECOSOC


Global consultation on reviewing CBR

Joint Position Paper on CBR; First EU Guidance on Disability and Development

World Summit on MDGs; First UN resolution on mainstreaming disability in the MDGs

2003

2004

2005

UN events timeline

Building knowledge and sharing experience In 2004, CBM contributed to a joint position paper defining new strategic directions for CBR. The strategy now positions CBR as part of local development, and full recognition is given to the empowerment and social inclusion of persons with disabilities. The two main objectives highlight the shift towards a rights based approach: 1. To ensure that persons with disabilities are able to maximise their physical and mental abilities, to access regular services and opportunities, and to become active contributors to the community and society at large.

for mainstreaming disability into development at the international level by directly influencing the European Institutions. In 2005 CBM started to provide technical and program support in mental health, working alongside partners to address the concerns of persons with psychosocial disabilities. In doing so, CBM recognized this neglected area as essential in a comprehensive approach to disability and development.

2. To activate communities to promote and protect the human rights of persons with disabilities through changes within the community, for example, by removing barriers to participation. The new CBR strategy also had an impact on the way CBM works with its partners. Persons with disabilities became increasingly important as key partners and influencing local policies and promoting a wider understanding of disability in the community were incorporated in old and new partnerships. Another key step in CBM’s expansion of its international advocacy came with the establishment of its EU Liaison Office in Brussels in 2004 – a timely decision as the EU had just published a Guidance on Disability and Development for EU Delegations and Services. This was the first time CBM decided to advocate strategically ŠCBM/Foto Backofen Mhm

CBM work timeline

2003

2004

2005

Contribution to global consultation on CBR

Establishment of EU Liaison Office in Brussels

Inclusion of mental health in program work

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Global consultation on reviewing CBR

Joint Position Paper on CBR; First EU Guidance on Disability and Development

World Summit on MDGs; First UN resolution on mainstreaming disability in the MDGs

2003

2004

2005

UN events timeline

Case study The right to education for children with disabilities – MDG 2 Ruth’s story Ruth first joined the CBR program in Santo Tomás municipality in El Salvador in 2003. She was then six years old, had just started to stand up but did not yet speak. Ruth and her mother joined the Early Education meetings, accompanied by the CBM co-worker. ©CBM Ruth quickly developed her knowledge and abilities and in 2005 was able to enter the first grade at school. Her first teacher was very positive about Ruth joining the class, but unfortunately this teacher died and her replacement was not in favour of inclusive education. Although the CBR volunteer accompanied Ruth to school, Ruth felt unhappy and decided to stop attending. The CBM co-worker offered, in cooperation with the Ministry of Education, teacher training in inclusive education to which Ruth’s new teacher was invited. The Ministry of Education also agreed to the request of the CBR program to pay itinerant teachers to accompany the inclusion program, which could then be extended to 12 schools in the municipality. From then on, everything went well. The itinerant teacher visited Ruth’s home and encouraged Ruth to return to school; Ruth’s teacher was persuaded to change his attitude to children with disabilities, and instead to focus on Ruth’s capabilities and potential.

This CBR program and early attempts of inclusive education made sustainable changes in the community and Ruth has become an appreciated student in her class.

Making school inclusive in Papua New Guinea In Papua New Guinea, efforts have been made to ensure that inclusive education is a topic within all teachers colleges. In the early 1990s, CBM in partnership with Callan Services supported the St. Benedict’s Teachers College in Wewak in piloting a training course in inclusive education. Continuous lobbying resulted in a National Special Education policy in 1994, where the Wewak model should be extended to all teacher training colleges. The enrolment of children with disabilities in mainstream schools had thus become national policy. Existing special schools were transformed into resource centres with the salaries of their teachers paid by the national government. Teachers were trained to receive children with disabilities and colleges were supported in providing an inclusive education curriculum by staff from the Special Education Resources Centres. Mainstream teachers also had an opportunity for higher education in more specialist topics (e.g. postgraduate degrees in Hearing and in Vision). Negative attitudes to disability and inclusion inevitably persist in some institutions, and schools remain underresourced. No single NGO initiated project can achieve change across an entire national education system, but they can offer ideas and motivation for more widespread and sustained government-led initiatives.

CBM work timeline

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2003

2004

2005

Contribution to global consultation on CBR

Establishment of EU Liaison Office in Brussels

Inclusion of mental health in program work


CRPD is adopted

EU signs the CRPD

CRPD enters into force

2006

2007

2008

UN events timeline

CBM Disability and Development Policy In December 2006, the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) was adopted, the first human rights treaty to include a stand-alone provision on international cooperation. In May 2008, the CRPD was ratified which was a significant step towards highlighting disability as a matter of human rights at international level. Article 32 on international cooperation reflects the importance of disability as a human rights issue as well as a development issue. CBM also participated with members of the IDDC in the project ‘Mainstreaming disability into EU development cooperation’; this project resulted in a whole range of advocacy actions and new tools for promoting disabilityinclusive development. Two key international events were organized in 2006, which proved to be crucial for bringing disability into EU development cooperation. Together with IDDC partner Light for the World, CBM organised a European conference on the CRPD and Article 32 that brought together EU and global experts to discuss how international cooperation would be affected by the CRPD, and to provide recommendations directly to the EU. Later in 2006, CBM Germany held a regional training on disability-inclusive Poverty Reduction Strategies, for which a publication and online tool had been developed in collaboration with Handicap International.

In 2007 CBM published its Disability and Development Policy which recognizes that disability needs to be mainstreamed at all levels of development cooperation and that the vicious cycle of poverty and disability must be broken: • By working with local partners to establish services required to make a clear and lasting impact on quality of life and to advocate with and on behalf of persons with disabilities and others living in poverty. • Be based on a human rights approach to both development and disability. CBM set up an Emergency Response Unit in 2008. This unit is able to respond rapidly to emergencies in countries where CBM partners operate. It also works with partners to mainstream disability in emergency response and to build community resilience through focus on Disaster Risk Management (DRM) and advocates at the global level for better inclusion of persons with disabilities in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) policy frameworks.

CBM work timeline

2006

2007

2008

EU project with IDDC on mainstreaming disability

CBM Disability and Development Policy

Establishment of Emergency Response Unit

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CRPD is adopted

EU signs the CRPD

CRPD enters into force

2006

2007

2008

UN events timeline

Case study Gaining confidence and skills for self-employment – MDG 1 and 3 Ada is intently focused on intricately braiding her latest wig. It’s a lucrative business for a young woman who had difficulty imagining she could be an admired and valued member of her society after contracting polio as a child, which left her with a disability.

“The first time I was invited to join this program I was very shy; I didn’t even want to go on the group camp but the leader told me that I should, that I hadn’t seen anything yet. I went, and thank God! I saw different people, I met different people. I’ve learnt a lot and we still have a monthly conference, planning new things to do.”

“I was five years old when I got polio. I was sick and my family took me to a nearby clinic. They gave me an injection and I went home, but then I couldn’t walk ©CBM again. They took me back to confirm with the doctor, and he told my Mum I had gotten polio because she hadn’t immunized me.” “My younger sister Sarah and I were brought up by my aunt, she taught me a lot: how to do household chores and other things. I even went to secondary school but I had to stop there. I don’t have anybody to sponsor me to further my education, but I still have hopes that when I have enough money I will sponsor myself and go back.” Ada is quick to show that she can take hold of every opportunity that comes her way. She beams when she talks about CBM’s partner project, the Advocacy for Women with Disability Initiative (AWWDI) and how it’s had such a positive impact on her life.

It’s thanks to the training from AWWDI that Ada is learning her hairdressing trade; it’s this trade that helps bring in a steady income, and may one day help Ada fulfil her educational dreams.

Despite an increase in wealth due to huge oil production, 70% of people in Nigeria live on less than a dollar a day. According to UNICEF, women in Nigeria are more likely to be poor than men and women with disabilities experience the discrimination associated with both gender and disability. It is against this background that in 2009 a group of Nigerian female activists established the AWWDI with the simple aim of fighting for the rights of women with disabilities in Nigeria. In collaboration with CBM, the AWWDI has gradually grown from one self-help group based in the capital city of Abuja, to 41 self-help groups across the country with a membership of over 500 women. Each group is also engaged in economic activities through microfinance programs, contributing to the member’s financial independence and to the group’s sustainability.

CBM work timeline

10

2006

2007

2008

EU project with IDDC on mainstreaming disability

CBM Disability and Development Policy

Establishment of Emergency Response Unit


EU Parliament report on MDG funding includes references to disability

EU ratifies the CRPD and launches its Disability Strategy 2010-2020

WHO and World Bank release World Disability Report

2009

2010

2011

UN events timeline

Strategy and action for international advocacy The 2010 Millennium Summit made an effort to highlight the invisibility of persons with disabilities in the MDGs. The Secretary-General’s resolution ‘Realizing the Millennium Development Goals for persons with disabilities towards 2015 and beyond’ stated that discrimination of persons with disabilities is still an important issue and their invisibility in official statistics as well as in implementation, monitoring and evaluation is an obstacle to reaching the MDGs. The resolution recommended that the UN and its agencies be more effective in including the rights of persons with disabilities in their work. Over the last few years CBM had become more involved in advocacy on the post 2015 agenda. CBMs strategic plan for 2010-2015 directed the organization towards including persons with disabilities in the present MDGs, and in the post-2015 agenda. In 2011, the International Advocacy and Alliances (IAA) department was established, with the aim of advocating for inclusive development and building and maintaining strong strategic alliances, at the international level. The same year, WHO and the World Bank published the World Disability Report, to which CBM contributed. The report provides the foremost global assessment of disability to date, and it does so using the latest scientific evidence, which puts forward that persons with disabilities have poorer health, lower educational achievements, fewer economic opportunities, and higher rates of poverty than persons without disabilities. A notable success, which followed many years of advocacy towards the EU institutions, was the launch of the EU’s Disability Strategy 2010-2020. The eighth priority of this critical document is EU external action: “to promote the rights of people with disabilities in the EU enlargement and international development programmes”.

“For far too long, persons with disabilities were invisible in international development. CBM largely contributed to raise attention of EU-decision-makers to reverse this trend by undertaking solid advocacy work in Brussels and on the ground and by involving decision-makers in that work.” Thijs Berman, Member of the European Parliament

The capacity of CBM’s Inclusive Emergency Response Unit was put to the test with the devastating earthquake in Haiti. Through rapid intervention, CBM quickly got an overview of the situation and provided financial and human resources to support its partners in getting back on their feet. After the immediate response, CBM continues with long-term programs and has implemented an accessibility project to promote the rebuilding of an accessible Haiti. CBM work timeline

2009

2010

2011

Dissemination of guidelines on inclusive project management

CBM Strategy 2010-2015 focuses on disability inclusive MDGs

Establishment of IAA department; Support for the launch of World Disability Report

11


EU Parliament report on MDG funding includes references to disability

EU ratifies the CRPD and launches its Disability Strategy 2010-2020

WHO and World Bank release World Disability Report

2009

2010

2011

UN events timeline

Case study Disability-inclusive early recovery and reconstruction

“CBM’s Emergency Response Policy is to quickly support local partners in emergency situations, promote the inclusion of persons with disabilities in mainstream emergency response and support countries to develop inclusive disaster risk reduction plans and programs.”

In a post-emergency situation it is essential to promote accessibility and to rebuild more inclusive communities. Accordingly, local Disabled People’s Organizations, mainstream NGOs and the government have all been promoting the importance of inclusive and accessible post-earthquake reconstruction in Haiti. The involvement of persons with disabilities in discussions on the rebuilt environment and facilities is considered essential and non-negotiable. This enshrines Article 9 (Accessibility) and 20 (Personal mobility) of the CRPD. The reconstruction of accessible shelter and water and sanitation facilities in the west department of Haïti (Leogane-Darbonne) was implemented by partner organisation Help and co-funded by CBM Germany. The CBM accessibility officer carried out an initial accessibility assessment in January 2011 to provide Help with recommendations and advice on future accessibility adjustments. Continuous support was provided throughout the whole construction process, with the involvement of persons with disabilities as future owners of the shelters. The shelter program became a model of accessibility in post-disaster response.

Valerie Scherrer, Director CBM Emergency Response Unit

Construction of 125 accessible shelters and accessible sanitation facilities in Haiti ©CBM/Haiti

CBM work timeline

12

2009

2010

2011

Dissemination of guidelines on inclusive project management

CBM Strategy 2010-2015 focuses on disability inclusive MDGs

Establishment of IAA department; Support for the launch of World Disability Report


EU Parliament report on MDG funding includes references to disability

EU ratifies the CRPD and launches its Disability Strategy 2010-2020

WHO and World Bank release World Disability Report

2009

2010

2011

UN events timeline

Case study Disability-inclusive disaster risk management CBM and the Centre for Disability in Development (CDD) worked together in providing emergency relief to persons with disabilities during various disasters in Bangladesh from 2007-2011; through those experiences the need for more inclusive practices on Disaster Risk Management became obvious. Together with a local NGO, Gana Unnayan Kendra, a pilot project was developed in six wards of the Sreepur Union, a region highly vulnerable to floods. An initial assessment revealed that most of the community had limited knowledge both of DRM and of disability. The focus was more on disaster response than on preparedness and few persons with disabilities had actually had any access to relief support during previous disasters. Moreover, the community and the government disaster management committee had no information on the needs and capacities of persons with disabilities. Based on these findings and through consultation with community committees and persons with disabilities, a comprehensive Disaster Risk Management project was set up. Key factors of project success were: • Participation of persons with disabilities in community committees on DRM and advocacy work. • Strong community contribution and involvement of local government. • Provision of livelihood support to persons with disabilities.

©Shumon Ahmed/CDD

I am involved in the Village Disaster Management Committee Kazol Rekha is a young woman and wheel chair user living in one of the villages in Sreepur Union. In a prize winning video made by End the cycle/CBM she tells about her role on the Disaster Management Committee, making sure persons with disabilities are not forgotten when disaster strikes. “Previously I was afraid of the prospect of flooding, but now that we are prepared I know what to do and can face it. Now I am no longer a burden to my family and I am proud that I am a valuable and contributing member of my community”

CBM work timeline

2009

2010

2011

Dissemination of guidelines on inclusive project management

CBM Strategy 2010-2015 focuses on disability inclusive MDGs

Establishment of IAA department; Support for the launch of World Disability Report

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Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

Article 32 International cooperation 1. States Parties recognize the importance of international cooperation and its promotion, in support of national efforts for the realization of the purpose and objectives of the present Convention, and will undertake appropriate and effective measures in this regard, between and among States and, as appropriate, in partnership with relevant international and regional organizations and civil society, in particular organizations of persons with disabilities. Such measures could include, inter alia: a) Ensuring that international cooperation, including international development programmes, is inclusive of and accessible to persons with disabilities; b) Facilitating and supporting capacity-building, including through the exchange and sharing of information, experiences, training programmes and best practices; c) Facilitating cooperation in research and access to scientific and technical knowledge; d) Providing, as appropriate, technical and economic assistance, including by facilitating access to and sharing of accessible and assistive technologies, and through the transfer of technologies. 2. The provisions of this article are without prejudice to the obligations of each State Party to fulfil its obligations under the present Convention.

Photo (following page): Caroline Kendi, five years old, lives in Gaucauhi village in Kenya and is just starting to learn sign language. ŠCBM

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The Millennium Development Goals A future inclusive of persons with disabilities


Editor: Catherine Naughton CBM Lead consultant and author: Charlotte Axelsson ETEO Co-author: Mary Keogh Technical advisor: Diane Mulligan CBM CBM contribution and case studies: Alexis Joseph, Aurélien Daydé, Benjamin Dard, Christian Lohse, Fairlene Soji, Gordon Rattray, Johanna Kern, Karen Heinicke-Motsch, Katharina Pfortner, Lars Bosselmann, Luisa Fenu, Nirmi Vitarana, Soumana Zamo, Teeraphong Kunklangdone, Sara Varughese, Tigabu Gebremedhin, Tushar Wali, Valérie Scherrer. Partner contribution: Centre for Disability and Development (CDD), Bangladesh Comprehensive Community based Rehabilitation Tanzania (CCBRT), Tanzania Copy-edit: Loveday Murley Design and layout: Wendy Barratt Cover photo: ©CBM/Hayduk Beatrice participates in business management training through the support of the Association of Women with Disabilities in Togo (APROFETHO). This will enable her to access a micro-credit, which she plans to use to start a restaurant in the Bé neighbourhood of Lomé. For a more accessible version of this document: www.cbm.org/Disability-Inclusive-Post-2015 ©CBM, September 2013

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Contents

A future inclusive of persons with disabilities

19

Post-2015 agenda and disability: Policy overview

20

Case study. Recurring drought causes food insecurity

21

Case study. Voices of persons with disabilities at High Level Panel Meetings 22 Policy inputs from CBM and its allies Participation in the global consultations Case study. Promoting inclusive post-MDG country consultation Working together for a consistent message on post-2015 Case study. Putting disability on the agenda of Disaster Risk Management Next steps

23 24 25 26 26 28

Endnotes 31

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Post-MDG thematic and online consultations begin

UN events timeline

May

Jan 2012

June

UN Task Team Rio +20 Beyond 2015 Report

National post-MDG consultations begin July

Aug

HLP appointed

Nov HLP meeting London

A future inclusive of persons with disabilities

“Persons with disabilities were absent from the Millennium Development Goals, and this cannot be tolerated in the post2015 development agenda. Persons with disabilities must be included in all stages of this process, now and in the implementation of this agenda, to truly ensure ‘nothing about us, without us’” Yannis Vardakastanis, Chair of International Disability Alliance

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The international disability community has sent strong messages to governments on the key areas of focus that need to be addressed in the post-2015 framework: 1. The new sustainable development framework must enable a focus on the poorest, most marginalized groups, such as persons with disabilities, ensuring their effective participation in all stages of the process, including the negotiation phase. 2. The framework needs to be driven by a human rights-based approach, with equality and non-discrimination as priority themes. 3. The current understanding and definition of poverty, progress and development should be revised so that it goes beyond income, consumption and wealth. Lessons should be learned from the current MDGs so that the rights of persons with disabilities feature as an important development issue in the emerging post2015 framework. Here we present an overview of how the rights of persons with disabilities have been included in discourse and documents of relevance to post-2015 discussions; it shows how CBM together with its partners has fed into the process over the past 19 months to raise awareness on disability; finally it outlines how CBM will stay engaged, and continue to support persons with disabilities to ensure their voice will be heard.

CBM work timeline Jan 2012

Since the beginning of 2012, CBM and its partners have intensified their advocacy to ensure the next development agenda is inclusive of, and accessible to persons with disabilities. Since the original Millennium Development Goals (MDG) were adopted in 2000, there has been a significant shift in the recognition of international development and disability rights, with many governments recognizing that inequality must be tackled if we are to achieve a world without poverty. It is widely acknowledged that persons with disabilities face inequality on a daily basis, in their homes and their wider communities. The worldwide post-2015 consultations organized by the UN and civil society, were an important first step for CBM and the disability community to raise key concerns about the exclusion of persons with disabilities from international cooperation.

March

April

Release of CBM position Make Inclusion on Easy guide post-MDG

June

July

Contribution Post-MDG to Rio +20 consultation tools ready

Nov IDA/IDDC position on post-MDG


Online consultation Inequality and Disability

UN events timeline

March 2013

April

HLP meetings Liberia and Bali

Global Platform on DRR

Conference of States Parties to CRPD

May

July

Sept

HLP report to SG

SG report on Beyond 2015

Special event reviewing MDGs

Post-2015 agenda and disability: Policy overview Persons with disabilities have been referred to in a number of key documents and declarations that have been produced under the broad theme of the post-2015 agenda and the future of international development cooperation. The outcome document of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio plus 20, and its references to disability was a positive first step in disability gaining recognition as an important issue for sustainable development.ii CBM’s position paper on the post2015 MDG’s global framework clearly identified how disability and sustainable development are inextricably linked. ŠCBM/Wolfgang Jochum

CBM key recommendations for sustainable development 1. All programming for climate change financing, mitigation, or adaptation must be required to specifically address those particularly at risk due to environmental changes, including women, persons with disabilities, children and older people. 2. Goals, indicators, targets and reports relating to sustainable development and climate change must explicitly address persons with disabilities, and include data disaggregated in relation to disability. 3. Humanitarian responses to the effects of climate change (including natural disasters and food insecurity) must include persons with disabilities.

CBM work timeline Jan 2013

Feb

March

April

DPOs participation in HLP meeting Liberia/Bali Input into country, thematic and online consultations

May Contribution to Global Platform on DRR

June

July

Response Contributes to to HLP Conference of report States Parties to CRPD

Sept HLM Disability and Development

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Post-MDG thematic and online consultations begin

UN events timeline

May

Jan 2012

June

UN Task Team Rio +20 Beyond 2015 Report

National post-MDG consultations begin July HLP appointed

Aug

Nov HLP meeting London

Case study Recurring drought causes food insecurity Gayo Pastoral Development Initiative is an Ethiopian indigenous organization active in Borana district. They implemented a disability-inclusive food security and early recovery project during and after the drought crisis in 2012 in partnership with CBM. Key components of this work were to improve access to drinking water through rehabilitating and digging new ponds, improve the livestock for the poorest households and provide drought resistant seeds for farmers. Throughout the project, persons with disabilities participated side by side with their neighbours in digging ponds and rehabilitating roads and many of them could re-stock with goats.

©CBM/Axelsson

Mr Soro Galgalo Bore participated in cash-for-work activities and received drought resistant seeds in the project implemented by the Gayo Pastoral Development Initiative. He says: “I benefitted a lot from this project

but what I liked most is the change of community attitude. The way they treat me has totally changed, it is dignifying and respectful.” He also appreciates that the project educated the community on disability: “…this has helped people to know about us and now community members are encouraging me, the way they see me is welcoming and they are very supportive”

CBM work timeline Jan 2012

21

March

April

Release of CBM position Make Inclusion on Easy guide post-MDG

June

July

Contribution Post-MDG to Rio +20 consultation tools ready

Nov IDA/IDDC position on post-MDG


Online consultation Inequality and Disability

UN events timeline

March 2013

April

HLP meetings Liberia and Bali

Global Platform on DRR

Conference of States Parties to CRPD

May

July

Sept

HLP report to SG

SG report on Beyond 2015

Special event reviewing MDGs

A number of indications of political support for disability-inclusive development have emerged since Rio: The report published by the UN Task Team ‘Realizing the Future We Want for All’ in May 2012 recognized that in order to decisively address inequalities, the discrimination faced by persons with disabilities and other groups needs to be addressed.iii Similarly the High Level Panel (HLP) report (May 2013) ‘Leave No-one Behind’ stressed that persons with disabilities and other vulnerable population groups should not be denied universal human rights and basic economic opportunities: “The next development agenda must ensure that in the future neither income nor gender, nor ethnicity, nor disability, nor geography will determine whether people live or die, whether a mother can give birth safely, or whether her child has a fair chance in life” iv The HLP report also recommended that disability be recognized as part of a crosscutting issue and gave emphasis to the importance of disability-disaggregated data. Their recommendations echoed the issues on which the International Disability Alliance (IDA) and the International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) have been advocating.v

“Denying persons with disabilities the same right to development, whether social, economic, cultural, civic or political is not an option in a post-2015 framework. Including everyone, means everyone, regardless of stigma or status. I believe that disabilityinclusive development is non-negotiable in deliberations on a post2015 future” Diane Mulligan, UK member of the CRPD Committee of Experts

Joint position by IDA and IDDC 1. Mandatory disaggregation of data by disability, as well as producing new datasets on persons with disabilities. 2. A revision of overseas development assistance to include disability related markers. 3. Any new global partnerships must include persons with disabilities in their international cooperation efforts. Finally, in terms of human rights of persons with disabilities in the post-2015 agenda, the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities published a statement in May 2012 underpinning the need for the new development framework to be aligned with the implementation of the social and human rights models of disability, as enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).vi CBM work timeline Jan 2013

Feb

March

April

DPOs participation in HLP meeting Liberia/Bali Input into country, thematic and online consultations

May Contribution to Global Platform on DRR

June

July

Response Contributes to to HLP Conference of report States Parties to CRPD

Sept HLM Disability and Development

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Post-MDG thematic and online consultations begin

UN events timeline

May

Jan 2012

June

UN Task Team Rio +20 Beyond 2015 Report

National post-MDG consultations begin July HLP appointed

Aug

Nov HLP meeting London

Case study Voices of persons with disabilities at High Level Panel Meetings The High Level Panel report included a number of references to disability as an important development issue and also recognized the role of civil society in giving a voice to people living in poverty, including persons with disabilities. While the communiqués issued from each High Level Meeting did not specifically reference disability, DPOs and disability organizations were present enabling their voices to be heard at each meeting. In Liberia, the High Level Panel met in early 2013. CBM in collaboration with the IDDC and the IDA worked to ensure that persons with disabilities from low and middle-income countries were present and well briefed for this critical meeting. The joint paper prepared by the IDDC and IDA was used by some of the disability representatives to inform the debate. At the meeting representatives from the disability community called on the High Level Panel to rethink what is meant by poverty: “People with disabilities suffer from poverty. We are concerned about the definition of poverty. We need to revise the definition to go beyond income, consumption and wealth. People with disabilities need to be empowered to challenge discrimination and to fight poverty. We need sustainable development policies to ensure

their empowerment to access information and obtain the right kind of education that will allow them to be full participants in society. Development programs that government has put in place fall short of the problem of inclusion and participation” Beyeen Kota, CEO of the Christian Association of the Blind in Liberia In Bali, the High Level Panel conducted its last meeting; in advance of the meeting disability leaders and activists met as part of a civil society outreach forum. A disability working group made up of twelve Disabled People’s Organizations from Indonesia and five international NGOs advocated for the inclusion of persons with disabilities as a main target group of a post-2015 framework. A statement with a list of issues was published from the meeting;vii one of the key messages noted that: Persons with disabilities and elderly people are totally excluded from the MDGs. It is essential that they are fully included across all goals and targets in the post-2015 framework. This requires disaggregated data to ensure that inequalities are monitored and reduced Statement from town hall event in Bali 2013

CBM work timeline Jan 2012

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March

April

Release of CBM position Make Inclusion on Easy guide post-MDG

June

July

Contribution Post-MDG to Rio +20 consultation tools ready

Nov IDA/IDDC position on post-MDG


Online consultation Inequality and Disability

UN events timeline

March 2013

Global Platform on DRR

Conference of States Parties to CRPD

May

July

Sept

HLP report to SG

SG report on Beyond 2015

Special event reviewing MDGs

April

HLP meetings Liberia and Bali

Policy inputs from CBM and its allies Since 2012, CBM along with its partners, networks and allies have worked together to ensure that disability was raised at every opportunity in the post-2015 process. From the outset, it was important that CBM had a vision about what the future development framework should look like. To kick-start the process of engaging with the post2015 consultation, CBM produced its position paper on the post-2015 agenda. The position paper set out a list

of key issues that CBM considered to be important for advancing disability-inclusive development. Along with the paper, a set of technical briefs were prepared to support partners and allies in engaging with the eleven themes that framed the global discussions on the new vision for development.viii These briefs also fed into the development of thematic papers by the Beyond 2015 campaign, which were used in the wider advocacy campaigns.

CBM’s key messages for post-2015 1. A revision of the current understanding and definition of poverty, progress and development beyond material living standards alone (income, consumption and wealth). 2. A framework that addresses causal explanations of poverty and promotes agency rights and equality for persons with disabilities. 3. Disability-inclusive development that adopts a human rights-based approach adhering to the principles of empowerment, participation, equality and nondiscrimination, with a focus on the poorest, most excluded groups, such as persons with disabilities. 4. Disaggregation of data and the collection of new datasets on disability can be used as an evidence base for global comparisons as well as monitoring against any new nationally set targets and indicators.

5. National governance and ownership in any new structures or institutional arrangements. The involvement and participation of persons with disabilities through deliberative processes that take into account the context and starting point of each country’s circumstances; the strengthening of accountability processes and mechanisms that are accessible to persons with disabilities. 6. Any new global partnerships on poverty reduction have a more equitable relationship and mainstream disability in their international cooperation efforts. 7. A revision of overseas development assistance (in terms of financing channels and mechanisms, accountability contracts for donors and ‘beyond aid’ approaches) to include disability markers identifying the percentage spend for disability-inclusive development.

CBM work timeline Jan 2013

Feb

March

April

DPOs participation in HLP meeting Liberia/Bali Input into country, thematic and online consultations

May Contribution to Global Platform on DRR

June

July

Response Contributes to to HLP Conference of report States Parties to CRPD

Sept HLM Disability and Development

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Post-MDG thematic and online consultations begin

UN events timeline

May

Jan 2012

June

UN Task Team Rio +20 Beyond 2015 Report

National post-MDG consultations begin July

Aug

Nov

HLP appointed

HLP meeting London

Participation in the global consultations By actively participating in online consultations, regional meetings and country consultations CBM and partners made every effort to ensure that the voices of persons with disabilities were heard throughout the global discussions. CBM, through IDDC and in collaboration with IDA, worked with partners in a number of countries to support their involvement with the UN country consultations as well as the regional consultations for the High Level Panel.ix

Online consultations: CBM participated in the specific disability online consultation and also in the wider online thematic consultations. Partners and allies also used the technical briefs CBM developed as a basis to engage in these discussions, in order to explain that issues such as governance and food security are equally important to persons with disabilities. The result of global advocacy is references to disability in a number of outcome documents, including those on inequalities, health, governance, employment and growth. The governance outcome document in particular highlighted the need to include persons with disabilities both as a group who is marginalized and vulnerable and lacks power or voice.x

Country and regional consultations: Attendance and participation in face-to-face consultation meetings by persons with disabilities and DPOs was key to ensuring that their voices were included in the UN consultation process. Visibility of persons with disabilities was extremely important. CBM, through IDDC and in collaboration with IDA, worked with partners in a number of countries to support their involvement with the country and regional consultation. CBM partners and member associationsxi participated in consultation meetings across the world including in: Vietnam, Togo, Ghana, India, Bangladesh, Philippines, Latin America, Thailand, United Kingdom, Australia, Switzerland, New Zealand, Germany, Liberia and Indonesia. In preparation for the consultation meetings, CBM produced an online resource kit, which includes a quick guide to national consultationsxii and also a tipsheet on enhancing persons with disabilities participation in national consultations.xiii

CBM work timeline Jan 2012

25

March

April

Release of CBM position Make Inclusion on Easy guide post-MDG

June

July

Contribution Post-MDG to Rio +20 consultation tools ready

Nov IDA/IDDC position on post-MDG


Online consultation Inequality and Disability

UN events timeline

March 2013

April

HLP meetings Liberia and Bali

Global Platform on DRR

Conference of States Parties to CRPD

May

July

Sept

HLP report to SG

SG report on Beyond 2015

Special event reviewing MDGs

Case study Promoting inclusive post-MDG country consultation Vietnam has 13 UN agencies covering eight thematic areas: Young people, the private sector, ethnic minorities, people living with HIV, poor people in rural and urban areas, elderly people and persons with disabilities. So it was very important that the voices of persons with disabilities were supported to participate in the process. In advance of the consultation meeting Diane Mulligan from CBM’s International Advocacy and Alliances team worked with CBM Vietnam to prepare for the post-2015 consultations. Consultations with persons with disabilities were held in three provinces in Vietnam in January 2013. At one such consultation meeting 27 people including children, older people, men and women, with a range of impairments, took part in a variety of participatory activities to explain their expectations and aspirations for their futures, and the barriers they may face. The main themes that emerged from the MDG consultation meeting included employment, social protection, education, healthcare (including issues such as forced sterilisation), and the lack of implementation of national disability policies at a local level for the country’s estimated seven million persons with disabilities. In Togo CBM collaborated with the Fédération Togolaise des Associations de Personnes Handicapées to come up with a position paper that they gave to the UNDP focal person for country consultation. DPOs had previous success in including disability in the process that led to Togo’s Poverty Reduction Strategy – the expectations for post-2015 and an inclusive development framework are high.

“It is critical that the CRPD and international cooperation are brought together now, whether we talk about development programs or emergency response, technical and research cooperation or political dialogue. It will require political commitment, sufficient human and financial resources, support to the disability movement and a monitoring framework that really measures progress.” Kirsty Thompson, Director Inclusive Development, CBM Australia

©CBM/Kingston

CBM work timeline Jan 2013

Feb

March

April

DPOs participation in HLP meeting Liberia/Bali Input into country, thematic and online consultations

May Contribution to Global Platform on DRR

June

July

Response Contributes to to HLP Conference of report States Parties to CRPD

Sept HLM Disability and Development

26


Post-MDG thematic and online consultations begin

UN events timeline

May

Jan 2012

June

UN Task Team Rio +20 Beyond 2015 Report

National post-MDG consultations begin July

Aug

Nov

HLP appointed

HLP meeting London

Working together for a consistent message on post-2015 One of the important strategies that CBM engaged with in its advocacy for the post-2015 consultation was working with partners to ensure a common message on disability-inclusive development in the post MDG debate. The joint position paper of IDDC and IDA, to which CBM contributed, formed the basis for a consistent

message on the need to include persons with disabilities in the post-2015 development framework; the paper was recently referenced in the report of the Secretary General ‘The way forward: a disability-inclusive development agenda towards 2015 and beyond’xiv

Joining forces within the wider development community To date CBM has aimed to participate in meetings organized at regional level by various interest groups and networks such as the International Civil Society Centre. In March 2013, CBM joined 300 civil society organizations in Bonn, Germany and participated in ‘Advancing the post-2015 sustainable development agenda’. CBM supported persons with disabilities from partner countries to participate in the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction organized by the United Nations Office on Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR); this advocacy initiative through the Disability-inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction Network has resulted in high level endorsement of disability-inclusive DRR.

“Even the best early warning systems and preparedness efforts to evacuate populations in danger do not address fully the diversity of disabilities that we have in our societies. The only way to address this is to ensure that persons with disabilities are involved in the design and planning of the systems that are designed to protect the safety of the population in all countries.” Margareta Wahlström, Special Representative for UNISDR at the Conference of State parties to the CRPD in June 2013

CBM work timeline Jan 2012

27

March

April

Release of CBM position Make Inclusion on Easy guide post-MDG

June

July

Contribution Post-MDG to Rio +20 consultation tools ready

Nov IDA/IDDC position on post-MDG


Online consultation Inequality and Disability

UN events timeline

March 2013

April

HLP meetings Liberia and Bali

Global Platform on DRR

Conference of States Parties to CRPD

May

July

Sept

HLP report to SG

SG report on Beyond 2015

Special event reviewing MDGs

Case study Putting disability on the agenda of Disaster Risk Management CBM and fellow members of the Disability inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction Network for Asia and Pacific (DiDRRN) participated in the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction in Geneva, May 2013. The Global Platform is an international conference gathering all actors involved in Disaster Risk Management – governments, civil society, academics and international organizations – to share experience and advice on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action. The main objective for DiDRR Network in attending

the meeting was to ensure that disability is included and mainstreamed across disaster risk reduction management projects and to work towards a disability inclusive post-Hyogo Framework for Action. For the first time at this conference, the issue of disability was highly visible and included in the outcome document; this was achieved through a specific side event on disability and DRR and the active and strategic participation of persons with disabilities in all aspects of the conference.

©DiDRR Network Asia and Pacific

CBM work timeline Jan 2013

Feb

March

April

DPOs participation in HLP meeting Liberia/Bali Input into country, thematic and online consultations

May Contribution to Global Platform on DRR

June

July

Response Contributes to to HLP Conference of report States Parties to CRPD

Sept HLM Disability and Development

28


Post-MDG thematic and online consultations begin

UN events timeline

May

Jan 2012

June

UN Task Team Rio +20 Beyond 2015 Report

National post-MDG consultations begin July

Aug

HLP appointed

Nov HLP meeting London

Psychosocial disability in the post-2015 agenda

“When one member of a Self-Help Group has a problem or experiences discrimination, they do not have to face this alone, in isolation. The group gets together, discusses the problem, finds solutions and sort it out, together” Dr Julian Eaton, Global Advisor on Mental Health, CBM

29

Post-2015 position of Global Mental Health Movement • Promote protection of human rights and prevent discrimination against persons with psychosocial disabilities and make sure persons with psychosocial disabilities participate in all processes affecting them. • Bridge the massive gap in access to comprehensive mental health services and social care. • Include attention to the rights of persons with psychosocial disabilities in all development initiatives.

Self-Help Groups CBM is working at grassroots level to strengthen the self-advocacy of persons with psychosocial disabilities. One example is the project with the CBR organization, Sandema, Ghana, supporting the formation of 23 selfMeeting of one Self-Help help groups. The groups are based upon principles of empowerment, non-discrimination, full participation and Group in Ghana ©CBM comprehensive accessibility and some groups are now also engaged with umbrella DPOs. They have been successful in achieving free provision of drugs through the national health insurance scheme as well as gaining access to poverty reduction strategy funds. They have also become a member of the Mental Health Society of Ghana, and with them advocated for improved legislation on mental health.

CBM work timeline Jan 2012

Despite growing evidence that inclusion of mental wellbeing is essential to success in many fields of development, it was never addressed specifically in the MDGs. This has been recognized in the intervening years as the negative economic and social impact on persons with psychosocial disabilities has been better understood. Evidence-based effective interventions have emerged. CBM has been working together with a range of partners to raise the profile of mental health as an essential component in the post-2015.

March

April

Release of CBM position Make Inclusion on Easy guide post-MDG

June

July

Contribution Post-MDG to Rio +20 consultation tools ready

Nov IDA/IDDC position on post-MDG


Online consultation Inequality and Disability

UN events timeline

March 2013

Global Platform on DRR

Conference of States Parties to CRPD

May

July

Sept

HLP report to SG

SG report on Beyond 2015

Special event reviewing MDGs

April

HLP meetings Liberia and Bali

Next steps After the September 2013 meeting

Staying involved and engaged

At the High Level Meeting on Disability and Development in September 2013, the post-2015 development agenda is being debated. CBM is attending and coorganising side-events jointly with IDDC and IDA. At the same time in New York, a Special Event to review the MDGs and discussion about the post-2015 development agenda is taking place. This is a key landmark in the process leading up to 2015 and where the next steps of the process will be defined. The Open Working Group appointed by the UN after Rio +20 will continue to deliberate on the sustainable development goals focusing on the three elements of sustainable development – social development, economic development and environmental sustainability.xv Both processes should strive to form a single development framework with poverty reduction and sustainable development at its core and the process will close for internal negotiations to continue, culminating in a report to the UN General Assembly 2014.

Over the coming months, as world leaders continue to deliberate and discuss what the post-2015 framework should be, CBM will continue its work to ensure the voices of persons with disabilities are included.

By 2016 the new development agenda will be in place, and work will start on its implementation. So, the advocacy work of the international disability community is not over.

• Staying abreast of the process and producing and sharing information with partners and allies. • Developing and sharing up-to-date policy advocacy tools based on the best available evidence. • Carrying out joint advocacy with partners at all levels. • Joining forces with others in government, civil society and the UN, reinforcing and building new alliances. • Ensuring as far as possible that persons with disabilities are actively participating when discussions are taking place and decisions are taken. • Working until 2015 and beyond to make sure that when governments sign up to a new development agenda it will result in actions that promote inclusive societies and empowerment of persons with disabilities.

CBM work timeline Jan 2013

Feb

March

April

DPOs participation in HLP meeting Liberia/Bali Input into country, thematic and online consultations

May Contribution to Global Platform on DRR

June

July

Response Contributes to to HLP Conference of report States Parties to CRPD

Sept HLM Disability and Development

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Endnotes

i

Extract from the joint position paper of IDDC and IDA on the post-2015 development framework. See: http:// www.cbm.org/article/downloads/82788/mdg_position_paper_ida_iddc_oct2012_final.doc ii

See ‘The Future We Want’ http://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/rio20_outcome_document_complete.pdf

iii

See Realizing the Future we want for all, Report to the Secretary General, UN System Task Team on the post 2015 UN Development Agenda (June 2012). iv

From Vision to Action—Priority Transformations for a post 2015 Agenda, chapter 2: p. 7.

v

See: http://www.cbm.org/article/downloads/82788/mdg_position_paper_ida_iddc_oct2012_final.doc

vi

See: http://www.ohchr.org/en/hrbodies/crpd/pages/crpdindex.aspx

vii

See Statement of Disability, Children and Ageing Group, 25th March 2013, http://www.cbm.org/article/ downloads/90885/Statement_of_Disability__Children_and_Aging_Group_final_-_Townhall_event_of_HLPEP__Bali_ March_25th__2013.pdf viii

The themes for consultation were; inequalities, health, food security and nutrition, energy, governance, education, conflict and fragility, water, growth and employment, environmental sustainability and population dynamics. CBM’s technical papers on education, governance, inequalities, health and rehabilitation, growth and employment, conflict and fragility can be found at http://www.cbm.org/After-the-MDGs,-then-what--344402.php ix

Previously known as the Berlin Civil Society Centre, which changed name in July 2013 to International Civil Society Centre. x

See Final Report of the Global Thematic Consultation on Governance and the Post 2015 Development Framework.

xi

CBM member associations from Australia, Canada, Ireland, Italy, Germany, New Zealand, Switzerland, United Kingdom were active in consultation and advocacy processes for a disability-inclusive post-2015 development agenda. xii

See http://www.cbm.org/article/downloads/82788/Quick_Guide_to_post-MDG_Country_Consultations.docx

xiii

http://www.cbm.org/article/downloads/82788/Tipsheet_on_Enhancing_Persons_with_Disabilities_ Participation__in_National_Consultations.docx xiv xv

See UN Resolution A/68/95.

The Open Working Group was established on 22nd of January 2013 by decision 67/555 (see A/67/L.48/rev.1) of the General Assembly.


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What you need to know: Post 2015 MDGs and Disability: Three good reasons to read CBM's publication  
What you need to know: Post 2015 MDGs and Disability: Three good reasons to read CBM's publication  

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are part of the global partnership that has grown from the commitments and targets established at th...

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