K. Chandra Hari1 I.
Zodiac remains the most controversial of all contributions of antiquity to the modern civilization. Often considered as the product of primitive imagination of the Babylonians, Zodiac has withstood the challenge of modern scientific world as the core of ancient occult wisdom and in one form or the other has been influencing the society astrologically, perhaps, in the most unscientific manner. Present work is not an effort to prove astrology as science but to bring to light the original rationale with which the zodiac or a model of time was conceived out of the celestial rhythms apparent on earth. II.
Zodiac in India – Rationale of the 21600 Minutes of Arc
In India Zodiac (mathematical abstraction of the ecliptic as a circle of 3600 and 21600’) is known by different names as K lacakra, R icakra, Jyoti cakra etc and explanations are available for each name. Looking at the astronomical works, we can see in S ryasiddh nta:
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“Time is the destroyer of the worlds; another is the computed intervals. The latter is gross and minute or conceivable and inconceivable. Time in units of pr na is real and experienced and those like truti are imaginary. Six pr nas make a vin d , sixty of which is a n d “ Here we see the most fundamental Hindu conceptions of Time based on the duration of breath viz., Pr na during which the earth/celestial sphere was imagined to revolve through one minute of arc and thus the wheel of time was abstracted into 21600 minutes of arc or Pr na. It is said in G tik 6 of / (. i.e., the earth rotates one minute of arc in one breath of a man, of ryabhata too course of a Yogi. Pauli a siddh nta too aired the same notion as is evident from Alberuni2. It is apparent from the above that we have the conception of a human being of 21600 Pr na a day or 360 Pr na in 1N d or 900 Pr na in one hour – a being in tune with the sidereal rotation of earth. From sunrise to sunrise, Hindus observed the day and breath exercise or ‘pr n y ma’ had been a routine matter of the lives of ancient people as may be understood from the ancient literature. Against such a scenario, can it be accidental that we see the terminology of Yoga stra, all through out the Indian literature of astronomy and astrology – Jyotih stra? 1. Calendar is luni-solar and the same is true about the Yoga conception of breathing through two n d s ascribed to Moon and Sun viz., Id and Pi gal .
firstname.lastname@example.org Ghayasuddin, Var hamihira, The Best Sanskrit Source of Al-Biruni on Indian Jyotisa, IJHS 10(2), p.141 2
2 2. Luni-Solar phenomena, the 30 lunar days are the most important unit of time for Hindus. Even in that the new moon, full moon and the quarters are more important for Up sana and the eclipses are the most sacred times. 3. Scientific analysis of the verses of Rkjyotisa point out that the ancient Indian calendar was of 19 years which facilitated easy prediction of eclipses. 4. Present author has shown that ancient Indian Zodiac was M l dh ra R hu- ikhi Cakra, the rationale of which underscores a Yoga basis for Jyotih stra and provide explanation for many subtle observances and terminology existing in Jyotisa, Yoga and gama stras. 5. It is illuminating to recollect that D p vali originally marked the solar transit over M la naksatra (M l dh ram) and the array of lights reflected the descriptions of Kundalin in Tantra while the lighting lamps symbolized the initiation of Jyoti (Vidy rambam) or Kundalin in all human beings. 6. M la being defined as having fixed sidereal longitude of 2400, marked the death point and as the source of Kundalin represented the resurrection or eternal life and thus the star came to be personified as Mah k la in Tantra - Mrtyu and Mrtyunjaya. It also marked the genitals and hence the genital worship of both male and female personifications of time. 7. Being fundamental reference for the occult triad of sciences Jyotisa, Yoga and gama and the source of Kundalin vis-à-vis human creativity Mah k la became the preceptor for all kinds of Jñ na. Time therefore had a very important role to play in Yoga. III.
Science of breath (Svara) in Yoga
To further understand the Yoga influence on the astronomical conceptions, we need to have a peep into some works on Yoga that deal with the breathing patterns. ivasvarodaya is perhaps the only work that is available now and in that we find: 1. Breaths move in the fashion of ‘Hamsa’ (hamsac rasvar pen –verse 10)
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21600 respirations find a description in these verses of Hathayogaprad pik . 2. It’s well known that the Hamsa stride over the n dis Id and Pi gal about which we can find:
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Id and Pi gal also are known as Candra and S rya n dis and the same is described as aligned along the route of Pr na. 3. In verses 48 – 52 we can find explanation as to ‘Sa’ being breathing-in and akti and ‘Ha’ means breathing-out and iva respectively controlled by Moon and Sun. An explicit
3 correlation between the pattern of breathing and the Sun and Moon? We need to look further into the work. 4. In verse 62, it’s said: “On the first day of the bright fortnight Id is more active while for the first day of the dark fortnight, the Pi gal is more active. They remain powerful as described especially for the first three days of each fortnight”
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5. In the 63rd verse the daily breathing pattern of the fortnights are described as:
B$% ) # C * 1<= >? / *+ * $% BDEF @G C4 . # *4 @J H 1 44 I 31 ' “Svara of Moon in light fortnight and Sun in dark fortnight covers the 60 n dis of the day, alternately for 2.5 n dis” “Yogis should keenly understand the onset of light and dark fortnights by the occurrence of the svara of Moon and Sun respectively” Here we see find an ideal pattern of breathing described in relation to the luni-solar phenomena and as explained in the succeeding verses, the aim of Pr n y ma is to achieve control over the process and the desired pattern – one who has control over the two n dis Id and Pi gal is a Yogi. We can also see the unit of Hora or Hour here – 2.5n d s – the alternate intervals of sun and moon over day and night. K lahoras too derive its existence from the same and is the basis of weekdays. The zodiac divisions of the name ‘Hora’ – half of each sign owned by sun and moon – is an adaptation of the above said pattern of n d s. 6. The interrelationship of the breaths and the external luni-solar cycles is clearly stated as:
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“The sun is in control of the s rya-svara and moon is linked to the Candra-svara. One who knows the maintenance of this rhythm can conquer the world in no time. Rising of Sun in Candra-svara and setting in S rya-svara keeps one in the best of qualities and the opposite is to be avoided” 7. Rationale of the Weekdays is explained as:
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Q *# # 8 C4 * @R : 56 3<= / <= 1 ( <= ,<= 8 *# *4 * L “On the days of Moon, Jupiter, Mercury and Venus, especially in the bright fortnight and on the days of Sun, Mars and Saturn especially on the dark fortnight, the left and right n d are auspicious for undertaking all works” 8. Year beginning and the solstices
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“On the morning of Caitra ukla-pratipada and the Daksin yana and Uttar yana, the adept Yogi must observe the flow of pañcabh tas to understand the nature of time ahead” We thus find a description of the various elements of the luni-solar calendar in relation to the breathing phenomenon of the human body. Extreme importance attached to astronomy in the ancient civilizations and Hindu way of life now allows a better comprehension. Id , Pi gal and Susumn were known all through out the ancient world as is evident from the following: 9. Id
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The most popular work of T ntrik Anatomy, description of the Tantrik body with the verse:
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23 4 5 )* 1 . 67 8 .1 9 5:8 .3 ; 5< 3 = 5> < . ?ƒ @A B On the periphery of Meru at the left and right are the two veins, a i and Mihira (moon & sun). In the middle is placed Susumna possessed of the three qualities and the of form of moon, sun and 'agni' extending from the middle of Kanda to the Head like a string of pomegranate flowers - holds inside the shining Vajra-n d from the genitals to the head Here we find that the cerebro-spinal axis is equated with Meru that stands for the North Pole and the earth' s axis in astronomy. Sun is supposed to revolve round it. Moon and Sun placed on either side of Meru in Tantra represent the two n d s Id ) and Pi gal ( ) connected with the alternate breathing from the right to the left nostril and vice versa. Avlon has quoted !"# $% to indicate that the Sun generally represents poison and Moon nectar and both were obtained at the churning of the Milky Way. Special attention needs to be paid to these three nadis. Avlon says that and are indicative of Time or K la &' and Susumn ())*devours K la &'+When viewed in the light of breathing pattern through the left and right nostrils it' s evident that Id and Pi gal are governed
5 by the Moon and Sun or in other words indicative of Time by their representation of the time indications or biorhythms that are derived from Moon and Sun. We saw above that:
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. ( mantra 21600 times a day and it is this phenomenon that inspired All human beings chant the , the T ntriks to divide the path of Sun and Moon into 21600 kal s. It cannot be otherwise -the design that made on the sky had as its basis an earthly experience. In this context, it is interesting to note the following comments of Avlon: "The three are also known as Ga g -< , Yamun " ) < and Sarasvat (0 ( < ())*after the names of the three sacred rivers of India. The M l dh ra is the meeting place of the three "rivers" and hence is called Yukta-triven ") =5 / " Avlon certainly had oversight - the n d s were not at all named after the rivers and on the contrary the rivers and places of India were named after the tantrik conceptions as is evident from the missing Triven of Prayag. Hindus have become foolish enough to look for Triveni and the ' underground'Sarasvati at Prayag (Allahabad) as they have forgotten the tantrik origin of their way of life. Related to Ga g and Yamun is the matsya - one of the five ' ma' k ras of Tantra. The two fishes of Ga g and Yamun biting each other' s tails represent the breathing process and is the symbolism of M na r i or zodiacal sign Pisces. Further, Avlon has quoted Y mala " to express the geometry of these three most important n d s: "On its (i.e. Meru' s) left and right are Id and Pi gal . These two go straight up, alternating from left to right and right to left and having thus gone round all the Lotuses, these auspicious ones proceed to the nostrils" These sun and moon n d s thus form along with the Agni n d and j単 cakra form the Caduceus of Mercury - the prehistoric symbol of immortality. According to Greeks, the Caduceus is the magic staff of Hermes with which he tranquilized two warring serpents that got entwined on his staff forming what is called the caduceus, a symbol of opposing forces held in balance. It is used as a symbol of healing since prehistoric times and represents the polarity of the Universe and the union of opposites as in the case of the inhaling and exhaling currents of breath. IV.
Greek Legend of Aesculapius
Aesculapius was the son of Apollo, the God of prophecy and healing -the equivalent of the Siva of Hindus. Aesculapius was tutored in medicine by Centaur (Chiron - the Sagittarius ) and became very proficient and got killed by Jupiter on the request of Hades (Yama) who feared that Aesculapius would make all immortal. Winged staff and the serpent was obviously the symbol of such healers who had the t ntrik power with them. A single serpent represented the Agnin d (Susumn ) or Kundalin while two intertwined were Id and Pi gal - there' s no conflict as some people tries to make out that the staff of Aesculapius had only one serpent. He chose to represent as his symbol the Susumn or the active Kundalin ) &' or > ) 6- instead of the two n d s ? of Caduceus. Winged Staff as the symbol of healing and the association of Sagittarius with the God of healing reminds us of the Hindu conception of Dhanvantar @ 0 who brought forth immortality A B-from the Milky Way A 3 - . The inter-relationship of Tantra & Jyotisa is thus apparent even in the Greek legends.
Astronomical Implications of the Yoga-n d conceptions
Astronomical implications of the above conceptions and the role played by Yoga in shaping the Hindu way of life or antiquity is seldom discussed. See for example the following verses: •
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A Tantra work discussing about R hu cannot be an accidental or an incidental diversion to discuss the legends about R hu. What is discussed is the auspiciousness of the eclipse times and the role of the lunar nodes and luni-solar phenomena in facilitating Yogasiddhi. P rvat , asks: “Everywhere R hu is famous as Cand la, O’ Great Lord. How then his conjunction with Sun leads to auspicious times? Same with the Moon as well; please elaborate this aspect first and the rest later”
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“When ambhu joins Dev the eclipses occur and iva akti union takes place. The left n d is kindled at the time of a lunar eclipse while the right one in solar and at the new year (agni), the susumn is kindled. R hu is iva and the master of the three gunas and at eclipses the iva joins akti” Last verses are allegorical and has hidden meanings3. But it’s undoubtedly sure that the eclipse times were in use in the realization of Yoga akti and thus astronomical development received great sponsoring in ancient societies. The equation that we see of R hu and iva is not without any basis. 3
R hu (ascending node of Moon) is popular as of mean caste but then how is it that its contact with Sun and Moon is considered as auspicious times (for t ntrik worship/ practice) – O’ Lord, please clear this doubt before deliberating on other aspects. O’ Dev , eclipses are highly auspicious – eclipses are of three kinds: of the Moon, Sun and the Fire. On the forehead eye of the t ntrik resides the Fire, in the left eye Moon and the Sun in the right eye. Eclipse induces the play of ambhu and Devi in the t ntrik and iva unites with akti – the three eyes left, right and the forehead ones respectively responds to the the three occult powers of the t ntrik represented by the Sun, Moon and the invisible Fire. R hu is well known as iva and the epitome of the three gunas and eclipses
mean the togetherness of iva and akti in ecstacy.
7 At K lahasti - the temple of R hu & ikhi, both are worshipped as Li ga. Further, the nodes have the name K lasarpa while Li ga is also K la. In the nava-graha temple at K m khy , all the planets are worshipped as Li ga. In the nava-graha temples of the Karaikal – Kumbakonam area too Li ga is a prime deity along with the graha concerned.
Against the background of the above discussion on Yoga, it’s easy to realize that the Zodiac or Wheel of Time (K lapurusa) was conceived as an exact replica of the Yogapurusa and in this matching of the external and internal rhythms, M la – the star marked the Li ga or source of Kundalin was fiduciary and thus the wheel was called M l dh ra R hu– ikhi Cakra. For common terminology we need only ‘s rya, candra, n d , yoga, bhukti, bhoga, k la, preceptors iva and akti or N gar ja and N gayaks , Jyoti, Kundalin etc as examples. What we see implicit in all the above notions is an astronomical modeling of time by the Yogis to facilitate the attainment of Yoga. In other words the impact of celestial rhythms over a yogic body suggested a specific geometry to the circannual rhythms – i.e., it suggested a specific sidereal lunisolar calendar having the star Mûla (λ-Scorpii) as reference. T ntric sidereal zodiac had its signs relative to this stellar reference that became famous as Mûladharam (Mûla, the fiducial) and on the Yogic body it marked the position of genitals and bottom of the cerebro-spinal axis. In legends this supreme secret got personified as Mahakala or Great Time and it got scripted into ancient traditions as genital worship of time. We shall attempt a detailed look at the phenomenon of time and the modeling achieved by the Yogis.
9 - Rationale and the Modeling of Time Achieved Any discussion on Jyotih stra is meaningless unless we understand the intricacy and mystery of time. Long deliberations have taken place about Time in Indian antiquity a summary of which we can find in Vidy ranya' s K lanirnaya:
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What is notable in the above account is the reliance of a Vedic proponent like Vidy ranya on iva in explaining the origin of the principle of time. Moreover it's said that Mah muni Kan d obtained Sarvaj単atvam and the true import of Vedas by worshipping iva.
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When the purusa creates the world, the five tattvas - k l, niyati, kal , vidy and r ga are born of m ya. (m ya + 5 + 5 ( iva akty di) + 25 of S mkhya = 36)
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Maya endowed with multifarious powers generates time, which authors the world of apparent past, present and future.
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Time described in terms of past, present etc., has its genesis but no such thing for the eternal Time beyond such descriptions.
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(Time in its two aspects as the ' commom'and ' special'have their origin from the eternal time known as Isvara as has been said by Manu):
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(Time and its forms as well as indicators such as nakshatras and planets were created towards the purpose of creating life):
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(There, Time of common manifestation is apparent in its special aspect that in tune with the course of ' graha'becomes causative of life - according to the experts of Jyotisa). After presenting the intricacy of conceiving time and its different forms, Vidy ranya now describes the time as we encounter in everyday life and computed in its astronomical form.
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(Time as God - as the cause of manifestation and dissolution of the world - gets expressed in Jyotisa in terms of the naksatras and grahas.
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Phenomenon of Time is further described using the analogy of rivers:
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Brahma created the whole world and the year on the first day of Caitra and instituted the calendar with the conception of graha, n ga, rt , m sa, samvatsara and the lord of samvatsara. In the above two references we meet with the conception of calendar years beginning with Caitraukla-1 and also the r i Mesa as is the prevalent Vedic tradition. As is well known, Vidy ranya ventured to establish &' with the aid of his wholesome knowledge arising from the 18 Vidyas and 14 stras. But his dissertation is silent about the rationale with which the year beginning is fixed or in other words the co-ordinate geometry and spatial orientation. We can see this issue getting discussed in Da dhy y $ % 3@"" almost thousand years ago - much before Vidy ranya.
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How could ' Time'- an abstraction having neither a conceivable beginning nor a foreseeable end, which appears to be an incessant flow beyond the grasp of anyone be credited with a shape as "wheel of time'(K lacakra or R icakra) of geometrical and spatial manifestation over the ecliptic or appearance of r is and naksatras? How does the formless Time is credited with a form? Or how does the incomprehensible Time can be conceptualized or modeled? How the formless Time has been credited with a limb structure of the spatial r is formed within the twenty-seven naksatras? Bhattatiri' s answer was certainly scientific:
- "K lacakra is a modeling of time for predictive purposeâ€Ś."
But how and on what basis was this model created/conceptualization made? The most fundamental question involved in the examination of the truth of astrology is the validity of this modeling of the apparent path of the Sun into the Zodiac: The ecliptic is a circle and scientifically speaking, on a circle every point is on a par with the other to be considered as the zero point. Under such a situation what is the rationale of the choice of the zero point that serves the astrologers to delineate human and mundane destiny? Modeling of Time in Tantra
&' discussed by Vidy ranya and its forms such as limbs of year/elements of calendar are not the same as the Time of aiv gama and Tantra. Tantra adapts Time differently for macrocosm and microcosm - for microcosm as K lapurusa or Jyoti cakra - a specific geometry and coordinates on the apparent solar orbit from which the limbs of time/calendar evolve and is also made use of in understanding the bio-cosmic tie up apparent in Jyotisa. The t ntrik calendar is based on a mathematical projection of the yogic psycho-physico-spiritual rhythm on to the apparent solar and lunar orbits and the fixed stellar frame of reference so obtained is named after the nodes of solar and lunar orbit which implies the tapping of a celestial rhythm inherent in the eclipses. In other words the impact of celestial rhythms over a yogic body suggested a specific geometry to the circannual rhythms - i.e., it suggested a specific sidereal luni-solar calendar having the star M la (Îť-Scorpii) as reference. T ntrik sidereal zodiac had its divisions relative to this stellar reference that became famous as M l dh ram (M la, the fiducial) and on the Yogic body it marked the position of genitals and bottom of the cerebro-spinal axis. In legends this supreme secret got personified as Mah k la or Great Time and it got scripted into ancient traditions as genital worship of time.
11 For microcosm the time representation is derived from Jyoti cakra using the birth time as reference. As we saw above Kundalini manifests as the first cry and kundalin is the manifestation of biocosmic time, the experience we call as Niyati. Yogic experience of Kundalin (the manifestation of k la akti as yoga akti) and the realization of bio-cosmic time enabled the modeling of time as Jyoti cakra with M la as reference. Tantra conceives the world (( 0 -in terms of the two paths of ' evolution'and ' involution'tied up like the fishes biting the tail of each other - in other words the paths of sun and moon or srsti and moksa or Devay na and Pitry na or Uttar yana and Daksin yana or ukla and krsnapaksa - all these phenomena symbolize the advent of Man as a result of the Cosmobiological evolution of Mah kundalin and man' s return to the Mah kundalin via the path of Yogakundalin - manifestation of time, K la akti as Jyoti or Kuladevata in human beings. Jyotih stra is thus the Yoga stra and Moksa stra when understood properly. It is said in the gamas that the various calendar events relating to macrocosm as given below correspond to various yogic experiences:3
( ] *#( /:>? F <= " : ( 4^_<= "( ( ^_<= "( #() (: H+. `a( ) V # M!<( = () ( + ( # *# Z(4# $% F + 4#<= / ( ( 2,- 456 3 /: / 1 *# # b56 3 2,1 0 456 3 b56 3 *# ( F + OP ^_ b>? Z :4 <="OP .3 ( : >? X>? * >?1( # ( ' : X>?(K# c “Pr na has ten manifestations in the body that correlates to the 10 external astronomical occurrences samkr nti, visu (equinoxes), day, night, winter & summer solstices, intercalary months tithis reckoned and un-reckoned….Breath through Id on the left is Uttar yana and through Pi gala is Daksin yana – through both Id & Pi gal or Susumn is Visu…retention of breath at An hata is the eclipse of moon while that 12 digits above the crest is solar eclipse…” Roughly this is the meaning of the verses. It can be certain that the verses have its genesis from the effects of these astronomical occurrences over the Yogic body. For example the time of eclipses may be the best occasion for practicing Kumbaka, day for controlling pr na and night for ap na. We see in the above the existence of a bio-cosmic time, celestial rhythms influencing the human body in a special way, a specific geometry to the circannual rhythm – the symbolic equivalence of the microcosm with macrocosm in a demonstrable way. VI.
Realization or Experimental Verification of the Influence of Bio-Cosmic Time
(a) Work of Hiroshi Motoyama Svami Satyananda Sarasvati has acclaimed the work of Hiroshi Motoyama5 on two grounds: It presents a unique and authentic record of the spiritual experiences of an adept in whom the Kundalin has been awakened by Yogic practices
Secondary source gives reference as: r rad tri ati k lottar gama: 11:3-9 Motoyama, H., Theories of the Chakras – Bridge to Higher Consciousness, New Age Books, New Delhi-28 5
12 It’s the unique record of pioneering experiments conducted at the Institute for Religious psychology, Tokyo, which presents clear, electro-physiological evidence of the existence of carkas and n d which form the infrastructure of the subtle energies existing in the pr nic and psychic dimensions… Motoyama in his work attempts a correlation between parts of the t ntrik Cakra-N d system with certain Chineese acupuncture meridians. Important identifications are: Susumn → Governor Vessel Meridian (GVM) having control function over the 6 Yang meridians. Extends from the tip of the coccyx to the upper lip and is said to carry the ‘ki’ energy Id and Pi gal , Motoyama identifies with the Urinary Bladder Meridians (UBM), but its t ntrik descriptions do not match with the Chinese identification. It is also suggested by many that these two n dis ending at the nostrils may be the pair of sympathetic nerve trunks that wrap around the spinal cord. Pr na is identified as the ‘ki’ energy of the cosmos entering through the Brahmadv ra. Cakras are connected with certain nervous plexuses and their internal organs – M l dh ra → sacral and coccygeal plexuses Sv dhisth na → sacral plexus; urogenital system Manip ra → solar plexus: digestive system An hata → cardiac plexus: circulatory system Vi uddhi → cervical ganglia: respiratory system jña → pituitary & pineal glands, autonomic nervous system Sahasr ra → Cerebral cortex: central nervous system Functional ranges of various associated organs may be studied in Yogis and compared to those who have got inactive Cakras. Other important N d s G ndh r → 3rd urinary bladder meridian on the left of susumn Hastijihv → 1st line of the urinary bladder meridian on the left side, lies beside Id Ya asvin → 1st line of the urinary bladder meridian on the right side,lies beside Pi gal P sa n d → 3rd line of the urinary bladder meridian on the right side Alambus → conception vessel meridian of the 14 acupuncture meridians Kuh n d → liver meridian a khin → kidney meridian Sarasvat → spleen-pancreas meridian V run → not identifiable with any of the acupuncture meridians Payasvin → gall bladder meridian ra n d → not identifiable with any of the acupuncture meridians Vi vodari → stomach meridian Other than the n d s, Yoga important roles.
stra postulate the 10 pr nas and 10 v yus etc, which play
(b) Incompleteness of the work of Motoyama As is well known, stupendous is the task involved in an experimental study of Yoga stra and the literature itself is only scarcely available. Further, the time factor is not well defined in most of the
13 works and Jyotih stra stands even devoid of its true meaning today. Motoyama’s work had therefore no consideration of the influence of the luni-solar phenomenon on the Yoga akti. Hor stra or the science of time is the science of Jyoti – Yog gni Kundalin – and therefore the time factor needs to be properly addressed when attempting the experimental detection of Pr na. (c) Luni –Solar Calendar of the Yogis All ancient civilizations had a pre-occupation with calendar phenomena and the cultural ruins of India, Babylon and Egypt attests the gigantic efforts gone into the making of a scientific calendar. Among all such efforts, the T ntrik calendar is special and is based on a physical rationale that strikes a symbolic equivalence between the Zodiac and the T ntrik body. T ntrik conception of time suggests different rhythms of Sun and Moon operating upon the two components of the autonomic nervous system (?)6 while the system as a whole responds in some mysterious way to the luni-solar rhythm apparent in the phenomenon of eclipses. The fact that the two invisible geometrical points where the orbits meet – the Nodes of the lunar orbit – was selected as of cardinal importance is evident from the name R hu –Sikhi Cakra and this alone attests the scientific spirit and realization involved in the formulation of T ntric Calendar and Zodiac. The sidereal zodiac was conceived in pursuance of the Yogic feel of the geometry of cosmic rhythms of luni-solar phenomena including the eclipses and thus the wheel of time got defined as M l dh ra R hu- ikhi Cakra. Why M l dh ra at 2400 to be the reference? Only Yoga stra is able to explain the rationale of a sidereal fixed zodiac and its reference point at 2400. Basic axioms of Yoga relevant to the context are: 1. Yoga ikhopanisad 5:5
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“In the J var pam or J vapurusa, the abode of iva is the triangular shaped M l dh ram placed between the anus and the genitals” 2. Pr n y ma
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“By Pr n y ma is meant the equilibrium of Pr na and Ap na achieved through breath control via exhalation, inhalation and holding of the breath” In G t we can find:
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“Adepts in Pr n y ma, a few sacrifice Pr na in Ap na and others Ap na in Pr na for regulating Pr na and Ap na”
(?) Confirmed Identity of the N d s is yet to be achieved
14 The need for regulating Pr na and Ap na is evident in:
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“Mind and the V yus (most importantly Pr na and Ap na) are analogous to a mix of milk and water in flow – wherever the V yu is mind attends to it and where the mind is V yu will be there” 3. M labandha
4 / K K / ( 3 3 (g Q hi " (
“There is no doubt that by practicing M labandha, Pr na/Ap na and N da/Bindu get united and Yogasiddhi is attained”
4j *.3 ( 41 ,& g: # Y 3# :4 *F #<= “Pressing the perineum/vagina with the heel and contracting the rectum, make Ap na rise upwards in successive steps” 4. Kula-devat
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“Near to the Svayambh li ga is the golden region called Kula where Dviranda and Dev D kin are found. At the center of that lotus is the Yoni where Kundalin resides and above which circles the lustrous K mab jam. The wise who always contemplates on this M l dh ra obtains D rdur siddhi (frog jump) and further…” 5. Extent of Yogan d s
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“Above this ( jñ cakra) at the base of the palate is the 1000-petalled lotus which holds the root of the Susumn and the orifice.
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“From the base of the palate to M l dh ra and the genitals extends Susumn downwards and all N d s stands linked to it. These N d s are the source of “tattvas” and leads one to the path of Brahm ”
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“There (at the M l dh ram) is Kundalin , the supreme deity of a being, coiled three and a half rounds situated at the mouth of susumn . She is creation in form and always creative, she is the deity of speech who is beyond speech and greeted by other Gods”. In these verses we find the significance of M l dh ram beyond any doubt and also the extent of the N d system that enabled man to become god through the path of Yoga. Jyotisa served to provide the time indications that achieved synchronicity of the microcosm with macrocosm – the geometry of the bio-cosmic energy field and use of time element to tap it. The relationship of Susumn and time according to Yoga will be discussed in a subsequent paper. For an experimental assessment of the above geometry of time vis-à-vis the celestial or calendar rhythms and its influence on human beings, we have different options as follows: 1. Choosing a sidereal luni-solar calendar beginning with Mesa-samkr nti or M lasamkr ma for studying the ‘ki’ potential and the pattern of breaths in a Yogi. 2. Following a lunar calendar Caitra- ukl di or M rga rs di and studying the ‘ki’ potential and the pattern of breaths in a Yogi. 3. Studies on the day of eclipses, new moon, full moon and the quarters, times of solstices and equinoxes 4. Special studies at the time of solar transits into R supposed to alternate.
is – Samkramams where the svara is
5. Studies based on weekdays to identify the possibility of different pattern of births A far more detailed calendar of specific moments can be worked out if any Institution is ready to undertake the experiments. VII.
Attempt above has been to highlight the interrelation ship of the ancient sciences Yoga and Jyotisa and to indicate that the sidereal zodiac is a T ntrik conception – “M l dh ra R hu ikhi Cakra – aimed to tap the bio-cosmic energy field for yogic pursuits. Many of our customs and traditions can be traced to a paradigm of thinking founded on this specific geometry of celestial or more understandably the luni-solar rhythm. D pav li that originally coincided with the solar transit of M la naksatra and the genital worship of time (Mah k la & Mah k li) are best examples. Obsession of T ntriks with time that we see in T ntrik literature and the synonymous phraseology or the terminology of Jyotisa derived from Tantra adds credence to the thesis. It is suggested that the role of Jyotisa in Yoga is experimentally testable and also that any verification of the power of Yoga will be incomplete without the incorporation of the time factor. 12/12/03 3:43 PM 12/24/03 10:30 AM
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