Project Description2-edited

Page 1

Industrial Attachment at DK Textile Mills Ltd Introduction By means of practical knowledge it’s not possible to apply the theoretical knowledge in the practical field. For any technical education, practical experience is almost equal important in association with the theoretical knowledge. The industrial attachment is the process, which builds understanding, skills and attitude of the performer, which improves his knowledge in boosting productivity and services. University education provides us vast theoretical knowledge as well as more practical attachment, in despite of all these industrial attachment helps us to be familiar with technical support of modern machinery, skill ness about various processing stages. It also provides us sufficient practical knowledge about production management, work study, efficiency, industrial management, purchasing, utility and maintenance of machinery and their operation techniques etc. the above mentioned cannot be achieved successfully by means of theoretical knowledge only. This is why it should be accomplished with practical knowledge in which it is based on. Industrial attachment makes us reliable to be accustomed with the industrial atmosphere and improve courage and inspiration to take self responsibility. Textile education can’t be completed without industrial training. Because this industrial training minimizes the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge and make us accustomed to industrial environment. I got an opportunity to complete two-months long industrial training at DK Textile Mills Ltd , which is a 100% export-oriented composite Industry. It has well planned & equipped fabric dyeing-finishing and garments units in addition to facilitate knitting and knitwear manufacturing. Chapter – 1 Project Description Name: DK Textile Mills Ltd Type: Composite. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FACTORY: Name of Company

:

DK Textile Mills Ltd


Factory

: DK TEXTILE : Zamgora, Ashulia,Savar, Dhaka-1349 (Opp.to Fantasy Kingdom) Tel: +880-4476-600450

Location DK Textile Mills Ltd Location

Address: Factory Address Head Office USA Office

: Zamgora, Ashulia,Savar, Dhaka-1349 (Opp.to Fantasy Kingdom) : House # 99, Road # 4, Block # B Banani, Dhaka-1213, Bangladesh Tel: 8802-8827134, 8827151, 9880894 Fax: 8802-9898107 : 291, Park Avenue Apt # 46B Nutley, Nj-07110, USA Phone: 1-9736673029 Fax : 1-9736673029

Visions: To be the most preferred garment, home textile, bags and other sourcing agency for global clients and to provide automated warehousing and re-distribution solutions to global clients. Mission:


To conduct the business of DK Group so as to maintain our reputation for credibility and integrity with our clients, vendors, and employees. To provide customized sourcing and logistics solutions to global clients having unique requirements. To achieve consistent high quality levels and on-time delivery schedules, through a team of committed personnel and a proven set of vendors with World Class, systematic manufacturing facilities. To open window for new avenue of business diversity. Our business research and development team always keen to deal new type of product apart from garments and textile items. Certification and Award: ISO 9002-2000.,WRAP -2009 History of the Company: Dk textile of Industries Company beginning in the 1998 Dk textile has earned unrivalled success & remarkable distinction in the field of ready-made garments Banking Information: Bank used for L.C a) Jamuna Bank Ltd. b) Mercantile Bank Ltd. c) Dhaka Bank Ltd. d) Pubali Bank Ltd e) Agrani Bank Ltd. ASSOCIATED COMPANY: Dk. Collection Limited Dk. Textile Limited Dk. Sweater Limited Dk. Printing Limited Dk. Design Limited Dk. Group Inc. Building Land Area

: 5 Strayed building : 12,500 Sq ft

Floor Area

:

Ground Floor = 12000 Sq ft => Dying and Finishing Section 1st Floor = 10,500 Sq ft => Knitting Section 2nd Floor = 10,500 Sq ft => Cutting Section 3rd Floor = 10,500 Sq ft => Sewing Section th 4 Floor = 10,500 Sq ft => Sewing Section 5th Floor

= 10,500 Sq f t=> Others Room


Production Capacity :

45,000 Pcs Basic T-Shirt / Daily

Chapter # 2 MANPOWER Management System: The company has skilled administration, management and marketing team guided by proficient, dexterous & experienced leaders to offer right solution for the consumers with the right eminence & with the shortest lead-time for the export market in Bangladesh. The best use of continuous development of human resources by providing them International standard equal opportunity is the keys for achieving comprehensive competence in all level of the organizational hierarchy. Shift: 2 shifts per 24 hours. Shift Day(A)

Duration 9.00am-9.00pm

Night(B)

9.00pm-9.00am

Total Manpower & Section-wise Manpower: Total Manpower of Dk Textile : 2024 Knitting section: Shift-A: 26 Shift-B: 20 Dyeing Section: Shift-A: 55 Shift-B: 45 Dyeing Lab: Shift-A: 08 Shift-B: 07 Finishing & QC: Shift-A: 60 Shift-B: 48 Grey fabric Store: Shift-A: 30 Shift-B: 26 Chemical Store: Shift-A: 10 Shift-B: 08 Finish Fabric Store: Shift-A: 15 Shift-B: 12


Garments Sample Section: Shift-A:55 Shift-B:50 Garments Bulk Production Section Shift-A:710 Shift-B:675 Maintenance: Shift-A: 24 Shift-B: 17 Utility: Shift-A: 06 Shift-B: 06 General Staff: Shift-A: 40 Shift-B: 16 Others:55 DK Textile limited Management Organnogram Director Production Director Production Manager Assistant General Manager Quality Manager Admin Manager Admin Assistant Admin Line Chip Superviser Quality Controller Operator Helper Labor Different Department: Knitting section Dyeing section Finishing section Quality control section Garments section Maintenance sectionKNITTING SECTION\ Process Definition: The fundamental unit of a knitted fabric is the loop. Any circular knitted fabric is composed of row after row of intermeshed loops. Different types of fabric are made of different


method of intermeshing the loops. The gross dimension of knitted fabric is simply a reflection of any shape & size of individual loops. There are several key variables in the production which affect the average shape & size of the loops. After knitting the greige fabric is dyed to required shade & finished to required weight & width.

Classification of knitting: Knitting

Warp knitting

Weft Knitting

Circular Knitting

Flat Knitting

Single Jersey

Double Jersey

Machine List of Knitting Section in Dk : Machine name Circular Knitting(Single jersey) m/c Circular Knitting(Rib) m/c Grey Fabric Inspection m/c Specification of Circular Knitting Machine: Machine no-01 M/c type: Single jersey

Machine Quantity 10 5 1


Brand name: Lisky Origin: Taiwan Cam Box: 84 Cylinder Dia: 24 Gauge: 24 Needle: 2112 Net wt: 2310 kg Safety rpm: 37 Date of manufacturing: 2007 Machine no-02 M/c type: Single jersey Brand name: Lisky Origin: Taiwan Cam Box: 84 Cylinder Dia: 24 Gauge: 24 Needle: 2112 Net wt: 2310 kg Safety rpm: 37 Date of manufacturing: 2007 Machine no-03 M/c type: Single jersey Brand name: Lisky Origin: Taiwan Cam Box: 74 Cylinder Dia: 25 Gauge: 24 Needle: 1872 Net wt: 2310 kg Safety rpm: 28 Machine no-04 M/c type: Single jersey Brand name: Lisky Origin: Taiwan Cam Box: 78 Cylinder Dia: 26 Gauge: 24 Needle: 1944 Net wt: 2310 kg Safety rpm: 34 Date of manufacturing: 2006 Machine no-05


M/c type: Single jersey Brand name: Lisky Origin: Taiwan Cam Box: 90 Cylinder Dia: 30 Gauge: 20 Needle: 1872 Net wt: 2310 kg Safety rpm: 30 Date of manufacturing: 2006 Machine no-06 M/c type: Single jersey Brand name: Lisky Origin: Taiwan Cam Box: 90 Cylinder Dia: 30 Gauge: 20 Needle: 1872 Net wt: 2310 kg Safety rpm: 30 Date of manufacturing: 2006 Machine no-07 M/c type: Single jersey Brand name: Lisky Origin: Taiwan Cam Box: 144 Cylinder Dia: 36 Gauge: 24 Needle: 2712 Net wt: 2850 kg Safety rpm: 25 Date of manufacturing: 2006 Machine no-08 M/c type: Single jersey Brand name: Lisky Origin: Taiwan Cam Box: 144 Cylinder Dia: 36 Gauge: 24 Needle: 2712 Net wt: 2850 kg Safety rpm: 25 Date of manufacturing: 2006


Machine no-09 M/c type: Single jersey Brand name: Lisky Origin: Taiwan Cam Box: 144 Cylinder Dia: 36 Gauge: 24 Needle: 2712 Net wt: 2850 kg Safety rpm: 25 Date of manufacturing: 2006 Machine no-10 M/c type: Single jersey Brand name: Lisky Origin: Taiwan Cam Box: 80 Cylinder Dia: 40 Gauge: 18 Needle: 2356 Net wt: 2290 kg Safety rpm: 28 Machine no-11 M/c type: Rib Brand name: Lisky Origin: Taiwan Cam Box: 72 Cylinder Dia: 36 Gauge: 18 Needle: 1800 Net wt: 2310 kg Safety rpm: 28 Date of manufacturing: 2006 Machine no-12 M/c type: Rib Brand name: Lisky Origin: Taiwan Cam Box: 72 Cylinder Dia: 36 Gauge: 18 Needle: 1800 Net wt: 2310 kg


Safety rpm: 28 Date of manufacturing: 2006 Machine no-13 M/c type: Rib Brand name: Lisky Origin: Taiwan Cam Box: 84 Cylinder Dia: 38 Gauge: 18 Needle: 2112 Net wt: 2310 kg Safety rpm: 37 Date of manufacturing: 2006 Machine no-14 M/c type: Rib Brand name: Lisky Origin: Taiwan Cam Box: 80 Cylinder Dia: 40 Gauge: 18 Needle: 2356 Net wt: 2290 kg Safety rpm: 28 Date of manufacturing: 2006 Machine no-15 M/c type: Rib Brand name: Lisky Origin: Taiwan Cam Box: 84 Cylinder Dia: 42 Gauge: 18 Needle: 2376 Net wt: 2310 kg Safety rpm: 28 Date of manufacturing: 2006 Others Machines in Knitting Section: 1. Gray Fabric Inspection M/c Brand: Uzu cloth inspection machine Manufacturer: AATPR INDUSTRY CO.LTD.


Model: UZ – 900-3 Origin: Thailand. 2. Electric Balance for Fabric Weight. 3. Electric Balance for GSM check. Pictures of Knitting Machine of Dk :

Single Jersey Circular Knitting m/c


Rib Circular Knitting m/c DIFFERENT PARTS OF KNITTING MACHINE Creel: Creel is used to place the cone. Feeder: Feeder is used to feed the yarn. Tensioning device: Tensioning device is used to give proper tension to the yarn. VDQ pulley: VDQ pulley is used to control the GSM by controlling the stitch length. Guide: Guide is used to guide the yarn. Sensor: Sensor is used to seen & the machine stops when any problem occurs. Spreader: Spreader is used to spread the knitted fabric before take up roller. Take up roller: Take up roller is used to take up the fabric Fixation feeder: These types of feeder are used in Electrical Auto Striper Knitting Machine to feed the yarn at specific finger. Rethom: These devise are used in Electrical Auto Striper Knitting machine PROCESS FLOW CHART OF KNITTING: Yarn in cone form Feeding the yarn cone in the creel Feeding the yarn in the feeder via trip-tape positive feeding arrangement and device. Knitting Withdraw the rolled fabric and weighting

Tension


Inspection Numbering

RAW MATERIALS USE FOR KNITTING: Type of yarn

Count

Cotton Yarn

16s ,20s, 22s, 24s, 26S, 28S, 30S, 34S, 40S

Polyester Yarn

75D, 100D,150D

Spandex yarn

20D,40D,70D

Grey Mellange (C-90% V-10%)

20S ,22S ,24S, 26S ,30S ,34S

PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton)

24S, 26S, 28S, 30S

CVC

24S, 26S, 28S, 30S

FAULTS, CAUSES & THEIR REMEDIES IN KNITTING: 1. Hole Mark Causes:  Holes are the results of yarn breakage or yarn cracks.  During loop formation the yarn breaks in the rejoin of the needle hook.  If the yarn count is not correct on regarding structure, gauge, course and density.  Badly knot or splicing.  Yarn feeder badly set. Remedies:  Yarn strength must be sufficient to withstand the stretch as well as uniform.  Use proper count of yarn.  Correctly set of yarn feeder.  Knot should be given properly. 2. Needle Mark Causes:  When a needle breaks down then needle mark comes along the fabrics.  If a needle or needle hook is slightly bends then needle mark comes on the fabrics. Remedies:


 Needle should be straight as well as from broken latch. 3. Sinker Mark Causes:  When sinker corrode due to abrasion then some times cannot hold a new loop as a result sinker mark comes.  If sinker head bend then sinker mark comes. Remedies:  Sinker should be changed. 4. Star Causes:  Yarn tension variation during production.  Buckling of the needle latch.  Low G.S.M fabric production. Remedies:  Maintain same Yarn tension during production.  Use good conditioned needles. 5. Drop Stitches Causes:  Defective needle.  If yarn is not properly fed during loop formation i.e. not properly laid on to the needle hook.  Take-down mechanism too loose.  Insufficient yarn tension.  Badly set yarn feeder. Remedies:  Needle should be straight & well.  Proper feeding of yarn during loop formation.  Correct take up of the fabric & correct fabric tension.  Yarn tension should be properly. 6. Oil stain Causes:  When oil lick through the needle trick then it pass on the fabrics and make a line. Remedies:  Ensure that oil does not pass on the fabrics.  Well maintenance as well as proper oiling.


DYEING SECTION Dyeing Machine Specification: Machine no-01 Machine name Origin Capacity Max. working Temperature Max. Liquor Capacity Working Pressure Test pressure Year of Construction

: DILMENLER :Turkiy : 512 kg : 135째C : 10200 liter : 0.35 Mpa : 0.55 Mpa : 2006

Machine no-02 Machine name Origin Capacity Max. working Temperature Max. Liquor Capacity Working Pressure Test pressure Year of Construction

: DILMENLER :Turkiy : 512 kg : 140째C : 10250 liter : 0.35 Mpa : 0.55 Mpa : 2006

Machine no-03 Machine name Origin Capacity Max. working Temperature Max. Liquor Capacity Working Pressure Test pressure Year of Construction

: DILMENLER :Turkiy : 250 kg : 140째C : 6605 liter : 0.35 Mpa : 0.55 Mpa : 2006


Machine no-04 Machine name Origin Capacity Max. working Temperature Max. Liquor Capacity Working Pressure Test pressure Year of Construction Machine No Machine Name (Functional) Brand Name Model Name Country Name Year of Manufacture No of Nozzle Max capacity Loading capacity Max work temp Machine No Machine Name (Functional) Brand Name Model Name Country Name Year of Manufacture No of Nozzle Max capacity Loading capacity Max work temp

: DILMENLER :Turkiy : 250 kg : 140째C : 6605 liter : 0.35 Mpa : 0.55 Mpa : 2006 : 05 : Sample Dyeing Machine : BANGLA : BANGLA : BANGLADESHI : 2003 :

01

:

01

: 20kg : 15-16 kg : 140c : 06 : Sample Dyeing Machine : BANGLA : BANGLA : BANGLADESHI : 2003 : 10 kg : 8kg : 140째c


Machine No Model Machine Name (Functional) Manufacturer’s Name Manufacturing Country Year of Manufacture M/c speed M/c dia Max over feed

: 06 : DNBS-1600 : Squeezing Machine : DONGNAM : KOREA : 2006 : 80 m/min : 62 inch : 20%

Machine No Model Machine Name (Functional) Manufacturer’s Name Manufacturing Country Year of Manufacture Chamber Burner Blower Max width M/c speed Max over feed Max burner temp Min burner temp Prod/shift

: 07 : DNTD-2400 : TENSIONLESS DRYER : DONGNAM : KOREA : 2001 :4 :4 :3 : 119 inch : 55 m/min : 40% : 180°c : 105°c : 8 tons/day

Machine No Model Machine Name (Functional) Manufacturer’s Name Manufacturing Country Year of Manufacture M/c speed M/c speed Max width Min width Max overfeed Min overfeed Prod/shift

: 8 : BM-1004360/PK 11/ FOLDING : Compacting Machine : Tubetex : U .S. A. : 2006 : 60 m/min (max) : 15 m/min (min) : 60inch : 16 inch : 130% : 105% : 12 tons/day

Machine No Machine Name (Functional) Brand Name Model Name Country Name

: 09 : Turning Machine : DONGNAM : DNAT-400 : KOREA


Year of Manufacture

: 2006

Raising m/c - 01(Single drum) Brand name - Lafer Country - Italy Cylinder -1 Drum Speed - 110 Drum Dia - 68 inch Machine Speed - 40 m/min Pile Roller - 12 Counter Pile Roller - 12 Manufacturing Year –2002 Raising m/c-02(Double drum) Brand name – Lafer Country – Italy Cylinder- 2 Drum Speed - 110 Drum Dia - 68 inch Machine Speed - 40 m/min Pile Roller - 24 Counter Pile Roller - 24 Manufacturing Year –2002 Picture of Raising Machine :

No.Of Sueding m/c: 01 Brand name : Lafer Country :Italy Cylinder :1 Raising m/c Company name : SPA Machine Tessili Model : GSI 106 Drum Speed : 110 Drum Dia : 72 inch Machine Speed : 40 m/min Manufacturing Year :2006


Different parts of compacting m/c :

Fig: Feed zone of Compactor

Fig: Delivery zone of Compactor

Control board (computerized) Takeout roller Fig: Tube tex Compactor Machine.

Conveyor belt

GARMENTS General working Procedure of DK TEXTILE LTD. Order Collection Merchandising

Yarn Purchase Knitting Dyeing

Yarn Selection Yarn Quantity Trimmings Print Embroidery


Dying finishing Cutting

Embroidery & Printing

Sewing Finishing Packing Shipment Garments Cutting Section Fabric cutting: The definition of fabric is very complex. In garments industries fabric is cut from lay and spreading accuracy and properly which is termed as fabric cutting. Flow chart of cutting section: Fabric checking Fabric spreading according to the quantity Marker making Cutting Serial given by number sticker Deliver into sewing section Requirements of fabric cutting:  in cutting 

Precession of cut

   

Clean edge Infused edge Consistency Support of the lay

Method of fabric cutting: There are three method of cutting are follows: 1. Manual


 Hand operated scissor. 2. Manually operated power knife      

Straight knife Band knife Round knife Die knife Notcher Drill

3. Computerized    

Knife Laser water knife Plasma torc Spreading Spreading means the smooth laying out of the fabric in superimposed layers of specific length. The cutting marker paper is laid in the top of the fabric layers. The maximum width of the cutting marker constrained by the usable width of the fabric. During spreading number of the plies should be not more than three hundreds. The number of lay depends on the thickness of the fabric and the height of the knife. In DK TEXTILE industry use straight method for spreading .It is the most common method for Bangladeshi garments. Straight method: Every ply is placed according to the marker length. It is most common of the garments are used this type of ply.


Features of Straight knife: 1. Possible to cut pattern pieces directly from the fabric lays. 2. Could be used to cut for higher depth of fabric. 3. High cutting speed. 4. Sharp and heavy corners can be cut. 5. Blade could be sharpened by attached grinding facilities. 6. Blade height 10 to 33cm. 7 .Blade stroke 2.5cm to 4.5cm. . M/C Specification: Auto Spreader (4): M/C No.: 01 Brand Name: Jutex Country: Germany Year of Manufacturing: 2006 M/C No.: 02 Brand Name: Gerber Country: Germany Year of Manufacturing: 2006 M/C No.: 03 Brand Name: Gerber Country: Germany Year of Manufacturing: 2007 M/C No.: 04 Brand Name: Gerber Country: Germany Year of Manufacturing: 2006 Hand Cutter (20): Brand Name: Mack (10) Country: Japan Speed: 3000/3600 Volt: 220 Frequency: 50/60 Hz Phase:1 Blade: Straight bar blade Brand Name: Blue Streak (10) Country: USA Speed: 2850


Volt: 220 Frequency: 50Hz Phase:1 Blade: Straight bar blade Auto Cutter (1): Brand Name: Gerber Country: Germany Sewing Section Sewing Joining the fabric by the use of needle and thread is called sewing. Sewing section is the biggest section in a garments industry. It is a universal and widely used method of joining fabric. The main purpose of sewing is to produce seam. Flow chart process of sewing section Receive bundle of various parts from cutting section Place it in the end of the line to a helper Open the bundle Through it to sewing Sewing Finished sewing Inspection Send to finishing section Seam A line along which two or more fabrics are joined by sewing, fusion, and gluing, stapling or alternative method is termed as seam. Usually near edge of sewn fabric pieces. Needle Needle is used to sew the fabric by thread.


Function of Needle • To make a hole in the fabric without damaging the threads of the fabric • To make a needle thread loop. • To pass the needle thread loop through the loop of the lopper thread. Name of Needle used in DK TEXTILE LTD. Machine Name

Needle for m/c

Plain M/c Over lock M/c Flat Lock M/c Button Hole M/c Button attach M/c Computer button attach Kasai Feed of the arm

DB DC UY128 DP x 5 TQ DP x 17 UOX1 TV64\9

Needle Size 7, 9,11,14,18 7, 9, 11, 14 7.9,11,14,16 9, 11, 14 9, 11, 14 9, 11, 14 9, 11, 14 9, 11, 14

Some information for needle: Company Name Origin : Price

: Organ Japan : 10-30TK (Per needle)

Broken needle policy: 1. If any needle breaks down in the time of work then broken part and needle change from needle man with a new needle. 2. If worker do not find out the broken part then worker inform to supervisor. 3. If worker do not find out broke part then the garment will be reject. Because that garment can be contain this broken part. Plan of needle policy: 1. Worker should be carefully in time of sewing. 2. Needle selection should be correct. 3. Correct fabric tension and thread tension. 4. Proper needle setting in sewing machine. Sewing layout of a Men’s T-shirt Join Parts Name Shoulder joining

Machine layout O/L


Rib making

L/S

Neck joining F/L

Tape joining

L/S

Neck tope seam

L/S

Tape tope seam

L/S

Main & size label joining Sleeve joining Arm hole tope seam Side seam

L/S

O/L F/L O/L

Sleeve Tuck Sleeve hem

L/S

F/L

Bottom hem

F/L

Flag label joining

L/S

Finished garments Sewing fault Fault description

Category

Open seam

Major

Raw

material/

shades/ Major


wrong side Oil or Dirt stains

Minor

Holes in material

Major

Measurement out of range

Major

Wrong size label

Major

Missing trim

Major

Wrong trim

Major

Uneven stitch line or parts

Major

Loose / skip stitches

Major

Uncut thread

Minor

SPI not correct

Major

Uneven shoulder length

Major/Minor

Rib shading

Major/Minor

Stripe Mismatch

Major/Minor

Irregular bottom hem

Major/Minor

Wrong Placket shape

Major/Minor

Poor joints

Major/Minor

Raw edges

Major/Minor

Seam Puckering

Major/Minor

Wrong button/Hole Major/Minor placement Uneven sleeve length Major Back neck tape uneven

Major/Minor

Name of sewing m/c: Which are used in sewing section


1. Plain m/c 2. Over lock m/c 3. Flat lock m/c 4. Kansai m/c 5. Chain stitch m/c 6. Vertical m/c 7. Two needle m/c 8. Feed off the Arm m/c 9. Zigzag m/c 10. Bar tack m/c 11. Button Holing m/c 12. Button attach m/c 13. Snap Button attach m/c 14. Eyelate hole m/c Description of this machines are bellow: 1. Plain m/c: Properties:  One needle  Two tensioners  Three guide  One hook  Two thread  One bobbin case  One magnate guide Applications: correctly, bar tacking can help support loads of up to 400 pounds (almost 200 kilograms). Many backpacking companies in particular pride themselves on the number of bar tacks integrated into their products, claiming that they will wear harder and longer than the competition  Bottom hemming  Belt top seem stitch  Belt joint stitch  Loop tack stitch  Pocket joint stitch  Jipper joint  Flap make  Flap top stitch  Flap joint  Fly top stitch  Flap 1/4 stitch  Front rise stitch  Back rise stitch


2 Over lock m/c Overlook stitching was invented by the Merrow Machine Company in 1881. An overlook stitch sews over the edge of one or two pieces of cloth for edging, hemming or seaming. Usually an overlook sewing machine will cut the edges of the cloth as they are fed through (such machines are called ‘sergers’), though some are made without cutters. The inclusion of automated cutters allows overlook machines to create finished seams easily and quickly. Properties:  5 thread  4 tensioner  2 knifes (up / down)  2 needle for 5 thread  1 needle for 3 thread  3 looper for 5 thread  2 looper for 3 thread Applications:  Over lock stitch 3 Bar tack m/c Bar tacking is accomplished by sewing a very tight zigzag stitch across the width of the material. In some cases, the manufacturer may go over the bar tacking again, causing the stitch to have an x-like form. Usually, very strong threads are chosen for bar tacking so that they will stand up to high pressure. When done Applications:  To created barack stitches in garments. Bar tacking is a specialized sewing stitch designed to provide Immense tensile strength to the garment or equipment it is used on. Bar tacking is commonly used on backpacks, tents, tactical gear, and other heavy wear sewn items where normally sewn stitches might give way at a crucial moment. In general, bar tacking is a sign of good quality, although the rest of the product should always be looked over carefully as well. When a sewing pattern calls for bar tacking, it indicates that the designer feels that section of the pattern is a critical area that needs extra reinforcement and following areas it can used.       

Loop attach Fly make Pocket side Front side Back pocketing zipper lay In seem


4. Flat lock m/c  4 tensioner  3 thread  Contain a holder  2 needle Applications:  Zigzag stitch  Knit hemming  Loop making 5. Kansai m/c: kansai sewing machine is suitable for zigzag sewing, embroidery, abutted seam on light and medium material. It has excellent performance ratio and is conveniently arranged. It has bobbin winder integrated in the arm cover with in operator’s view. It is suitable to sew underwear, corset, waist sections of ladies body suits, and swim suits. Properties:  2 needle  4 thread  21 looper point(used two looper depends on distance of stitches)  8 tensioner Applications:  Back yoke stitch  Back belt stitch 6 Chain stitch m/c Chain stitch is a sewing and embroidery technique in which a series of looped stitches form a chain-like pattern. Chain stitch is an ancient craft - examples of surviving Chinese chain stitch embroidery worked in silk thread have been dated to the Warring States period (5th-3rd century BC). Handmade chain stitch embroidery does not require that the needle pass through more than one layer of fabric. For this reason the stitch is an effective surface embellishment near seams on finished fabric. Because chain stitches can form flowing, curved lines, they are used in many surface embroidery styles that mimic "drawing" in thread Properties:  2 needle  2 looper  4 thread  4 tensioner (back 2/front 2) Applications:  Back rise stitch  Back yoke stitch  Top sin ¼ stitch


7 Vertical m/c Properties:  2 thread  1 needle  Contains magnate guide  1 tensioner  Contains a knife Applications:  Pocket making  Flap making  Facing joint with pocketing  All types of round stitches are gives by this m/c. 8. Two needle m/c  2 needle  2 tensioner  2 bobbin  2 thread  1 magnate guide Applications:  Front rise stitch  Side top sin 9. Feed off the Arm m/c Properties:  2 needle  2 Looper  4 thread (Looper 2/needle 2)  Contains T & Magnate guide  3 tensioner Applications:  Back rise stitch  Inseam stitch  Back yoake top sin  Side top sin 10. Button Holing m/c: Buttonholes are holes in fabric which allow buttons to pass through, securing one piece of the fabric to another. The raw edges of a buttonhole are usually finished with stitching. This may be done either by hand or by a sewing machine. Some forms of button, such as a Mandarin button, use a loop of cloth or rope instead of a buttonhole. Properties:  2 thread


 1 needle  2 tensioner  Contains bobbin case, hook & knife Applications:  To attached button in garment 11. Button Attach m/c Properties:  2 thread  1 needle  Contains shoulder, shoulder cap bobbin catching Applications:  To attach button in gt. 12 Snap Button Attach m/c Properties:  Not use any types of thread & needle.  It has button attach stage.  Snap stage has two parts. Applications:  To attach snap button in gts  To attach sub button in gt 13. Eye late Button holing m/c Properties:  3 thread or 4 thread  1 needle  Contains bobbin case  2 lopper  Contains a hammer Applications:  To make eye late hole in gt Finishing Section The process by which unwanted crease and crinkle are removed with the view of increasing smoothness, brightness and beauty of the garments is called pressing. In the garments industries it is called ironing. This process plays an important role to grow attractiveness to the buyers.


Materials used in garment Finishing  Iron                  

Neck board Back board Full board Hand tag Tag pin Tissue paper Al pin Ball pin Elastic clip Hanger Poly bag Size sticker Jucker Gun tap Inner box Muster cartoon box Pp belt Blister

The following are the matters must be inspected during pressing.  Inspected for fused area or fused stain if any.          

Inspected for water spot if any. Inspected for shade variation area if any. Inspected for broken chain or button if any. Inspected for correct folding of garments. Inspected for crinkle area and rough surface if any. Inspected for stretched garments area during pressing if any. Inspected for proper drying of garments after pressing. Inspected for crinkle area and rough surface of pocket if any. Inspected for unexpected crease in lining. Inspected for proper shape.

This is also informed that, the temperature, pressure of pressing head and time during pressing must be inspected


Flow chart of working processes in Finishing Section of Dk textile Ltd. is gives in bellow: Inside quality control (To checked inside of a garments) Get up quality control (To checked all processes of garments making) Ironing (To iron the garments) Measurement checking (To measure all parts of the garments for accuracy) Waistic (To attach Waistic) Button attach (To attach button) Re-ironing (To iron again) Again checking (To check again) Hand tagging (To attach hand tag) Folding / hungering (To folding/hungering according to buyer requirement) Shading (To separate various shade of garments) Packing (To pack in the poly bag) Cartooning (To keep on carton on buyer requirements) Chemical uses to remove spot from garment in finishing section: Fabric spot

Chemical used


1) Dyeing spot -CF 2) Cutting spot Thinner 3) Print spot/ Dirty spot D.D. Max 4) Oil spot-Thinner/powder 5) Sewing spot-Lifter 6) Yellow spot-G. Flux 7) Iron spot-G. Flux=C 8) Thinner: To remove spot like soil spot, color spot, dust and ant spot. 9) Lifter: To remove spot like oil spot, soil spot. 10) Water: To remove some color like, ink color. Packing section Flow chart process of Packing section Receive from finishing section Folding & insert a board, tissue Poly packing Cartooning

Applied costape on the carton pack

Packing completed Cartooning Cartooning is very important every production manufacturing company for final product shipment. Types of carton: 1. DEPEND ON PAPER

: 1. Khaki Carton Or Brown Carton


2. Duplex Carton 3. Box Carton 2. DEPEND ON STITCHING : 1. Stitching Carton 2. Now stitching /Gum Pasting Carton Or Metal Free Carton 3. DEPEND ON PLY

: 1. 3 Ply Carton 2. 5 Ply Carton 3. 7 Ply Carton

4. DEPEND ON LINER 5. DEPEND ON SIZE

: 1. Both Side Liner Carton 2. Out Side Liner Carton : 1. Master Carton 2. Inner Carton

Merchandising: Merchandising refers to the techniques used to sell and buy products. A merchandiser is someone who purchases a product from a manufacturer, and then sells it to buyers. There are numerous techniques that a merchandiser may use to convince buyers to buy the products he or she is selling. The term merchandising is defined as follows: •

The term merchandising related with trade

Trade means buying & selling

The person who is involved with trade, he/she is a merchandiser

And the activities of a merchandiser is known as a merchandising Process flow chart of Merchandising Merchandiser Negotiation with buyer & collect order Costing Sample making Get approval & placement of order


Collect accessories for production Line balancing Production monitoring Inspection Final Inspection Document preparation for banking Shipment Responsibility of senior merchandise •

Sample development

Price negotiation

Order confirmation

L/C opening

Opening summery

Sourcing

Material collection

Production planning

Production monitoring

Quality assurance

Arrange final inspection

Arrange shipment Qualities of Merchandiser

Language skill

Computer skill


Marketing skill

Right consumption knowledge of various goods

Costing knowledge of raw materials

Order getting ability (That is if the merchandiser is known by actual rate of raw materials, so that he can negotiate perfectly with buyer. In this way, the possibility of getting order is hundred percent.)

Sincere& responsible

Hard worker Order Collection

Order Collection is the main theme of a garments factory. DK TEXTILE LTD.Handle this sector. They collect order from different types of buying house. Sometimes the Managing Director visited different country as like France, Germany, and England to collect order for their company. Negotiation with buyer A successful negotiation outcome does not generally occur through luck, but by following a clear process. The process reflects the different levels of knowledge of the subject of negotiation, various parties and the way they communicate at various stages in the negotiation. The following is an outline of steps essential to effective negotiation: Preparation Effective preparation is also vital to successful communication. It is essential that the buyer also has identified the maximum and minimum positions that she will accept for a range of factors including:  product price  order size  Lead- time. Offer The buyer and supplier can make specific proposals to set the boundaries of the negotiation. Counter and revised offers


This is the real bargaining where elements of the order, such as number of units, product details, lead-time and so on are being decided in the context of an overall cost price the buyer should make firm proposals. Sample Development process in apparel Industry: Product Package/Measurement chart Design Sketch Remake Working Pattern Received Comment

Sample Garment Send to buyer If Ok If not Ok Approved sample

Product Package Product Package is known as technical package. A product package is detailed description of garments. It is also called merchandising detailed sheet. By this product package at first the sample of the garment is prepared than after approved the sample the bulk order is produced. In a product package the following information for a garments can be achieve•

Style no of garments

Item description of the garments

Design/Specification of the garments

Measurement list of the garments

Color of the garments

Size of the garments

Packing instruction of the garments

Folding instruction of the garments

Types of sewing thread/types of stitch used in different garment

• Types of accessories and trimmings used for that garment & also the placement of the garment


Instruction for care label

Types of fabric used and the weight of the fabric

Consumption & Construction of the fabric

Another product package Types of sample:

• Fit Sample- The sample which is made by following only the measurement chart. Then the sample we get that is called fit sample. For this type of sample buyer only check the measurement of the apparel nothing else. • Proto type sample- Actual fabric and the accessories used to make this sample then it is send to the buyer. It is only of one size like “M”. • Size set sample- When all size of sample (small, medium, large) are included in a set those sample is called is size set sample. • Production Sample- During production some of the sample garments collect from the production line then it send to the buyer these are called production sample. • Shipment Sample- After final inspection when we shipment the goods to buyer destination two pieces sample should be send to buyer air as advanced this sample are called shipment sample. •

Approved sample- The sample which is approved by buyer.

• Sample garment- The garment which represent the huge quantity of garment that is called sample garment. Marker making: Marker is a thin paper where all parts of a (or more than one) style drawn by placing pattern by pencil and then it place upon the lay and cut along the drawing line is called marker. The process of marker making is called marker making. The method is available in DK TEXTILE industry• Manual method DK TEXTILE used only Manual method to make a marker. Awareness during Marker Making:


       

Pattern alignment Pattern direction Parts missing Mismatched checked/ stripes Over lapping Marker too wide than fabric Poor Or double line marking When pattern pieces are laid down on the layer of fabric, the grain line should be parallel to the line of the warp in a knit fabric where pattern pieces are laid across the layer’s the line is kept parallel to course Problems of marker making:

There are many problems behind this. They are as follow: 1. The nature of the fabric and desired shape and style of the garments. 2. The requirements of quality of cutting. 3. The requirements of production planning L/C (Letter of Credit) Various types of L.C. are present in business system. Some recognized processes are

1) Master L/C 2) Back to Back L/C 3) Sight L/C 4.) Revocable L/C 5.) Irrevocable L/C

(Note: in Bangladesh sight L/ c OR irrevocable L/ c is mainly used)

 Master L/C: In this trade initially cash money is not used. L. c is the main process for buying & selling. When a business deal is made for buying & selling between buyer & merchandiser then the buyer gives permission to his bank to open an L.C. of approx amount & send it to merchandiser’s bank. Then this bank informed to merchandiser that an L.C. is accepted. This l .c is called MASTER L.C. 

Back to Back L/C: MERCHANDISER takes decision about the manufacturer for collecting raw materials .when merchandiser choose supplier then he tell the supplier to


send a pro-forma invoice. After getting p .I. merchandiser tell to his bank to open an l .c send to the supplier’s bank. This l. c is opened from mother l .c which is given to merchandiser. This l .c is called back to back or b to b l.c. ďƒ˜ Sight L/C: Sight L/C means that payment is made immediately to the beneficiary/seller/exporter upon presentation of the correct documents in the required time frame. Chapter – 4 Raw Materials Raw materials for DK Garments: It has big Raw materials store room, contains difference types materials electrical and machinery accessories. Mainly it two sections such types of section are 1. Technical store : It contains various types electrical , machinery & materials which supply in many section of garments ,such as

i. Various types of sewing m/c and their parts such as


a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o.

Guide Zipper guide Feed dog Folder Guard Looper Attachment sate Bobbin Bobbin case Bobbin winter Shuttle Shuttle carrier Belt Machine pulley Clamp

p. q. r. s. t. u. v. w. x. y. z.

Hand glove Knife Blade Roller cover Needle Pressure feed Paty Rotary hook Finger Screw Spring

ii. Thread sucker m/c iii. iv. v. vi.

Electrical instruments Various types of iron m/c Boiler Gas cylinder

2. General store types material contain such as: i. ii. iii.

Various types of record file Khata Pen


iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. xii. xiii. xiv.

Pencil Rubber Seffner Tape adhesive Scale Compass Eraser Pattern paper Marke many types of fabric accessories are used in DK garments, which are below-

1. Thread 2. Button 3. Jipper 4. Fuse 5. Hook 6. Clip 7. Elastic 8. Hanger 9. Poly 10. Hand take 11. Main Level 12. Jucker level etc. Sticker Self Adhesive Pape

Brand Name :

Wisdom gold

Place of Origin :

China

Related Keywords : sticker , self adhesive paper , adhesive paper , stickers

Clothes Hanger,T-Shirt Hanger


2012 Buttonhole Elastic Tape

Brand Name :

Dongxing or CUSTOMERIZED

Place of Origin :

China

Color :

all color are available

Material :

Polyester

Usage :

Garments

Width :

0.5~50cm

Nylon Zipper

Brand Name : whh Place of Origin : China Material : PVC Type : Long Chain Length: : per customers request


Paper Label

Model LB-02 Number : Place of China Origin : Related Keywords : prointing card , flyer printing , notebook , brochure/booklet Pattern making tools     

Pattern paper Stright pins Stright pins holder Scissors Pens

           

Pencils Rullers Curve rules Hanger hooks Push pins Magic mend scotch Black twilltape Notcher Tracing wheel Awl Metal weight Measuring tape Cutting Tools name  Hand operated scissor.


     

Straight knife Band knife Round knife Die knife Notcher Drill

 Knife  Laser  water knife Plasma torch Materials used in garment Finishing  Iron  Neck board  Back board  Full board  Hand tag  Tag pin  Tissue paper  Al pin  Ball pin  Elastic clip  Hanger  Poly bag  Size sticker  Jucker  Gun tap  Inner box  Muster cartoon box  Pp belt  Blister Raw materials for dyeing: Raw materials used in the dyeing section are: 1. Grey fabrics 2. Dyes 3. Chemicals. Type: A. Grey Fabrics: Single Jersey


Single Lacoast Double Lacoast Double Jersey or Heavy Jersey Plain Interlock Needle Top Interlock 1x1 Rib 2x1 Rib 2x2 Rib Lycra Rib Very Rib Loop Back Fleece Fabric Fleece Terry Lycra Fleece French Terry Plated Fabric Lycra Single Jersey Polo PK CVC PC B. Dyes: Commonly Used Dyes: Serial No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Brand Name Dy. Red 3BXF Dy.Yellow 3RXF Dy. Red 6BXF Dy. Yellow 4GL Dy. Orrange 2RXF Dy. Black GR Dy. Yellow ER Dy. Red 2BXF Dy. Blue 3RXF Dy. Navy Blue EC Dy. Yellow MXD4R Cibacron Dk. Blue WR Cibacron Deep Red S-B Cibacron Red S-2B Cibacron Yellow S-3R Cibacron Super Black-R Simifix Blue R-SPL

Country of Origin Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore


Chapter # 5


1.

Simifix Blue BRF Sulpher black

Singapore Singapore

2.

Terasil G/Yellow W3R

Singapore

3.

Terasil Blue WBLS

Singapore

4.

Terasil Red WFS

Singapore

5.

Terasil Violet bl-01 150%

Singapore

6.

Terasil Red WRS

Singapore

7.

Terasil Yellow W4G

Singapore

8.

Terasil Yellow W6GS

Singapore

9.

Terasil Red FBN conc.

Singapore

10.

Terasil Navy WRS

Singapore

11.

Bezactive Yellow S-MAX

Switzerland

12.

Bezactive Blue S-MAX

Switzerland

13.

Bezactive Black S-MAX

Switzerland

14.

Bezactive Red S2B

Switzerland

15.

Bezactive Orange SRL

Switzerland

16.

Bezactive Blue S-GLD

Switzerland

17.

Bezactive Red S3B

Switzerland

18.

Bezactive Yellow S3R

Switzerland

19.

Bezactive Cosmos S-MAX

Switzerland

20.

Remazol Blue RR

Germany

21.

Remazol Red RR

Germany

22.

Remazol Orange RR

Germany

23.

Remazol Red RGB

Germany

24.

Remazol Deep Red RGB

Germany

25.

Remazol Orange RGB

Germany

26.

Remazol Blue BB New

Germany

27.

Remazol Blue RSPL

Germany

28.

Remazol Yellow 3GL

Germany


Production Planning, Sequence & OperationSource of Raw Materials: Grey fabric is collected from Dk Textile Ltd Dyes & Chemicals are imported from Germany, Switzerland, Singapore, Turkey, India and China etc. Remarks: Price & Monthly consumption are unavailable. Basic procedure of Production Planning and Control: A planned work brings success. Without planning nothing is complete within the required time. So planning has its own importance which is intolerable. Planning gives a scheduled task and control completes it successfully. But production planning and control is not an easy task. Its basic working procedure is as followsOrder received by marketing division ↓ Analyzing the orders ↓ Planning for knitting ↓ Planning for dyeing ↓ Planning for finishing the fabric ↓ Planning for garments It is only a basic procedure. It may change according to the type of order. Sometimes the order is placed only for finishing the materials. Then some steps are minimizing for planning.  Taking order from marketing division: Marketing division supplied fabric orders to the planning and control division by a specific format.  Analyzing the orders: After getting the fabric order, this section analyzes the orders according to buyers order quantity, type of orders (i.e. type of fabric, color to be dyed etc.), delivery date etc. This section plans for required quantity of fabric to be knitted (order quantity + 10% of the order quantity), knitting balance, fabric to be dyed, dyeing balance, RFD (ready for delivery), RFD balance, delivery fabric & delivery balance etc.  Planning for knitting: This section plans for knitting production. Following parameters are important for the planning of knitting the fabric –


» Order quantity (required amount of fabric to be knitted) » Type of fabric to be knitted (S/J, rib, interlock) » No of machine to be used » Type of yarn used » Sources of yarn » Fabric GSM, width etc.  Planning for dyeing the fabric: Production planning for dyeing is called “Batch plan”. Batch plan is prepared according to the batch no, fabric construction, color, width, GSM and priority of delivery etc and written in a batch card.  Planning for finishing the fabric: Finishing schedule are same as the dyeing. After dyeing, materials go to the finishing section with the batch plan. Finishing data is written to the batch card and is informed to the planning section. However, this section always forces to all the departments to finish all the work within the delivery time given by the buyers. Thus, it plays a very important role in the success of the company.  Planning for Garments: After the finishing process the finished fabrics are ready for producing garments. For the production of garments this fabric has to passed through some process≈ Laying ≈ Cutting ≈ Sorting ≈ Sewing ≈ Finishing ≈ Packing etc. All this processes are planned according to the shipment schedule. However, the planning section always forces to all the departments to finish all the work within the scheduled time given by the buyers. Chapter # 6 QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM Quality Management System:


The Quality Assurance Department is assigned to maintain consistently uniform quality of the material in process and various stages of its manufacturing. Objects of quality control: • • • • • •

Research. Selection of raw materials. Process control. Process development. Product testing. Specification test

Dk Textile Ltd. has a quality policy for quality assurance. The quality policy of Dk Textile Ltd. is to manufacture and export different kinds of high quality readymade garments to its customers. The objective of Dk Textile Ltd. is to attain & enhance customer satisfaction by providing competitive price, on time delivery of contracted quality and quantity of readymade garments with reliability and also to increase efficiency of work force. To attain these objectives the management of Dk Textile Ltd. has decided to adapt the following:

 To create awareness regarding customer’s requirements throughout the organization.  By providing training to develop efficiency/awareness of the employees.  To collect customer feedback regularly to know about their conception about the company and to take appropriate action timely.  To reduce the percentage of rejection/wastage to maximum 2% per annum. Quality control The following three defects should be identify and must made defect three in the quality control section. Sewing defects: a) needle damage, b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i)

skipped stitch, tread drawn off, seam pucker, wrong stitch density, uneven stitch, staggered stitch, defected stitch, oil spot.


Seaming defects: a) Uneven width b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

Uneven seam line Not secured by back stitch Twisting No matching of check or stripe No matching of seam Unexpected materials are attached with the seam Not sewn by matching face side or back side of fabrics Use of wrong stitch type Wrong shade matching of thread

Assembly defects: a) Defected finished components by size b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k)

Imperfect garments size Use of wrong ticket Missing of any parts of garments Imperfect alignment of components Wrong placing Folding Looseness Shade variations False direction of fabric part Imperfect matching of trimming in the garments.

SCOPE OF QUALITY CONTROL, QUALITY ASSURANCE AND TESTING The scope of quality control, quality assurance and testing are good. It has very well ----o Testing Laboratory. o Machine auditing system. o A good training system. o Excellent analytical backup. o Technical expertise. RESPONSIBILITY OF OFF-LINE QUALITY CONTROL To check the following things: • Inspection of fabric in the inspection M/C under 4-point system. • Yarn count and lot no. • Buyer. • Design. • Stitch length of grey fabric. • Shade of grey fabric within one order. RESPONSIBILITY OF ON LINE QUALITY CONTROL


To check the following things: • M/C Dia/Gauge • Buyer • Design • Grey fabric GSN & Stitch Length • Yarn count & Lot no • Yarn whether approved or not by Q.C. Department • Finished dia & grey dia. • Fabric quality checking under 4-point system. RESPONSIBILITY OF IN CHARGE OF QUALITY CONTROL • Making report. • Supervise the grey Q.C. • Check machine is running according to program or not • Check program can meet the requirement. Which is mentioned in the order sheet or not. • Check yarn is approved by Q.C. or not. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE FINISHING Q.C. Finishing Q.C. (shade): • After unloading from dyeing cut small piece, check shade with std/approved lab dip/production sample & previous production batch (if any). • Then instruction to finishing for finish by mentioning specific temperature in dryer. • After finish again cut sample & check same way like before at dry state. • Keep the record of every lot after dry & after finished state. • If any batch is not OK at any stage then make the re-process card for dyeing. • If any batch is closer to standard but not exactly pass with standard, then make trial for that batch in finishing to make it OK. • Maintain the resister of all batches. • Check the shade of Body to Rib, Body to Collar & Cuff. In charge: (1) Supervise the trainee Q.C. & Q.C. (2) Make report every day. (3) Cross check whatever shade already checked by Q.C. Q.C. (Finishing): • Make the R2R continuity of each dye lot by cutting small piece from each roll of dye lot. • Inspect 30-40 % of each dye lot under 4-point inspection system & report accordingly.


If found any problem then re-inspect 100% of that dye lot and make report & reprocess card (if re-process able) for dyeing. If it is knitting faults then immediately inform to officer asking decision. • Check the evenness of a dye lot by checking R2R continuity. • Check the shade of body to rib, body to collar & cuff. In charge: • Monitor the all Q.C.’S (finishing) work including shade Q.C. • Take decision when asking advise from his subordinate. • Make daily problematic batch report. • Make daily production report. • Maintain resister khata. • Make daily batch re-process job card. RESPONSIBILITY OF QUALITY ASSURANCE MANAGER: (1) Responsible for all quality matter of fabric. (2) Yarn selection. (3) Monitoring product development. (4) Organize Laboratory. (5) Control grey and finished fabric inspection under 4- point inspection system. (6) Documentation after shade check of every lot. Chapter – 7 Maintenance Maintenance: Maintenance is a procedure by which we can maintain active functioning in operation according to the behavior and utility of a particular element. In engineering, we use this terminology for maintaining smooth and uninterrupted performance of machines, tools and metallurgical characteristics in practical uses.

Objective of maintenance: ♦ To keep the factory plants, equipments, machine tools in an optimum working condition. ♦ To ensure specified accuracy to product and time schedule of delivery to customer. ♦ To keep the downtime of machines to the minimum thuds to have control over the production program. ♦ To keep the production cycle within the stipulated range. ♦ To modify the machine tools to meet the need for production. Three types of maintenance are performed in Mymun & Hamza Textiles.


1. Preventive Maintenance. 2. Routine/ Schedule Maintenance. 3. Breakdown Maintenance. 1. Preventive Maintenance: Actions performed periodically (or continuously) prior to functional failure to achieve the desired level of safety and reliability for an item. These actions are performed to prevent or reduce consequences of failures. 2. Schedule maintenance: It is time-based maintenance and pre-planned to perform on machine and equipments. This plan usually made on monthly basis. 3. Breakdown maintenance: In this type of maintenance when the machine remains stop that time the maintenance is done. Maintenance Tools, Equipments & their functions: Name of Tools Hammer Slide Wrench Spanner Pliar Hacksaw Pipe Wrench Chesel File Clamp Vice

Function To give shape Tightening and opening bolt Tightening and opening bolt Cutting, Holding, Joining, wire, Gripping Cutting Tightening, opening, gripping pipe Shaping, Cutting Shaping Gripping

Name of Equipments Grinding m/c Cutting m/c Drill m/c Shaping m/c Lathe m/c Bending m/c

Function Grinding Cutting Drilling Shaping To make something Bending

Maintenance Procedure: Preventive Maintenance: They always follow preventive maintenance. Breakdown Maintenance: When a problem occurred the operator informed the supervisor, then the supervisor informed the production officer, then the production officer called the maintenance officer. The maintenance officer visits the problem and takes necessary steps to solve the problem. Flow chart of maintenance


Problem occurred Operator Supervisor Production officer Maintenance officer Solution Remarks: Their maintenance procedure is very good & effective as a result they have a good efficiency. Chapter – 8 Utility Service Utility Services Utility facilities available: The following utility facilities are available in Dk Textile Ltd.     

Gas Electricity Water Steam Compressed Air

Generator house The list of machine: 1. Generator • Gas Generator Brand name : Gauscor 952 kwt * Diesel Generator Brand name: parkings 452 kwt 2. Panel 3. Distribution Board 4. Generator Control Panel 1. Generator:

2

3 3 1


To generate the power (volts & amps) for every section in the Factory. 2. Panel: To store the power (volts & amps) from the generator for every section in the factory. There are two types of panel: ďƒ˜ PFI (Power Factor Improvement) panel ďƒ˜ LT panel PFI panel: To store the power (volts & amps) from the generator for the boiler house, finishing section & dyeing section in the factory. Supply AC current. 4 Amps & 400 volts. LT panel: To store the power (volts & amps) from the generator for the boiler house, finishing section & dyeing section in the factory. According there need. Supply AC current. 4 Amps & 400 volts. 3. Distribution: To supply the power (volts & amps) for the light, AC, fan etc in the different section. Supply AC current. 4 Amps & 400 volts.

Diesel Generat

Gas Generator


Boiler house Boiler: The equipment used for producing steam from water is called steam generator or boiler. The boiler used for producing steam in Dk is Cochran boiler which is a fire tube type boiler. This produced steam is supplied by the steam line in different section. Simple vertical boiler of fire tube type is mainly used in small plant requiring small quantity of steam and where floor area is limited. Classification of boilers : 1) Fire – tube boiler( gas ) : Low pressure , low running cost , less chance of busting but greater risk of damage . 2) Water – tube boiler : High pressure , high running cost , high chance of bursting & don’t damage the whole boiler . As this factory used fire tube boiler’s and its description is given below. In boiler house , steam is produced at high temperature and pressure . This produced steam is supplied by the steam line in different section . Uses : Steam use for –    

Power generation ( steam engine / turbine ) . Processing in industries ( dyeing & finishing mill , sugar mill , paper mill etc. ). Heating purposes ( houses , offices , hospitals etc in cold countries ). Hot water supply .

Essentials of a good boiler :  Required pressure and quality at minimum fuel .  Initial installation and maintenance cost low .  Parts approachable for repairs .  Quick starting capacity . Conform to the safely regulations of boiler act . Cross-sectional diagram of boiler :

Hot water tank


Steam Chimney

Softener Steam receiver Feeding motor Gas line Dosing tank Flue pipe

Compressor

Spark unit Combustion chamber

Flue tube

Fig: Cross-sectional diagram of Fire Tube Boiler Working principle : The gas is fed through the front side to the furnace where fire created by electric spark . The blower move the fire into the flue pipe by compress air and then the flue gases enter through the combustion chamber which is lined with fire bricks on the outer wall of boiler. The hot gases passing through the horizontal smoke tubes give their heat to the water and convert water into steam. This steam gets accumulated in the upper portion of shell from where it can be supplied to the users. Finally, the flue gases are discharged to the atmosphere through the smoke box and chimney. Feed water tank

Gas

Burner

Boiler

Steam

Blower


Factory house

Figure: Steam procedure mechanism This list of machine: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Boiler Hot water tank1 Condense pump Feed pump Steam receiver Compressor Chemical dosing tank Water softener vessel

2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

Hot water tank: Condense water receive in to the hot water tank. That's mean condense water which produce water from the steam line. Condense pump: The hot water transfer in to the feed water tank with the help of condense pump. Feed pump: The hot water transfer in to the boiler with the help of feed pump. Produced steam in to the boiler. Steam receiver: Supply steam in to the different line. Suppose have any problem in Sclavos line then we can also running the other lines. Chemical dosing tank: Chemical is used to no scale form in to the boiler. The list of machineries: 1. Two Boilers 2. Boiler water softener plant 3. De-alkalize 4. Four Condensed pump 5. One hot water tank 6. One water feed tank. Boiler No : Machine Name (Functional) :

01 Steam Generate


Boiler Type Brand Name Manufacturer's Name Year of Manufacture Country Name Test pressure Maxm Steam

: : : : : : :

Fire -tube IBL Industrial Boiler 2006 India 20 5 ton per hr

IBL Industrial Boiler Boiler No Machine Name (Functional) Boiler Type Brand Name Manufacturer's Name Year of Manufacture Country Name Test pressure Maxm Steam

: : : : : : : : :

02 Steam Generate Fire -tube Long Choang 2010 Taiwan 20 5.4 ton per hr


Long Choang Boiler WATER TREATMENT PLANT There are two deep tubeweel by the two side of the treatment plant. There are also two submersible pumps in the deep tubeweel one is 100 ft deep and another is 140 ft deep. The submersible pump transfer raw water in the water tank by creates force. The formation of oxidation of the water by showering with the help of another two pimps in the water tank. Iron content removes by the oxidation. Two circular transfer raw water in the (vessel no-1) Multigrade filter unit. The large size plastic, iron that means solid content are removed in the multigrade filter unit. The water is transferred to the (vessel No-2) Activated carbon filter unit. In the (vessel No-2) Activated carbon unit to remove chlorine that means bad smell. The water then transfer in to the (vessel No-3) softener unit from the activated carbon unit at the presence of cationic resin (Zeolite) is reacted with water to remove the hardness of water. The water is transferred in to the reserve tank from the softener unit. The soft water is supplied from the reserve tank by the 7 Boosting pump in the different section of the factory. The back wash & regeneration process: The back wash process to clean the vessel no-1,2 & 3. The back wash process should be done after 8-12hrs. After 40-48 hrs later the regeneration process should be done. It should be done after back wash process. After back wash the common salt dissolved with water in to the STT (salt saturated tank) the solution of common salt is ringing the resin by the injector. The use of 18% salt in the total solution. (Suppose, 5000 lit of solution the amount of salt 600kg). The resin is activated by the salt rising. Here


used cationic resin (NaHSO3). If the PH of the water increase or decrease it should be control by the dosing chemical (Sodium Hypochlorite) from the chemical tank. A

B

C

D

E

Figure: Water treatment plant Where, A=Hard water storage tank B=Stone filter C=Carbon filter D=Resin filter E=Soft water storage tank F= Pump 14.8 Standard water quality for dye house: Minimum standard Color Smell Water hardness PH Value Dissolved solid Inorganic salt Iron (Fe) Manganese (Mn) Copper (Cu) Nitrate (NO3) Nitrite (No2) Chlorine Filterable solids ammonia

Permissible concentration Colorless No bad smell < 50 7-8 Neutral < 150 mg/1 < 500 mg/1 < 0.1 mg/1 < 0.01 mg/1 < 0.005 mg/1 < 50 mg/1 < 5 mg/1 <0.i mg/1 < 50 mg/1 < 0.5 mg/1

Hardness check: The hardness should be checked after every 6 hrs. It should be checked by the hardness test kits. The using hardness test kits are Hanna Instrument. Made in Italy. If the hardness is going to be 0.5 on the syringe scale. Then have to do the regeneration process.


The capacity of WTP= 60m3/ hr Effluent Treatment Plant Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) is a plant by which waste water is treated in order to make the waste water environmental friendly. Effluent Treatment makes sure that water releases meet Bangladesh Environmental Association water quality standard. It is very important and essential to keep the environment pollution free. Now a day ETP is the most important term to set a textile industry. Government, Environmental Association and foreign buyers are creating pressure to set ETP in every textile industry. So, to ensure the proper growth of textile sector and pollution free environment every textile industries have to set up an ETP. Details on ETP: There are three effluent treatment plants which are : • Biological treatment plant. Biological treatment plant : This process is mainly build up by using micro-organism. This is Bacteria. Amoeba, and Protozoa. Bacteria are two types, one is Anaerobic & Aerobic. First one is hazardous for our environment and second one is friendly for our environment. In here Bacteria break the bond of harmful chemical by enzyme secretion. As a result harmful chemical converted into environmental friendly. The sludge produces by this process is also used as different functions such as fertilizer, fuel in the brick field. Micro organism is the main raw material for Biological plant: • bacterial • amoeba • protozoa Bacteria : 1. Bacilli 2. Cocci 3. Beggiatoa 4. Spirillum 5. Vitereoeilla Protozoa : • Paramecium caudatum • Euplotes • Coplidium Amoeba : • Rotifiers • Collities


Novcotidia

Process Flow Chart Typical Biological Effluent Treatment Plant

Process: Biological. Capacity: 40 m3 / hour.

Required Chemicals of Biological ETP: 

98% H2S04. Function: Neutralize the waste water by controlling ph. It is auto dispensed in the neutralization tank.

Polyelectrolyte. Function: Used for sedimentation/sludge coagulation and also killing bacteria. [Coagulation in water treatment, the use of chemicals to make suspended solids gather or group together into small flocks.] It is used auto/manually in sludge thickener tank.

Decolourent. Function: Used for removing color. It is used auto/manually in sludge thickener tank.

Anti foaming agent.


Function: Used for reducing/controlling foam. It is used auto/manually in the distribution tank. 

Sodium hypochlorite. Function: It is used to killing harmful bacteria. It is used in the Biological Oxidation tank.

Standard value of effluent by: USEAPA-United State Environmental Protection Agency IWRA-International Water Resources Association GOB-Government of Bangladesh. Tank Clarifier (treated effluent)

Parameter Phosphate, PO4 Ph Color BOD COD Ammonia, NH3 Nitrate, NO3Nitrate, NO2Sulphate, SO4-2 Chlorine, C12 Chloride, CITotal suspended dissolve solids Total dissolve solids

Unit ppm APHA ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm

Standard value 5 to 14 6 to 8 220 to 250 29 to 60 250 to 300 5 to 10 10 to 15 Less than 1 1000 1 500 to 600 60 to 80 2100

Functions of different unit of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) Screening unit: It works like a filter. By filtering waste water it removes  ♦ Threads ♦ Pieces of fabrics ♦ Small metal pieces etc. In this unit a rotating brush is used for cleaning the pores of screen. A motor is used here for rotating the brush. The brush rotates periodically. 1.

2. 3. 4.

Storage and Homogenization tank: Different waste water from various processes is stored and makes a homogeneous mixture by mixing different concentric waste water. Neutralization tank: Neutralization of waste water is performed by dosing 98% H2S04 as required to control the ph of waste water. PH range : 6.5 to 7.5.


5.

Distribution tank: It distributes the water to the biological oxidation tank. Continuous aeration is supplied here. Antifoam is dosed here to control the foaming in the oxidation tank.

6.

Biological oxidation tank: It is the heart of ETP. The entire harmful chemicals are damaged here by breaking their bonds. This is done by bacteria. To ensure the proper functional work & growth of bacteria few conditions must be maintain. Temperature: 350 to 370C PH: Maximum 7.5 Dissolved oxygen: 4 ppm [Dissolved Oxygen-a measure of the oxygen dissolved in water expressed in milligrams per liter.]

7.

Sedimentation/Biological feeding tank: Treated water is overflowed here from oxidation tank. Decolourent is used here to destroy the color of waste water.

8.

Clarifier: Settling tank, sedimentation basin. A tank or basin in which waste water is held for a period of time, during which the heavier solids settle to the bottom and the lighter material will float to the water surface. In this tank sludge is immersed and the harmless water is discharged to drain on ponds, land, river, Lake Etc.

9.

Sludge thickener tank: Sludge is taken here from clarifier. Polyelectrolyte is dosed to coagulate the sludge. After one hour of polyelectrolyte dosing aeration is stopped and fresh water discharge to drain when sludge is thicken. The thickened sludge is transferred to the sludge thickener bed.

10.

Sludge thickener tank: Here sludge is dried which is used as good fertilizer as well as fuel of brick field. Sludge is dried under the sunlight. Aeration: The process of adding air to water. In waste water treatment, air is added to freshen waste water and to keep solids in suspension. Remarks: Utility service is sufficient to run this project. More projects can be run by the existing Utility services.


Picture of E.T.P Plant Chapter – 9 Store & Inventory Control Store: Yarn Store Imported Yarn: Yarn name: Nhar, ST, GDM, Moloya, RSWN Simpatara

Count 24, 30, 34,

Country Sudan

40(Single PC) Thailand


CBC, PC, Cotton

30, 32, 40(Combed) Bangladesh

Gulsan, Gulisstan

28, 30, 34(Combed) Pakistan

Lycra

20, 40

Information that mentioned on the Sack of imported yarn: 1. Brand name 2. Gross weight 3. Net weight 4. Count of yarn 5. Lot number Knitting Store\Grey store: Capacity of knitting store Garments Accessories store: No. of worker :

9

Name of some accessories 1. Sewing thread 2. Button 3. Eyelet button 4. Zipper 5. Interlining • Fusible • Sewing 5. Lining 4. Label 6. Lace a. Main label b. Care label c. Size label d. Price label d. Flag label 5. Motif 6. Neck board 7. Back board 8. Plastic collar insert

=500 tone

Korea


9. Hang tag 10. Price ticket 11. Tissue paper 12. Poly bag 13. Dosting 14. EMB 15. Elastic 16. Shoulder tape 16. Tag pin 17. Blister bag Fabric dyeing chemical store: Uses chemical: 1. OSR 100 2. PCLF 3.2UD 4. SOF 5. HDL 160 6. Caustic soda 7. Per oxide 8. OSR 9. Acetic acid 10. 11. Ciba 窶田 12. RLC 13. Enzyme 14. Salt 15. Soda ash 16. E2R 17. RSK 18. CPX 19. SUN 20. 4BK 21. CWS 22. KWL 23. HTS Warning in chemical store : High danger dyes and chemicals for human and others: 1. Caustic soda 2. Per oxide -50%

SAF


3. Hydrose Medium danger dyes and chemicals for human and others: 1. Acetic acid 2. Alkaline CW5 3. Cibacel DBC 4. Ciba fluid C 5. Sandoclen PCLF 6. Sirriz 2UD 7. Antimossal HTS 8. Ceramine KWL 9. Denemax-9992 10. Oplavon ASVU 11. Ladiaust 1097U 12. Stabilizer SOF 13. Hydrocol SUN 14. Baranal –W 15. Sandoper MET 16. Invetex PC 17. Mollan -130 Low danger dyes and chemicals for human and others: 1. Soda ash 2. Ciba yellow FN2R 3. Ciba Red FNR 4. Ciba blue FNR 5. Ciba blue FNG 6. Ciba orange HR 7. Ciba deep red RGB 8. Rema yellow RR 9. Rema red RR 10. Rema blue RR 11. Ryno red MEBL 12. Ryno G yellow ME2RL 13. Ryno orange ME2RL 14. Ryno black HFGR 15. Ryno yellow WR 16. Ryno navy WB 17. Polo yellow 3RS 18. Polo red 3BS 19. Polo black B 20. Polo blue R(SPL) 21. Polo black GR 22. Polo T blue G 23. Polo yellow 4GL


24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

Uvitex BHT Uvitex BBT Utrapor BN Mega white CO Glober salt

Frequently inventory control:  Monthly inventory control.  Annual inventory control. The type of inventory carried in this mill is as follows:     

Grey Fabric: Imported/Own factory. Dyes and Chemicals: Imported. Spare parts and Consumables: Local/Imported. Packing materials: Local/Imported. Finished fabrics: Good/Reject.

The prime responsibility for the inventory management function in the company including the estimation of consumption quantities of raw materials over the forecast period and initiation of a purchase requisition keeping in view quantities is transit and an order and the adequacy as otherwise of material coverage during lead time is as follows: The Procurement Department is responsible primarily for the sourcing of raw material. The flow chart of requisition of raw materials is as follows: Factory requisition Audit Department Commercial Local

Import Factory

External

Accessory

Internal

Dyes/chemicals Yarn

Grey fabrics

Finished fabrics

Finished store


Inventory system of Raw materials:  Grey fabric is stored in the Grey store. The batch is prepared by taking Grey fabrics from Grey store.  There is a separate store for Dyes & Chemicals. Various types of Dyes &  Chemicals are stored here according to company's storing criteria. The operator takes Dyes & Chemicals from this store according to Recipe Sheet. Inventory system of Finished Goods: They do not store finished fabric. They make delivery of finished fabric to Garments just after completion of finishing. They only store some rejected fabrics. Store Capacity: Item Dyes Chemicals Grey fabrics Set range of dyes Set range of chemicals

Amount Data not delivered For factory Privacy.

Remarks: Inventory management is good & satisfactory. Chapter - 10 Cost analysis 1. Costing of the product: Costing system mainly describes how the cost of the final product is fixed by the company/beneficial. According to buyer/ customers requirement at first the fabric is collected from local and foreign suppliers. Then it is calculated how much dyes and chemical is required to the end of the processing of that specific fabric. After that, the final cost is fixed including labour cost, utility cost and some profit. Then the unit price is offered to the buyer for their approval. 2. Costing of the product is done by the consideration of the following factors: ♦ Amount raw materials consumed. ♦ Direct Labour. ♦ Indirect Labour.


♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Factory Cost. Officer and administrative cost. Sales and distribution cost. Profit, etc.

Remarks: The costing of product is a confidential fact of an industry. They have some marketing policies of their own. For their business purpose no industry delivered their costing to other, except marketing employee. So I could not collect the price of product and costing of the product. CHAPTER – 11 MARKKETING ACTIVITIES Percentage of Buyers Work: 01) Terranova 02) Ivory 03) Bershka 04) Zara 05) Texiboo 06) Donnay 07) Heritage 08) Kik Textillien 09) Van Dillen Asia Tex 10) Others Importing Countries: ♦ Germany ♦ Switzerland ♦ Turkey ♦ Singapore ♦ China ♦ India Exporting Countries: ♦ European Countries. ♦ USA. ♦ Canada. Marketing Information:

15% 10% 10% 12% 10% 05% 10% 10% 10% 08%


The declining retail sales and the losses shows by big retailer's worldwide and consequent drop in order in the worldwide garment industry proved to be a major challenge to our marketing efforts and strategy. The very fact that in spite of the factors mentioned earlier MTL maintained more or less the sales of last year showing a fall on only 3.32% is a credit to their marketing. In an uncertain world market, MTL doubled their efforts with our design team leading the way; they increased their calls as the customers & looked for ways to add new ones also. Having established a strong relationship with H & M and becoming one of their core suppliers, MTL targeted Europe & Australia also and made in roads there. MTL added new and dynamic designers to the existing team & can proudly say that their spring and autumn collections were hailed as some of the best to be presented. These meetings boosted the confidence of existing buyers and attracted new customers. MTL continued with their strategy to market value added products like dyed fabrics with special finishes. This is reflected in the increase in average price per linear meter. MTL now in a strong position to take on the challenge of WTO in the end of 2004 when quotes will be abolished and only those company's with a reputation for innovative, creativity and reliability and the ones having strong strategic relationships and business alliances will survive and benefit. Buyer's Compliance: The factory is full compliance with ILO and Bangladesh Labour Law. Their company policy is as follows: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

No child labour. No forced labour. Transport facilities for worker. Hours of work. Voluntary over time. Intervals for rest. Weekly holidays. Annual leave. Festival holidays & leaves with bonus. Maternity protection. Worker's welfare committee. Mineral drinking water. Sanitary facilities. First aid box. Canteen services. Day care center. Health care activities for the worker & employ company doctor. Fire extinguisher each & every floor & conduct fire drill at least 12 times a year. We are giving a top priority on prevention of fire and eventual evacuation. ♦ Other safety department (no discrimination). ♦ Compensation cases department.


♦ The development of compliance programmer. ♦ Environmental developer. ♦ Smoking free zone. Remarks: Marketing activities of this factory is very competitive & satisfactory. CHAPTER – 12 CONCLUSION Conclusion We have completed our Industrial Training successfully by the grace of Allah. Industrial Attachment sends us to the expected destiny of practical life. DK TEXTILE is a well know factory in the textile field of Bangladesh. The completion of the two months industrial attachment at DK TEXTILE gave us the inspiration that factory is one of the appropriate destiny to implement the theoretical knowledge. From this industrial attachment we got the details idea about the factory environment, production process, total management, store & inventory process, maintenance, utility etc. DK TEXTILE are well equipped and the working environment is excellent. The relation between top management to bottom level is so nice. We are lucky to get the opportunity of having training in this mill. The factory runs by a number of efficient Textile Engineers, Skilled technical & Nontechnical persons. All the Textile Engineers, technical & Non-technical persons are very sincere, cooperative and helpful. We wish good luck of them and also for this factory. It was really a productive practical learning besides our four year academics, so we wish we will be able to implement our learning and methodological knowledge successfully in the textile industry and the betterment of the economy of our country.


Millions discover their favorite reads on issuu every month.

Give your content the digital home it deserves. Get it to any device in seconds.