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“Industrial Training�: International Classic Composite Limited. Company Profile: Name of factory Year of establishment

: International Classic Composite Limited (ICCL) : 2007


: Mr. Milon Hossen & Mr. Khokon Ahmed


: Naojur, Kodda, Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladeh.

Certification & awards

: ISO 9001:2007

Production capacity

: Knitting: 5 tons/day (Average) Dyeing: 6.5 ton/day (Average)

Main Production

: Knitwear& all kinds of knit garments & Knit fabrics.


: (Processing)

History Of The Project Development After successful operation in International Classic Composite Ltd., the owner had decided to start a fully information & technology based along with the social accountability and quality controlled modern ready made composite knit garments industry in large scale. In this connection Mr. Milon & Mr. Khokon had decided in a resolution to start a company in Naojur, Kodda, Joydebpur, and Gazipur in the year 2007 to manufacture knitwear garments for the international market. Right from inception the policy of the company has been to provide total customer satisfaction by offering quality knitwear in time. To meet the commitments of quality and prompt delivery, International Classic Composite Ltd. Decided to integrate the manufacturing process in a planned manner. Over the years the entire process has been integrated by importing sophisticated machinery from world-renowned manufacturers. Working on new concepts in styling & content of the knitwear is a continuous activity in International Classic Composite Ltd. with an objective to up the quality and the value of merchandise. In 2007, the year in which International business was started; International Classic Composite Ltd. concentrated all its strengths and resources in developing a wide range of knitwear for the international market.

Vision & Mission Of This Project The mission and vision of International Classic Composite Ltd. is to manufacture and deliver high quality readymade garments (RMG) to its customers. The core objective is to attain and

enhance customer satisfaction by providing on time delivery of desired quality readymade garments and also to increase efficiency of workforce. To attain these objectives, the management of International Classic Composite Ltd. has decided to adopt the following• • • •

To increase awareness regarding customers requirements throughout the organization. By providing training to develop efficiency of the employee. To collect customer’s feedback regularly to know about their conception about their company and to take timely appropriate action. To reduce the percentage of wastage / rejection minimum by 2% per annum’s implement and monitor ISO 9001:2007 quality management system within the organization.

Location Of International Classic Composite Ltd.: North






Knitting division

Dyeing division

Knitting In Charge

General Manager

Knitting Master



Asst. Production Manager



Production Executive Supervisor/ Floor In charge


Sr. Operator Operator Helper

SECTION-WISE MANPOWER Department Knitting section Dyeing Garments section Power generator boiler and utility Inventory / store keeper Administration Security Batch section Printing Finishing Lab Q.C Others

Manpower 70 90 1000( above ) 20 15 40 15 12 50 30 10 12 50



MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Buyer sample is send to G.M or merchandising manager. Marching is done under lab manager. Sample is prepared by asst. dyeing manager. Sample is send to the buyer for approval. Approved sample is returned and taken as STD. sample for bulk production. Dyeing manager gives responsibilities to asst. dyeing manager. Then shift in charge with the supervisors start bulk production. On line and off line quality check is done by lab in charge and asst. Dyeing manager. 9. After dyeing asst. manager (finishing) controls the finishing process with the supervision of shift in charge. 10. Finally G.M checks the result with dyeing manager and decision is taken for delivery.

Shift Change For Worker 1. A shift = 8.0 am to 8.0 pm 2. B shift = 8.0 pm to 8 am 3. But offices time 9.0 am to 5.0 pm

Responsibilities of A Shift In Charge 1. Over all supervision of production both dyeing and finishing. 2. Batch preparation and pH check. 3. Dyes and chemical requisition, issue and check. 4. Write fabric loading and loading time form machine. 5. Programmed making, sample checking, color matching. 6. Control the supervisors, operators, asst. operators and helpers of dyeing machine. 7. And also other work when it is required by top level management.

Job Description Title: asst. production manager Dept/section: dyeing and finishing Report to: manager.

Job Summary 1. After having the work order, prepares production plan. 2. To execute and follow up the plan along with quality conformation. 3. To face various difficulties of production and overcome them. 4. Inspecting the material for conformation to buyer requirements.

Job Description

Title: shift in charge Dept/section: asst. dyeing manager

Job Summary 1. To execute the plan given by asst. dyeing master. 2. Organizing personnel under him. 3. Control the supervisors, operators, asst. operators and helpers of dyeing machine. 4. Checking of shade match.


















M/C 7

M/C 11

M/C 12

M/C 2

M/C 8 M/C 13

M/C 3

M/C 9 M/C 14

M/C 4

M/C 10 M/C 15

M/C 5





Bulk Dyeing m/c: 1,2,3,4.

Sample dyeing m/c: 1

Power distribution room Gate Main gate

Gray fabric

Fabric turniing m/c Fabric inspection m/c


Sample dyeing m/c:1,2.

Bulk dyeing m/c:1,2,3,4,5. ( Fongs)

Exit Office Chemical store

Table Drayer Dewatering & Detwisting mm/c. Exit

KNITTING SECTION Raw Materials Raw material is a unique substance in any production oriented textile industry. It plays a vital role in continuous production and for high quality fabric.

Types of Raw Materials: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Yarn Fabric Dye stuff Chemical and auxiliaries

Raw Materials Sources: Cotton Yarn: 1. Gulshan Spinning Mill. 2. Shirin Spinning Mill. 3. Sliver Spinning Mill. 4. Prime Spinning Mill.

Polyester Yarn: India Lycra: Korea, Japan Fabric: 1. 100 % Cotton fabric 2. CVC fabric 3. PC fabric 4. Lycra twill fabric

Knitting: Knitting is the method of making fabric by transforming continuous strands of yarn into a series of interloping loops, each row of such loops forms the one immediately preceding it.

Types of Knitting: There are two types 1. Warp Knitting. 2. Weft Knitting.

1. Warp Knitting:

In warp knitting, one or two yarn produce vertical column of loops and fabric is produced at length way. In a warp structure, each loop in the horizontal direction is made from a different thread and the no of threads used to produce such a fabric is at least equal to the number of loops in horizontal raw. In warp knitting, the threads run thoroughly in a vertical direction. e.g. – Net, Mesh fabric etc

2. Weft or Circular Knitting: In weft knitting, one yarn produces a horizontal row of loops and fabric is produced at width way. In a weft knitted structure, a horizontal raw of loops can be made by using one thread and the thread runs in horizontal direction. e.g. – single jersey, rib, interlock etc

Single jersey: It requires only one set of needles. The loops are intermesh in only one direction so the appearance of the face and back of the fabric are quite different. Example: Plain single jersey, Pique, lacoste etc.

Rib: It requires two sets of needles positioned at right angles to each other to form the fabric. Example: (1×1) Rib, (2×2) Rib etc.

Interlock: Fabric is produced by using both long and short needles. It has a smooth surface on both sides. Example: Plain Interlock

Flow chart of knitting Section: Yarn in cone form Feeding the yarn cone in the creel Feeding the yarn in the feeder via trip-tape positive feeding arrangement and device. Knitting Withdraw the rolled fabric and weighting Inspection Numbering

Sequence of yarn feeding: Creel Pipe line


Wheel Yarn sensor Yarn guide Feeder Needle

End products of Circular Knitting Machine: Single Jersey M/C: 1. S/J Plain 2. Single Lacoste 3. Double Lacoste 4. Single pique 5. Double pique 6. Mini jacquard 7. Terry

Interlock M/C: 1. Interlock pique 2. Mash fabric 3. Face/Back rib

Rib M/C: 1. 1*1 Rib fabric 2. 2*2 Rib fabric

Terms of Knitting: Course: Horizontal row of loops produced by adjacent needles in knitting cycle is called the course of the fabric. A course is a predominantly horizontal raw of needle loops produced by adjacent needles during the same knitting cycle called course. (Loop length * No of loop).

Wales: Vertical column of loops produced by same needle in knitting cycle is called the Wales of the fabric.

A wale is a predominantly vertical column of intermeshed needle loops generally produced by the same needle knitting cycles. i.e. The number of vertical columns of loop of knitted fabrics is called wale.

Face loop: If the legs of new loop is passes over the old loop is called face loop.

Back loop: If the legs of new loop is passes under the old loop is called face loop

Stitch density: The term stitch density is frequently used in knitting instead of a linear measurement of courses or Wales; it is the total number of needles loops in a square area measurement such as a square inch or three square centimeters. It is expressed as, Course per inch × Wales per inch.

Stitch length: Length of one loop in the course direction express in mm.

Number of needle: Machine diameter × Machine gauge × 3.1416.

GSM: The weight of one square meter of fabric express in gram is known as GSM.

Needle gauge: The needle gauge of a knitting machine is a measure expressed the no. of needle per unit of the needle bed or needle bar. As for example: 1. In case of circular weft knitting machine & Tricot warp knitting machine. [Gauge, N= Number of needle per inch.] 2. In case of Raschel warp knitting machine. [Gauge, N= Number of needle per two inch.]

Needle: There are three types of needle1. Bearded needle 2. Compound needle 3. Latch needle• One butt needle. • Two butt needle. • Three butt needle. • Four butt needle. The most widely used needle is latch needle.

Cam: Cam is called the specific path of the needles to produce a specific type of fabric. There are three types of cam used in circular knitting machine:

1. Knit Cam. 2. Tuck Cam. 3. Miss Cam.

Knit Cam: It moves the needle upward enough to clear the old loop and receive the new yarn.

Tuck Cam: It moves the needle upward not enough to clear. The old loop but receive the new yarn.

Miss cam: It does not move the needle upward. The needles neither clear the old loop nor receive the new yarn

Sinker: It is a thin metal plate with an individual or collective operation approximately at right angles at the hook side between adjacent needles.

Working Sequence of Knitting Section for International Classic Composite Ltd. Order sheet receiving From Merchandiser Selecting of production parameter Arranging of yarn Testing of yarn Arranging of selected m/c Making a pre-production sample Starting of bulk production after approval Checking of grey fabric Delivery of grey fabrics according to batch wise

Speciation of circular knitting m\c: No. of M/C m/c Dia 1 15” 2


M/C Gauge 24 24

No. Of Feeder 45 51

No. Of Needle 1130 1272

M/C Spec S/J S/J































Brand Jiunn Long Jiunn Long Jiunn Long Jiunn Long Jiunn Long Jiunn Long Jiunn

Origin Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan









































10 11

Long Jiunn Long Jiunn Long Jiunn Long Jiunn Long Jiunn Long Jiunn Long Jiunn Long

Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan

Flow chart of knitting Section: Yarn in cone form Feeding the yarn cone in the creel Feeding the yarn in the feeder via trip-tape positive feeding arrangement and Tension device Knitting Withdraw the rolled fabric and weighting Inspection Numbering

Relation between G.S.M. & Yarn Count: For cotton / Blend / CVC fabric:S/J without Lycra – Fabric G.S.M 110 - 120 120 - 130 130 - 140 140 - 150 150 - 160 170 - 210

Yarn Count 40 S – 36 S 36 S - 32 S 32 S – 28 S 28 S 26 S 24 S

Rib without Lycra Fabric G.S.M 180 - 190 190 - 200 200 - 215 215 - 230 230 - 250 250 - 300

Yarn Count 36 S - 32 S 30 S 28 S 26 S 24 S 24 S

Interlock without Lycra – Fabric G.S.M 200 - 220 220 - 230 230 - 250 250 - 300

Yarn Count 34 S 32 S 30 S 26 S

Lacost (S/L, D/L) without LycraFabric G.S.M 180 - 190 190 - 210 210 - 230 230 – 250

Yarn Count 30 S 28 S 26 S 26 S

40D Lycra Rib – Fabric G.S.M 230 - 240 240 - 250 250 - 280 280 - 300

40D Lycra S/J –

Yarn Count 32 S 30 S 26 S 24 S

Fabric G.S.M 180 - 190 190 - 210 210 - 220 220 – 240 240 - 250

Yarn Count 34 S 32 S 30 S 28 S 26 S

Analysis of Fabric Design: Sample analysis: After receiving an order first step is analysis the fabric. A sample is analysis as per following system.

Fabric: Single jersey NOTATION DIAGRAM ×






















× = Knit stitch ∆ = Knit cam

1 = One butt needle 2 = Two butt needle

Fabric: Single Lacoste NOTATION DIAGRAM × •









× ××

× ×× × ••




× = Knit stitch ∆ = Knit cam =Tuck cam • = Tuck stitch

1 = One butt needle 2 = Two butt needle









2 ∆

4 ∆

∆ ∆


• •

× = Knit stitch • = Tuck stitch = Tuck cam ∆ = Knit cam = Miss cam

1 = One butt needle 2 = Two butt needle 3 = Three butt needle ― = Miss stitch


∆ ∆

∆ ∆






N.B: ∆ = Knit cam H =High butt needle L = Low butt needle 1 = One butt needle 2 = Two butt needle

Raw materials for knitting: Type of yarn



24S, 26S, 28S, 30S, 32S, 34S, 40S


75D, 72D,100D

Spandex yarn

20D,40D, 70D

Grey MĂŠlange (C-90% V-10%)

24S, 26S

PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton)

24S, 26S, 28S, 30S


24S, 26S, 28S, 30S

Methods of increasing production: By the following methods the production of knitted fabric can be increased.

1. By increasing m/c speed: Higher the m/c speed faster the movement of needle and ultimately production will be increased but it has to make sure that excess tension is not imposed on yarn because of this high speed.

2. By increasing the number of feeder: If the number of feeder is increased in the circumference of cylinder, then the number of courses will be increased in one revolution at a time.

3. By using m/c of higher gauge: The more the m/c gauge, the more the production is. So by using m/c of higher gauge production can be increased.

4. By imposing other developments: a) Using creel-feeding system. b) Applying yarn supply through plastic tube that eliminates the possibilities of yarn damage. c) Using yarn feed control device.

d) Using auto lint removal.

Production calculation: Production/shift in kg at 100% efficiency: =

RPM × No. of Feeder × No. of Needle ×SL( mm) 3527.80 ×Yarn count

Production/shift in meter: Course / min . Course / cm RPM × No. of Feeder × 60 × 12 × Efficiency = Course / cm × 100 =

Fabric width in meter: Total no. of wales Wales / cm ×100 Total no. of Needles used in knitting = Wales / cm ×100 =

Faults &Remedies of knitting fabrics: Knitting faults: Faults in circular knitting production can be caused in various ways and quite a few of them cannot be related to just one cause. The following explanations are expected to be helpful in trying to locate the causes of these faults easier.

Reasons of fabric faults: -

yarn manufacturing faults fabric manufacturing faults Fabric processing faults –dyeing, printing, finishing faults.

Sources of fabric faults: The sources of faults could be (in circular knitting m/c, 80% faults comes from yarn) - Faults in yarn and the yarn package. - Yarn feeding and yarn feed regulator. - M/c setting and pattern defects - M/c maintenance - Climatic conditions in the knitting plant.

Fabric faults:

Knitted fabric faults are very different in nature and appearance and are often superimposed. The most common faults are: - broken ends , holes or cracks - drop stitch - cloth fall out or pressed off stitches - snagging or snags - tuck or double loop or stitches - Bunching up - Vertical stripes - Horizontal stripes - Color fly or colored tinges - Distorted stitches tinges - Distorted stitches or deformed or titled loops

1. Holes: Holes are the result of cracks or yarn breakages. During stitch formation the yarn had already broken in the region of the needle hook. Depending on the knitted structure, yarn count, m/c gauge and course density, the holes has different sizes. This size can therefore only be estimated if the comparable final appearance of a comparable fabric is known.

Possible causes: • • • • • • • • • •

yarn parameters high yarn irregularity Incorrect yarn input tension setting; yarn running-in tension is too high. poorly lubricated yarns weak places in yarn, which break during stitch formation knots, slubs etc yarn is too high if the yarn is trapped between the cheek taper and closing latch - Yarn damage tool small stitches - Difficulty in casting off of the stitches Relation between cylinder and dial loop not correct yarn feeder badly set; defective knitting elements.

2. Drop stitches: These are the result of a defective needle. They also occur when a yarn is not properly fed during stitch formation, i.e. not properly laid –in the needle hooks. These are the unlinked knitted loops.

Possible causes: • • • •

inaccurate insertion of the yarn into the needle hooks; Broken needle hook. Due to high yarn twist and low fabric take down tension the knitted loop could fall out of the hook; Improper setting of the yarn feed angle i.e. badly set yarn feeder

• a. b. c. d.

The yarn is not caught by the needle hook, example – lower yarn feeder and high yarn vibrations. • Yarn feeder wrongly threaded in. Dial loop length nit properly related to cylinder loop length; the loop jumps out of the needle hook. Bad take –up. Very dry material. Insufficient yarn tension.

3. Cloth fall-out or pressed-off stitches: It is an area consisting of drop stitches lying side by side. They can occur either when a yarn is laid-out or when it breaks without any immediate connection. Cloth fall-out can occur after a drop stitch especially when an empty needle with closed latch runs into the yarn feeder and removes the yarn out of the hooks of the following needles.

Possible causes: • • •

Yarn breaks before the yarn feeder. Yarn package winding faults, poor package build up. Fiber fly block the yarn guides, feeders etc.

4. Needle marks or vertical stripes: Vertical stripes can be observed as longitudinal gaps in the fabric. The space between adjacent Wales is irregular and the closed appearance of the fabric is broken up in an unsightly manner. Vertical stripes and gaps in the fabric are often the result of a meager setting, i.e. the yarn count selected. Needles are bent, damaged, do not move uniformly smooth, come from different suppliers or are differently constructed.

Possible causes: • • • • • • •

Twisted or bent needle hooks. Stiff latches and needles. Incorrect closing of the hook by the latch. Heavily running needles. Damaged needle latch and needle hooks. Damaged dial and cylinder. Damages on other knitting elements.

5. Sinker Mark Causes:

• •

When sinker corrode due to abrasion then some times can not hold a new loop as a result sinker mark comes. If sinker head bend then sinker mark comes.

Remedies: Sinker should be changed.

6. Star Mark Causes:

• • •

Yarn tension variation during production. Buckling of the needle latch. Low G.S.M fabric production.

Remedies: • •

Maintain same Yarn tension during production. Use good conditioned needles

7. Oil stain Causes: •

When oil lick through the needle trick then it pass on the fabrics and make a line.

Remedies: • •

Ensure that oil does not pass on the fabrics. Well maintenance as well as proper oiling.

8. Pin hole Causes: •

Due to break down or bend of the latch, pin hole may come in the fabric.

• •

Change the needle

Remedies: 9. Bairre: A fault in weft knitted fabric appearing as light or dark course wise (width wise) stripe(s).


• • • • •

This fault comes from yarn fault. If different micro near value of fiber content in yarn. Different lusture, dye affinity of fiber content in yarn. During spinning different similar classes of fiber is mixed specially in carded yarn & these fibers have similar characteristics. In draw fame different similar classes sliver is mixed and make one sliver.

Remedies: •

We can use this fabric in white color.

10. Fly: Causes: •

In knitting section too much lint is flying to and fro that are created from yarn due to low twist as well as yarn friction. This lint may adhere or attaches to the fabric surface tightly during knit fabric production.

Remedies: • • • •

Blowing air for cleaning and different parts after a certain period of time. By cleaning the floor continuously. By using ducting system for cleaning too much lint in the floor. Over all ensure that lint does not attach to the fabric.

11. Yarn contamination Causes: • •

If yarn contains foreign fiber then it remains in the fabric even after finishing, If lot, count mixing occurs.

By avoiding lot, count mixing


Batch Section

Batching: Batching is the process to get ready the fabrics that should be dyed and processed for a Particular lot of a Particular order.

Batch Management: Primarily Batching is done by dyeing manager taking the above criteria under consideration. Batch section in charge receives this primary batch plan from dyeing Manager. Some time Planning is adjusted according to m/c condition.

Batch process follow-up: Grey fabric inspection Batching

Fabric Turning Storing for dyeing

Purpose of Batch Section: To receive the grey fabrics roll from knitting section or other source. 1. To turn out the tubular fabric in its grey stage and to safe the face side of the fabric from any type of friction during the time of dyeing. 2. To prepare the batch of fabric for dyeing according to the following criteria● Order sheet (Receive from buyer) ● Dyeing shade (Color or white, light or Dark) ● M/c available ● Type of fabrics (100% cotton, PC, CVC) ● Emergency 3. To send the grey fabric to the dyeing floor with batch card. 4. To keep records for every previous dyeing.

Criteria of proper batching: 1. 2. 3. 4.

To use maximum capacity of existing dyeing m/c. To minimize the washing time or preparation time & m/c stoppage time. To keep the no. of batch as less as possible for same shade. To use a particular m/c for dyeing same shade.

Dyeing Section Dyes & Chemical Use: S/L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Particular(Chemical) Felosan RGN Antisil CONZ Kappaquest K 83 Kappaquest A 41 Avolan IS Lustrafin LF Edunane SNL Larcafix SUM Formic Acid Viscocolour Kappazon H53 Hydrose Caustic H2O2-50% Acetic acid Glubar salt Sada ash E-Wet RPN Syno White 4BK Kappafix GG-100 Exoline 1053 Meropan BRE Fiberlube K-SOFT Sirrix 2 UD Larbilizar SAP Kappasor PK Albafix ECO S-100 Silicon Kappaquest FE Biokill Albafix FRD ViscoBleach Kappatex R-98 Kappatex PKS Lustrafix SA-86

Rate 211.28 100.78 166.8 118.15 239.78 118.15 130/150 250.2 45.87 205.03 107.73 70/85 48 28/55 90 12 15.985 218.93 264.1 250.2 102.86/97 93.825 152.9 145.95 76.45 152.9 344.025 222.4 100.775 257.15 201.55 243.25 291.9 165.41

Particular(Dyes) Rema-Yello-RR Rema-Red-RR Rema-Blue-RR Rema-BR-Blue-BB Rema-BR-yellow-3GL Rema-BR-Blue-RSPL Rema-T.Blue-G Rema-Orange-RR Rema-Viloet-5R

Rate 803.42 708.9 920.18 1462.98 962.53 1132.85 368.35 1028.6 903.5

Rema-UL-yellow-RGBN Rema-UL-Red-RGB Rema-Navy-RGB

417 596.31 382.25

Lavafix-Ambar CA Lavafix-Fast Red CA Lavafix- Blue –CA Lavafix-Orange-CA

1668 1390 165.63 1390

Nova-Yellow FN2R Nova-Red FN2Bl Nova-Blue FNR Nova-BR Red FN3GL Nova-Super Black-G Nova- Yellow-S3R Nova-Red-W-B Nova-Ruby-S3b Nova-Ocean SR Nova-Red S2b Nova-Browun NC Nova- DK Blue W-R Nova-Red-W-B Nova-Red FNR Raiden-Yellow-3EY Raiden-Red-3ER

1150.225 1581.125 1866.075 1355.25 549.05 556 573.375 695 2397.75 601.175 3475 868.75 364.875 962.575 566.425 674.15

Spectrophotometer: Functions of spectrophotometer: 1. Color difference 2. Metamerism 3. Pass/fail operation 4. Fastness rating

5. Shade library 6. Cost comparison 7. Color match production 8. Reflectance curve.

Working Procedure: All ingredients had been taken according to the recipe into the pot of sample dyeing machine. At a room temp the material had run then after 10 minutes started to rise the temperature at 1°C/ min. to get 60°C temperature. For performing the required dyeing temperature it took 30 minutes. The material had dyed at 60°C for 45 minutes. Then the temperature was reduced at room temperature within in 10 minutes. The fabric washed in cold water & then the material was washed in 1 gm/l soap solution (liquor ratio 1:20) at 90°C temperature for 15 minutes. Then after rapidly cold washing the material was dried & preserved. And then check the shade match with the required sample by the lighting box.

Machine Description of Dyeing Lab: 1.

Name Brand Origin

: Sample Dyeing m/c : Data color : USA.


Name Brand Origin Name Brand Origin

: Sample Dyeing m/c : Fong’s : Hong Kong : Sample Dyeing m/c : Pyrotec-200 : England



Name Brand

: Rubbing Fastness Tress : Crock meter


Name Brand Model

: Spectrophotometer : Data color : 600 FX


Name Brand

: Light Source : Verivide

Raw material of Dyeing Available Stock Solutions: Red – 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% (very common) Yellow – 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% (very common) Blue - 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% (very common).

Preparation: To prepare 0.1% Stock solution, it is necessary to mix 0.1 g dye and 100 cc water. To prepare 0.5% Stock solution, 0.5 g dye stuff is mixed with 100 cc water. To prepare 1.0% & 2.0% Stock solution similar procedure is followed. To prepare 10% Stock solution of Soda ash, 10 g Soda is mixed with 100 cc water.

Calculation: 0.5%for deep shade. 0.1%for light shade. ICC Ltd. produces 0.5% to 5% shade for the goods. Amount of salt soda for Remazol Usually following calculations are followed – Recipe % ×Sample Weight For (%)/ dye %


(cc). Stock solution %

Recipe (G/L) × 100 × Total Volume of Liquor (G/L) /Liquid / Auxiliaries =

(cc) (1000×Stock solution %)

Sample calculation for 0.5% shade: Sample wt. = 5 mg, Let, Salt =25g, Soda Ash=10g Material liquor ratio = 1: 10 Total liquor (5 × 10) = 50 cc 5 × 0.5% Dye solution required = 1%

= 2.5 cc

25 × 50 × 100 Salt solution required =

1000 × 20

= 6.25 cc (here, Stock %=20%)

10 × 50 × 100 Soda ash solution required = Water required


1000 × 20

= 2.5 cc (Stock %=20%)

{50 - (2.5 + 6.25 + 2.5)} = 38.75 cc

Sequence of dyeing 100% cotton fabric in lab: Select bleach fabric ( 5 gm) Recipe making

Select dyes Dyeing Hot wash Neutralization Soaping Cold wash Drying Match with standard sample Bulk production

Sequence of dyeing polyester /cotton fabric in lab: Select bleach fabric (5 gm) Carbonizing of cotton part Fabric weight measure after carbonized part Recipe making Select dyes Dyeing of polyester part Matching dyed polyester part with std. Hot wash Reduction clearing Soaping Neutralization Cold wash Dyeing of cotton part Hot wash

Soaping Neutralization Cold wash Drying Total sample match with standard sample Bulk production

Dyeing curve of Reactive dye (Cotton):

600 C * 45´ 500 C * 10´ Soda ash (B.D) 400 C 0

40 C + Auxi.+Dyes +Fabric Cold wash Neutralization (by A/acid) Cold wash Hot wash with detergent Hot wash Cold wash Dry & shade check

Polyester / CVC / PC dyeing procedure with disperse dye: 130/1350 C *45´ 30 C / min 1100 C * 5´

900 C * 5´

1.50 C / min

10 C / min

40 C / min 550 C (B.D) 400 C +auxi.+dyes +fabric Cold wash Reduction cleaning (hydrose+caustic soda) 950 C* 2/ 3´ Neutralization by A/acid Hot wash (950 C* 5´) Cold wash Dry & shade check

Dyeing is the process of imparting colors to a textile material in loose fiber, yarn, cloth or garment form by treatment with a dye.

General Classification of dye stuff: Coloring matters Dyes

Water soluble

Water insoluble Vat










Optical whiteners

Dyeing work flow chart:


Scouring & bleaching (Wetting agent, sequestering agent, anti creasing agent, anti foaming agent, alkali, stabilizing agent, hydrogen per oxide) or multi functional scouring agent. ▼ Per oxide hot with a/acid ▼ Enzymes wash with a/acid ▼ Leveling with sequestering ▼ Salt dosing ▼ Dye dosing ▼ Soda dosing ▼ Sample ▼ Drain ▼ Washing off ▼ A/acid ▼ Softener ▼ Unload

Dyeing M/C. Specification: Sample Dyeing Machine M/c Name : Fong’s (Sample) Model No. : DMS 11HT No. of Nozzle : 01 Capacity/Nozzle : 10Kg Total Capacity: 10Kg Built Year : 2007 Origin : Turkey Total Number of M/C : 03

Bulk Production Machine M/c Name Model No. No. of Nozzle : Capacity/Nozzle

: : 03 :

Fong’s DMS 07HT Jumbo 250 Kg

Total Capacity: Built Year Origin : Total Number of M/C

750Kg : 2007 Turkey :

Single Stage Scouring – Bleaching Process: 1100 C * (30-50)´ 950 C * 10´ 950 C * 10´ (Hot wash)

800 C * 10´ 0

80 C * 5´ (Cold wash) 0


800 C * 5´ 55 C * 15´ 0

C+Fabric+ auxi

H (Biokill, A/acid,P check)

Recipe: 1) Anti creasing agent, sequestering agent, stabilizer, detergent 2) Caustic soda 3) H2O2 4) Peroxide killer

Enzyme Treatment: If hairiness present in fabric surface then enzyme treatment is done.

Precaution: Excess Enzyme is harmful for cellulose fibre.

Application of Enzyme is done by following ways: 1. Pretreatment 2. Pretreatment 3. Enzyme

Enzyme treatment dyeing dyeing Enzyme treatment optical brightener

Enzyme treatment curve: 800×10’ Drain 600×60’



Recipe: 1. Acetic acid : 0.25 g/l 2. Nutrox MKL: 0.50%

Steps: • • • • • • • •

Take water in the bath at required level Load fabric Circulate the fabric & raise the temperature at 600c. Add acetic acid, nutrox MKL Continue circulate the fabric for 60 min Drain Hot fill for 10’ at 800c Rinse & Drain

Hot wash process: The steps for hot washing process are as follows • Take water in the bath at required level • Load fabric in the m/c. • Add detergent sequestering agent &anti creasing agent • Circulating the fabric and raise the temp at 900C • Continue circulating the fabric for 30 mins at constant temp 900C • Rinse and drain

Product quality check: • • • • •

Check pH of the bath Absorbance of the fabric Hardness of water Iron /impurities contamination of the water Heating and cooling of the m/c

Role of auxiliaries in the stage of dyeing: Wetting agent Sequestering Ant creasing Antifoaming Stabilizing Agent Alkali Hydrogen per oxide Enzyme Leveling

: To wet the fabric that means of penetrate the detergent easily. : To remove the hardness of water. : To prevent the crease mark : To reduce the foam formation : To stable the Hydrogen per oxide : To clean the fabric : Used as bleaching agent for permanent white : To remove the hairy or floating fiber : To level the dye properly into fabric

Dyeing process of Cotton: After scouring & Bleaching

Acetic condition (a/acid, PH 4.5-5) Enzymes add (temp. 550c, R.T. 45-60 min.) Enzyme hot (800c*10´) Rinsing wash (15´, 2 times) Leveling agent (400c*10´) Salt dosing (400c*10´) PH check (5.5-6.5) Color dosing (400c*25´) (Run time: 10/15´) Soda dosing (400c*15´), [PH: 9-12] (R.T-10/15´) Color steam, 600c (20/min), 10/12´min R.t:20´ Sample check Ok If not ok then it will take more time about 40´ or 60´ Rinsing wash (15´/20´) B.D Acetic acid (400c) R.t:20´ Rinsing wash 10/15´


Hot wash for deep shade, 950c*15/20´ For normal shade 900/800c*10/15´ Sample ok Fixing (for deep shade, Run time:15´*400C) Rinsing wash 10/15´ Softening at 40/450 c* 10/15´ Sample check (if ok)

Unload A series of wash (hot & cold) with neutralization.

Dyeing procedure for CVC/ PC: Scouring & Bleaching: Fabric load (Detergent, stabilizer, sequestering agent, anti creasing & antifoaming agent, caustic soda) 400c* 5´ Add Hydrogen peroxide at 700c (H2O2) Temp.raise at 1100c,(R.t:50´) Cooling at 800c B.D. Hot wash at 800c*10´ Cold wash, R.T. 10´ Neutralization by A/acid, 800c*10´,PH 4.4-5 Biokill at 550c*5´ Enzyme (if required) at 550c*70-90´

Dyeing part of polyester: Leveling agent + A/acid (400c*10´,PH 4.4-5 ) Color dosing at 40 0C ,D.t:20´,R.t: 5-10´ Temp. raise at 1300c*50´,(30/min) Cooling at 780c Sample check (if ok)

B.D. Hot wash with reduction cleaning agent (hydrose+ caustic soda) at 900c*10´ Hot wash at 900c Neutralization by A/acid Cold wash

Dyeing of Cotton part: Leveling agent (400c*10´) Salt inject at 40 0C, R.t:20´ PH:6-6.5 Color dosing at 40 0C *D.t:30-40´, R.t: 20´ Soda dosing at 400c*D.t:35-40´,R.t: 5´ Temp. raise at 600c*,R.t: 20-60´ Sample check (if ok) B.D. Cold wash Normal hot wash at 50-600c, R.t:10´ Neutralization by A/acid at 500c, R.t:20´ Hot wash with washing agent at 70-900c, R.t:10´ Cold wash Add Fixing agent at 400c, R.t:10-15´ Softening at 400c, R.t:10-15´ Unload

Process flow chart for polyester dyeing (Light shade): Water loading ↓ Fabric loading ↓ Scouring chemicals (98° c, 40 min) ↓ Rinsing (95° c, 30 min); (80 °c10 min);(60 °c,5 min) ↓ Neutralization (60° c, 12 min) ↓ Rinsing (60 °c, 15 min) ↓ Leveling chemicals (60° c, 10 min) ↓ Ph check (4.5~4.8) ↓ (80° c-mixing) Adding dyes (60 °c, 15min-dosing) ↓ Running (60° c, 10 min) ↓ Temp. Rise (60 °c to 95° c, 1.5-Gradient)

↓ Temp. Rise (95 °c to 130° c, 1.0-Gradient) ↓ Hold time (40 min) ↓ Cool down (130° c to 95° c, 1.0-Gradient) ↓ Cool down (95° c to 80° c, 1.5-Gradient) ↓ Sample cutting ↓ Shade match (ok) ↓ Rinsing (until water clean) ↓ Reduction clearing (80° c, 30 min) ↓ Rinsing (80° c, 30min) ↓ Reduction clearing (80 °c, 30min) ↓ Rinsing (80° c, 30min) ↓ Cooling (80 °c to 60° c, 1.0-Gradient) ↓ Neutralization (60° c, 10min) ↓

Rinsing (60° c, 10min) ↓ Hot wash (70° c, 15min) ↓ Rinsing (60° c, 10min) ↓ Temp. Down (60 °c-40 °c) ↓ Sample cutting ↓ Shade match ↓ Apply softener (40° c, 10min) ↓ Fabric unload

Some Process & Using Chemical Recipe: Stripping (to remove color): Hot wash Acetic acid (0.6 gm/l) ↓Run 800C, 10 min

Stripping Caustic (10 gm/l) and Hydrose (8 gm/l) ↓Run 1100C, 40 min

Half bleach Detergent (0.80 gm/l) Sequestering agent (0.10 gm/l) Antifoaming agent (0.70 gm/l) Ant creasing agent (1.0 gm/l) [only for S/J, Lycra S/J] Stabilizer (0.20 gm /l) Caustic Soda (2.0 gm/l) Soda (1.0 gm/l) H2O2 (2.0 gm/l) [dosing at 700C, 6 min] Run at 950C, 40 min Hot wash (without chemical)

↓Run at 800C, 10 min

Neutralization (bleaching) Acetic acid (1.20 gm/l) ↓Run at 700C, 10 min

Hot wash (with chemical) Per-oxide killer (0.20 gm/l) [PH Check 5.6 to 7] ↓Run at 500C, 20 min Dyeing

Topping: In addition, color matching not control, topping or redyeing or reprocessing – Bath drain ↓ Washing (400C) Leveling (1 gm/l) ↓ Salt transfer (less) ↓Run at 600C, 20 min Color dosing (as required shade) ↓Run at 600C, 30 min Soda dosing

Addition: Soda dosing ↓ Sample check ↓If not OK Cool to 400C ↓ Color dosing ↓Run at 400C, 15 min Temperature rise to 600C ↓ Sample check

Color or salt which should be dosed first: 1. In case of 0-1.0% (light) shade color is dosed first then salt dissolving is performed. 2. In case of 1-2.5% (medium) shade salt is dissolved at first then color is dosing. 3. In case of 3 & above% (dark) shade salt is dissolved at first then color is dosing.

Common dyeing faults with their remedies 1. Uneven dyeing: Causes:

- Uneven pretreatment (uneven scouring & bleaching). - Improper color dosing. - Using dyes of high fixation property. - Uneven heat-setting in case of synthetic fibers. - Lack of control on dyeing m/c

Remedies: - By ensuring even pretreatment. - By ensuring even heat-setting in case of synthetic fibers. - Proper dosing of dyes and chemicals. - Proper controlling of dyeing m/c

2. Batch to Batch Shade variation: Causes: - Fluctuation of Temperature. - Improper dosing time of dyes & chemicals. - Batch to batch weight variation of dyes and chemicals. - Dyes lot variation. - Improper reel speed, pump speed, liquor ratio. - Improper pretreatment.

Remedies: - Use standard dyes and chemicals. - Maintain the same liquor ratio. - Follow the standard pretreatment procedure. - Maintain the same dyeing cycle. - Identical dyeing procedure should be followed for the same depth of the Shade. - Make sure that the operators add the right bulk chemicals at the same time and temperature in the process. -The pH, hardness and sodium carbonate content of supply water should check daily.

3. Roll to roll variation or Meter to Meter variation: Causes: - Poor migration property of dyes. - Improper dyes solubility. - Hardness of water. - Faulty m/c speed, etc

Remedies: - Use standard dyes and chemicals. - Proper m/c speed. - Use of soft water

4. Crease mark: Causes: - Poor opening of the fabric rope - Shock cooling of synthetic material - If pump pressure & reel speed is not equal - Due to high speed m/c running

Remedies: - maintaining proper reel sped & pumps speed.

- Lower rate rising and cooling the temperature - Reducing the m/c load - Higher liquor ratio

5. Dye spot: Causes: - Improper Dissolving of dye particle in bath. - Improper Dissolving of caustic soda particle in bath.

Remedies: - By proper dissolving of dyes & chemicals - By passing the dissolved dyestuff through a fine stainless steel mesh strainer, so that the large un-dissolved particles are removed

6. Wrinkle mark: Causes: - Poor opening of the fabric rope - Shock cooling of synthetic material - High temperature entanglement of the fabric

Remedies: - Maintaining proper reel sped & pump speed. - Lower rate rising and cooling the temperature - Higher liquor ratio

7. Softener Mark: Causes: - Improper mixing of the Softener. - Improper running time of the fabric during application of softener. - Entanglement of the fabric during application of softener

Remedies: - Maintaining proper reel sped & pump speed. - Proper Mixing of the softener before addition. - Prevent the entanglement of the fabric during application of softener

Finishing Section Finishing: The making of a marketable and consumer usable textile is not completed after fabric production dyeing or printing operation. Fabrics usually still need to undergo an additional processing known as finishing, which is the final processing before the fabric is cut into apparel or made into any articles of textiles. Finishing is what improves attractiveness and makes fabrics suitable for their in tended end use. Finishing section is consisting of two lines. They are – A)Tube line B)Open line A. B.

The machine that are used for open line are given bellow – Slitting and Dewatering machine Stenter machine The machines that are used for tube line are given bellow –.


Dewatering machine Dryer Compactor machine

Process flow Chart for Finishing Section: Finishing

Open Finish

Tube Finish

Slitting and Dewatering







Inspection Delivery

Utility Services Utility Facilities Available: in ICC Ltd. Electricity


Source Gas/Diesel Generator



Compressed air

Air Compressor





Temperature Control

A/C Chiller

Electricity /Power Source: 1. Generator

No of generator: 02 Equipment used: 1. Gas generator 2. Diesel generator

Gas generator Manufacturer : Waukesha Power Systems Maximum Capacity : 1030 KW Requirement Capacity : 750-800 KW

Gas Gas is mainly used for steam production Gas is bought from TITAS Generally 36cubic meter gas is required to produce one ton steam.

Water Source: ground water Hot water: 430 cubic meters come from pump per hour and central for water reservoir which contains hot water of 800c. Cold water: 300 cubic meters come from pump per hour and underground reservoir tank to store cold water.

A/C Chiller The machine by which water is cooled down below its normal temperature is called chiller. It is used to control the temperature and humidity. Medium used here water. Others Electrical wirings: here the electrical wiring system is bus bar tanking system where copper plate is used for electricity transmission instead of copper wire.

Pipeline Here there are different pipeline in the floor. For high pressure steam 1. For return steam 2. For pressure balance 3. For hot water and cold water 4. For compressed air

Boiler Steam generator or boiler is usually a closed vessel made of steel. There is one boiler in ICC Ltd.

Function: Boiler function is to the heat produced by the combustion of fuel (Gas) to water and ultimately to generator steam. The steam produced may be supplied in wet processing department for –

 Heating cylinder dryer  Steaming during dyeing Objects: For supplying steam.

Types of steam:  Wet steam  Dry saturated steam, and  Superheated steam. In wet steam is used for the relevant processes.

Boiler m/c Specification Brand Name Origin Type Capacity Pressure Temperature Fuel

: COCHRAN : Scotland : Fire tube boiler : 8 ton per hour : 5 bar : 188º C : Natural Gas

Water supply for the boiler Water required for steam production is supplied by deep tube well.

Pretreatment of the boiler water: Boiler feed water needs special standard. Any deviation from the required standard may result in scale formation, which eventually reduces the efficiency of the boiler. This ultimately affects the cost of steam generation and makes the production cost high. To maintain the required standard of the water, there should be some means to pretreatment that the boiler feed water. To protect scale formation of boiler, NELCO is used as chemical in water feed tank. 200 gm NELCO is injected per 12 hrs. In ICC Ltd. there are water softeners that act before the water enters the boiler.

Compressed Air The compressed air is supplied from air condition from air compressor. There are one air compressors in ICC Ltd.

Cost of different Utilities: •

Electricity Cost: Gas generator = 2.70 TK/KW- HR Diesel generator = 6.50 TK/ KW-HR

Gas Cost: 4.94 TK/m3 for boiler 3.66 TK/m3 for generator 4.6 TK/m3 for domestic Purpose

Steam Cost: 4.20 TK/ m3 Kg fabric

Remarks: For smooth running of factory main utilities like gas, electricity or steam is very essential. Sometimes gas pressure is low than required pressure. When the gas pressure is low, then diesel generators run (But ICC Ltd. Stop some m/c). Government should have to ensure proper gas supply for Industry.

WATER TREATMENT PLANT Natural water quality: Water for a textile plant may come from various sources. These include surface water from rivers and lakes, and subterranean water from wells. In International Classic Composite Limited they collect water from Under ground. The various salts present in water depend on the geological formations through which the water has flowed. These salts are mainly the carbonates (CO 32- ), hydrogen carbonates or bicarbonates ( HCO3- ), Sulphates ( SO42-) and chlorides ( Cl-) of calcium ( Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+) . Although calcium and magnesium carbonates in limestone are relatively insoluble in water. So in this reasons, water hardness can be divided into two ways1.Temporary Hardness : Ca(HCO3)2 , Mg(HCO3)2 , Fe(HCO3)2 . 2.Permanent Hardness : CaCl2 , CaSO4 , Ca (NO3)2 , MgCl2 , MgSO4 ,Mg(NO3)2 . This water hardness causes some serious consequences in a textile dyeing and finishing Industries and these are – • Precipitation of soaps. • Redeposit ion of dirt and insoluble soaps on the fabric being washed , • This can cause yellowing and lead to uneven dyeing and poor handle. • Precipitation of some dyes as calcium and magnesium salts. • Scale formation on equipment and in boilers and pipelines. • Reduction of the activity of the enzymes used in washing. • Incompatibility with chemicals in finishing recipes and so on. Hardness expressed by parts per million (ppm) of CaCO3 which is standard Hardness scale and it is also called American hardness. The hardness of raw water is 100 ppm or more. To use it in dyeing and in boiler this water must need to soft & foreign materials needs to remove.

Hardness range: Industrial Soft-water std. range is 5 ppm but it is very difficult to control. So in this industry, water hardness scale maintains 7 to 8 ppm of CaCO3.


Factory are obeying and maintaining international and local law’s, Human rights, social compliance, Labor law and other rules and instruction by related department of Government.

Welfare Facilities: 1. Induction of workers committee aimed at improving workers morale, job satisfaction & attendance. 2. Canteen facilities. 3. Subsidized lunch for staff. 4. Free snacks for workers. 5. Full time free of medical service provide by a professional Doctor. 6. Provision for day care center for workers children, annual picnic. 7. Cultural function. 8. Each floor has sufficient number of washroom. 9. Each floor has sufficient lighting to facilitate production. 10. A large dining hall is in our factory including pure drinking water and well sitting arrangement. 11. Maternity leave and benefit for female workers are provided as per labor law.

Recruitment Policy 1. No child labor in factory. 2. No gender discrimination in recruitment procedure. 3. There is no force for labor

SOME SUGGESTIONS 1. Knitting production needs to increase as well as technical persons need to be employed there. 2. More skilled labor should be used in a project and the overall efficiency will increase. 3. Should increase understanding between the top level personnel and floor level personnel. 4. Finishing section need to be enlarged well as more technical persons need to be employed there.

5. In knitting and finishing section every workers should use mask to make protect them from fly. Otherwise the exhaust air system should be more effective. 6. Workers are not interested to wear their gown & hand gloves. 7. In the Laboratory there is no technical person, a textile engineer may be employed there.

LIMITATIONS OF THIS REPORT 1. Because of secrecy act, the data on costing and marketing activities have not been supplied. 2. We had a very limited time. In spite of our willing to study more it was not possible to do so. 3. Some points in different chapters are not included as these were not available. 4. It is not possible to hold the whole thing of a textile industry in such a small frame as this report. So, try our hard to summarize all the information that we are provided

CONCLUSION There is large difference between the theoretical knowledge and practical experiences. This is truer in case of the study of Textile Technology. Industrial attachment or, Industrial training is an essential part for textile education because it minimizes the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge. This Industrial training increases our thought a lot about textile technology. It also helps us to know a lot about industrial production process, machineries, and industrial management and made us suitable for industrial life. Besides it gives to the first opportunity to work in industry. So I can say industrial attachment prepare us for the expected destiny of practical life. I have completed my industrial attachment from International Classic Composite Ltd. During my two-month short time industrial training at International Classic Composite Ltd, I got the impression that this factory is one of the new & modern export oriented composite knit garments industry of our country. This factory does not compromise in case of quality. So, they have established on-line and off-line quality control of each product. Besides, they also use the good quality yarn, dyes and chemicals in their production process. Due to this, it has earned a “very good reputation� in foreign market for its quality product over many other export oriented textile mills. It has very well educated and technically experienced manpower to get rid of any defect in production process. It has also a good organizational hierarchy. We wish the better future of International Classic Composite Ltd.