Industrial Attachment on Zaara Composite Textile Ltd. Project description general information about the factory Name of the Factory Owner of the Factory Status Location of the Mill Head office
: Zaara Composite Textiles Ltd. : Md. Badrul Hasan : Private Ltd. Company. : Surabari, Kashimpur, Gazipur. :House #05, Road#10, Sector-4, Uttara Model Town, Dhaka-1230, Tell: 88-02-8915038, 88-02-8917750., Fax: 880-02-8915805, E-mail: email@example.com. :web: 2003www.zaaracompostie.net. Manufacturing & Marketing of high quality
knitted fabric. :
Nature of Businesses
:Industries of 100% Export oriented Composite Textile. Garments & garments accessories.
Vision: Building true marketing, innovative vision, and strong revenue based product portfolio, customer satisfaction & understand of global market. Mission: Each of the activities must benefit & add value to the common wealth of our society. We firmly believe that, in the final analysis we are accountable to each of the constituents with whom we interact; namely our employees, our customers, our business associates, our fellow, citizens & our shareholders. Infrastructure: Total Area: 100000 Building Space: 1, 10,000 EXECUTIVE TEAM: professionally skilled, highly educated & technically experts a team of 60 of official. Year turnover: US$0.00-0.00 Million Production capacity:
Knitting Dying Finishing
: 3000 Kg/day : 4000 Kg/day : 4000 Kg/day
LAY OUT OF THE MILL
Knitting Garments & Administration
Compress Air Generator Boiler Turner
Pump mechanical& electrical workshop Dyeing lab Finishing & Dyes Section chemical store
1. Samples resources & development section. 3. Knitting Section.
2. Store Section
5. Dyeing Section.
6. Security Section.
7. Garments section.
8. Marketing Section.
9. Maintenance Section
10. Production planning & control.
PRODCUCT TYPES & VARITIES:
Single Jersey Single Jersey Lycra Single Jersey slob Lactose Pique Terry 1 ×1 Rib 2×2 Rib Lycra Rib Interlock Plane Interlock Lycra Mash Eyelet Collar & Cuff
4. Administration Section.
CHAPTER-2 MANPOWER MANAGEMENT FACTORY ORGANOGRAM
Senior Accountant Maintenance Engineer (Mechanical
Asst. Accountant Security In charge Generator Incharge
General Manager (Knitting Dyeing Finishing)
General Manager (Garments)
General Manager (packaging)
Production Officer Supervisor Store Incharge Fitter man
Q.C. Officer Asst. Q.C. Officer
DYEING & FINISHING SECTION
General Manager SPO
Turning m/c operator
Finishing Incharge Squeezer Dryer Operator Compactor Operator
Lab incharge Helper Helper
SECTIONWISE MANPOWER Section Knitting Section Dyeing & Finishing Section Garments Section Power generator, Boiler & Utility Inventory/Store Keeper Administration Security Others Total
Manpower 53 84 650 29 7 41 33 3 900
Knitting Section: (Both General & Shifting) Department General Manager Manager Production Officer Q.C. Officer Store Keeper Asst. Q.C Supervisor Fitter MAN Sample man Operator Helper Total
Manpower 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 4 1 32 6 53
Batch Selection Section: (Both General & Shifting) Department
Batching In charge
Turning m/c Operator
Dyeing Section: (Both General & Shifting) Department General Manager Same as Knitting G.S.M
SPO PO Supervisor Senior Operator Asst. Operator Helper Total
1 1 2 16 4 16 39
Finishing Section: (Both General & Shifting) Department Manpower Finishing In charge
Squeezer Operator +Helper
Dryer operator+ Helper
Compactor operator+ Helper
Dyeing QC. Lab Manpower Q.C In charge 1 Q.C. Technician 6 Total 7 Power Generator, Boiler & Utility: (Both General & Shifting) Department Mechanical Eng. Electrical Eng. Generator Operator Boiler Operator ETP In charge ETP Operator Water Pump operator Helper Total
Manpower 2 4 4 4 1 2 2 10 29
Store section: (Both General & Shifting) Department Store Keeper (Dyeing) Store Keeper (Knitting) Store Keeper (garments) Total
Manpower 2 1 4 7
Administration: (Both General & Shifting)
Managing Director Director
Computer Operator Clerk
Security: (Both General & Shifting) Department Security In charge Guard Arm force guard Total
Manpower 1 20 12 33
SHIFT CHANGE: • Shift of eight hours. • Shift changes in every week on Friday.
CHAPTER-3 MACHINE DESCRIPTION LAYOUT OF KNITTNG SECTION:
Fabric Inspection M/C
Circular Knitting M/c No.7
Circular Knitting M/c No.6
Circular Knitting M/c No.5
Circular Knitting M/c No.4
Circular Knitting M/c No.3
Circular Knitting M/c No.2
Circular Knitting M/c No.1 Entrance
Flat knitting mcno.5
Circular Knitting M/c No.8
Circular Knitting M/c No.9
Flat knitting mcno.2
Circular Knitting M/c No.10
Production Manager Desk
Circular Knitting M/c No.11
Circular Knitting M/c No.12
Entrance DESCRIPTION OF KNITTING MACHINE:
Knitting division is divided into four sections. 1. Circular Knitting Section. 2. Flat Knitting Section. 3. Inspection section. 4. Store Section 5. 1. Circular Knitting Section: In Zaara composite Textile Ltd, this section contains 12 circular knitting machines of different types and made by same manufactures. In this section body fabrics for knit wears are produced. Specifications of the machines are given below. Type of M/c Brand Origin Model M/c M/C No of m/c Attch. Mach. No Name No Dia Gauge Feeder Qty 1 Year Taiwan IC63 1 With 21â€ł 24 China DM3 Lyora 2 ,, ,, ,, 69 1 ,, 23â€ł 24
3 ,, ,, ,, 4 ,, ,, ,, 5 ,, ,, ,, 6 ,, ,, ,, 7 ,, ,, ,, 8 ,, ,, ,, Rib 9 ,, ,, ,, & 10 ,, ,, ,, Interlock 11 ,, ,, ,, 12 ,, ,, ,, Total knitting section capacity: 3ton/day
24″ 24″ 25″ 24″ 30″ 34″ 34″ 36″ 38″ 40″
24 24 24 24 24 24 18 18 18 18
72 72 75 84 90 102 68 72 76 80
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,
2. Flat Knitting Section (Collar & Cuff): Generally collar & cuff of knitted garments is produced in this section. There are 2 flat knitting machines of the same type. The specifications of these machines are given below: Type M/c Brand Origin Model M/c of No Name No Dia Mach . Collar 1 HZ China HL100″ 626S Collar 2 HZ China HL100″ 626S Zaara Capacity:
M/C No of No of m/c Attch. Gauge fiddle Neddle Qty 15
Collar- 200 Pcs Cuff: 400 Pcs.
3. Fabric Inspection Section: There are one machine is fabric inspection section. Specification of this machine is given below: Type of M/c Brand Origin Model Speed Manufacture Mach. No Name No Turning Date Collar 1 HW TAIWAN HS-125 50 RPM AUG-7/2006 ANG SHIN DESCIRPTION OF BATHING (TURNING MACHINE) • Cross-sectional diagram of turning m/c: Delivery roller (anti-clockwise) Special feature of turning m/c: • Fabric turning face side to back side y cylinder • Rope form delivery by the delivery roller
• Delivery per house= 417 kg. • A large cylinder present • An air blower present. • Working Principle At first, the face sides of the fabrics are placed on cylinder surface and few partitions are entered inside of the cylinder then blower on which pass the fabric inside of the cylinder and turn the fabric. Finally, rope form delivery by delivery roller. LAY OUT OF THE DYEING LABORATORY:
Tumble Dryer M/C
Sample Dyeing M/c
Medical Treatment Section
Lab Incharge Table Sample Dyeing M/C
Tight Box Entry & Exit
Sector Photo Meter Knitting Dyeing Finishing G.M. Dewskt
DESCRIPTION OF DYEING LABORATORY MACHINE: Balcony 1.
Machine Name Machine Function Origin Model
: Spectro-Photometer : Data Color : UK : CE-2180UV
: SDL ATLAS
Machine Name Machine Function Origin Model Manufacturer
: Spectro Dyeing M/C : Sample Dyeing : TAIWAN : LABORATORY : DRAGON MACHINARY CO.ltd.
Machine Name Machine Function Origin Model Manufacturer
: Washing Machine : Fastness Washing : Korea : WF8692NEC SAFETY MARK : SAMSUNG
Machine Name Machine Function Origin Model Manufacturer
: Tumble Dryer Machine : Drying & Shrinkage : UK : 27 : SDL ATLAS
Machine Name Machine Function Origin Model Manufacturer
: Crock Meter : Fastness to Rubbing : UK : M238AA : SDL ATLAS
Machine Name Machine Function Origin Manufacturer
: Verivide : Swatch Matching : U.S.A : Verivide
LAYOUT OF DYEING & FINISHING SECTION
Finishing In charge Desk
Fabric Inspection M/C
Two storied building 1st Floor 1st Floor Ground Floor
Dyeing Lab Dyes & Chemical Store
Dyeing M/C No. 1
Dyeing M/C No. 2
Soft Callender Dryer Tubular
Dyeing M/C No. 3
Dyeing M/C No. 4 Dyeing M/C No. 5 Dyeing M/C No. 6
Dyeing M/C No. 7
Dyeing M/C No. 8
DESCRIPTION OF DYEING MACHINE: Type of Mach.
Model No No
6 7 8
,, ,, High
,, ,, Atta.
Temperature & Pressure Working principle of winch Dying M/C: The winch dyeing m/c is quite simple and serves for all scouring, bleaching, dyeing, washing-off and softening processes. The m/c contains a length of fabric with the ends sewn together, which is compressed to form a continuous rope. This rope passes from the dye bath over two elevated reels and then falls back into the bath. The jockey or fly roller is free running and winch reel is driven and controls the rate of rope transport and the extent of pleating where the rope accumulates below and behind the winch. Both reels extend the full length of the m/c and accommodate several fabric ropes running side by side. A perforated baffle separates the liquor in the front of the m/c from the remainder. This part of the m/c is called 'the salting box'. Both dyes and chemicals are added to salting box during dyeing and gradually mix into the remainder of the solutions. All additions must be made across the full length of the m/c with stirring Heating is by steam injection from a perforated pipe running along the length of the salting box. A heat exchanger present in the m/c absorbs extra vapor/heat to cool the m/c for safety. The m/c is preferably closed to avoid steam and heat losses, particularly when dyeing at or near boiling point. The rate of dyeing is partly controlled by the rate of rope cycling and usually increases with increasing winch speed. So, this is the basic mechanism of winch m/c. Advantages:
• • • •
Easy to m/c operate, batch load and unload system The several numbers of batches can be dyed at a time Knitted fabric can be dyed easily because of less tension on the fabric High speed, high temperature and pressure causes level dyeing of the fabric.
Disadvantages: • Little difficult to maintain uniform heating • Initial investment cost is high DESCRIPTION OF FINISHING MACHING: Sl. No 1
Type Mach. Squeezer
Soft Callender Type of Mach. Compactor Tubular Fabric Inspection Air Turning
Brand Name Fab-con
DBPD2400 (3L,3CH) DNC2 tons/day 1400 Model Capacity No 60 6 tons/day
Sl. No 5 6 7
of Brand Name Dongnam
Model No DNBS14000 _
m/c Qty 1
1000kg / 1 day 1 ton/day 6 tons/day 1 1 m/c Qty 1
10 tons / 1 day 4 tons 1 /day
Working principle Squeezer m/c: The fabric is fed into the machine in a rope form and then it is first de twisted by the detwister. This unit is mounted at the top of the machine. Fabric in rope for goes up into the unit and when it comes down; it takes a uniform cylindrical shape which eases the job of the centering unit, Fabric is then passes through a series of rollers and lastly goes into the squeezing rollers and delivered. This machine has a highest speed of 80 m/min. Removal of excess water: the ideal removal of excess water is 40% If g.s.m before squeezing = 200 and g.s.m after squeezing = 150 22-150 Water remove % = ×100% = 33.33% 150
Then it should increase pressure of squeezing roller. Cross sectional diagram of dryer heating zone: Dongnam gas dryer M/c: Fabric
Dried fabric delivery Chamber – 1
Chamber – 2
Special feature of dryer: Dongnam gas dryer• Gas dryer (two chambers) • Maximum temperature increase up to 200°c • Three conveyor belts are present • Open & tubular both type of fabrics can be dried • Min"1 & Max"1 gas pressure control switch present • Burner air pressure switch present • Vibration occur in heating zone • Two burners are present Working principle of dryer: After dewatering then the fabric goes through the dryer. The main function of the dryer is given below, • To dry the fabric • To control the overfeed system • To control the vibration which increase the G.S.M The speed of the dryer depends on the temperature of the m/c & the G.S.M of the fabric. If the m/c temperature is high then m/c speed also high and the m/c temperature is low then m/c speed also low. The temperature of different chambers according to the shade of the fabric. Special feature of fab-con Compactor:
• Operating system is computerized • Steam bar present which soften the fabric for compacting • In compacting zone, edge & retard roller, compacting shoe and steel plates are present • A pair of pulley present for fabric diameter control • Auto sensor present in conveyor belt • Fabric G.S.M, shrinkage and diameter control Working principle of compactor m/c: This M/C consists of five major parts and these aresShaper: It looks a ladder which straightens the fabric and passing through the pulley. 1.
A pair of pulley: It controls the fabric width according to the buyer's
2. Steam zone: It is given steam on the fabric surface for softness which helps in compacting zone to compact the fabric.
Steam spray on fabric surface 4.
Compacting zone: It consists of edge roller, retard roller, steel plates and compacting shoe. Fabric's shrinkage, finished G.S.M and dia permanent by compacting shoe & edge roller at 95°c. Steel plates remove the crease mark on the fabric surface and retard roller smooth the upper portion of the fabric surface at 95 c. Steel plate
Compacting shoe Fabric Edge roller
Retard roller Fabric delivery
Steel plate 5. Folding Zone: Here fabric folding fan moving to and foe movement
To & foe movement Right side move
Left side move
CHAPTER-4 RAW MATERIALS RAW MATERIALS FOR KNITTING TYPE OF YARN Cotton Spandex Yarn Grey Melange (c-90%, v-10%) Cotton Melange (c-100%)
COUNT 20S,24S,26 S,28 S,30 S,32 S 34 S, 36 S ,40 S 20 D, 40 D 24 S, 26 S,30S 24 S, 26 S,28 S
SOURCE OF YARN FOR KNITTING: Cotton: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Jamuna Spinning. Padma Textile HK Spinning Arif Textile Prime Textile Keya Spinning Shamim Spinning Square Textile. Loyal Spinning.
LYCRA: 1. Elaspan FABRIC TYPES:
Single Jersey I. Single Jersey (Plain) II. Single Lacoste III. Polo pique IV. Mash Double Jersey i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.
1×1 Rib 2×1 Rib 2×2 Rib Lycra Rib Plain Interlock Eylat
Collar & Cuff
i. Plain collar or solid collar. ii. Shaving Collar. iii. Tipping Collar. iv. Tipping Collar v. Race Collar vi. Stripe Collar 4. Different decorative single and double jersey fabric. CHAPTER-5 PRODUCTION PLANNING AND OPERATION MAJOR BUYERS OF ZAARA COMPOSITE TEX. Ltd. 1. TESCO 2. DEBEN 3. HAMS 4. RED HERRING 5. HENLEY COLLAR 6. PRIMARK 7. TRADE UP 8. BILKA 9. ZEEMAN 10. PENNY 11. LAHALLE BASIC
CONTROL: A planned work brings success. With out planning nothing is complete within the required time. So planning has its own importance which is intolerable. Planning gives a scheduled task and control completes it successfully. But production planning and control is not an easy task. Its basic working procedure is as follows• Taking order from marketing division.
• • • •
Analyzing the orders. Planning for knitting the fabric. Planning for dyeing the fabric. Planning for finishing the fabric.
It is only a basic procedure. It may change according to the type of order. Sometimes the order is placed only for finishing the materials or only for dyeing the goods. Then some steps are minimizing for planning. • Taking order from marketing division: Zaara marketing division supplied fabric orders to the planning and control division by a specific format. • Analyzing the orders: After getting the fabric order, this section analyzes the orders according to buyers order quantity, type of orders (i.e. type of fabric, color to be dyed etc.), delivery date etc. This section plans for required quantity of fabric to be knitted (order quantity + 10% of the order quantity), knitting balance, fabric to be dyed, dyeing balance, RFD (ready for delivery), RFD balance, delivery fabric & delivery balance etc. • Planning for knitting: This section plans for knitting production. It selects m/c for knitting the fabric, no of m/c to be used, type of yarn used, from which source yarn will be collected, required GSM, width etc. It also gives delivery date of knitted fabric. • Planning for dyeing the fabric: Production planning for dyeing is called "Batch plan". Batch plan is prepared according to the batch no, fabric construction, color, width, GSM and priority of delivery etc and written in a batch card. • Planning for finishing the fabric: Finishing schedule are same as the dyeing. After dyeing, materials go to the finishing section with the batch plan. Finishing data is written to the batch card and is informed to the planning section. However, this section always forces to all the departments to finish all the work within the delivery time given by the buyers. Thus, it plays a very important role in the success of the company. PRODUCTION PLANNING AND OPERATIONS OF KNITTING DIVISION: Process Definition:
Knitting is the interlocking of one or more yarns through a series of loops. The length wise columns of stitches, corresponding to the warp in woven cloth, are called Wales; the cross wise rows of stitches, corresponding to the filling in woven cloth, are called Courses, Filling Knits (Weft Knits) are those fabrics in which the courses are composed of a single strand of yarn, while warp knits are those in which the Wales are composed of single strand of yarn. Gauge corresponds to the yarn in a woven fabric, and is defined as the number of needles of yarns in half inches of cloth. The higher the gauge, the more compact and finer is the cloth. Description Production Process: In every mill, there maintains a sequences hi production processing. It is also followed in this mill where we were in industrial attachment. The process sequences are in list below: 1) Firstly, knitting manager gets a production shit from the merchandiser as accordance as consumer requirements then he informs or orders production officer about it. 2) Production officer informs technical in charge and knows about machine in which the production will be running. 3) Technical in charge calls for leader of mechanical fitter troops, they two take decision about machine for production considering machine condition, production capacity, maintenance complexity, etc. 4) Production officer with experienced mechanical fitter adjusts required stitch length and grey GSM for required final GSM. 5) Supervisor checks daily production regularity and make operator conscious about finishing tin due time. 6) Operators operate machine in high attention as if there were no faults in the fabrics. If he thinks or sure about any fabric fault, then he calls for the mechanical fitters in duty. Mechanical fitter then fixes it if he can or he informs technical in charge. Then he comes in spot. 7) After required production and final inspection in 4-point system, they sent in dyeing section. Process Requirements: We have already discussed there are basically three kinds of machine which is used to Produce knit fabric and these are: 1) Circular knitting machine (Single Jersey Machines. 2) Circular knitting machine (Double Jersey Machines. 3) Flat knitting machine. Minimum Requirement of production Parameters: For Machine: 1. Machine Diameter 2. Machine rpm (revolution per minute) 3. No. of feeds or feeders hi use 4. Machine Gauge 5. Counter setup 6. Required time (M/C running time) 7. Machine running efficiency
For Yarn: 1. Yarn strength (minimum 13gm/tex) 2. Yarn should be waxed (0.1%-0.3%) 3. Yarn should not dry 4. Right cone angle 5. A tail should be kept during winding 6. Packing density must be maintained For Lycra: 1. Should be good elasticity 2. Yarn should be uniform 3. Elastic recovery 100% Other: 1. Needle oil; should be water soluble 2. Belt 3. Grease 4. Kerosene: etc Considerable Points to Produce Knit Fabrics When a buyer orders for fabric then they mention some points related to production and quality. Before production of knitted fabric, these factors are needed to consider. Those are as follows• Type of Fabric or design of Fabric. • Finished G.S.M. • Yarn count • Types of yarn (combed or carded) • Diameter of the fabric. • Stitch length • Color depth. Methods of Increasing Production: By the following methods the production of knitted fabric can be increased 1. By increasing m/c speed; Higher the m/c speed faster the movement of needle and ultimately production will be increased. But it has to make sure that excess tension is not imposed on yarn because of this high speed. 2. By increasing the number of feeder: If the number of feeder is increased in the circumference of cylinder, then the number of courses will be increased in one revolution at a time. 3. By using machine of higher gauge: The more the machine gauge, the more the production is. So by using machine of higher gauge production can be increased. 4. By imposing automation in the m/c:
a) Quick starting & stopping for efficient driving system. b) Automatic m/c lubrication system for smoother operation. c) Photo electric fabric fault detector. 5. By imposing other developments: 1. Using creel-feeding system. 2. Applying yarn supply through plastic tube that eliminates the possibilities of yarn damage. 3. Using yarn feed control device, Checklist before operation: Operator must be checks the following points prior to operation: 1. Machine condition 2. Power supply and air availability 3. Yarn availability 4. Buyers specification 5. Yarn quality 6. Machine adjusts with given parameter (yarn count, stitch length, GSM. Etc.) 7. Oil inlet clean or not 8. Oil drip meter should be adjusted 9. Door should be closed Safety: Put safety mask during working hours Be cautious while starting the machine. Do not insert hand in the machine while starting operation Do not touch the panel board or love wire in absence of responsible engineer or concerned person. Use proper safety equipment like hand gloves, eye protecting glass, masks etc. during maintenance work. Smocking is strictly prohibited in the floor. Factors that should be changed in case of fabric design on quality change: a) Cam setting b) Set of needle c) Size of loop shape
Production Calculation: 1. Production /Shifting Kg at 100% efficiency. RPM ×No of Feeder × No of Needle × SL (mm)×60×12 = 3527.80×Yarn Count 2. Production /Shift in meter Course/Min
Course /CM RPM×No. of Feeder ×60×12×Efficiency Course /CM ×100
3. Fabric width in Meter: Total no of Wales = Wales /cm×100 Total no of Needles Knitting = Wales /cm×100 CHAPTER-6 PROCESS OF DIFFERENT SECTION KNITTING SECTION: Process flow chart of knitting Yarn in cone form
Feeding the yarn cone in the creel.
Feeding the yarn in the feeder via trip-tape
Positive feeding arrangement and tension device
Withdraw the rolled fabric and weighting
DYEING SECTION BATCHING: FUNCTION OR PUPOSE OF BATCH SECTION: -To receive the grey fabric roll from knitting section or other source. -Turn the grey fabric if require -To prepare the batch of fabric for dyeing according to the following criteria – • Order sheet (Received from buyer) • Dyeing shade (color or white, light or dark) • M/C capacity • M/C available • Type of fabrics (100% cotton, PE, PC, CVC) • Emergency -To send the grey fabric to the dyeing floor with batch Card. -to keep records for every previous dyeing . PROPER BATCHING CRITERIA: -To use maximum capacity of existing dyeing m/c -To minimize the washing time or preparation time & m/c stoppage time. - To keep the no of batch as less as possible for same shade. -To use a particular m/c for dyeing same shade. BATCH MANAGEMENT: Primarily batching is done by dyeing manager taking the above criteria under consideration. Batch section in charge receives this primary batch plan from dyeing manager .some time planning is adjusted according to m/c condition or emergency. PROCEDURE OF LAB DIP: For 100% cotton fabric (all in method) -
• • • •
Fabric weight measured by electric balance. Calculate the recipe. Keep the fabric in the pot. Then required amount of dyes, water, salt, soda and other chemicals are taken to the pot by pipetting. • Start the program for dyeing. The dyeing time and temperature depend on types of dyes being used. Program - 1: For light shade Fixed temp. = 60°c Time = 60 min. Program-2: For dark shade. Fixed temp. = 80°c Time = 60 min. • After finished the dyeing time then cold wash two times. • Acid wash for neutralization. • Then soaping by required soap solution for 10 min. at 95°c. • Cold wash then drying the lab dip and compare with the standard.
Closer 5-10 gm
Lab dip made can be for bulk in three ways:
Reok lab 50-10gm 5-10gm If not 10-30kg If (if Okok) Sample 10-30kg mate 100-200kg Bulk
Amount of salt and soda according to shade % Shade% salt g/l soda g/l <0.2 10 2 0.2-0.5 15 3 0.5-1.0 30 6 1.0-1.0 40 10 2.0-3.0 50 12 3.0-4.0 60 15 4.0-1.0 68 20 Above 80 20 10 PREPARATION AND STORAGE OF STOCK DYES AND CHEMICALS: • Preparation of concentration of stock dye sol according to shade % • Preparation of concentration of stock chemical sol: Shade% <0.004
Stock solution % 0.01
0.004-0.04 0.1 0.04-1.0
• Preparation of concentration of stock chemical sol: Similarly 25% salt and 25% soda stock solutions are prepared in beakers for daily use. Amount of Water: Material in proportion to liquor is counted M: L-1:10 DYES AND CHEMICALS MEASURING
LABORATORY: The amount of dye solution (ml) is calculated as follow – Fabric -weight x Shade % Amount of dye sol" (ml) = Concentration of stock dye sol" % ExampleIn recipe,
Fabric wt. = 5gm Shade % = 2% [if used 0. 5 % stock sol" of dyes] then, 5X2 Amount of dye sol" (ml) =
0.5 The amount of chemical sol" (ml) is measured as follow Fabric wt. M: L G/L Amount of chemical sol’n (ml) =
1000 × Cone, of stock sol%
Example In recipe, Fabric wt. = 5 gm Salt = 20 g/1 M:L =10 [if taken 25% stock sol" of salt] then, 5x10x20 Amount of chemical sol’n (ml) = 1000 x 0.25 DYEING HOUSE:
= 4 ml
KIMSOLINE Jay chem. Name of Chemical used:
1. Wetting + Detergent: kappawet Bos 1. Leveling agent : kappaquest A41 2. Sequestering agent : KAPPANON CL 3. Ant creasing agent : KAPPANON CL 4. Stabilizer : kappazon H53-250 5. Enzyme : kappazyme C94 7. Softener: Cationic Silicon 1. Kappasoff BD 2. Kappasoff SM 8. Acid: Acetic Acid 9. Salt: Glauber’s salt 10. Fixing agent : Kappafi ×GG100 11. Alkali: 1. Caustic soda 2. sada ash 12. Bleaching agent: Hydrogen per oxide (50%) 13. Brightner : OBA Synowhite 4BK 14. Soaping agent: Kappaquest k83 15. Stripping agent: Hydrose
PROCESS FLOW CHART OF DYEING:
Batching turning (fors/I)
Select masculine no
Recipe prepare for dyeing
Recipe confirm by dyeing in charge
Unload DYES AND CHEMICALS MEASUREMENT FORMULA FOR BULK:
Fabric weight Ă—color % 100
Example: In recipe fabric out color
930×0.94 Amount of dyes
100 8 kg 742 gm .
Fabric weight ×water ratio
1000 Example: In recipe Fabric out = 930 kg Water ratio = M: L = 1:6 Detergent (NOF) = 0.6 g/l 930×6×0.6 Amount of chemicals (NOF)
= 1000 = 3 kg 348 gm PROCESS:
Process flow chart for white color on 100% cotton knit fabric. 1. Grey fabric inspection 2. Batching 3. Fabric turning (only for S/J) 4. Fill water at 1:6 5. Fabric Loading 6. Detergent sequestering agent, anti creasing, antifoam stabilizer injects at 500c+5 Min. Run. 7. Caustic Soda Inject at 550c+ 5 Min. Run. 8. H202 dosing, time 10 min+ Temp rise up to 950c+ 60 min Run. 9. Cooling at 800c 10. Rising 1:8, 10 Min Run + Drain. 11. Fill water 1:8+Scouring not at 750c, 10 min Run+ Drain 12. Fill water 1:5+Only wash, 5 min Run+Drain. 13. Fill water 1:5+Acid inject at 500c+ 10 min Run.
14. PH Check (PH Should be 5-5.5)+H 2O2 Killer or alkali materializing agent dosing time 5 min at 500c. 15. Enzyme Dosing, time 5 min at 500c-550c+60 min run. 16. Enzyme hot at 750c, 10 min Run to kill enzyme +Drain. 17. Fill water 1:6+ only wash, 5 min Run+ Drain. 18. Brightening agent dosing time 25 min. at 500c, 10 min Run 600c, 10 min Run 600c, 10 min Run
Depending on the Shade
19. Rising 1:8 to un+ Drain 20. Fill water 1:5+ PH Check, PH Should be (5-5.5) 21. Softener dosing, time 5 min at 400c+20 min run+ Drain 22. Cold Wash 1:6 + Drain 23. Fabric Unload
Process flow chart for Melonge knit fabric: 1. Grey fabric inspection 2. Batching 3. Fabric Turning (only for S/J) 4. Fill water at 1:6 5. Fabric loading
6. Detergent, sequestering agent anti creaser antifoam, stabilizer inject at 500c,+ 5 min run. 7. Caustic Soda inject at 550c,+5 min Run. 8. H202 dosing time 10 min +within this 10 min temp rise 9. After 10 min cutting swatch (If shade ok ther rinsing 1:8, 10 min runt drain) (If shade not ok them temp rise by gradually at 10.c and cutting swatch one after tare ) 10. Fill water 1:8 +Scouring not at shade mixing temp + 10 min run + drain . 11. fill water 1:5 + Acid inject at 50.c + 10 min run 12. PH cheek (PH should be 5-5.5) 13. Enzyme dosing time 5 min at 50-55.c + 60 min run . 14. Enzyme not 750c + 5 min run + Drain 15. Fill water at 1:6 + Only was 5 min run + drain 16. Fill water at 1:5 + PH check (PH should be 5-5.5) 17. Softener dosing time 5 min at 40.c + 20 min run + drain 18. Cold was not + Drain 19. Fabrics unload. Curve for MĂŠlange
Process flow chart for light shade on 100% cotton knit fabric dyeing with reactive dye. 1. Grey fabric inspection 2. Batching 3. Fabric turning (For S/J) 4. Fill water at 1:6 5. Fabric loading 6. Detergent, sequestering agent, anti creasing, antifoaming, Stabilizer inject at so.c = 5 min run . 7. Caustic soda inject at 55.c =5 min run 8. H2O2 dosing time 10 min = temp rise up to 95.c + 60 min run. 9. Cooling at 80.c + Rinsing 1:8 , 10 min run + drain 10. Fill water 1:8 + Scouring not at 75.c 10 min run + Drain 11. Fill water 1:5 + Acid inject at 50.c 10 min run. 12. PH check (PH Should be 5-5.5)+ H2O2 Killer or alkali not ralizer dosing time 5 min at 50.c 13. Enzyme dosing time 5 min at 50.c â€“ ss.c + 60 min run. 14. Enzyme not at 750c 10 min run to kill enzyme + drain. 15. Fill water 1:5 + only wash 5 min run + Drain. 16. Fill water 1:6 + PH check (PH Should be 6-7) 17. Leveling inject at 40.c 5 min run. 18. Color dosing time 20 min at 40.c + 10 min run. 19. Salt dosing time 10 min at 40.c + 10 min run. 20. Soda dosing time 25 min at 40.c + 10 min run.
21. After 10 min sample wetting & shade matching. 22. Time & temperature increase as required to match the Shade. 23. If shade match rinse 1:8 10 min + drain. 24. Fill water 1:5 + Only wash 5 min + drain 25. Fill water 1:5 + Acid (Acetic Acid) inject at 40.c 10 min run + Drain 26. Fill water 1:8 + Detergent inject and temp raise up to 80.c + 10 min run + Drain 27. Fill water 1:5 + only wash 5 min + Drain 28. Fill water 1:5 + PH check (PH Should be 5.5 ) + Softener dosing time 5 min at 40.c + 20 min run + Drain
29. Cold wash 1:6 + Drain 30. Fabric unload Dyeing Curve for light shade:
Process flow chart for medium Shade on 100% cotton knit fabric dyeing with reactive dye: 1. Grey fabric inspection 2. Batching 3. Fabric turning (for s/j) 4. fill water 1:6 5. Fabric loading 6. Detergent, sequestering agent, anti creasing, antifoaming, Stabilizer inject at so.c = 5 min run 7. caustic soda inject at 55.c + 5 min run . 8. H2O2 dosing time 10 min = temp rise up to 95.c + 60 min run . 9. Cooling at 80.c + Rinsing 1:8 , 10 min run + drain 10. Fill water 1:8 + Scouring not at 75.c 10 min run + Drain 11. Fill water 1:5 + Acid inject at 50.c 10 min run . 12. PH check (PH Should be 5-5.5)+ H2O2 Killer or alkali not ralizer dosing time 5 min at 50.c 13. Enzyme dosing time 5 min at 50 -55.c + 60 min run . 14. Enzyme not at 750c 10 min run to kill enzyme + drain . 15. Fill water 1:6 + PH Check (PH Should be 6-7 ) + leveling anti-creasing & sequestering agent inject at 60.c + 5 min run . 16. color dosing time 20 min at 60.c + 10 min run . 17. salt dosing time 10 min at 60.c + 10 min run . 18. Soda dosing time 25 min at 60.c + 10 min run . 19. After 10 min sample wetting& shade matching . 20. Temperature & time increase as required to match the shade
21. If shade match rinsing 1-8 10 min + Drain 22. Fill water 1:5 + Only wash 5 min + Drain 23. Fill water 1:8 + Acid (Acetic Acid) inject at 50.c 10 min run + PH Check (7-9)+ Drain . 24. Fill water 1:8 + Detergent inject and temp rise up to + 10 min run + Drain . 25. Fill water 1:5 + Only wash 5 min + Drain 26. Fill water 1:6 + PH check (PH Should be 5 ) fixing dosing time 10 min + 10 min run + Drain . 27. Rill water 1:5 + PH Check (PH Should be )(5-5.5)+ Softener dosing time 5 min at 40.c + 20 min run .+ Drain 28. Cold wash 1:6 + Drain 29. Fabrics unload.
Dyeing curve for medium shade
Process flow chart for deep shade on 100% cotton knit fabric dyeing with reactive dye: 1. Grey fabric inspection 2. Batching 3. Fabric turning (for s/j)
4. fill water 1:6 5. Fabric loading 6. Detergent, sequestering agent, anti creasing, antifoaming, Stabilizer inject at so.c = 5 min run 7. caustic soda inject at 55.c + 5 min run . 8. H2O2 dosing time 10 min = temp rise up to 95.c + 60 min run .
9. Cooling at 80.c + Rinsing 1:8 , 10 min run + drain
10. Fill water 1:8 + Scouring not at 75.c 10 min run + Drain
11. Fill water 1:5 + Acid inject at 50.c 10 min run . 12. PH check (PH Should be 5-5.5)+ H2O2 Killer or alkali not ralizer dosing time 5 min at 50.c
13. Enzyme dosing time 5 min at 50 -55.c + 60 min run . 14. Enzyme not at 750c 10 min run to kill enzyme + drain . 15. Fill water 1:6 + PH Check (PH Should be 6-7 ) + leveling anti-creasing & sequestering agent inject at 60.c + 5 min run . 16. Color dosing time 20 min at 60.c + 10 min run. 17. Salt dosing time 10 min at 60.c + 10 min run. 18. Soda dosing time 25 min at 60.c + 10 min run. 19. After 10 min sample wetting& shade matching. 20. Temperature & time increase as required to match the
Shade 21. If shade not matching then required toping 22. If Shade match rinsing 1:8, 10 min + Drain 23. Fill water 1:6 + Only wash at 50.c 10 min + Drain 24. Fill water 1-6 + Only wash at 70.c 10 min + Drain 25. Fill water 1:8 + Acid inject at 50.c 10 min run + PH Check (Should be 7-9) + Drain 26. Fill water 1:8 + Detergent inject and temperature rise up To 80.c + 10 min run 27. Rinsing 1:8 10 min + Drain 28. Fill water 1:6 + Only wash 5 min + Drain 29. Fill water 1:6 + Only wash 5 min + Drain 30. Fill water 1:6 + PH Check (5)+ Fixing dosing time 10 min + 10 min run + Drain 31. Fill water 1:6 + PH Check (5-5.5) + Softener dosing time 5 min at 40.c, 20 min run + Drain 32. Cold wash 1:6 + Drain 33. Fabric unload
Dyeing curve for deep shade:
Sample of deep c SOME IMPORTANT FACTOR IN PROCESS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
PH Time Temperature Winch speed Reel speed
Sequence of PH control in the process 1. Scouring (PH Should be 11.5-12.5) 2. Enzyme (PH Should be 5) 3. Leveling (PH Should be 6-7)
4. Dyeing (PH Should be 10.5-11.5) 5. Washing (PH Should be 7-9) 6. Fixing (PH Should be 5) 7. Softener (PH Should be 5-5.5) Time & temperature: Time & temperature is not fixed in the process actually it depends on the machine type dyes & chemical properties . Winch speed: Which speed collation relevant to fabric g.s.m. Fabric length = winch speed ×Dwell time • FL
[DT = 3 min/ cycle it is constant ]
• Fabric weight ×1000
Fab wt ×1000
opendia (m)×G.S.M×3 • Ws =
Fab wt ×1000 3× opendia (m)×G.S.M
• Ws =
k G.S.M. 1 G.S.M
[All parameter considering constant except g.s.m]
Reel speed depends on the g.s.m. and dia of the fabric. G.S.M. 51-100 101-150 150-200
Reel speed 150-170 160-180 170-190
201-250 251-300 301-350
180-200 190-210 200-220
FINISHING SECTION PROCESS FLOW CHART OF FINISHING Dewatering/Squeezing Drying compecting Final inspection Supply to garments section CHAPTER-7 QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM INTRODUCTION TO QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM: After collecting fabric rolls from different m/cs, these fabrics need to inspect thoroughly by the quality inspectors to assure required quality before dyeing. Quality assurance of knitted grey fabric is described here. SOME POINTS ARE NEEDED TO MAINTAIN FOR HIGH QUALITY FABRIC: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)
Brought good quality yarn. Machines are oiled and greased accordingly. G.S.M, Stitch length, Tensions are controlled accurately. Machines are cleaned every shift and servicing is done after a month. Grey Fabrics are checked by 4 point grading system.
LIST OF EQUIPMENT FOR QUALITY CONTROL: The list of equipments to assure quality:1) Inspection m/c. 2) Electronic balance 3) GSM cutter. 4) Measuring tape. 5) Scissors. 6) Indication sticker. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURE: Body & rib inspection: Ail rolls are kept in front of the inspection m/c time to time and are inspected over the inspection m/c visually in a pre-set speed against light. For any major
or minor faults like thick-thin, barre mark, fall out, contamination, fly, holes, oil lines, needle line, slubs etc are recorded in inspection report to classify the fabric based on the four point system. Collar & cuff inspection: Collar & cuff are inspected visually under the light box, any major or minor fault in collar/cuff like having wrong ply, hole, needle line, slubs, wrong design, first round problem etc properly counted and recorded. Therefore the four point system is followed to inspect the body & rib fabric. The defects found and points given against are recorded in the inspection sheet. Following table shows the four point grading system followed by inspection at Zaara Composite Ltd. Four point grading system Size of defects Penalty 3 inches or less 1 point Over 3 inch but not over 6 inch 2 point Over 6 inch but not over 9 inch 3 point Over 9 inch 4 point Different Count of Yarn which are used for different finished g.s.m.: S/J Finished G.S.M
135-160 165-170 170-190
30s 26s 24s
Rib Finished G.S.M
160 180 200
45s 34s 30s
InterlockFinished G.S.M Yarn Count 200-210 210-225 225-250
36s 34s 30s
The Quality assurance department is assigned to maintain consistently uniform quality of the material in process and various stages of its manufacturing. OBJECTS OF QUALITY CONTROL: • • • • • •
Research or analysis. Selection of raw materials. Process control and development. Product testing. Specification test. Should be given economic requirements. Quality assurance and so on.
THE WAY TO BULK PRODUCTION: In this topic we are going to discuss about the role & responsibilities of testing laboratory from where it is possible to get a direction of doing bulk production of dyed fabric. Here, we tried to present the way by which standard samples are being brought in the factories & principle work done with the sample before bulk production of it. Firstly, when a buyer goes to a factory with an order, he/she gives a standard sample of fabric or mentions on the book which represents the demand of the buyer. The type of fabric, the color of fabric everything include to their demand. This is the object of an industry to produce the product with complete satisfaction of buyers. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM:
Off-line Tests: All the off-line tests for finished fabrics can be grouped as follows: 1) Physical Test: a. Fabric inspection by 4-point system. b. Width of the fabric measure.
c. GSM Test. d. Shrinkage test. 2) Chemical test or Color fastness test a. Fastness to rubbing b. Fastness to washing. On-Line Tests: 1) -
For Pretreatment pH test Absorbency test Fabric width measure Whiteness test Water quality test
2) For Dyeing -
Shade matching check pH check Wash fastness Check
3) Machine checking Quality Standard: There are two types of standard are followed in Bangladesh and these are ISO and Oko tex std. This factory is mainly follow Oko tex standard because its principal export market in European countries and European countries are follow Oko tex std. Shortly described about Oko tex std. 100: Oko tex std. 100 certificate is designed by the International Association for Research & Testing considering the consumer safety & environment protection for the purchase of textiles. This certificate ensures "Confidence in Textiles - tested for harmful substances" & show to the consumer that goods bought by them are free from any hazards to health such as -
Formaldehyde. Toxic pesticides. Penta Chloro Phenol. Heavy metal traces. Azo dyes which release carcinogenic amines. Halogen carriers. Chlorine bleaching. pH of the aqueous extract.
Oko tex std. 100 from ecological point on textile substrates (yarn, Fabric, garments etc.) marked by textile manufacturers. This does not depend solely on the dyestuffs. It also depends on the processing conditions, various chemicals & other auxiliaries used in the manufacture of such a substrate.
So, Oko tex std. 100 is not a quality label, it is just only ensures the safety of the Textile goods and Eco-Labelled. These products tested in foreign countries and it is done by the buyers. Scope of Quality control and testing: The scope of quality control testing in Zaara Composite Textile Ltd. is little good. It has the following ability for quality control & testing.
Fabric inspection by 4-point system GSM & Shrinkage test Wash fastness test Rubbing fastness test pH test
COMMON FAULTS IN KNIT DYEING FABRIC FAULTS CREATING DURING DYEING: Crack, rope & crease marks: Causes: • Poor opening of the fabric rope • Shock cooling of synthetic material • Incorrect process procedure • Higher fabric speed Remedies: • Pre-Heat setting • Lower rate rising and cooling the temperature • Reducing the m/c load • Higher liquor ratio • Running at a slightly higher nozzle pressure Fabric distortion and increase in width: Causes: • Too high material speed • Low liquor ratio Remedies: • By decreasing both nozzle pressure & winch speed Pilling; Causes: • Too high mechanical stress on the surface of the fabric • Excess speed during processing • Excess foam formation in the dye bath Remedies: • By using of a suitable chemical lubricant
• By using antifoaming agent • By turn reversing the Fabric before dyeing Running problem: a. Ballooning: Causes: • Seam joining with too densely sewn Remedies: • By cutting a vertical slit of 10-15 cm in length for escaping the air. b. Intensive foaming: Causes: • Pumping a mixture of air and water Remedies: • By using antifoaming agent DYEING FAULTS & THEIR REMEDIES Uneven dyeing: Causes: • Uneven pretreatment (uneven scouring, bleaching & mercerizing) • Uneven heat-setting in case of synthetic fibres • Quick addition of dyes and chemicals • Lack of control of dyeing m/c Remedies: • By ensuring even pretreatment • By ensuring even heat-setting in case of synthetic fibres • By slow addition of dyes and chemicals • Proper controlling of dyeing m/c Shade variation (Hatch to batch): Batch to batch shade variation is common hi exhaust dyeing this is not completely avoidable. Even though, to ensure a consistent batch to batch production of shade the following matters should be controlled carefully• • • • •
Use standard dyes and chemicals Maintain the same liquor ratio Follow the standard pretreatment procedure Maintain the same dyeing cycle Identical dyeing procedure should be followed for the same depth of the shade. • Make sure that the operators add the right bulk chemicals at the same time and temperature in the process. • The Ph, hardness and sodium carbonate content of supply water should check daily. Dye spot:
Causes: • Improper mixing of dyestuff in the solution, in right amount of water, at the temperature. Remedies: • We should pass the dissolved dyestuff through a fine stainless steel mesh strainer when adding it to the chemical tank, so that the large undissolved particles are removed. Patchy dyeing: Causes: • Uneven heat in the machine. • Improper impregnation of dye liquor due to the low wetting property of the fabric. • Dye migration during intermediate dyeing Remedies: • By proper pretreatment. • By adding extra wetting agent. • Heat should be same throughout the dye liquor. Specky dyeing: Causes: • Excessive foam in the dye bath. • Fall of water droplets on fabric surface before or after dyeing. • In sufficient after treatment Remedies: • By using antifoaming agent. • Sufficient after treatment. • By using a good wetting agent in the dye bath. CHAPTER-8 MAINTENANCE Machine, buildings and other facilities are subjected to deterioration due to their use and exposure to environmental condition. Process of deterioration, if unchecked, culminates in rendering these service facilities unserviceable and brings them to a standstill. In Industry, therefore has no choice but to attend them from time to time to repair and recondition them so as to elongate their life to the extent it is economically and physically possible to do so. OBJECTIVES OF MAINTENANCE: 1. To keep the factory plants, equipments, machine tools in an optimum working condition. 2. To ensure specified accuracy to product and time schedule of delivery to customer. 3. To keep the downtime of machines to the minimum thus to have control over the production program.
4. To keep the production cycle within the stipulated range. 5. To modify the machine tools to meet the need for production TYPES OF MAINTENANCE:
Break Down Maintenance
Preventive Maintenance: Preventive maintenance is a predetermined routine actively to ensure on time inspection or checking of facilities to uncover conditions that may lead to production break downs or harmful description. Break down maintenance: In this case, repairs are made after the equipment is out of order and it can not perform its normal functions. Routine Maintenance: Maintenance of different machines is prepared by expert engineer of maintenance department. Normally in case of dyeing machine maintenance after 30 days complete checking of different important parts are done. MANPOWER SET-UPP FOR MAINTENANCE: • A shift 6am-2pm • B shift 2pm-10pm • C Shit 10pm-6am MAINTENANCE PROCEDURE OF DIFFERENT MACHINES: Dyeing m/c: Maintenance: Mechanical Items need to be checked & service. • Grease the winch bearing.
• • • • • • • • • • •
Complete cleaning of m/c. Cleaning of drain valves, replace scale if required. Check air supply filters, regulators and auto drain seals. Cleaning filter element and blow out. Greasing the unloading roller bearings. Checking oil level and bolts of unloading roller gearbox, Checking of unloading roller couple and packing. Checking and cleaning of main vessel level indicator. Check the oil level of pump bearing and refill if required. Check the function of heat and cool modulating valves. Check all belts and belt tension.
Dewaterin m/c: Maintenance: Mechanical Items need to be checked & service. • • • • • • • • • • •
Grease padder bearing & expender device unit by Staburag NBU, Complete cleaning of m/c. Checking oil level and bolts of unloading roller gear box. Check oil level of hydraulic system. Check all belts, all chain and belt tension. Check gear box plotting and its oil. Check main line air pressure and air pressure gauge. Check pneumatic belts, brushes, if required tight them properly. Check in feed motor. Check squeeze roller hydraulic cylinder. Check turn table, belt tension, and gearing.
Dryer machine: Maintenance: mechanical. Items need to be checked & service. • Clean filter net of the m/c. • Clean hot air ducting of the m/c. • Burner blower impeller cleaning. • Complete cleaning of the m/c. • Greasing of all the bearing. • Conveyor net checking & repairing if required. • Inside chamber all fiber rail checking. • Cleaning of all nozzles with compressed air. • Over feed roller nibbing gripping tape checking. • All gear box oil level checking. • Exit conveyor checking properly & repair if required. Tube Compactor: Maintenance: Mechanical Items need to be checked & services. • Check & clean fluff & dirt at all motors fan covers. • Clean panels, vs cards & inverter by using compressed air.
• • • • • • • • • • • •
Check photocell & adjust if required. Check all safety limit switches, Check all on/off & emergency switches. Check all indicating lamps. Check steam solenoids. Check all circuit beakers, magnetic contractors& relays. Visual inspection of all control & power cables. Check all motor terminals. Check the potentiometer of main speed. Check temperature controllers of cylinder. Check compensator for speed synchronization of 1st &2nd cylinder. Check carbon brash for 1st & 2nd cylinder heating system. CHAPTER-9 UTILITY
In Zaara Composite Textile Ltd. the following utility services are available• Water • Electricity • Steam • Gas • Compress air • ETP WATER: Source of water is land water which is pumped by deep tube well. The water which is pumped by the deep tube well is stored in water tank. As the water found in Konabari is naturally soft so there is no need for further softening. It is then directly used for dyeing and finishing and all processes are running smoothly. STANDERD WATER QUALITY FOR DYE HOUSE: Parameter Color Smell Water Hardness PH value Dissolve solid Inorganic salt Iron(Fe) Manganese(Mn) Copper (Cu) Nitrate(NO3) Nitrite(NO2) ELECTRICITY:
Permissible concentration Color less No bed smell <5 ppm 7-8 (Neutral) < 1 ppm < 500 ppm <0.1 ppm < 0.01 ppm O.005 ppm < 50 ppm < 5 ppm
Generator is used to generate the electricity for every section in the factory. This factory is fully control and operates by generator. Types of Model No Speed Machine Generator 12v19020t- 1000 2 r/min
Rating (KW) 500
THERE Phase brushless sysnchrnous generator. Capacity: 500 KW. Weight: 2000 kg The equipment used for producing steam is called steam generator or boiler. The boiler used for producing steam is a fire tube type boiler. Fire tube type is mainly used in small plant requiring small quantity of steam and where floor area is limited. Here, gas is fed to the burner which run by thermo motor and produce flame. The flame produces hot flue gases, which pass through the tubes that are surrounded by water. This water is supplied from the soft water tank to the feed water tank, which is situated above the boiler. The heat energy of the flue gas is transfer to water which is converted into steam. This steam is supplied to the whole plant. The spent gases are then discharged to the atmosphere through chimney, Classification of boilers: 1) Fire - tube boiler (gas): Low pressure, low running cost, less chance of busting but greater risk of damage. 2) Water - tube boiler: High pressure, high running cost high chance of bursting & doesn't damage the whole boiler. So in this factory used fire tube boilers and its description is given below: Types of Branc Origin Model Capacity Qty Machine BOILER DAE-LIM Korea DL-2600 6000 KG 1 Boiler specification: Brand name Manufacturer Product type Year of manufacture Maximum allowable pressure Minimum allowable Temperature Evaporation Fuel type Electric supply required Designed STD. COMPRESSOR:
Basically Compressor generate the compress air which distributed in the knitting, dyeing & finishing section and this air is used for following reasons• To clean the m/c parts in knitting zone. • To open different type of valves in dyeing m/c during dozing, water feeding, drainage time. • Squeezer needed compress air for balloon form. Turning m/c is needed compress air for batch preparation. SL Types of Model no Brant name Origin copout mlc ltr/sec 1 compress GA37 ATLAS INDIA 98.6 COPCO CHAPTER-10 ETP What is ETP: Effluent is the stream of excess chemical liquor extracted from an industry after using in original operation. For example, the excess dye liquor, extracted from textile industry after dyeing in an effluent of that dyeing industry. Industrial effluent generated from different processes are treated with various chemicals to remove or neutralize the environmentally toxic materials present in it, before discharging it to surface or ground water. This is called effluent treatment. Purpose of ETP: Wet processing of textiles involves, in addition to extensive amounts of water and dyes, a number of inorganic and organic chemicals, detergents, soaps and finishing chemicals to aid in the dyeing process to impart the desired properties to dyed textile products. Residual chemicals often remain in the effluent from these processes. In addition, natural impurities such as waxes, proteins and pigment, and other impurities used in processing such as spinning oils, sizing chemicals and oil stains present in cotton textiles, are removed during desizing, scouring and bleaching operations. This results in an effluent of poor quality, which is high in BOD and COD load. Typical values of various water quality parameters in untreated effluent from the processing of fabric using reactive, sulfur and vat dyes and compares these to the DOE effluent standards for discharge into an inland surface water body (e.g. river, lake, etc.). As demonstrated, the effluent from textile industries is heavily polluted. The main objectives of effluent treatment are1. To control pH. 2. To remove coloring matter. 3. To maintain proper BOD(biological oxygen demand) and 4. COD (chemical oxygen demand) ETP Treatment scheme: The ETP treatment scheme is a sequential contaminant removal process envisaged shall consist of following treatment steps: Primary Treatment System
Raw effluent generated from dying process passes through a bar screen and a mechanically operated Screen. Screening is done to retain the large, floating matter and lint & fibre particles up to 2mm mesh. The collected screenings are disposed off manually. Raw effluent then collects in a lift station wherein screened effluent is constantly pumped through a single pipe surrounding the Equalization tank. From the pipe, wastewater will be P H adjusted and sprayed into the equalisation tank thus providing a cool down effect necessary for biological requirements. Sufficient retention time is provided to equalise and homogenise the variations in the flow and pollutant concentration with aeration in the EQ tank. The homogenised effluent is then constantly gravity fed to the Aerobic Bio Reactor for further preparation for biological needs. Aerobic Bio Reactor (AeB) The AeB tank comprises one concrete basin, which is operated on a 24 hour basis, the Bio Reactor tank is designed for 12 hours HRT. Aeration and Microbial activity will decrease the BOD and COD levels from 60-70% thus reducing the contaminant load prior to secondary treatment using ECR. The operation of an AeB is dependent on temperature (< 37 Â°c) consistent PH level (6.8 to 7.0) and oxygen. The contaminant loads can be reduced further if longer retention time is calculated into the tank size. The AeB comprises of pre-cultured microbial plastic media. Microbes are grown on these plastic media with activated sludge and the microbesâ€™ enhancer inside the AeB. Culturing time required is anywhere between 10 to 21 days, that is largely dependent on the temperature and other factors. Air (Oxygen) required for efficient microbial activity is around 6,253m3/day. In order to retain the floating bio media within a pre-determined volume size â€“ plastic permeable barriers will be strung from one wall to the next. Perhaps as many as 6 barrier nets will be required. Electro Contaminant Removal (ECR) ECR is the process of destabilising suspended, emulsified, or dissolved contaminants in an aqueous medium by introducing an electrical current into the medium. The electrical current provides the electromotive force to drive the chemical reactions. When reactions are driven or forced, the elements or compound will approach the most stable state. Generally, this stable state is a solid that is less colloidal, less emulsifiable, or less soluble than the element or compound at equilibrium values. As this occurs the contaminants form hydrophobic entities such as precipitates or phase separations are easily removed by a number of secondary separation techniques. Tube Settlers / Clarifier Post ECR treated water flows to Tube settlers for solids separation. Tube Settlers contain array of tubes that not only increases the area of settlement but also provides rapid clarification rate. Should clarifier size / dimensions not be sufficient, and then polyelectrolyte can be introduced via a flash mix tank to expedite precipitation. Sludge Management
Sludge generated from Aeb Clarifier, and Secondary Tube Settler is transferred via gravity and water weight (manual valve operations) to a Sludge drying area wherein drained water is returned to ECR lift station for further treatment. Clarifier sludge is then directed to sludge drying beds where in ambient temperature and sunshine will evaporate free waters.
Effluent Characteristics of Various Wet Textile Processing Operations: Sl.
Source of Effluent
A 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. B 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07.
Process Effluent Desizing Scouring Bleaching Mercerizing Dyeing Wash Effluent After bleaching After acid rinsing After dyeing (hot wash) After dyeing (Acid & soap wash) After dyeing (Final wash) Printing washing Blanket washing of Rotary Printer
5.83 - 6.50 10.0 – 13.0 8.5 – 9.6 8.0-10.0 7.0 – 10.0
10,000-15,000 1200-3300 150-500 100-200 1000-3000
1700-5200 260-400 50-100 20-50 400-1200
8.0 - 9.0 6.5 - 7.60 7.5 - 8.5 7.5 - 8.64
50-100 120-250 300-500 50-100
10-20 25-20 100-200 25-50
7.0 – 7.8 8.0 - 9.0 7.0 - 8.0
25-50 250 - 450 100-150
Standard of effluent for discharge to drain: Characteristic B.O.D. C.O.D. Suspended solids Settelable solids Ammonia Phosphate Surfactants Chloride Sulphate Color Oil and Fat Phenol Bioassy test
Average quality in the Required limit to discharge effluent 250-500mg/L 20-40 mg/L 800-1200 mg/L 120-160 mg/L 200-300 mg/L 20-40 mg/L 0-5 mg/L Traces 20-30 mg/L 4-8 mg/L 3-5 mg/L 3-5 mg/L 30-40 mg/L 0.5-2 mg/L 1000-1500 mg/L 1000-1500 mg/L 1000-1500 mg/L Not perceptible colored Not perceptible 30-40 mg/L <5 mg/L 3-5 mg/L <0.005 mg/L 95% Survival after 96hrs
Chemical used in ETP: •
FeSO4(10% conc.): approximately 600-70ppm, it is used for removing color.
Polyelectrolyte (0.5-1ppm): it used to increase precipitation rate.(very costly chemical)
H2SO4 (98%conc.) for controlling pH liquor.
Lime, approximately 450-550 ppm: used to remove coloring matters in alkaline medium.
Alum: alum is used to sediment residual matter.
DREWFLOCK 270 polymer: about 0.05 – 0.25 %. Chapter 11
Inventory Inventory is stock or store of good inventory management is a vital part for any factory because smooth production as well as cost of storage depends on it. Scope of Inventory Control: • Raw materials inventories • In process inventories • Finished good inventories • Maintenance, repair and operational inventories • Miscellaneous inventories Function of Inventory: • To smooth production requirement • To meet anticipate demand • To protect against stock outs • To take advantages of order cycles • To take advantages of quality discounts Procurement System: •
Dyes and chemicals (regular items like Sequestering agent, Anti creasing agent, Stabilizer etc.) are imported from CHINA, GERMANY & INDIA. • Some dyes (from Clarinet) and chemicals (from BASF) are collected by direct purchase through indent. • Refined salt and Soda ash is purchase from local distributor. Inventory Store System for Raw Material: In Zaara composite textile ltd. there are different inventory systems for different raw materials. Grey Fabric Store: All the grey fabrics are stored in the fabric store near the batch section. Different types of fabric are listed in the sheet according to fabric types, quantity and consumer's requirement. Dyes and Chemicals store: It is updated and a copy of this sheet is supplied to the dyeing manager, dye house and lab section. There is a different store for dyes and chemicals. Varies types of dyes and chemicals are stored here according to dyes and
chemicals companies. Different types of dyes and chemicals are listed in a sheet. In the sheet the stored quantity of dyes and chemicals are also included every day the sheet. Finished goods store: In Zaara composite textile ltd Supplies its finished dyed fabrics to its garments section. So, dyed finished fabrics are stored for short time in the finishing section. All the delivered fabrics are noted on the tally book according to the lot no, quantity, fabrics diameter, buyer's name, color & considering other technical parameters. Spares part store: In Zaara composite textile ltd required amount of spares of different machines are stored in the mechanical store room. All the spares are listed in a sheet which is controlled by the mechanical & maintenance personnel. Spares are arranged in the store room according to there size, quantity & requirements. There are shelves in the store room to keep the small spare parts. Store Capacity: Items Dyes Chemicals Yarn storage Grey fabric Finished fabric
Amount 3-4 tons 10-15 tons 200 tons 120 tons 100 tons
Frequency of Inventory Control: • Daily inventory control • Monthly inventory control • Yearly inventory control CHAPTER-12 COST ANALYSIS COSTING OF THE PRODUCT: Costing system mainly describe how the cost of the final product is fixed by the company or top managements. As it is a garments manufacturing factory, so according to the buyer or customer requirements of final garments, merchandiser give the consumption of the fabric with specifications. Then it is calculated how much dyestuffs & chemicals are required for processing. After that, the final cost is fixed including some profit. Then the unit price is offered to the buyer for their approval. COSTING OF A PRODUCT INCLUDES: • Yarn cost • Knitting cost • Dyes & chemicals cost • Cost of dyeing • Cost of finishing • Cost of cutting ,sewing, accessories etc • Cost of printing (If any)
• Labor cost (direct & indirect) • Factory cost • Office & administrative cost • Sales and caring cost • Others cost • Profit, etc. REMARKS: The costing of the product is most secret matter of the industry. They are not interested to flash the cost related data. So we could not collect the price of the product. CHAPTER-13 SOCIAL & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Waste Disposal System: There is an effluent treatment plant in Zaara Composite Textile Ltd. But they are not running because it's too costly to remove the effluent from the water. So the waste water is directly discharged into the cannel. Social Compliance: • No child labor/involuntary labor • Timely payment, incentive, Bonus and leaves following minimum wages • Transportation in companies account for distance labors/staffs • Free routine medical checkup and medical facilities • Training of operators and technical staffs • Regular evacuation drill and trained staffs • Alternative in building staircase • Emergency exit • Sufficient fire equipment • Pure drinking water available • Forklift and wheel loader to warehouse go-down • Security Observation through CC TV CONCLUSION Our Achievements: We have identified the process sequence of knit dyeing and gathered adequate knowledge about each process sequence of knit dyeing. We got lots of information about the laboratory work and the steps that should be maintained before bulk production of knit dyeing. We have earned some mechanical knowledge about dyeing & finishing m/c. We have found some special points that should be considered during knit dyeing. We have understood about industrial environment and administration. Our Comments: We have found us fortunate to have our industrial training at Zaara. It has a huge production capacity with a very efficient production team; Zaara has a very good, well equipped and modern machine and producing a wide range of
design fabric. During our training period we have noticed that Zaara is very concern about their quality and they rarely have any quality complain. The management of Zaara is very organized, pre-active and co-operative. At the end of the day we realized that industrial training makes our knowledge application practically and make us confident to face any problem of our job sector. So finally we conclude that this training program will help us in future practical life.