ISSUE 5 2012 OUR GLOBAL VIEW OF A VIBRANT WORLD
transforming transport developing world perspective hub-id Face to face intelligent transport systems
Transport â€” a multifaceted influence on global development
a developing world perspective
Continental solutions to creating sustainable and efficient transport infrastructure
Integrating human behaviours to drive successful outcomes in land use and transport systems
Face to face
Transport systems are set to change dramatically
city talks We talk to the Deputy City Manager of the City of Tshwane
We talk to the Mayor of Christchurch
Wealth comes from moving resources to markets
Economic transport and materials handling infrastructure
intelligent transport systems (its)
Future thinking in intelligent transport
Transport and security The principles of good security are to deter, detect, delay and respond
A message from our CEO In the developed world, existing systems and paradigms are being reshaped as the fundamentals of what transport systems need to deliver are reshaped and recast.
“Our experts explore ways of addressing commercial, social and environmental objectives to find and deliver optimal transport solutions.” In this issue of Aurecon’s 360°, we look at the complex issues around moving people and resources in a world experiencing massive population growth and urbanisation. Robust and economic transport infrastructure has been identified as a key driver of sovereign economic growth. In the developing world, the complex challenges resulting from massive urbanisation are accelerating the need to deliver integrated and effective transport solutions.
Our HUB-id methodology, is a cornerstone of our cost-effective response to the expected growth in demand while, at the same time, delivering improved system performance and integration. Whether an intermodal transport facility, a town centre, a suburb or as part of a major recreational facility, taking an integrated approach to transport system design and delivery and associated land use brings with it measurable benefits for business and the community. In the following pages our experts explore ways of addressing commercial, social and environmental objectives to find and deliver optimal transport solutions. On a daily basis, our business is engaged with a diverse range of clients designing and delivering improved connectivity, scaleable solutions and integrating multimodal hubs. Regards,
Paul Hardy Chief Executive Officer Aurecon
Aurecon transforming transport
Transport â€“ a multifaceted Cities all face hugely complex social and environmental challenges. For them to function effectively at all, integrated transport solutions hold the key to their ongoing social and economic success.
The developing world is dealing with change, rapid economic growth and population shifts on a scale not previously encountered. This has been particularly evident during the last century in cities, which are magnets for trade, culture, industry and knowledge. With change occurring at such an unprecedented rate, cities face highly complex social and environmental challenges. For cities to function effectively at all, integrated transport solutions hold the key to maintaining social stability and economic success. The 2008 study, â€˜Megacity Challengesâ€™1, surveyed 25 major cities around the globe and found that key managers must strike a balance between three overriding concerns: economic competitiveness, environment and quality of life for urban residents.
influence on global development The report also found that within the workings of large cities, populations need to be mobile: transportation systems must be capable of transporting millions of people, while putting as little strain as possible on the environment and city budgets. A 2009 IBM® study2 into intelligent transport found that the most severe challenges include increasing congestion on all modes, customer safety, decaying transport infrastructure, underfunding, growing negative environmental impacts and the pressure to improve a city’s economic competitiveness. Due to massive growth in the middle classes in regions such as Asia, the Indian subcontinent and Southern Africa, the demand for minerals is high and the resources sector is booming. Economic development in
Africa is likely to be driven ‘off the back’ of transport development and, more specifically, by heavy-haul rail. Transport is the means by which economic wealth can be derived from the export of the continent’s vast natural and mineral resources to the world. According to the World Bank, poor access to transport infrastructure and services across Africa and South Asia leaves hundreds of millions of people without access to basic social and economic services. Bottlenecks are encountered in all modes of transport infrastructure and services: poor condition of roads, lack of intraregional connectivity between the national road networks, unreliable and costly road transport services, underinvestment in railways (which has led to the excessive use of road
transport), unrealised high potential for rail and inland water freight transport, inadequate road and rail connectivity of ports with the hinterland, and other barriers to growth. The global transport landscape is evolving. It will continue to throw up challenges and opportunities to deliver innovation, social change and economic benefits to countries around the globe. 1. Megacity Challenges, Authors: Prof. George Hazel, OBE, MRC McLean Hazel and Doug Miller, GlobeScan 2. Intelligent Transport — How cities are creating improved mobility, IBM® Institute for Business Value
Aurecon transforming transport
a developing world perspective Finding continental solutions to creating sustainable and efficient transport infrastructure.
a developing world perspective
The world’s developing nations typically have vast, resilient labour forces and abundant access to natural resources. However, many of these nations are highly challenged with constraints and economic growth occurs at a slower rate than expected. “Infrastructure has a key role to play in ensuring economic growth and the reduction of poverty,” explains Paul Lombard, Aurecon General Manager, Emerging Regions. “Conversely, a lack of sound infrastructure can affect a nation’s productivity and raises both production and transaction costs. This hampers growth by reducing the competitiveness of businesses and crippling governments’ ability to pursue economic and social development policies.” A prime example of this phenomenon is Africa, which is home to over twothirds of the world’s least developed countries. Twelve of these countries are landlocked with poor transport and communication infrastructure. Research has indicated that deficient infrastructure on the continent reduces potential growth by as much as 2% a year. “Deficiencies such as these, and particularly in the area of transport, have had a negative impact on the competitiveness of developing nations,” Lombard emphasises. “In the past, it was common for countries to focus on national infrastructure programmes to overcome country-specific obstacles to achieve their economic goals.
Now the focus has shifted to the corridor approach, involving close cooperation with neighbouring countries for achieving infrastructure and development solutions. “Ensuring that the growing demand for transport infrastructure is met, and that a lack of infrastructure doesn’t become a barrier to growth, requires a determined, coordinated regional approach,” explains Lombard. According to the recently completed Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA) Study Synthesis, Africa constitutes approximately 20% of the world’s land mass and 16% of its population, yet only 2.5% of its gross domestic product (GDP). “Africa’s economic geography is particularly challenging, making regional integration all the more critical if the continent is to reach its growth potential,” says Lombard. Although achieving this presents major challenges, there are ample rewards to be had from closer integration. Effective regional transportation allows for markets to be linked and enables access and mobility by removing bottlenecks affecting the efficient flow of people and goods. The creation of corridors “Key to finding a continental solution to unlocking the hinterland is the creation of effective transportation corridors,” believes Lombard. “In Africa, in particular, we encounter
Aurecon transforming transport
“Infrastructure has a key role to play in ensuring economic growth and the reduction of poverty.” Paul Lombard Aurecon General Manager Emerging Regions Nairobi, Kenya
over 50 countries, many of which are very small and landlocked and whose infrastructure systems reflect the continent’s colonial past in that roads, ports and railroads have been built for resource extraction and political control, rather than to bind territories together economically or socially.” (Source: PIDA Study Synthesis)
movement of goods and people across territorial boundaries.
Aurecon is actively partnering with governments in Africa to analyse the efficacy of existing corridors, as well as suggest and prioritise remedial measures to ensure the improved
South African policymakers, in particular, are acutely aware that regional integration offers the only real justification for the country’s inclusion in the ‘Bric grouping’.
Figure 1 Within Africa, there are various Regional Economic Councils (REC) with corresponding member states who, together, are aiming to arrive at regional solutions for development including the creation of effective transport corridors. The member countries of five of these RECs are shown in the figure, namely Southern African Development Community (SADC), Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) and the East African Community (EAC).
An example of this is the development of the N4 Maputo Corridor linking South Africa and Mozambique, as well as the Moatize-Nacala and MoatizeBeira corridors that are unlocking central Mozambique for development.
For that reason, they are quick to point to the work they are doing to facilitate the proposed trilateral free trade area, or T-FTA, involving the SADC, Comesa and the East African Community, or EAC. Should this be concluded, the T-FTA would span from Cape to Cairo, include 27 countries and their 533-million citizens, and have a combined GDP of USD 833-billion, or a GDP per capita of USD 1 500. That equates to 58% of Africa’s GDP and 57% of the continent’s population. (Terence Creamer, Engineering News)
a developing world perspective
The development of a sound corridor strategy Bas-Congo Development Corridor Study
“Taking into account the forecasting of a future demand model, we developed a preferred future transport corridor system, and then prioritised projects through the use of a multi-criteria analysis.” Stephan Jooste Aurecon Project Manager Environment & Advisory Services
This study saw Aurecon develop an overarching transport strategy for the Bas-Congo corridor (including a prioritised list of corridor interventions), based on an assessment of current significant transport bottlenecks on the corridor. In addition, Aurecon identified and prepared specific interventions that might receive Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) investment. “Taking into account the forecasting of a future demand model, we developed a preferred future transport corridor system, and then prioritised projects through the use of a multi-criteria analysis. We also took into account feedback from workshops held with key corridor stakeholders to ensure a comprehensive list of project interventions. Based on this defined strategy, we worked with the DBSA to create a lending strategy for key assets on the corridor. This entailed the development of a detailed investment document, including a comprehensive financial model and project legal structure,” comments Stephan Jooste, Aurecon Project Manager. Essentially, the study attempted to straddle the often divergent domains of development assistance and project finance. This was
borne out of a realisation that pure development planning work frequently does not effect positive change without actual investment projects. Conversely, sustainable corridor investment can only be realised on the basis of a sound corridor strategy. Challenges inherent in the study included operational complexities due to low capacity in the operating parastatal and high traffic volumes, together with an evolving institutional environment as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) government is in the process of initiating larger private participation in the operation and management of the corridor. “For this reason, the study aimed at unifying diverse engineering (technical feasibility) and financial (bankability) aims, in a way that is both nationally strategic and financially attractive to the DBSA and other lenders,” explains Katlego Magoro, Aurecon Civil Engineer. “The outcome is a comprehensive roadmap to assist the DRC government in the future development of the corridor, regardless of the institutional path chosen. It also includes a sound, short-term funding proposal for the DBSA investment in order to alleviate the most pressing corridor constraints.”
“The study aimed at unifying diverse engineering and financial aims, in a way that is both nationally strategic and financially attractive.” Katlego Magoro Aurecon Civil Engineer Resource & Manufacturing Services Aurecon transforming transport
Aligning infrastructure policies Although many developing world countries have sound national transport policies and cross-border corridor strategies, these are not always aligned even after treaties have been signed. The ensuing profound lack of harmonisation of laws, standards, and regulations complicates the processes of
planning and financing vital regional projects while impeding cross-border economic activity. (Source: PIDA Study Synthesis) â€œIt is paramount that Regional Economic Councils (RECs) take a leading role in both harmonisation and regional infrastructure planning. Aurecon has in recent years become increasingly involved in projects
for RECs to develop regional infrastructure strategies. This implies taking all aspects of transport namely road, rail, airports, ports and even pipelines into consideration. There is a lack of emphasis in Africa on intermodality and the optimum interface between various modes of transport,â€? comments Lombard.
a developing reducing world vulnerability perspective
Sound policy recommendations for future transport success on a regional level East African Community (EAC) transport strategy and regional road sector development programme The five East African Community (EAC) member states are served by a fairly extensive road, rail, lake and pipeline transportation network, as well as two major sea ports at Mombasa (Kenya) and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). In addition, they have several international airport gateways at Nairobi, Mombasa, Dar es Salaam, Kilimanjaro, Entebbe, Kigali and Bujumbura. “The preparation of the EAC transport strategy entailed the identification of regional strategic priorities and resources for transport sector development and operational needs over the medium term. This is critical if the region is to arrive at sound policy decisions that benefit the region as a whole,” comments Yolanda Fourie, Aurecon Project Manager. “Requiring a detailed assessment of all modes of transport in the region, the strategy was intended to play an important role in guiding both regional transport policies and investments in the future,” she adds. In addition to the policy, Aurecon
also formulated a comprehensive, multi-year work programme (development plan) which complied with tight budget constraints and was based on the goals and objectives as defined in the EAC transport strategy. “It was challenging to unify the goals and aspirations of the five member states, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi, and Rwanda, all of whom have five transport sectors i.e. road, rail, air, pipelines and ports (inland waterways, lake ports and sea ports),” adds Kwanele Simelane, Aurecon Civil Engineer. To accomplish this successfully, Aurecon had to conduct extensive groundwork which involved the facilitation of meetings with regional transport experts; stakeholder consultations/ workshops; origin to destination travel surveys; road condition surveys; GIS mapping; and a policy and institutional review. “The resulting regional transport strategy will have a lasting, positive effect on the EAC countries in that it will support the growth of the EAC region and assist policymakers to meet growing transport demands,” concludes Fourie.
“Creating a regional, integrated transport strategy which addressed the politics and emotions of each country and each sector had to be handled with care and consideration.” Yolanda Fourie Aurecon Project Manager Environment & Advisory Services
Kwanele Simelane Aurecon Civil Engineer Environment & Advisory Services Aurecon transforming transport
Novel finance models Regional projects are faced with many complications when it comes to finance due to the sheer number of stakeholders involved and the implied risk if one partner fails to meet their commitment. “Experienced project stakeholders are needed across the developing world to ensure projects reach financial closure,” comments Lombard. This includes ensuring that railways earn enough revenue to recoup operating costs, for maintenance and for expansion, and that road maintenance is provided for. “This will ensure infrastructure remains useable and becomes a lasting asset, not a burden. The Public-Private Partnership (PPP) approach to infrastructure provision and maintenance has had variable success on the continent to date.”
Sound finance and project recommendations Mtwara Development Corridor, Africa The Mtwara Development Corridor is a spatial development initiative (SDI) comprising southern Tanzania, northern Mozambique, northern and central Malawi, and eastern and northern Zambia. The SDI’s aim was to develop a transportation corridor that will provide these regions with easier access to the port at Mtwara, Tanzania, as well as other transit corridors within the focus areas of the project. To address the problem of a transportation bottleneck developing in the region, an upgrade of infrastructure was required with the future development and rehabilitation of roads and bridges, sea and lake ports, telecommunications, air transport facilities and ferry services being the objective of the project. Aurecon, in association with Prointec, provided specialist legal, regional planning, development and
financial inputs. The team assisted the client in identifying suitable projects appropriate for private sector investment; conducting full appraisals of these projects to determine economic and financial viability; and by approaching the private sector for potential financing and investment,” explains Eunice Vaz Mocumbi, Aurecon Transportation Planner.
Eunice Vaz Mocumbi Aurecon Transportation Planner Professional Services
The project was carried out in three phases. Phase 1 included the Development of Implementation Strategy; Phase 2 comprised the Literature Study Review; and Phase 3 included the Project Packaging for Private Sector Investment. “What the project essentially accomplishes is sound finance and project prioritisation recommendations with regard to transport projects that have the potential to create lasting change in terms of unlocking economic development,” said Stefan Neubrech, Aurecon Project Manager.
Stefan Neubrech Aurecon Project Manager Environment & Advisory Services
a developing world perspective
The importance of intermodal transport Intermodality involves multiple modes of transportation which are interlinked in such a way that they facilitate the passage of commuters. For example, a commuter might get from their house to the nearest bus station via a taxi, and then take the bus to their place of work. Typically, when visiting a foreign country, people would expect to take advantage of so-called ‘normal’ modes of transport such as a car, taxi, bus or train. This is not the case in Asia, which has mastered several unique modes of transporting passengers from point A to point B. Tuk-tuks and autorickshaws, both three-wheeled vehicles that are
modified motorcycles, abound in Thailand, while songthaews, which use tractor engines and steering wheels coupled to open, bus-like rear-ends, are a popular means of ferrying daily commuters in Malaysia. Motorelas, which are essentially motorcycles encased in a carriage with two rows of seats facing each other, are often used by commuters in the Philippines, while human-powered rickshaws are common in Japan. While these are quite different modes of transport to most of us, they serve to provide both employment of the local workforce and universal access to economic opportunities, including jobs, for the general population. This is essential
for developing nations, in particular, where a crippling lack of access to reliable transport has excluded entire groups of people from making meaningful economic progress. More conventional ways of building intermodal transport include: • E xtending the subway and rail service to major urban airports so that passengers can transit from land to air travel with ease • L inking an intracity rail network with a city’s bus network, enabling users to reach places that are not serviced directly by rail and are not within walking distance.
Aurecon transforming transport
National transport master planning Aurecon’s Paul Lombard cites national transport master planning as key to achieving a unified, continental approach to transport. “This approach includes a physical development plan that focuses on transport infrastructure of national significance and planning this infrastructure in such a way that future transport needs are met sustainably,” explains Lombard. ”In addition, they usually involve an integrated transport development plan for the short-, medium- and long-term needs of a continent or country, and are coupled with a realistic development plan identifying specific actions.”
Developing first world transport solutions to third world transport challenges Preparation of a Strategic Transport Master Plan for the Republic of Rwanda Aurecon’s role in the preparation of a Strategic Transport Master Plan for the Republic of Rwanda included providing full planning direction for transport issues of national importance, i.e. those related to the transport system that provides national and international access to major national centres within Rwanda. “This included the organisation of the transport sector as well as the delivery of transport infrastructure and services,” explains Cecil Barry, Aurecon Project Manager. “The strategy takes a long-term view on the future transportation system and identifies programmes and projects that will secure the integrity of the system today, as well as lay the foundation for a working, effective future transport system for Rwanda.” Barriers to devising the plan included limited availability of data and a continuously changing institutional environment — during the project our client changed from the Ministry of Infrastructure (MININFRA) to the new Rwanda Transport Development Agency (RTDA). In addition, assessing the capacity of Rwanda’s national roads was a challenge due to the speed limits on these roads being much lower than typical international speed limits. “It was critical that the team focused on developing first world transport
solutions to third world transport challenges,” says Malebo Matolong, Aurecon Transportation Planner. For this reason, the strategy includes: • d evelopment of strategic inland waterways • m ulti-modal terminal facilities providing transport integration in the city of Kigali • a n innovative road safety strategy that promotes a more functional and safer road network
“Critical to arriving at a successful master plan was identifying key projects and programmes that would provide an integrated and immediate benefit.” Cecil Barry Aurecon Project Manager Environment & Advisory Services
• a dedicated quality bus service that is based on the identification of effective bus corridors linking key land use nodes such as the new Bugesera Airport and the city of Kigali “During the course of the project, at key milestones, we conducted extensive in-country visits with project stakeholders to ensure we were on track and that our recommendations remained realistic at all times,” explains Barry. Aurecon’s final master plan integrates the country’s transport network, transport services, and institutional transport arrangements through the development of key action programmes and projects that are unique to Rwanda. The plan is based on first world transport master planning principles that, if applied, will sustainably secure the integrity of the transportation system in Rwanda today, without compromising the transport system for future generations.
“It was critical that the team focused on developing first world transport solutions to third world transport challenges.” Malebo Matolong Aurecon Transportation Planner Environment & Advisory Services
a developing world perspective
Sustainable roads initiative “World-class transportation networks are critical in terms of encouraging improved efficiency in the movement of people, resources and commodities. What’s more, sustainability has become a ‘buzz’ word within the engineering industry in recent years and is increasingly becoming a key priority for our clients as they strive to meet the need to develop sustainable practices in all areas of the built environment,” says Ashley Stevenson, Aurecon Engineer. Roads make up a large proportion of the built environment and are essential to our everyday life. Although private vehicle travel is not necessarily considered the most ‘sustainable’ form of transport, it is essential in most communities, and there is an increasing need to develop sustainable design and construction practices for roads. “Balancing the pillars of sustainability, namely environmental, economic, social and cultural influences, in road design and construction is not a straightforward task, and as such it is very difficult to quantify what is truly ‘sustainable’,” explains Stevenson. “Transportation authorities around the world are beginning to see the need to create more sustainable transport infrastructure and have begun developing manuals and sustainability rating systems that attempt to
quantify sustainable design, practices and elements of transport infrastructure,” explains Stevenson. She goes on to say that while most of the manuals and rating systems developed so far have been written for very specific geographical locations, climates and local authorities’ policies and sustainability goals, and little or no work has been done in terms of formulating guidelines specific to the developing world environment. “In order to keep up with the developing need of our clients to produce sustainable outcomes, Aurecon is beginning to include sustainability initiatives in our own design processes. In this regard, we have done extensive work in terms of analysing various existing manuals and rating systems available in the market or under development, to gain an understanding of the quantification of sustainability and what our clients are looking for when seeking sustainable design and construction,” says Stevenson. “Although no one manual can be used as a basis for Aurecon’s sustainable road design procedure, as topics important to certain clients may be missed, our comparison has allowed us to arrive at the development of a comprehensive list of sustainability criteria that cover a wide variety of topics which range from feasibility
through to construction and maintenance. These criteria can be applied anywhere in the world, regardless of location.” She adds that “The introduction of these criteria to more projects will be a key step in the right direction to reduce the road construction industry’s contribution to environmental damage.” The essential benefits of introducing sustainability measures to road design and construction include: • R educed emissions and other air pollutants • Reduced water usage • Reduced energy consumption • R educed use of virgin material in construction and increased use of recycled materials • R educed construction and operational impact on the environment • Creating low impact development • C reating safer and more integrated roadways • Promotion of sustainable transport • E nhanced community awareness of sustainability • Enhanced community involvement • Promotion of innovative solutions Aurecon transforming transport
Smarter thinking around people, places and public transport Aureconâ€™s HUB-id integrates human behaviours to drive successful outcomes in land use planning.
Innovation and planning needs to overtly enhance public transport accessibility and complementary surrounding land use development. The latest HUB-id thinking around transit orientated development, balances urban rejuvenation with smart approaches that lead to gains in economic and social sustainability. The HUB-id approach to integrated and sustainable transport and land use planning is the concept of the “hub”. While a hub can be a place where people and vehicles gather, or where a transport facility allows for passengers and goods to interchange, our HUB-id philosophy links transport, land use planning and property development. It focuses on creating a liveable and attractive place for people, where success is measured by the overall outcome for the place – the hub itself – whether that place is an intermodal transport facility, a transport/development corridor, a development precinct, a suburb or a sporting facility. “Our HUB-id philosophy allows us to fully integrate planners, engineers, architects and urban designers, transport modellers, economists, property professionals and focus on movement and people,” says Brian Smith, Aurecon Associate, Transport Services. It brings these key service areas into a new project delivery structure that influences traditional thinking and breaks apart the silo approach of the past. Taking an integrated and collaborative approach to transport and land use planning can provide significant benefits for city and regional authorities, as well as commercial and retail operators and developers. HUB-id moves away from the traditional and establishes a consolidated approach that links integrated transport planning, transit orientated development and place-making to cater for individual destinations (“id”) and not only the transport mode. Sandton Gautrain Station, South Africa
Aurecon transforming transport
“Recent research has shown that it is impossible and unsustainable to try and build yourself out of congestion. It is for this reason that HUB-id is an essential tool to assist those in charge of ensuring that sustainability prevails in the transport environment.” Bernard van Biljon Aurecon Technical Director Transport Services
Sustainable pathways Delivering genuine solutions involves simultaneously considering the social, economic and environmental objectives of a precinct and integrating transport modes to create an optimal transport solution. Smith points out that the opportunities presented by changing the way we approach integrated development of public transport corridors and the precincts surrounding these corridors are significant. “Understanding how cities flow and finding pathways between city centres and suburban developments need to be balanced with people’s needs and wants. If you understand this, it is possible to deliver resilient, safe and sustainable places while creating areas that are easy to get around.” A hub of the future “The key is to create improved interconnectedness and accessibility for communities. We need to set new standards of quality and integration
of public transport with land use,” asserts Smith. Growing cities and urban transport systems are complex entities. Understanding how cities flow, and finding sustainable pathways between city centres and suburban developments requires an integrated approach to achieve sustainable transport and land use outcomes. “The true goal of the hub approach is to enhance the physical environment by creating enjoyable places for people,” adds Smith. “The intricate cogs and levers in the clockwork of land use development and transport need to be finely balanced to create corridors and precincts that are no longer simply waypoints on a journey to a destination, but are destinations in their own right,” says Bernard van Biljon, Aurecon Technical Director, Transport Services. A successful HUB-id project will aim to smartly facilitate travel and journeymaking, as well as minimise the length and the need of that journey.
Marlboro Gautrain Station, South Africa
What is a hub? The word “hub” is frequently used to describe transit stations and transition points in public transportation. “Hub” is also frequently used in the planning environment to describe land use focal
It may be intermodal — somewhere that two modes meet – such as bus and train or bicycle networks and a bus rapid transport system.
points. HUB-id is concise, and manages to encapsulate very aptly our vision and approach to delivering holistic solutions that address all of the interacting elements found in a hub environment.
It can be an interchange where routes converge and patrons change lines or connections.
It can be used by people or for distributing goods.
It is a boundary where a transport function and a land use form is most visible.
Aurecon transforming transport
â€œThe key is to create improved interconnectedness and accessibility for communities. We need to set new standards of quality and integration of public transport with land use.â€? Brian Smith Aurecon Associate Transport Services
HUB-id in action: three case studies
Eglinton Station Land Take Study, Western Australia Aurecon worked with the Public Transport Authority of Western Australia, local government and land developers to identify land requirements and integration principles for a new rail station and interchange near Yanchep, north of Perth. A key objective of the project was to ensure operational efficiency while establishing a high degree of integration of the station with the planned town centre. Important elements of the work included understanding the role that buses would have in providing sustainable access to both the station for commuters and the town centre for workers, shoppers and other visitors. This includes the provision and management of park and ride facilities to encourage early use of the rail station as an alternative to private car travel to the Perth CBD, while ensuring minimal impact on the future development of the town centre. The Aurecon HUB-id approach equipped the project with urban design and development market understanding to influence development, including exploiting planned excavation and ground levels to integrate centre and station parking, encouraging dual-use of facilities and allowing for development to be integrated with the station, together with the provision of low-key transport interchange facilities. This avoided creating a barrier between the station and the surrounding community, as well as ensured the common focus on sustainability, movement and people.
Rebuilding Christchurch, New Zealand Aurecon is presently offering whole transport network and land use planning assistance to rebuild the urban environment as part of the earthquake recovery plan for Christchurch. We are bringing the whole Aurecon offering to assess land use and transport corridors via cost assessments and benefit analysis with regard to land use opportunities to reshape the city. Aurecon is helping deliver practical, innovative solutions that will produce a better, wellintegrated result. The project also includes determining procurement methods, project pathways and timelines. Aureconâ€™s involvement led to the secondment of an Aurecon HUB-id team member to help deliver the asset and network planning for the rejuvenation of the city.
Project life cycle Project conception
- Master planning - Transport planning - Infrastructure feasibility - Funding mechanisms
- Concession contracts - Precinct development
Business planning Conceptual designs PPP concerns Sketch planning Demand modelling
- Precinct planning - Simulation modelling - Architecture - Infrastructure design
- Business planning - Operational planning - Preliminary designs - PPP development - Legal aspects
Procurement Contract management Supervision Health and safety
Detail design - Simulation modelling - Scheduling - Architecture - Infrastructure design
usiness plan - B refinement - Detailed designs - Preliminary designs - PPP contracts development Aurecon transforming transport
“The true goal of the Hub-id approach is to enhance the physical environment by creating enjoyable places for people.” Brian Smith Aurecon Associate Transport Services
Johannesburg Transit Precinct Development Plans, South Africa The City of Johannesburg’s Growth and Development Strategy is very clear about its vision for urban spaces. It aims to create: “A spatial form that embraces the principles of integration, efficiency and sustainability, and realises tangible increases in accessibility, amenity, and quality of life for all communities and citizens.”
Aurecon was awarded a tender to assist the City of Johannesburg to determine a development strategy and recommendations for Johannesburg’s Bus Rapid Transport and rail precincts that will optimise the existing surrounding land use while reflecting the city’s vision. The plans revolve around
transit-oriented development precincts which entail mixed-use residential or commercial areas designed to maximise access to public transport. Aurecon is utilising state of the art software to analyse the operational efficiency of existing transport and to test land use planning and associated transport demand alternatives.
HUB-id view of the future
Public transport precincts should move towards representing trends observed in world-class cities. Public transport precincts are visually distinct on a typical skyline because of intensified densities and uses.
The elements underlying current deficiencies should be flagged and corrected. In Johannesburg, public transport precincts are the opposite and not visually distinct due to densification.
The boundaries of what can be achieved should not be confined by current realities and preconceived notions. The status quo of Johannesburg’s realities should be recognised but should not confine the vision.
The focal point of the precinct (the public transport facility) must set the tone for what can be attained with the rest of the precinct (partnership required). The centrepiece and catalyst of the precinct should set the tone.
Safer and more reliable rail platforms Platform Screen Doors (PSD) and Automatic Platform Gates (APG) are now common features in many rail stations. Their increased importance particularly relates to high usage metro stations where safety is a critical concern. Many metro systems are facing greater frequency periods of long shutdowns due to either accidents, injuries or fatalities. These incidents can result in serious injury, loss of life, psychological trauma for other users and a high degree of disturbance to the system and its operation. The knock-on effect is a lowering of public confidence in the use of the system, as any incident inevitably results in a long shutdown of the rail system while emergency services are attending to the emergency. Aurecon is a world leader in
the design and engineering of PSD and APG systems for metro applications, which are an essential link in the broader transport hub. We are able to provide full consultancy services including anything from advising new operators contemplating installing PSD/APG to providing full design and engineering of the systems for PSD/APG contractors. “Our team has completed full designs for PSD and APG for both new built stations and the much more challenging retrofit type projects in Singapore, Hong Kong and China,” says Ray Chong, Aurecon Associate, Hong Kong. “Each project has it challenges, since each door system is typically customised to the operator’s requirements. This entails having the intimate knowledge of any safety related issues, man to
machine interfacing, visual aspects such as was the case with the MTR in Hong Kong, where an important issue was the transparency of the doors in order to provide the greatest visibility for track side advertisements,” adds Chong. “At Gilgen Door Systems AG, our reputation is built on providing quality driven, innovative products and solutions for our clients,” said Mark Elgar, Project/Contract Manager, Gilgen Door Systems AG. “With the experience of Ray Chong and his team at Aurecon, we had no hesitation asking them to provide comprehensive façade design and engineering services for our latest APG system on the new South Island Line project for MTR Corporation in Hong Kong. They were able to provide constructive, integrated, reliable and safe design solutions,” added Elgar. Aurecon transforming transport
FACE TO FACE The transport crystal ball Transport systems will dramatically change during this century. Changes may be due to high oil prices, growth in technology, changing urban forms or the demand for lower-emission transport options.
Aurecon transforming transport
Left Kourosh Kayvani, Visiting Professorial Fellow at the University of New South Wales (UNSW), Australia and Head of Innovation at Aurecon. Right Prof Travis Waller, Director of the Research Centre for Integrated Transportation Innovation (RCITI) at UNSW, Australia.
Future systems and thinking High oil prices, rapid population growth, technological change, new urban forms and the demand for lower-emission transport options will dramatically change transport systems during this century. Despite these challenges, economic growth and social stability require mobile populations, goods and resources — therefore transportation systems must be capable of moving millions of people and goods safely and effectively, while putting as little strain as possible on government budgets and the environment. Kourosh Kayvani, Visiting Professorial Fellow at the University of New South Wales (UNSW), Australia and Head of Innovation at Aurecon, met with Prof Travis Waller to discuss transport solutions for future generations and factors that will shape transport networks. Prof Waller is the Evans &
Peck Professor of Transport Innovation and Director of the Research Centre for Integrated Transportation Innovation (RCITI) at the UNSW. While previously on the faculty of the University of Texas at Austin, USA, Professor Waller founded two centres: the Center for Transportation and Electricity Convergence (a National Science Foundation Industry-University Cooperative Research Center) and the Network Modeling Center. Prof Waller holds degrees in electrical engineering and industrial engineering/ management sciences, and has taught at leading engineering schools in the United States. In 2003, he was named one of the TR-100 Top Young Innovators under 35 in science and engineering in the world by Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s (MIT) Technology Review magazine and has been a recipient of the National Science Foundation’s CAREER award.
FACE TO FACE
“Technology is changing, in terms of the way we interact within the transportation system, in the level of information we can gather and the way we communicate.” Prof Travis Waller
Director of the Research Centre for Integrated Transportation Innovation (RCITI) at the UNSW, Australia
Kourosh Kayvani What would you say are the three key drivers that will transform transport in this century?
occurring. All of them converging, means there is the potential for a complete transformation regarding how we view transport.
Prof Travis Waller Most of the people involved in research and high-level transport planning believe technology, demographics and energy are the three key areas driving future systems and thinking.
Kourosh Kayvani Much of your work has involved developing and deploying specialised modelling tools to address a wide range of transport challenges. I would be interested in exploring what research you think has been pivotal in delivering effective transport systems that integrate with population growth and government policy objectives?
Technology is changing with regard to the way we interact within the transportation system, in the level of information we can gather and the way we communicate. As technology improves, we’re now thinking about a host of new solutions that previously either weren’t required or we didn’t realise were required. The change in demographics is well known, both in terms of general growth and in countries with ageing populations. The burdens that demographic shifts place on a transport system are still not perfectly understood but, increasingly, we’re developing a more robust view of what this means for the future. Then there is the issue of energy. Transportation is one of the main users of energy in the world. We need to better understand what sort of energy we will use in the future and how do we source it? This is followed by how do we transport the energy and distribute it within the transportation system? And how do we best use this energy to move people around? Each of these issues on their own might result in a dramatic change
Prof Travis Waller About a quarter of my research is transport network modelling that is systematically and quantitatively representing transport infrastructure and human behaviour within that infrastructure. My most important achievement is to develop new models that incorporate precise and very fine level dynamics of transport congestion and movements. I also use this to address the uncertainty related to behaviours and then try to determine how both aspects interact with information. There’s a basic principle across all fields, which is that demand is uncertain. It is a random variable. Congestion in this context is a function and it is non-linear. If you think of a roadway and the number of vehicles on the road, the congestion goes up non-linearly as the number of vehicles increases. We can’t know the number of vehicles on the road in the future exactly. If we merely take the expected
number of vehicles and we plug it into congestion, then we will systematically underestimate the congestion. In a traditional transport policy, stakeholders may take expected future demand and plug it into congestion models and, as a result, systematically underestimate future congestion. All too often, this is the outcome when planning for future demand. Kourosh Kayvani With air pollution and congestion emerging as the two top environmental challenges, stakeholders predict a strong emphasis on mass transit solutions. What changes to network behaviours can we typically expect? Prof Travis Waller This is a very interesting question. In some ways the answer is partially a ‘chicken and egg scenario’. Mass transit is often most efficient when running hand in hand with density. Residential density and destination density are key influencers. Travelling for work, shopping or recreation, results in a shift, both in terms of travel patterns or network behaviour, which can directly link mass transit solutions to land use planning issues. To be successful, it’s critical to deliver bi-directional interaction. If you don’t have a robust land use policy, then there will still be network changes and people will update their behaviours (such as where they live and where and Aurecon transforming transport
“My most important achievement is to develop new models that incorporate precise and very fine level dynamics of transport congestion and movements.” Prof Travis Waller
Director of the Research Centre for Integrated Transportation Innovation (RCITI) at the UNSW, Australia
when they make their trips). But such reactionary changes may not result in improved travel times or reduced emissions etc., which are as good as with an integrated land use policy. Kourosh Kayvani In April this year, I attended the Structures Congress in Chicago and one of the presentations focused on the question of whether tall buildings or cities with tall buildings are actually sustainable. The proposal was that tall buildings by themselves can’t be justified as sustainable because you have to consume more energy to build and operate them. However, when you put tall buildings into the context of a city, they deliver densification to the city, and they make the transport systems more sustainable. As a result, in the context of a densely populated urban environment, tall buildings are part of delivering a sustainable solution. In cities like Hong Kong, density and transport are closely connected. Tall buildings are sustainable because in the context of this urban precinct, they are a very effective way for people to live. Prof Travis Waller Exactly, you can’t look at any one dimension of the issue in isolation. That’s one of the outcomes of this increase in convergence, in growth and transformation.
Kourosh Kayvani Transportation is seen as the single biggest infrastructure challenge by a large margin, and is a key factor in city competitiveness. What are some of the critical transport challenges and how can your research help deliver solutions to ensure sustainable and economically viable growth in future infrastructure? Prof Travis Waller The changing roles of energy, emissions, sustainability, demographics, lack of space and the cost of infrastructure will continue to influence decisions around infrastructure planning. One point that’s not often mentioned, but I actually see as a negative, is the role of advocacy. I am strongly of the belief that we should not advocate for solutions, we should advocate for methods of analysis. The solutions must be context specific and rigorously weighed in each case. If we have appropriate methods that are scientifically sound and rigorously proven, the solutions emerge and they are usually context specific and correct for a given place and time. I think when we stray from this role, we encounter problems. It is important that we compare options in a fair, integrated and comprehensive manner and then develop specific cases that
FACE TO FACE
deliver sustainable, efficient and cost-effective solutions. Kourosh Kayvani So how do governments balance the need to improve existing infrastructure and plan for or deliver any new infrastructure that may be required in the future? Prof Travis Waller This is a difficult one. We need to openly admit that both the old and new are valuable. We need to do things in the short-term to manage what we have, and we do need to plan effectively for the future. Essentially, the balance relates to developing an open, well-thought through, long-term plan that focuses on clear objectives. We need to have people moving about efficiently to maintain the economy. We want it happening in a safe, reliable way that has the minimum impact and uses the least energy in the cleanest way possible. Therefore, we need these clear objectives, and then begin the task of quantifying where we want to be with regard to the medium-term versus the long-term. The fact that I’m an engineer means I’m looking at how to attach numbers to our objectives. But that begins by first articulating clear objectives: if we can articulate what it is, where it is we want to be, the other aspects tend to emerge. Kourosh Kayvani The subtext in this question is the notion that infrastructure around people has an organic element to it. We have existing infrastructure and with it certain attached behaviour patterns. I assume when you plan to change an existing piece of complex infrastructure, you would aim to incrementally change things in order not to destabilise patterns as much as you might when you create a whole new system or piece of infrastructure? Prof Travis Waller I would say that is a fair assessment. You can dramatically change existing
infrastructure through management practices but they have to be wideranging and severe. Without question, new infrastructure is clearly the most direct way to achieve a major transformation in a system’s performance. This relates back to the idea of having rigorous, long-term planning because, again, the scale and the scope impacts over a much longer time horizon. Consequently, when it comes to new infrastructure, we need to have clear long-term objectives that we can try to transform and improve. But your assessment is right, if we want to get a fundamental shift in behaviour, then it is easiest with a fundamental shift in the infrastructure itself. Kourosh Kayvani In terms of the social factors, do you believe you have to have a particularly sophisticated model and approach to capture all those influences? Prof Travis Waller Well, numerous things can change: fundamental assumptions about travel demand and destination choice, route choice and everything within the network. If you are only updating and managing your infrastructure many of those will still hold. If you are thinking of a completely new addition to your network, they can change completely. This can be both an issue and a burden for the modelling but that’s what we need to analyse if we want to dramatically improve the system. There is both an art and science to all of these considerations. The reason being, and this is another general rule of science and engineering, your theories and methods should be as simple as possible, such that they meet and address rigorously the questions you have. This means that you shouldn’t do more modelling purely for the sake of doing more modelling. A critical issue with transportation is modelling which relates to choice. People make choices, they choose to make a trip or
not, what time to leave, what route to take and what mode of transport to take. Therefore, so much of our transportation modelling comes back to choice and congestion issues. For example, given the choices available, what are the physical properties of traffic moving along the road? We know that congestion emerges as an issue and that’s a little more physical in nature. However, there are choice and congestion models in play, as well as other factors all influencing the behaviour of the system. With regard to choice models, you want a model of choice that is relevant to a specific situation and, depending on what you’re examining, it will involve a completely different set of modelling scenarios. I think this is one of the critical factors people often misunderstand. It is not a case of a single model in any place in the world, there are wide ranges of models depending on what you want to analyse. And the art of experience and human expertise has a real influence on the process. There is a wide range of engineering questions that have to be asked and answered to get to the proper set of models. Kourosh Kayvani So there is a very complex structure or system that you need to understand and it isn’t possible to have a holistic model to capture everything? Prof Travis Waller This goes back to my point on solutions being context specific when I said that transit may not work as well as you want, unless you integrate it with land use policy. You cannot really say “Solution X is great, do it everywhere”. We need to think about what else is going on and does anything else need to happen to facilitate Solution X successfully.
Aurecon transforming transport
City Talks City of Tshwane South Africa Tshwane
Lisa N Mangcu, Deputy City Manager of the City of Tshwane responsible for Infrastructure and Projects Management, talks about the challenges inherent in ensuring his cityâ€™s transport needs are met. Aurecon City managers must strike the balance between three overriding concerns: economic competitiveness, environment and quality of life for urban residents. How are you balancing these needs while delivering effective transport systems that integrate with ongoing community development goals? Lisa N Mangcu The transport function cannot be divorced from urban planning. We plan our transport systems in order to manage the changes in land use patterns in a way that will contribute positively to the needs and aspirations of the ever increasing community. One of the main priorities is to identify initiatives that will catalyse both economic growth and social infrastructure. Aurecon Transportation is seen as the single
Above Lisa N. Mangcu, Deputy City Manager of the City of Tshwane responsible for Infrastructure and Projects Management
biggest infrastructure challenge by a large margin, and is a key factor in city competitiveness. Looking at your city, what are your critical transport challenges for the future and how can you manage these to ensure sustainable growth of necessary infrastructure? Lisa N Mangcu The majority of residents without employment or work prospects live more than 30 km from employment opportunities. In general, these people live in the northern part of the city. We are addressing this in two major ways. Firstly, we are investing in addressing infrastructure backlogs such as stormwater drainage and the paving of roads. This will improve mobility and allow communities to access services and job opportunities. Secondly, the city is developing an integrated rapid public transport network (IRPTN) system which is intended to facilitate the rapid movement of residents. The IRPTN will integrate rail, road and nonmotorised modes of transport. Aurecon With air pollution and congestion emerging as the two top environmental challenges, stakeholders predict a strong emphasis on mass transit solutions.
city talks - city of tshwane
Tshwane at a glance The City of Tshwane is the second largest municipality in the Gauteng Province and is among the six biggest metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. The following towns and townships form part of the Municipality’s area: Pretoria, Centurion, Akasia, Soshanguve, Mabopane, Atteridgeville, Ga-Rankuwa, Winterveld, Hammanskraal, Temba, Pienaarsrivier, Crocodile River and Mamelodi. Pretoria, as one component of Tshwane, is the administrative capital of South Africa and houses the Union Buildings. Government plays an important role in Tshwane’s economy, but there are many other sectors that are doing extremely well. In fact, the city has adapted to globalisation remarkably well and has all the elements of a smart city. Tshwane has positioned itself as Africa’s leading capital city of excellence. The city: • is the centre of government with all the national government departments being located here and also houses the embassies of all the countries of the world If mass transit solutions are critical to addressing environmental challenges, how are you tracking — both now and for the future?
existing infrastructure, as well as plan for or deliver any new infrastructure that may be required in the future?
Lisa N Mangcu As stated above, the IRPTN will be able to move people en masse and in an integrated fashion. In our rolling out of this integrated system, it is the city’s intention to procure environmentally-friendly transportation linked with nonmotorised transport, including converting certain streets into pedestrian-friendly streets.
Lisa N Mangcu Our city’s approach has been to separate infrastructure into categories such as economic infrastructure and social infrastructure. The city has a huge infrastructure backlog that is a result of the past skewed urban planning. To this end, every year the city is setting aside funds to eradicate this and this funding is augmented by grants from National Treasury. The need to continuously grow the economy of the city is ongoing. The challenge that the city, and other cities in the world, faces is to balance these competing needs.
Aurecon Typically, cities are more likely to focus on incremental improvements to existing infrastructure, rather than new systems. How do you balance the need to improve
• f orms part of the Gauteng global region, the wealthiest and fastest growing economic region on the African continent as a population of two million • h people and the highest level of education in the country • is a national centre of research and learning with four universities and seven of the eight national science councils, i.e. the CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), the HSRC (Human Sciences Research Council), the ARC (Agricultural Research Council), the NRF (National Research Foundation), the MRI (Medical Research Institute), the VRI (Veterinary Research Institute) and the SABS (South African Bureau of Standards) Source www.tshwane.gov.za
Aurecon transforming transport
Wealth comes from moving resources to markets Increasingly, resource development has less to do with digging the product out of the ground than it does with getting the product to a port, onto a ship and delivered to the customer. The development of economical transport and materials handling infrastructure has been identified as a key driver to sovereign economic growth. Irrespective of the implicit value of undeveloped mineral resources, unless they can be brought to market, they are of little value. Within a global context, the continent of Africa probably faces one of the most significant transport-driven economic development programmes as countries strive to unlock their much sought after resources. The billions of dollars spent by mining businesses in resource and mine development is often overshadowed by the development cost of the ore railway systems, deepwater ports, stockyards and bulk material handling equipment and fleets to bring the product to market. Within this total context, the true cost of a new resource project, including access to shared and new rail and port developments, can be astronomical.
Business press headlines often focus on the need to either open existing port and rail networks from sole use or support rapid growth in new transport and supply chain infrastructure to capitalise upon resources growth. “The big miners well understand and appreciate the value of heavy haul rail in the development and commercialisation of their mineral assets. Without a railway, much of the world’s mineral wealth is just expensive dirt sitting at remote locations,” says John Cranley, Rail Systems Service Leader. “Beyond this, investment in rail — and especially heavy haul rail — goes a long way to strengthening and growing regional economies.” Australia’s Galilee Basin, in Queensland, is seen as a new frontier in the export of thermal coal resources. The Basin itself spans an area of over 247 000 km2 and is estimated to contain over 14 billion tonnes of coal. A number of entrepreneurial miners have proposed the construction of their own almost 500 km rail link from the basin to the port of Abbot Point at Bowen. It is an accepted fact that not all of them will commit to
heavy haul rail
Opposite Page Abbot Point Coal Terminal, Australia Left Addis Djibouti Railway, Ethiopia Bottom Jilalan Rail Yard Upgrade, Australia
the project, while all would probably benefit to some degree from a jointuser network. It is also clear that the development and timing of this heavy haul rail corridor will have a significant impact on the timing and viability of the proposed coal mining projects in the region and the Australian economy. Heavy haul rail development is not restricted to Australia. South Africa, Angola, and Mozambique see the wisdom in the development of heavy haul rail systems. Each of these countries is investing significantly in their rail networks — in the case of Mozambique, to grow from the destruction of decades of civil war. The Mozambican government recently revealed plans to build a new railway line linking the north and south of
the country. This ambitious project follows closely on the much-delayed redevelopment of the 600 km Sena railway, which links the rich coal mining areas in Mozambique’s Tete province to the port at Beira situated at the mouth of the Pungue River. Brazilian mining giant Vale is also working hard to ship its coal using rail from its mines in Tete to the port of Nacala, Mozambique.
to a new port at Techobanine in Mozambique’s Maputo province. This railway would provide access to the Indian and Chinese markets.
Another mammoth project in Southern Africa, the Trans-Kalahari Railway (TKR), proposes to link Botswana with the port of Walvis Bay in Namibia. This 1 500 km USD 10 billion railway project is seen to be critical to the competitive viability of Botswana’s emerging coal industry. Botswana is also considering a proposed 1 500 km railway to the east,
South Africa’s President, Jacob Zuma, recently announced a bold initiative to invest close to USD 24 billion in the development and redevelopment of South Africa’s export networks — port and rail. South Africa clearly understands that creating the infrastructure necessary to facilitate minerals development is an investment in the greater economy. “Heavy haul rail transportation has been a major contributor to the growth in export bulk materials in countries such Australia, South Africa and Brazil, and consequently their wealth,” concludes Cranley.
“Investment in rail – and especially heavy haul rail – goes a long way to strengthening and growing regional economies.” John Cranley Aurecon Rail Systems Service Leader Aurecon transforming transport
City Talks City of Christchurch New Zealand
Following the devastating earthquake that hit Christchurch, New Zealand on 22 February 2011 the national and regional governments have faced the task of an unprecedented rebuild. We spoke to Christchurch mayor, Bob Parker to get his views on the challenges and opportunities for his city.
transport network, able to be responsive to the city’s changing needs, will be focused more on walking, cycling and efficient public transport. A number of the world’s most prosperous and vibrant cities have transport networks based around these integrated transport principles. Even cities which have historically been highly reliant on vehicles, are beginning to reshape their transport systems along these lines.
Aurecon The draft plan for the rebuild of Christchurch involves laying a foundation for future growth and prosperity based on a vision to make it one of the best cities in the world. With the focus on lowrise buildings, ensuring safe and sustainable places, and creating an area that is easy to get around, the future looks bright for Christchurch as a sustainable 21st century city that is inviting and people-friendly. The rebuild is an opportunity to differentiate and future-proof this city. What role would transport play to reach your vision for this city?
For people to get to and from the heart of the city, we will progressively redevelop main streets with wider, tree-lined footpaths and cycle lanes, which will often be separated from traffic. It will create the look and feel of the best main streets from around the globe, while continuing to offer good access for buses, emergency vehicles and goods/service vehicles, as well as supporting the recreation of the Central City’s boutique retail, restaurant and cultural clusters.
Bob Parker The new transport system for the Central City will be the engine room for the city’s revitalisation and reconstruction. A new flexible
Bob Parker Throughout the Central City Plan, the aim is to create a safer, more pleasant environment in which people can walk, cycle, drive and, more importantly, meet, play and take time to enjoy the array of activities on offer. Transport plays a key role in achieving this vision.
Above Bob Parker, Mayor of Christchurch
“While there are emerging challenges we need to meet, the existing transport network has served Christchurch well and gives us a good platform to add a greater variety of public transport, walking and cycling options.” Bob Parker Mayor of Christchurch
Aurecon Do you see transport as purely a functional part of the plan or key to the development?
Aurecon What constrains replanning a transport system within the existing network? Bob Parker The earthquake has actually meant that we have a lot more flexibility than any modern council has had before. We decided at an early stage of the planning process that we would keep the street grid laid out in 1850. We saw this as an essential part of Christchurch’s character and identity. Any rearrangement of that grid would have led to large infrastructure costs and significant implications for existing property rights.
city talks - city of christchurch
Christchurch at a glance Christchurch became a city by Royal Charter on July 31, 1856, making it officially the oldest established city in New Zealand.
While there are emerging challenges we need to meet, the existing transport network has served Christchurch well and gives us a good platform to add a greater variety of public transport, walking and cycling options. Aurecon Looking at your city, your hinterland freight demand is set to grow substantially, how are you going to integrate that with the growth and rebuild of the city? Bob Parker Primary industry drives much of Canterbury’s economic activity and so reliable and economical freight services are critical to our prosperity.
When we developed the Canterbury Regional Land Transport Strategy 2012-2042 we were careful to integrate it with our Urban Development Strategy. The success of that planning was recognised by the Government in establishing the Christchurch Motorway as one of the seven Roads of National Significance projects. In terms of freight, this USD 450 million construction programme will provide more efficient access to our port and airport, as well as more efficiently diverting freight destined for other locations past our city. They will also divert heavy vehicles from suburban roads and reunite communities currently separated by State highways.
Located in New Zealand’s Canterbury region, the economy was built on primary products. Canterbury has long been recognised as living “off the sheep’s back”, although its economic beginnings were in refrigerated sheep and dairy meats and in other dairy products, Canterbury now has a diversified regional economy. Geographical location East Coast, South Island, New Zealand Climate Christchurch has a mild climate with an average annual rainfall of 648 mm Population 348 400 Area Christchurch City: 45 240 ha
Aurecon transforming transport
City Talks City of Christchurch New Zealand
Aurecon The plan includes eco-streets and high-density living in and around the CBD. With the current reliance on cars, how are you going to encourage a modal shift to public transport? Bob Parker Affordable, efficient and high-quality public transport systems move people easily in and out of city centres. The City Council and Environment Canterbury (ECan) have a history of investing in high quality, bus-based
systems and integrated ticketing that makes public transport easy to use. That investment is planned to continue. We plan to deliver a modern citywide commuter rail system by examining what a short and longer term high quality public transport network might look like for Christchurch. A new high quality, efficient bus-based network, to be delivered as an early part of the Central City rebuild, will bring buses close to the core of the Central City.
city talks - city of christchurch
Aurecon Considering on-street and offstreet parking is a requirement of the business community, how do you plan to manage this demand? Bob Parker The council will maintain previous public car parking levels of service in the Central City, having made a commitment to repair or, where necessary, rebuild those facilities to support the development of the city and retail initiatives. These will not necessarily be located on the same sites as before the earthquakes. Central City parking will be managed to support and complement the proposed activities, land use and transport networks in the Central City. The provision of better managed and well-located parking, serving different needs, will provide appropriate access for private vehicles, and support goods/service vehicles, walking, cycling and public transport. Aurecon Typically, cities are more likely to focus on incremental improvements to existing infrastructure, rather than new systems. This creates opportunities and challenges alike. How are you going to manage the master plan so that all the elements come together and work effectively? Bob Parker The plan provides for the option of establishing a development agency to accelerate or facilitate strategic or priority land development. There are a number of small sites in the Central City, which may not be conducive to economic rebuild projects. Amalgamating these sites will help attract needed investment and development into the Central City. Estimated costs for land acquisition are USD 5.8 million over five years. Of course we are still waiting for the Draft Central City Recovery Plan to be signed off by the Minister for Canterbury Earthquake Recovery, so our approach to implementation will depend on the final shape of the plan. I am facilitating the establishment of an independent Central City advisory group.
This independent body will be there to encourage and help bring together property owners, investors and the business sector with other important groups representing the arts, sports and entertainment, as well as education. Aurecon How do you plan to attract people back to the CBD for both living and working? Bob Parker People moving into the Central City will look for neighbourhoods that have a sense of identity, provide a choice of living environments and enable them to enjoy and be part of a great community atmosphere. Before the earthquake, the Central City was already home to approximately 7 700 residents. The Central City is a key residential growth area and is part of a shift towards a more consolidated urban form in Greater Christchurch. There will be greater choice of housing in the Central City to attract a diverse range of residents, including families who seek safe environments in which to raise their children; places where they can enjoy a range of stimulating activities in a healthy environment. A new affordable housing agency will be established to make housing more accessible in the Central City for low- to middle-income earners. Commercial real estate developers and business tenants will receive incentives to focus the location of business activity and commercial development on the Central City’s Compact CBD and health precinct. Each incentive is aimed at addressing a specific issue. Office-based incentives will be available in the Compact CBD, while retail businesses will be incentivised to locate within the Retail Priority Area.
the future of their city and the council taking those ideas and putting them into a coherent plan. The council launched ‘Share an Idea’, a public engagement campaign aimed to maximise community involvement in the redevelopment of the Central City. While the extent of damage was not yet fully assessed, we recognised that the face of Christchurch had changed forever. The level of destruction meant the Central City would need to be completely rebuilt in places, opening up the possibility to recreate the city to respond to the needs of today’s residents and for future generations. Aurecon How resilient is the Canterbury community in recovery and commitment to Christchurch? Bob Parker Our community has shown incredible strength in the wake of the ongoing earthquakes. We are ordinary people facing enormously difficult challenges but our strength has been that we have stood together. We have found ways to deal with problems we never imagined we would have to face with creativity and compassion. We have also relied on generous assistance from our friends all around New Zealand and all over the world. The darkest times are when you truly find out the strength of your friendships. We have a sound future here in Christchurch at the heart of a growing region and we are working towards realising an inspiring vision. There is a palpable sense of expectation about the potential shape of our city.
Aurecon Could you explain how you gained public support for your vision? Bob Parker Our plan has come from the people of Christchurch; it was not a vision that councillors delivered to residents. The vision has emerged from our citizens reflecting on what they wanted for Aurecon transforming transport
Intelligent transport systems (ITS) Intelligent transport â€“ future thinking moves progress forward.
INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS (ITS)
Whether driven by economic growth, swelling populations or changing community demographics, national transport systems are now facing unprecedented challenges. Traditional solutions cannot solve the breadth and depth of the issues facing governments, transport operators and communities today. New approaches are needed – finding the correct ones is the challenge. The changing needs of our transport systems affect the safety and mobility of users across all modes of transport. “Effectively designed Intelligent Transport Systems use electronic and computer technology to improve the sustainability, efficiency and safety of a designated transportation network,” says Mike van Tonder, Aurecon Service Line Leader, Intelligent Transport Systems. “These systems integrate a combination of sub-systems, each with a separate objective, into one over-arching system to achieve specified sustainability, efficiency and safety targets.” Transport experts agree that it is critical to work towards formulating national strategies for the development and delivery of Intelligent Transport System solutions. Such solutions must be designed to: • W ork seamlessly and provide consistent outcomes in each region and jurisdiction pply new standards uniformly and foster access to • A global technology and supplier solutions rovide transport users with access to reliable • P information about all modes of transport, in timely and familiar ways • A chieve economies of scale as projects delivered in each jurisdiction build on the achievements of others • P rovide a coherent position on priority projects for transport agencies and allow this to feed into the development of national priorities for infrastructure and technology development • M atch expenditure on Intelligent Transport Systems so that it accurately reflects stakeholder priorities Sustainability, efficiency and safety are three pillars at the core of all Intelligent Transport Systems: Sustainability This is achieved through the optimal use of the existing transportation network, which reduces the demand for additional transportation infrastructure and lowers the impact of the use of the network on climate change. Efficiency This is realised through the maximum use of the transportation network’s available capacity by reducing congestion and delays for an entire inter-modal journey from origin to destination.
Aurecon transforming transport
Intelligent systems deliver the safety, efficiency and environmental performance required by the transport networks of the future.
Safety This is achieved through minimising the potential conflicts that cause accidents on the transportation system. Early detection and management of incidents and accidents is important to minimise the seriousness of any accidents that do occur and to minimise the severity of injuries. Understanding system relationships The guiding principles of Intelligent Transport Systems are to collect a variety of data on a transportation network environment, consolidate and analyse this data and then use it to manage the network. â€œThe collection of the data can be by means of specific vehicle or human detection, observation of CCTV footage, video analytics, web and cell phone communication, probes and satellite
monitoring,â€? comments Van Tonder. The data is consolidated usually at a central location and is then analysed so that it can be disseminated and used for decision making purposes, by both the operators and users of the transportation network. The designated transportation network is not necessarily restricted to a road based or even a surface based network, it can include a combination of non-motorised transport, road based transport, rail, sea travel and air travel. The sub-systems of an Intelligent Transport System range from CCTV surveillance, variable message signage, lane management, ramp metering, freight monitoring, incident and intruder detection, weather information, container security and monitoring, smart ticketing, seamless intermodal interchange, open road
INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS (ITS)
tolling, web and cell phone based information dissemination. Intelligent Transport Systems are more effective when underpinned by the latest architecture, standards and tools. The USA, Europe and Japan are early adopters of national architecture for such systems. Success is more likely to be delivered if countries foster the high level of cooperation across industries, governments, transport operators and research organisations to pursue fulfilment of a coordinated Intelligent Transport System strategy. Van Tonder concludes that: â€œThe opportunity now exists for us to develop systems that deliver cooperative mobility and, in doing so, to set a direction for the development and deployment of Intelligent Transport System solutions that optimise transport system performance.â€? Aurecon transforming transport
The role of design in security “From a security standpoint, environments such as airports are more controlled environments in which to deliver effective security solutions. Engineers, architects and security experts can create physical checkpoints at airports, limit the movement of people and demand people follow strict security procedures.” Kevin Foster Aurecon Technical Director Risk
The breadth and complexity of security issues faced by transport systems is a challenge for owners, operators, security agencies, architects, engineers and the public. Security is an important aspect within public transport hubs, across sporting and recreational precincts and adjoining streetscapes. As we integrate our public transport systems more holistically into the urban environment, the need to address security becomes more critical. “From a security standpoint, environments such as airports are more controlled environments in which to deliver effective security solutions. Engineers, architects and security experts can create physical checkpoints at airports, limit the movement of people and demand people follow strict security procedures,” says Kevin Foster, Aurecon Technical Director, Risk. The principles of good security are to deter, detect, delay and respond to criminal and antisocial behaviour. Across the Western World, CCTV is now a powerful tool delivering the deter and detect elements of security monitoring. Within a public environment, such as a transport hub or major sporting facility, the potential level of vulnerability is high. This is due to a range of uncontrollable and unpredictable factors that exist within these precincts. In these high use public areas, security agencies typically turn to CCTV and facial recognition software. In support, architects, engineers and placemakers employ principles that are designed to reduce the opportunity for crime to occur. Typically, risk management experts can detect where criminal
TRANSPORT AND SECURITY
activities might occur, should the environmental conditions offer opportunities to commit a crime. Architects and engineers can then work to “design out” the physical conditions that can result in crimes or poor security. “In security circles, this is known as crime prevention through environmental design or CPTED. This approach operates in the belief that the proper design and effective use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime, and an improvement of the quality of life,” adds Foster. As a concept, CPTED is utilised by law enforcement agencies, planners, architects, security professionals and everyday citizens. The four underlying concepts that drive CPTED thinking are: 1. 2. 3. 4.
Natural surveillance Natural access control Territorial reinforcement Maintenance
“We know that in public spaces, criminal gangs are driven by behavioural patterns that focus on gaining what we call territorial control of an area. Terrorists are driven by being able to successfully stage major events, therefore surveillance is a critical deterrent as it takes away the anonymity of terrorists and their operatives,” says Foster. “As cities grow and new facilities are delivered, Aurecon is being engaged to undertake security and risk assessments for places such as transport hubs and sporting, recreational and retail precincts,” adds Foster.
Granger Bay Boulevard and Green Point Roundabout Traffic Circle, Cape Town, South Africa The Granger Bay Boulevard and Green Point Roundabout Traffic Circle, illustrates perfectly how design solutions have a direct impact on public safety and security. With the decision to site the 2010 FIFA World Cup™ Cape Town Stadium in Green Point, upgrades to local transportation infrastructure, particularly the Granger Bay Boulevard arterial road, became vital. Focusing on access/ egress and aesthetic appeal, the design and security challenge was to accommodate complicated and conflicting traffic, public transport and pedestrian flows. Aurecon’s solution was to elevate the previously existing traffic circle/roundabout which allowed for the uninhibited flow of spectators to and from the stadium to the now famous Fanwalk to the City Centre and to bus stations. The complicated bridge structure was designed with slender, wineglass shaped columns to maximise visibility and safety. Rounded bridge parapets added to the aesthetic appeal and fulfilled an important safety function by opening up lines of sight and eliminating areas where people gathering were obscured from view. Below Granger Bay Boulevard and Green Point Roundabout Traffic Circle Cape Town, South Africa
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In this issue, we decided to analyse the complex and interrelated nature of transport systems. We interview experts across our business and...