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amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

tIc-f-Ncn-{X-hpw tPymXnx-im-kv{X-hpw sI. N{µ-lcnx

tIcf¯nsâ KWn-XþtPymXnx-im-kv{X-]m-c-¼cyw temI-amsI {]kn-²-am-Wv. imkv{X-tem-I-¯nse shÅn-\-£-{X-amb Bcy-`-Ssâ P·-`q-an-sb¶ JymXnbpw ae--\mSv AYhm ae-bm-f-\mSv hos−-Sp-¯n-cn-¡p-¶p. Cu imkv{X-]m-c-¼cyw tIc-f-¯nse P\-X-Xn¡v \ÂInbn-cp¶ [\y-X-sb´mWv? \½psS P\-Po-hn-X¯nÂ, kmaq-ln-Ihpw kmwkvIm-cn-Ihpamb cwK-§-fnÂ, GXp-hn[amb ssIs¿m-¸mWv Cu hn{ipX imkv{X-]m-c-¼-cy-¯n-tâ-Xmbn \ap¡v ImWp-hm³ Ign-bp-¶Xv? {InkvXp-hÀjw Bdmw \qäm-−n temI-¯n\v A¡mew hsc e`y-am-bn-cp-¶-Xn Gähpw kq£va-amb tPymXnÀK-WnXw kw`m-h\ sNbvX tIc-f-¯nsâ Ncn{Xw GXm−v sImÃ-hÀjm-cw`w hsc Ahy-à-ambn \ne-sImÅp¶ sshNn-{Xy-¯n\v Imc-W-sa´v? sImÃ-hÀj¯n\v ap¼v tIc-f-¯n Hcp Ime-K-W\ D−mbncp-¶ntÃ? Ncn-{X-]-c-ambn t\m¡p-t¼mÄ, tIc-f-¯nse AÔ-Im-c-bp-K-¯n-emWv alm-im-kv{X-Im-c-·m-cmb Bcy-`-S\pw lcn-Z-¯\pw Pohn-¨n-cp-¶-sX¶ hkvXpX \s½ Nn´n-¸n-t¡-−-Xm-Wv. imkv{Xhpw Ie-Ifpw t]mjn-¸n-¡-s¸-Sp-¶Xn\v klm-b-I-ambncp¶ {InkvXp-hÀjw H³]Xmw \qäm−v hsc-bpÅ Ime-L-«s¯ Ncn-{X-]-c-ambn Ccp-−-bp-K-am-¡nb kmaq-lnI-þ-kmw-kvIm-cnI LS-I-§-sf-s´m-s¡-bmWv? Bdmw \qäm-−n Bcy-`-S-\n-eqsSbpw Fgmw \qäm-−n lcn-Z-¯-\n-eq-sSbpw imkv{X-¯nsâ al-¯mb IpXn¸n\pw H³]Xmw \qäm-−n i¦-cm-Nm-cy-cn-eqsS ambm-hm-Zm-ssZzXthZm´ ¯n\pw P·w \ÂInb tIcf¯n imkv{Xw ]nt¶m¡w t]mIp-I Akm²yam-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶ hkvXpX \nkvXÀ¡-am-Wv. Ahy-à-amb Imc-W-§-fm B[p-\n-I-K-th-j-W-§-fpsS ]Ým-¯-e-¯nepw Ccp-−bpKambn Ah-ti-jn¡p¶ {InkvXp-hÀjw BZn \qäm-−p-I-fnÂ, Bcy-`-S-þ-l-cn-Z¯ Ime-L-«-§fnÂ, Ipe-ti-J-c-bpKw hsc tIc-f-¯nse kmam-\y-P-\-Po-hn-Xs¯ tPymXnximkv{Xw F§s\ kzm[o-¨n-cp-¶p? Ncn-{X-K-W-\¡v klm-b-I-amb tPymXnx-imkv{X-]-c-amb sXfn-hp-IÄ GsX-¦nepw \ap-¡n¶ e`y-amtWm? 1

«ncn¡p¶Xv {In.ap. 300 þ {InkvXphÀjw 500 hsc F¶XmWv. tNc·mcpsS Ncn{Xw kwLIme¯v XpS§p¶psh¦nepw, s]cpam¡·mcpsS Ncn{Xw ]dbp t¼mÄ, Ncn{XKthjIÀ ]dbp¶Xv Ncn{XenJnXw Ahtijn¸n¨n«pÅ BZy s]cpamÄ sImÃhÀjmcw`Ime¯v Pohn¨ncp¶ (AD 820-844) cmacmPtiJc \msW¶mWv. ]n¶oSv hmW s]cpam¡·mcpsS Ime¯v ]WnXpbÀ¯s¸« Nne sshjvWht£{X§fpw Ahbnse ]pcmX\ enJnX§fpw am{XamWv tIcfNcn{XcN\bn ImWp¶Xv. H³]Xmw \qäm−n\v ap¼pÅ Imew s]mXpsh AhyàXtbmsS C¶pw \ne\n¡p¶p. {io[ctat\msâ Cultural Heritage of Kerala, hfsc kw£n]vXambn kwkvIrX{KÙ§fn tIcfs¯¡pdn¨pÅ ]cmaÀi§sf¸än ]dbp¶p. ]vfn\nbpsSbpw tSmfanbp sSbpw ]cmaÀi§fneqsS tIcf¯nse P\XXn {In.]n H¶mw \qäm−v apX hnizNcn{X¯nsâ `mKamWv. IqSpX Kl\amb KthjW¯nte¡v t\m¡p t¼mÄ {io. Fw.Pn.Fkv.\mcmbWsâ Foundations of South Indian Society and Culture \ÂIp¶ hnhc§f\pkcn¨v þ    

{Inap. 3þmw \qäm−v apXÂ {In]n. 3þmw \qäm−v hsc XangIw {In]n. 400-800 {_mÒW A[n\nthiw {In]n. 9þmw \qäm−v apXÂ 12þmw \qäm−v hsc tNc·mÀ {In]n 12þmw \qäm−v apXÂ tIcfw {]tXyI hn`mKw

{Inapþ\memw \qäm−nse aucykm{amPyhpambp−mb kmwkvImcnI hn\nab ¯neqsSbmWv kwkvImcw Z£ntW´ybn ]SnIS¶ph¶sX¶v {io. Fw. Pn.Fkv.\mcmbW³ ]dbp¶p. D¯c`mcXhpambpÅ Cu thgvNbpsS bpàn CÃmsX tIcf¯nsâ kmwkvImcnI Ncn{Xw km²yasöv {]mNo\ Ncn{X ]camb sXfnhpIÄ kqNn¸n¡p¶psh¶v CXn\m a\Ênem¡mw.

tIcf¯nsâ BZyImeNcn{Xw kw_Ôn¨ ]T\§Ä ]pcmX\ enJnX§fp sSbpw `qJ\\w apXemb B[p\nI kt¦X§fpsSbpw klmb¯m IqSpX hkvXp\njvTambn hcnIbmWv. kwLIme tIcfNcn{Xw XangI ¯nsâ Ncn{Xhpambn CgpInt¨À¶p InS¡p¶psh¶ Imcy¯n C¶v Ncn{X Imc·mÀ¡v A`n{]mbssbIyw D−v. XangI¯nsâ kmwkvImcnI Ncn{X¯n se kphÀ®Imesa¶v A`nam\n¡s¸Sp¶ kwLIme¯n\v KthjIÀ hy XykvXamb ImeL«§Ä IÂ]n¡p¶psh¦nepw s]mXpsh AwKoIcn¡s¸

aucyk¼À¡tam AXn\p ap¼p−mb tIctfmXv]¯nbnse sFXnlyw kqNn¸n¡p¶Xpt]msebpÅ Bcy-·m-cpsS D¯cþZ£nW]emb\§tfm? GXmWv bYmÀ°¯n tIcf¯n kwkvIrXnbpsS hn¯v ]mInbsX¶ tNmZy¯n\v hyàamb D¯cw \ÂIp¶ sXfnhpIfnÃ. _u²þssP\ Ime§fpsSbpw, kwL-Im-et- N-c· - m-cp-sSbpw Xncp-h-©n-¡p-f¯ - n-sâbpw Nne¸XnImc-¯n-sâbpw Hs¡ Ime-L«- § - sf kw_-Ôn¨v ¢n]vXa - mb bmsXmcp [mc-Wbpw \ap-¡n-Ã. tIctfmXv]¯n \ÂIp¶ {_mÒWcpsS IpSntbä Imehpw (BC1175)2 s]cpamÄ Imehpw (AD 215 – AD428) Hcp ]s£, {In.-ap. 1175  D¯c`mcX¯n \n¶pap−mb {ZmhnU IpSntbä¯nsâbpw, s]cpamÄImew Hcp kl{km_vZ¯n\p tijw D−mb Bcy{_mÒW IpSntbä

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N-cn-{X-]-T-\-§-fpsSbpw sFXn-ly-§fp-sSbpw ]Ým-¯ew

Ncn-{X-K-th-j-W-cw-K¯v ]pd¯v hcp¶ ]e ']pXnb ImgvN-¸m-Sp-Ifpw' ]g-b-Imes¯ ]T-\-§-fpsS ]pXnb ]Xn-¸p-I-fm-Wv. IqSp-X sXfn-hp-IÄ tNÀ¡-s¸-Sp-t¼mÄ ]g-bIme ]T-\-§-fpsS d^-d³kv Hgn-hm-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p þ ]g-b-]-T-\-§Ä e`y-a-Ãm-¯-Xp-sIm−m-Imw, Kth-j-I-cpsS ]cn-an-Xn-IÄ sIm−m-Imw. Ncn-{X-]-T-\-§-fpsS Hcp sNdn-b`mKw am{X-amWv F\n¡v hmbn-¡p-hm³ Ign-ªn-«p-Å-Xv. GsX-¦nepw Ncn-{X-Im-c-·mcpsS d^-d³kv Cu teJ-\-¯n hn«p-t]m-bn-«p-s−-¦n kZbw Nq−n-¡m-Wn-¡p-I.

c−m-bncw \o¡nb sImÃ-hÀjm-cw-`w. sImÃ-hÀjw Bbn-c-§Ä \o¡-s¸« ]c-ip-cmam-_vZ-am-Wv, Ien-Im-e-K-W-\-t]mse ]pcm-X-\-amb `mc-Xob Ime-K-W\bmWv apX-emb Nn´m-K-Xn-IÄ i¦À _me-Ir-jvW-Zo-£n-Xnsâ tPymXnx-im-kv{X-N-cn-{X-¯nepw tIkcn. G. _me-Ir-jvW-]n-Å-bpsS IÂ]-K-WnXw F¶ teJ-\-¯nepw aäpw ImWp¶p. tIctfmÂ]¯nbnse sFXnlyw tUm. cmP³ Np¦-¯nsâ {iuXw F¶ cN-\-bn hni-Zambn ]d-bp-¶p.

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amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

¯nsâbpw hfs¨mSn¡s¸« {]Xn]mZ\amsW¶v \ap¡v Duln-¡mw. sXfn-hpIÄ sIm−v kaÀ°n-¡m³ Ign-bm¯ Dulm-t]m-l-§Ä¡v Ncn-{X-]T-\-¯n bmsXmcp km[p-X-bpan-Ã. sXfnhpIsfbpw sFXnly§sfbpw hnkvacn¡ s¸«ncn¡p¶ aäv hkvXpXIsfbpw CW¡n t¨À¡p¶ bpànbpàamb Hcp hniIe\¯neqsS am{Xta \ap¡v hkvXp\njvTambn Ncn{Xw a\Êne¡phm³ km[n¡pIbpÅp. B[p-\n-I-]-T-\-§-fp-sS-bpw, sFXn-ly-§-fp-sSbpw Cu ]Ým¯-e-¯n-emWv tIc-f-N-cn-{X-¯n-te¡v AÂ]-sa-¦nepw shfn¨w hoip-hm³ \½psS tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]m-c-¼-cy-¯n\v Ign-bp-tam F¶ Cu At\z-j-Ww.

FÃm kzcm-£c - § - fpw 0 BIp-¶p. Iq«-£c - § - f - n c−m-aXv hcp¶ A£-camWv ]cn-KW - n-¡p-I. he¯v \n¶v CS-t¯m«v Hä-Øm\w apX D¯-tcm-¯cw A¡-§s - f-gp-XWw

II.

tIc-tfm-Xv]-¯n-bnse Ien-Zn\þA£-c-kw-Jy-IÄ -

tIc-f-N-cn-{X-¯nse Ccp-−-Im-e-s¯-¸än tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]-c-amb Hcp At\zjWw km²y-am-¡p¶ Gähpw {][m\ D]m[n tIc-tfm-Xv]-¯n-bn-eq-sSbpw sFXn-ly-§-fn-eq-sSbpw \ap¡v e`y-am-bn-¯oÀ¶ A£-c-kw-Jy-I-fm-Wv. Ncn-{Xc-N-\-bn Ch-bpsS D]-tbm-K-¯n\v kmt¦-Xn-I-amb sshjayw Ncn-{X-Im-c·mÀ¡v D−m-bn-cp-¶n-cn-¡-Ww. s{]m^. Fkv. ANypXhmcycpsS 'tIcf kwkvImcw' sI. inhi¦c³ \mbcpsS '{]mNo\ tIcfw', {io[ctat\msâ 'tIcf¯nsâ kmwkvImcnI ]mc¼cyw' apXemb IrXnIsfm¶pw Xs¶ tIcfob ]mc¼cy¯n e`yamb ]cÂt]cpIÄ AYhm IenZn\kwJyIÄ kqNn¸n¡p¶ t£{X§fpsSbpw s]cpamfhtcm[¯nsâbpw hniZmwi§Ä NÀ¨ sNbvXp ImWp¶nÃ. sFXn-ly-§fn-eqsS am{Xw e`y-ambXn\m A£-c-kw-Jy-IÄ¡v Ncn-{X-]-camb {]kànbntÃ? F¶ tNmZyw ChnsS Db-cp-¶p. tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]-c-ambn t\m¡p-t¼mÄ Ien-Zn\w \ÂIp¶ ]cÂt]-cp-IÄ Ime-K-W-\-bpsS hyà-amb sXfnhv DÄs¡m-Åp-¶p. AXp-t]mse Ien-Zn-\-KW\bp-sSbpw IS-]-bmZn kt¦X-¯n-eqsS cq]w \ÂI-s¸-Sp¶ ]cÂt]cnsâbpw kmt¦-Xn-IX ]cn-K-Wn-¡pt¼mÄ, tPymXnx-im-kv{X-¯n Ah-Km-l-an-Ãm¯ Hcp hyàn¡v ]cÂt]-cp−m-¡pI km²y-am-bn-cp-¶n-söv \ap¡v a\-Ên-em-¡mw.

]Xn-t\tgm ]Xn-\mdmw \qäm-−ntem tIc-tfmÂ]-¯n-bpsS cNbnXmhv Cuhn[w Hcp Gg¡kwJy-sb-Sp¯v F´n\v ]cÂt]-cm¡n Ah-Xc - n-¸n-¡Ww? s]cp-amÄhm-gvNt¡m, {_mÒ-Wm-[n-]Xy¯nt\m ]pcm-X\ - Xzw \ÂIp-Isb¶ IpÕnXe£y¯m t{]cn-X\ - mbncp-s¶-¦n F´n\o Gg-¡k - w-Jysb `qau`q-t]mƒbw{]m]ym F¶ ]cÂt]-cm-¡p-hm³ t¢in-¡Ww? GsX-¦n-ep-samcp Ien-hÀjtam, tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]m-c¼ - c - y-¯n-eqsS {]kn-²a - mb iI-hÀjtam {]bmkw IqSmsX \ÂIpI km²y-am-bn-cp-¶p-. AXp-t]mse Ien-Zn-\k - wJy kmÀÆ-{Xn-Ia - mb Hcp Zn\þ-KW - \ - b - m-bn-cp-¶n-sÃ-¶Xpw {Kl-a[ - y-aK - W - n-X¯ - n\pÅ kn²m-´§ - f - psS D]m-[n-bm-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¶Xpw {i²n-¡-Ww.

]cÂt]-cnsâ Ahy-à-amb Ncn{Xw tPymXnximkv{XNcn-{X-¯nse {]kn-²a - mb Ahy-àX - I-fn-sem-¶mWv Ien-bpKmZn ASn-Øm-\a - mb {Kl-a[yaK-WnXw BhnÀ`-hn¨ Ime-L«- w. tIc-fob tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]m-c¼ - c - y-s¯-¸än Xn«-an-Ãm¯ Kth-jI - À ]ecpw Bcy-`S- \mWv bpKmZn k¦Â]-¯n-sâbpw Ien-Zn-\K - W - \ - b - p-sSbpw D]-Úm-Xm-sh¶v kn²m-´n-¡p-¶p. Cu A\p-am\w sXäm-sW¶pw Bcy-`S- \p ap¼v Xs¶ tIc-f¯n Ien-bp-Km-Zn-bmb Zn\-KW - \ - bpw {Kl-KW - n-Xhpw \ne-\n-¶n-cp-¶p-sh¶v Xmsg-¸-db - p¶ hkvXp-XI - fn \n¶pw a\-Ên-em-¡mw. 1. KoÀW-t{i-bmZn Nm{µ-hm-Iy-§Ä sIm−v {]kn-²\ - mb hc-cpNnbpsS Ime-

L«w ]p{X-\mb taf-t¯m-Ä Aántlm{Xn-bp-tS-Xmbn Adn-bs - ¸-Sp¶ ]c t]-cp-If - n \n¶pw {InkvXp-hÀjw \memw \qäm-−m-sW¶v \nÝ-bn-¡mw.



]cÂt]-cp-I-fpsS kmt¦-Xn-I-Xbpw tPymXnx-im-kv{Xhpw DZm-l-c-W-¯n\v tIc-tfmÂ]¯n \ÂIp¶ tIb-s¸-cp-am-fnsâ Øm\m-tcmlWw kqNn-¸n-¡p¶ `qau-`q-t]mƒbw{]m]ym F¶ ]cÂt]cv ]cn-K-Wn-¡mw. IS-]-bmZn kt¦-X-a-\p-k-cn¨v Cu hmIyw kqNn-¸n-¡p¶ Ien-Zn-\-kwJy 1211454 BIp-¶p.

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Aán-tlm-{Xn-bpsS P·-Zn\w ']pcp-[n-ka - m-{ib' 1257921 Ipw`amkw,

tcmln-Wo, shÅnbmgvN, 18 s^{_phcn 343 CE BIp-¶p. 2. XncphÃbnse {iohÃ` t£{X¯n\v ]cÂt]cn \n¶pw hyàamIp¶ IenZn\w 1111526, 29.04.59 BC F¶ {]Xn-jvTm-Zn-\amIp-¶p. D¯r«mXnbpw

IS-]-bmZn: '`qau-`q-t]mƒbw{]m]ym' 1211454: A¦m\mw hmatXm KXn. 1 I S ] b



tIc-f¯ - n BZy-ambn bmKmán sImfp-¯s - ¸« Zn\w: 'bÚ-Øm-\w-kwc£yw', Ien-Zn\w 1270701, Ipw`¯nse Idp¯hmhmb (inhcm{Xn tbmS\p_Ôn¨) 14 s^{_phcn 378 CE BIp-¶p. B[p-\n-Ic- o-Xn-b\ - pk-cn¨v Øm\o-bK - W - n-X¯ - n\v Pqen-b³ Zn\w 1859166.75 DÖ-bn\n a[y-akq-tcym-Zb - ¯ - n\v kq£vaa - m-Wv.

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sshim-J-þ-IrjvWGIm-Zinbpw Xn¦fmgvNbpw BIp-¶p. Øm\o-bK - Wn-X¯ - n\v Pqen-b³ Zn\w 1699991.75 BIp-¶p. CS-h¯ - nse D¯r-«mXn

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amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

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hÃ-h-cpsS AYhm CS-b-·m-cpsS hÃ-h-]p-c¯¸\v {]Xn-jvTm-Zn-\-am-Ip-¶Xv bmZr-Ñn-I-X-bmtWm? Ipw`-¯nse D¯r-«mXn ChnsS sImSn-tb-ähpw tIc-f¯nse sshjvW-hþXncp-¸-Xn-I-fn-seÃmw D¯r-«mXn tZh\v {][m-\-am-sW¶ hkvXp-Xbpw {i²n-¨m _Ô-s¸« ]cÂt]cv Ir{Xn-a-sa¶v Icp-XpI {]bm-k-am-Wv. 3. ]pcmX\amb {iocmat£{Xw \ne\n¡p¶ IShÃqcpambn _Ôs¸«

'IShÃqct\ym\yw" Ncn{XKXnbn s]«v ]cÂt]cmsW¶ hkvXpX Xs¶ ad¶p t]mbncn¡p¶p. ]cÂt]cns\ kmÀ°Iam¡p¶ thZ]co£ ]n¡me¯v D−m¡s¸« NS§mWv. 'IShÃqct\ym\yw" AYhm 1123411 F¶ IenZn\w 12.11.27BC i\nbmgvN amÀ¤ioÀj ip¢\han, D¯r«mXn \£{Xw IShÃqcnse {]XnjvTmZn\amWv. Øm\o-b-K-Wn-X¯n\v Pqen-b³ Zn\w 1711876.75 BIp-¶p. XnYn cmambW {]kn²amb cmasâ P·XnYn ip¢]£ \hanbmsW¶Xv \mw {]tXyIw {i²n¡Ww.

4. Xm{´nIkt¦X§fn ]pIÄs]ä XncpamÔmwIp¶nse {]XnjvT kw_ Ôamb ]cÂt]cv sN¼ItZtictaysb¶Xv 1258116, IenhÀjw 3445 \S¡p¶Xn I¶namk¯nse ]qbw \£{Xhpw Zian XnYnbpamWv. AD 343 sk]väw-_À 1 hymgm-gvN-bm-Wn-Xv. 5. a²ytIcf¯nse s]cph\w inht£{X¯nse BtLmj kw_Ôamb A£ckwJy "BbmXpinhtemIw" F¶Xv IenZn\w 1345610 - IenhÀjw 3684 \S¡p¶Xn taS-kw-{I-a-Zn-\-amb shÅnbmgvNbmWv AD583, amÀ¨v 19 Dw Øm\o-b-K-Wn-X-¯n\v Pqen-b³ Zn\w 1934075.75 BIp-¶p..

apI-fn \ÂInb ]cÂt]-cp-I-fn D]-tbm-K-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡p¶ IS-]-bmZn coXn Bcy-`-S\v ap¼pw ]n¼pw tIcf-¯n {]Nm-c-¯n-ep-−m-bn-cp-¶psh¶ hkvXpX _Ô-s¸« Xob-Xn-IÄ kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p. BNm-cy-s\¶ \ne-bn Bcy-`-Ss\ \nkvXpew hmgv¯p¶ tIc-fo-b-tPym-Xnx-im-kv{X-]m-c-¼-cy-¯n At±-l¯nsâ A£-c-kw-Jym-coXn Xnc-kvI-cn-¡-s¸«p ImWp-¶-Xn\v ImcWw IS-]-bmZn k{¼-Zm-b-¯nsâ ta·, ]g¡w, tIc-f-¯n e`y-am-bn-cp¶ AwKoImcw Chsb kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p. tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]-c-amb Ime-\nÀ®-b-¯nsâ `mK-am-bn-«-ÃmsX ]cÂt]-cp-IÄ kwPm-X-am-IpI Akm-²y-am-bn-cp-¶p. sFXnly-§-fn-eqsS e`y-am-b-Xp-sIm−v Ah sI«p-I-Y-I-fpsS `mK-am-bn-cn¡mw F¶ Nn´m-K-Xnbpw Ncn-{X-c-N-\-bn ]cÂt]-cp-Isf A{]-k-àa - m-¡p¶ kao-]\hpw icn-b-Ã. tIcf¯nse P\§fpsS Bcm[\mk{¼Zmb¯ntem, NS§pIfntem, `mj bntem Imcyamb amä§fp−mb Hcp ImeL«¯nsâbpw kw`h§fpsSbpw kqN\IfmWv Cu ]cÂt]cpIÄ \ÂIp¶Xv. C¡me¯mWv tIcf¯nÂ

t£{X§tfm AYhm ImhpItfm D−mbsX¶v CXn-\À°-an-Ã. I\ymIpamcn tZhnsb¸änbpÅ AXn]pcmX\ ]cmaÀiw {i²n¨m Xm{´n-Ia - mb BNm-cm\p-jvTm-\§ - fpw {InkvXp-hÀjm-cw-`¯ - n\v hfsc ap¼v Xs¶ tIc-f¯ - n {]Ncn-¨n-cp-¶p-sh¶v a\-Ên-em-¡mw. Gähpw {]mNo\amb Ncn{XtcJbpÅ C´y bnse Xs¶ t£{Xhpw `KhXnbpw C´ybpsS Gähpw sXt¡ Aä¯pÅ I\ymIpamcotZhnbpsS t£{XamWv. AÚmXIÀ¯rIamb s]cn]vfkn ({Ko¡vbm{XmhnhcWw AD62) I\ymIpamcnbnse tZhnsb¸änbpw kv\m\L« s¯¸änbpw ]dbp¶p. I\ymIpamcnbnse _memw_nI¡v AD62 AkvXnXz ap−mbncps¶¦n ]me¡m«pÅ tlamw_nI¡pw sImÃqcnse apJmw_nI ¡pw kam\amb AkvXnXzw IÂ]n¡mw. ]cÂt]cpIÄ kwkvIr-X` - m-jb - n-emb-Xn-\m Bcy-·m-cpsS BhnÀ`mh¯n\v tijapÅ kmaq-ln-IP - o-hn-X¯ - nsâ `mK-amWo A£-ck - w-Jym-tc-JI - s - f¶v Icp-Xmw. tIcf¯n ]n¡me¯v e`yambncn¡p¶ t£{XenJnX§sfÃmw Xs¶ {_mÒWm[oiXz¯nsâ sXfnhv \ÂIp¶hbmWv. {In.ap. H³]Xmw \qäm−n\v hfsc ap¼v Xs¶ tPymXnÀKWnXhpw IenZn\hpw tIcf¯n hnIknXambn \ne\n¶ncp¶p. \memw \qäm−nse Aántlm{XnbpsS Imew hccpNnbpsSbpw KoÀ¶t{ibmZn hmIy§fpsSbpw ImeamWv. A£ckwJy IfpsS Gähpw kaÀ°amb D]tbmKw tPymXnÀKWnX¯n \S¶ncp¶ ImeL«amWnXv. tIcf¯nse tPymXnximkv{X¯n\v kam\amb tPymXnx imkv{Xw A¡me¯v _m_ntemWn \ne\n¶ncp¶psh¶Xpw tIcfhpw saks¸t«manbbpambn Ncn{XmXoXImew apX hym]mc_Ôw D−mbncp ¶psh¶Xpw tPymXnimkv{X¯nsâbpw IenZn\KW\bpsSbpw A\mcy t{kmXÊns\ kqNn¸n¡p¶ hkvXpXbmWv. IenbpKmcw`hpw `mcXob tPymXnximkv{X¯n D]tbmKs¸Sp¯p¶ {KlKXnIfpw, KWnX kt¦X §fpw saks¸t«manbbn {InkvXphn\v ap¼v Ggmw\qäm−v apX \ne\n ¶ncp¶psh¶Xn\v AhnsS \n¶pw Ipgns¨Sp¡s¸« Ifna¬^eI§Ä hyàamb sXfnhv \ÂIp¶p−v. C¡mcW¯m tIcfob ]mc¼cy¯n e`yamIp¶ Ime-KW - \ - m-]-ca - mb Ccp-−I - m-eL - «- ¯ - nse IenZn\kwJyIÄ kwkvIr-X¯ - n-em-sW-¦nepw Ah {ZmhnUtPymXnx-imkv{X]mc¼cy¯n cq]w sIm−-hb - m-sW¶v a\-Ên-em-¡mw. 6. Ienbp-KmZn k¦Â]hpw Ien-Zn-\K - W - \ - bpw `mc-X-¯nsâ CX-c` - m-K§ - f - nÂ

\n¶v hyXy-kvXa - mbn tIc-f¯ - n {]N-cn-¨X - nsâ ImcWw kwL-Im-et- I-cf-¯n\v sak-s¸m-t«m-an-bb - p-ap-−m-bn-cp¶ kmwkvIm-cnI k¼À¡-am-Wv. ¹n\n, kv{Smt_m XpS-§nb Ncn-{X-Im-c· - m-cpsS tIcfs¯¸-än-bpÅ ]cmaÀi-§fpw ]pcm-X\ \mWb\n[n-IÄ \ÂIp¶ sXfn-hp-Ifpw {]kn-²a - m-bXn-\m ChnsS D²-cn-¡p-hm³ apXn-cp-¶n-Ã.

7. Ien-hÀj-KW - \ `mc-XobtPymXnx-imkv{X¯nsâ `mK-am-bXv kwL-Ime

{io. \mem-¦Â IrjvW-]n-Å-bpsS alm-t£-{X-§Ä¡v ap¼n Xncp-hÃm t£{Xw kw_-Ôn¨ sFXn-ly-§fpw Ncn-{Xhpw hni-Z-ambn NÀ¨ sN¿p-¶p-−v. GIm-Z-inbpw D¯r-«m-Xnbpw ChnsS Gähpw hnti-j-s¸« Zn-h-k-§-fm-Wv.

tIc-fh - p-ambn D¯c`mc-X¯ - nse Bcy-P\ - X - X - n-¡p-−mb k¼À¡-¯n-eq-sSbm-sW¶v Icp-Xmw. ImcWw `c-X¸ - p-gb - psS Ic-bn Ien-Zn-\¯ - n\v \mw ImWp¶ {]Nmcw DÖ-bn-\nbn Ggmw \qäm-−n t]mepw Zriy-aà - . IenhÀjw BZy-ambn tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n¡mWp-¶Xv ssP\\pw Z£n-Wm-Xy-\pamb ]pen-tIin c−m-asâ sFtlmÄ enJn-X¯ - n-em-Wv. Aán-tlm-{Xn-bpsS P\-

5

6

3


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

\-Zn-hkw tIc-f-¯n Ien-Zn-\-ambn I]-S-bm-Zn-bn e`y-am-Ip-t¼mÄ {iocm-at\m, {ioIr-jvWt\m, hymk-t\m, Imfn-Zm-kt\m, hcm-l-an-ln-ct\m P\n¨ Ien-Zn\w D¯-c-`m-c-X-¯n {]N-cn¨p ImWp-¶n-Ã. abm-kp-c-\mWv kqcy-kn²m-´-¯nsâ cN-bn-Xm-sh¶v Iq«n-hm-bn-¡p-t¼mÄ Nn{Xw hyà-am-Ip-¶p. Akp-c-cmPyw AÊo-dnbbpw Imiy-]-k-ap{Zw Imkv]n-b³ IS-epamsW¶v sshZn-I-km-ln-Xy-N-cn-{X-¯n BNmcy \tc-{µ-`qjv¬ hyà-am-¡p-¶p-−v. Akp-cm-Zn-I-fpsS Ien-Zn-\-K-WnXw IS IS¶v tIc-f-¯n-epw kwLImetNc-·m-cpsS {][m-\Xpd-ap-J-am-bn-cp¶ sXm−n AYhm s]m¶m-\n-bneqsS, ssP\-cp-sS AYhm Bcy·mcpsS k¼À¡-¯n-eqsS DÖbn-\n-bnepw Ipkp-a-]p-c-¯nepw F¯n-t¨-cp-Ibpw D−mbn. III.

tIc-fN-cn-{X-¯n\v ]cÂt]-cp-I-fn Hcp \mgnI-¡Ãv

]cÂt]cp-I-fpsS Ir{Xn-aXzw \ncm-I-cn-¡p¶ imkv{Xo-b-h-iw tPymXnÀK-Wn-X¯nsâ ho£-W-tIm-Wn-eqsS a\-Ên-em-¡m-sa¶v apI-fn ImWp-I-bp-−m-bn. `mc-Xo-bhpw tIc-fo-b-hp-amb kmaq-ln-I-þ-kmw-kvIm-cnI BNm-cm-\p-jvT-\m-§Ä GXm−v A\m-Zn-Imew apX JtKm-fo-b-hpw Nm{In-I-hpamb kuc-þ-Nm-{µ-ØnXn-Isf B{i-bn¨v A\p-jvTn¨p hcp-¶-h-bm-Wv. ]Xn-äp-¸-¯nepw ]pd-\m-\q-dnepw kwL-Im-e-I-hn-I-fpsS BIm-i-\n-co-£-W-§sf tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-¡m-Wp-¶p. kmwkvIm-cnIamb ]ptcm-K-Xn-bpsS Cu ]Ým-¯-e-¯n t\m¡p-t¼mÄ, Hcp ]cÂt]cv AYhm A£-c-kwJy F{X ]pcm-X-\-am-sW-¦nepw AXv kqNn-¸n¡p\v Ien-Zn\w, amkþXn-Yn-þ\-£-{X-§Ä tPymXnx-im-kv{X-hp-]-chpw A\p-jvT\m-]-c-hp-amb bpàn-Isf {]Xn^en-¸n-¡p-¶p-sh-¦n Ncn-{X-c-N-\-bn km[phmbn ]cn-K-Wn-t¡-−-Xm-Wv. 1.

s]cpamÄ Ah-tcm-[-¯n\v km£n þ `qau-`q-t]mbw {]m]ym

`mÀ¤h]cipcma\m Øm]nXamsb¶v sFXn-ly-§fpw tIc-tfm-Xv]-¯nbpw kqNn-¸n-¡p¶ 64 {Kma§fpsSbpw IfcnIfpsSbpw Ncn{Xw \qäm-−p-IÄ¡ptijw \ne-hnÂh¶ IpetiJcþsshjvWhþsshZnI]mc¼cyw ASnØm\ am¡nbmWv {]Ncn¸n¡s¸Sp¶Xv. tNc·mcpsS kwLImeNcn{Xhpw Icqcnse BZntNckm{amPyhpw ]n¡me¯v apkncnkv AYhm atlmZb \KcnbpsS JymXnbpw, \nch[n s]cpam¡·msc¸änbpÅ sFXnly§fpw \ne\n¡p¶ Xv Bcpw Imcyambn {i²n¡p¶nsö tXm¶Â tIcfNcn{X{KÙ§Ä \ÂIp¶p. amam¦¯nsâ Xs¶ hyàamb ]cmaÀi§tfm tIcfob PohnX¯n amam¦¯n\p−mbncp¶ {]kàntbm e`yam¡p¶ {_n«ojp ImÀ¡v ap¼pÅ tcJIsfm¶pw tIcf¯n e`yaÃ. sImÃ-hÀj-¯nsâ DÛhw Xs¶ \ap¡v Xn«-an-Ã. AXv a\-Ên-em-¡p-hm³ hneyw temKsâ ae_mÀ4 hnh-c-WamWv B{i-bw. {InkvXphÀjw 216 \pw 428 \pw CSbn 25 s]cpamÄ hmgvNbp−mbXmbn tIc-tfm-Xv]-¯n-bnse sFXnlyw kqNn-¸n-¡p¶p. ]e teJ\§fnepw sh_vssk-äp-I-fnepw D²-cn¨p ImWp¶ Cu \nKa\ ¯n\v F{X- am{Xw km[p-X-bp-s−¶v BÀ¡pw Xs¶ Xn«-an-Ã. {]mNo\ tIcf

Ncn{Xhpw s]cpam¡·mcpsS Ncn{Xhpw ]dbpt¼mÄ Ncn-{X-Im-c· - mÀ Bcpw Xs¶ "`qau`qt]mbw {]m]y" 1211454 F¶ at\mlcamb IenZn\hmIyw tcJs¸Sp¯n¡mWp¶nÃ. \nc-Ên-¡p-Itbm kzoI-cn-¡p-Itbm sN¿msX Ncn{X-Im-c-·mÀ Ir{Xn-aX - z-¯nsâ aqSp-]Sw AWn-bn¨v {Xni-¦p-kzÀ¤-¯n \nÀ¯nbn-cn-¡p-Ib - mWv. Ignª Xe-ap-db - nse \njvWmXNcn{XIm-c\pw ]WvUn-X\ - pam-bn-cp¶ tIkcn G. _me-Ir-jvW] - nÅ hfsc \yq\-XI - f - pÅ Hcp Sn¸Wn Cu Ien-Zn-\k - w-Jy¡v \ÂIn-¡m-Wp-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p. "37þmw tNc³ tIb-s¸-cp-am-fnsâ knwlm-k\ - m-tcm-lW - I - m-e-¯n\v tIctfmÂ]¯n sImSp-¯n-cn-¡p¶ Ien-hm-Iy-am-Wn-Xv. CXv \ÂIp¶ 216 F¶ kwJysb {]kvXpX Ien-hÀj-amb 324 G.Un.tbmSp Iq«n-bm 540 G.-Un. F¶Xv In«pw. Cu hÀj-¯n-emWv tIb-s¸-cp-amÄ hmkvXh - ¯ - n IncoSw [cn¨Xv'5 tIc-tfmÂ]-¯n-bnse ]cÂt]-cp-Isf icn-bmbn a\-Ên-em-¡p-hm³ Xs¶ \ap¡v Ign-ªn-«n-söv Cu Sn¸Wn kqNn-¸n¡p¶p. 216 F¶ kwJy-tbmtSm, 324 G.-Un.¡v Xpey-amb Ien-hÀj-t¯mtSm Cu A£-ck - w-Jy¡v bmsXmcp _Ô-hp-an-Ã. tIkcn ]d-bp-¶X - p-t]m-se-bpÅ Iq«ÂIn-gn-¡e - p-Is - fm¶pw Bhiy-an-Ãm¯ Gähpw kzX-{´-ambn tPymXnÀK-Wn-X-¯n\v am{Xw shfn-s¸-Sp¶ Ime-kq-N\ - b - mWv `qau-`q-t]mbw {]m]ym. tIb-s¸-cp-am-fnsâ Imetam? At±lw ap¸-¯n-tb-gm-at\m? C§s\ tIc-tfmÂ]¯n \ÂIp¶ hnh-c§ - Ä kwibn-t¡-−Xp Xs¶. XobXn Xn«-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶X - n Xs¶ \mw {]amZw hcp-¯pt¼mÄ _Ô-s¸« tIb-s¸-cp-amÄ AYhm s]cp-amÄ Ah-tcm-[Z- n\w F¶ sFXnly¯nsâ km[pX ]cn-tim-[n-¡pI Akm-²y-am-bn-¯o-cp-¶p. icn-bmb KWn¨ Xob-Xn-bpsS {]tXy-IX - I - Ä sFXn-ly-¯n\v hà km[p-Xbpw IÂ]n¡p-¶pthm F¶v Xmsg ]cn-tim-[n-¡mw. 2.

`qau-`q-t]mbw {]m]ym, KX-I-en-Zn\w 1211454

Cu Ien-Zn\w kqNn-¸n-¡p¶ XobXn tPymXnÀK-Wn-Xa - \ - p-k-cn¨v \hw-_À 30, 215 G.Un, cmhnse Bdp-aWn (e-¦þ - D - Ö - b - n\o a[y-ak - q-tcym-Zb - w) BIp-¶p. hmcw ]g-bI - m-e¯v {]k-àa - m-bn-cp-¶n-sÃ-¦nepw XobXn kw_-Ôn¨ ]qÀ®-hnhcw B{K-ln-¡p-¶h - c - psS Adn-hn-te-¡mbn tNÀ¡p-¶p. hymgm-gvN, B[p-\nI Pqen-b³ Zn\kwJy (75E45) 1799919.75 BIp-¶p. [\p-cm-in-bpsS F«mw cminbn kqcy³ \nÂs¡, N{µ³ ]qcw \£{Xw c−mw ]mZ-¯n Nn§w F«mw Un{Kn-bnÂ, amÀ¤-ioÀjþIr-jvWj - jvTn XnYn. F´mWo Znh-k¯ - n\v {]tXy-IX - I - Ä? s]cp-am-fns\ Ah-tcm-[n-¡p-hm³ KWI-·mÀ \nÝ-bn¨p \ÂInb ]pWy-Xn-Yn kvIµ³ tk\m-[n-]\ - mbn Ahtcm-[n-¡s - ¸« XnYn-bm-sW-¶Xv bmZr-Ñn-IX - b - mtWm? Cu Xob-Xn-¡S- p¯ Zn\-

5 4

tIkcn. G. _me-Ir-jvW-]n-Å-bpsS IÂ]-K-WnXw teJ-\w, tIk-cn-bpsS temI§Ä ]pdw 27.

Logan, William, Malabar, Reprinted 1989, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi.

7

8


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

§-fnse JtKm-fob {]Xn-`m-k-§Ä \nco-£n-¨m Xmsg-¸-d-bp¶ \nK-a-\-§-fnse-¯mw.

alm-aIw F¶ Xncp-\m-hm-bnse ]´o-cm-−p-k` - b - psS Ncn{Xw ]cn-tim-[n-¡pt¼mÄ e`y-am-Ip¶ ASn-Øm-\h - n-hc - § - Ä Xmsg-¸d - b - p-¶h - b - m-Wv.

(a) [\p- kqcykw-{I-ahpw ]uÀ®-anbpw (A-Xm-bXv kuc-þ-Nm-{µ-am-k-K-W-\-IfpsS AXn-cp-IÄ) \hw-_À 23 \v H¯p-h-cn-I-bm {InkvXp-hÀjw aq¶mw

(a) {io. G. {io[-ct - a-t\m³ 'Cultural Heritage of Kerala' F¶ IrXn-bnÂ, tIc-

\qäm−n JÂZm-b³ (_m-_n-tem¬) KWn-Xhpw kuc-am-k-K-W\bpw \S-¸m-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶ kqN-\- \ap¡v e`n-¡p-¶p. ]uÀW-am-´-Nm-{µ-am-k-K-W\bpw kuc-am-k-K-W-\bpw GtIm-]n¨ amÀ¤-ioÀjm-Zn-bmb kwh-Õ-c-K-W\-bnse ]pXp-hÀj-¸n-dhnbmWv s]cp-amÄ Ah-tcm-[-¯n\v Ggp-Zn-hkw ap¼v \mw ImWp-¶-Xv.

7

f-¯nse Gähpw {][m\ tZio-bm-tLmjw amam-¦a - m-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶v tcJs¸-Sp-¯p-¶p. ]s£, amam-¦s - ¯-¸än, BtLm-j¯ - nsâ Ncn-{X-s¯-¸än At±lw H¶pw ]d-bp-¶n-Ã.

(b) {io. Fw.-Pn.-Fkv. \mcm-b-Wsâ 'Foundations of South Indian Society and 8 Culture' F¶ ]pkvXI - ¯ - n kwL-Im-eX - a - n-gI - s - ¯-¸ä - nbpw tIc-fs - ¯-¸-

änbpw hni-Za - mb ]cm-aÀi-§f - p-s−-¦nepw amam-¦s - ¯-¸än bmsXmcp ]cmaÀihpw ImWp-¶n-Ã.

(b) _mÀl-kv]-Xy-kw-h-Õ-c-K-W-\bpw Kpcp-hnsâ ØnXn-bm ChnsS kqN-I-

am-Ip-¶p. Kpcp AkvX-a\w (kqcy-bp-Xn) Ignªv Ing-¡³ N{I-hm-f-¯n Zriy-amb Imew (Heliacal rise of Jupiter). {Kl-ØnXn {i²n-¡pI: kqcy³ N{µ³ IpP³ _p[³ Kpcp ip{I³ i\n

kqcy³ þ{Klw -77 9 22 32 55 Kpcp A\ngw \£-{X-¯n Ing¡v Zriy-am-Wv. tZh-cm-Pm-hmb C{µsâ \£{X¯n Kpcp DZn-¡p-¶Xv _mÀl-kv]-Xy-K-W-\-bn sshim-J-kw-h-Õ-cam-Wv. 6 IpP-\pw, Kpcp-hpw, ip{I-\pw, i\nbpw C¡m-e¯v auVym-kvX-a-\mZn ØnXn-IÄ Ignªv Ing¡v Zriy-am-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶Xpw {i²n-t¡-−-Xm-Wv. KWnX-t¯-¡mÄ \nco-£-W-{]-[m-\-ambn KW-I-·mcpw ]ptcm-ln-X-·mcpw Ie-−À \nÀÆ-Nn-¨n-cp¶ Ime-L-«-am-b-Xn-\mÂ, Ien-Zn\Xob-Xn-bpsS km[pX ]cn-tim[n-¡p-t¼mÄ Cu hkvXp-X-IÄ¡v hfsc {]m[m-\y-ap-−v. 247°33' 137°19' 170°27' 238°07' 224°50' 215°30' 192°35'

(c) {in.-]n.-än. {io\n-hmk A¿-¦m-cpsS XanÄ Ncn{X¯nepw amam¦w ]cm-aÀin-

¡-s¸-Sp-¶n-Ã. ]Xn-äp-¸¯ - n kvXpXn-¡s - ¸-Sp¶ BZn-tN-cc - mP¡·m-cpsS Imew {InkvXp-hÀjw A©mw \qäm−v apX-emsW¶ \nK-a\w A¿-¦mÀ \ÂIp-¶p.

(d) {io. \mem-¦Â IrjvW] - n-Å,- amam-¦s - ¯-¸än tIc-fN - c - n{Xw au\w Zo£n-

¡p¶p9 F¶v tcJ-s¸-Sp¯n ImWp-¶p.

(e) ae-_m-dnse \mb-·m-sc-¸än F.Fawcett F¶ kmbn-s¸-gp-Xnb ]pkvXI - -

¯nepw amam-¦¯ - nsâ Ncn-{X-w tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-¡m-Wp-¶n-Ã.

4.

(a) H¶mw tNc-Im-eL - «- s - ¯-¸än Adn-bp-hm³ {ian-¨mepw ]c-kv]c - h - n-cp-²a - mb

\nK-a\ - § - f - mWv Zriy-am-Ip-¶X - v.

(b) tIc-f` - mjm C³Ìn-äyq«v {]kn-²o-Ic - n¨ kwL-km-ln-Xy-Nc - n{Xw BZn-tN-cN-{I-hÀ¯n-bmbn cma-LS- -aq-jn-Is - \bpw ({In.-ap. 170), ]Xn-äp-¸¯ - nse \jvSs - ¸« H¶mw ]¯nse tNc-\mbn {InkvXp-hÀjw 496  ap¸-¯n-

sbm¶mw s]cp-am-fmbn s]cp-t©m-äp-Xn-b³ tNc-em-Xs - \bpw Ah-Xc - n-¸n-¡p¶p. Ca-bh - c - ¼ - ³ s\Spw-tN-c B-X³ (AD515), sNmÂh-s¡m-SpwtIm hgnbm-Xs - \¶ \m¸-¯n-c−mw s]cp-am-fn\v AD618-639F¶n-§s\ Imeb-fhv \ÂIn-¡m-Wp-¶p.

(c) tIc-f-N-cn-{X-¯n Hcp ]pXnb Ime-L-«-¯nsâ Bcw`w Ipdn-¨-Xmbn Icp-

Xm³ Cu Ien-Zn-\-Xo-b-Xn-bpsS tPymXnx-imkv{X ]Ým-¯ew t{]cn-¸n-¡p¶p. s]cp-amÄ Ah-tcm[w Cu Xob-Xn-bn \S-¶p-sh¶ sFXnlyw icnsb-¦n amam¦w AYhm Xncp-\m-hm-bnse ]´ocm−p-k-`-bpsS DÛ-h-hpambn Cu Xob-Xn¡v _Ô-apt−m F¶v \mw ]cn-tim-[n-t¡-−-Xm-Wv.

3.

H¶mw tNc-Im-eL - «- w

(c) {io. kJym-\µ - k - zm-an-IÄ tIc-tfmÂ]¯n ASn-Øm-\a - m-bn, BZn-tN-c· - m-

cnse Ah-km\ s]cp-amÄ (]-Ån-hmW s]cp-amÄ) _p²-aXw kzoI-cn¨v

amam-¦-¯nsâ Ahyà Ncn-{Xw.

6

Bcy-`-Sobw Ime-{In-bm-]m-Z-¯n Aiz-bpIv BZn-bmb _mÀl-kv]Xy kwh-Õ-c-§fpsS ]cm-aÀi-ap-−v. Kpcp-`-KWm cmin-Kp-Wm-kvXzm-iz-bp-PmZym Kptcm-c_vZmx. bpKm-Znbn Kpcp Aizn-\n-bn DZn-¨p-sh¶ ASn-Øm-\-¯n-emWv Cu _mÀl-kv]-Xy-hÀj-KWn-Xw. Āryabhatīya, edited by Prof. KS Shukla and Dr. KV Sarma, p. 88, Indian National Science Academy, N.Delhi-2.

9

7

Menon, Sreedhara, A., Cultural Heritage of Kerala, S. Visvanathan Pvt. Ltd, Chennai, (1996), p.64. 8 Narayanan, MGS., Foundations of South Indian Society and Culture, Bharatiya Vidya Prakasan, Delhi 9 alm-t£-{X-§Ä¡v ap¶nÂ, ]pdw 805.

10


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

Øm\-XymKw sNbvX-Xns\¯pSÀ¶mWv amam-¦-¯n s]cp-am-f-h-tcm[w \S-¶-sX¶ sFXn-lyhw BÀj-`m-c-X-]m-c-¼-cy-sa¶ IrXn-bn tcJ-s¸-Sp¯n-bn-«p-−v. 10

(d) sdmane Ym¸-dpsS `mc-X-N-cn{Xw Jc-th-esâ enJn-X-¯nse 'XanÄkwL' (Tamil Confedaracy) ]cm-aÀiw tNc-þ-tNm-f-þ-]m-WvUy-cpsS kwbpà {]Xn-

tcm-[s¯ kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xmbpw kwL-km-ln-Xy-¯n-eqsS Adn-b-s¸-Sp¶ tNc-·m-cpsSbpw Icn-Im-e-tNm-f-sâbpw Imew {InkvXphÀjw H¶pw c−pw \qäm-−p-I-fm-bmWv kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv. 11

(e) sI. G. \oe-I-WvT-im-kv{Xn-bpsS Z£n-W-`m-cX Ncn{Xw A\p-k-cn¨v Jcth-esâ kwbp-àþXan-g-I-hp-am-bpÅ bp²w BC 155 embn-cp-¶p. A¡me¯v Xan-g-I-¯n-se cmP-kw-hn-[m-\-¯n\v 113 hÀjs¯ ]mc-¼cyw D−mbn-cn-¡-bm {In.ap 268 hscsb¦nepw Xan-gI Ncn{Xw tcJ-I-fn-eqsS

hyà-am-sW¶v Icp-Xmw. ]Xn-äp-¸-¯nse Ah-km\ tNc-N{I-hÀ¯nbmb (H³]Xmw ]¯v) IpSt¡m Cfw tNc Ccp-s¼m-ssd¡v Imew AD190 Dw am´-c³ tNc Ccp-s¼m-ssd¡v Imew AD 210 Dw \ÂIp-¶p.

(f) tNc-·m-À¡v \oe-I-WvT-imkv{Xn \ÂIp¶ Ime-b-f-hp-IÄ¡v Dt]m-Zv_-e-I-

ambn {Ko¡v-þ-tdm-a³ Ncn-{X-tc-J-Ifpw k©m-c-tc-J-Ifpw \mW-b-\n-[n-IfpsS sXfnhpw [mcm-f-ambn D²-cn-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p.

tIc-f-N-cn-{X-¯nsâ Cu B[p-\nI ]Ým-¯-e-hp-ambn X«n¨p t\m¡p-t¼mÄ, "`qau`qt]mbw {]m]y" 1211454 F¶ IenZn\w \ÂIp¶ s]cp-am-f-h-tcm-[¯nsâ XobXn \hw_À 30, 215 AD tNchmgvN¡mes¯ tIcfNcn{Xw, ImeKW\ ]p\x-kr-jvSn-¡m-\p-X-Ip¶ \mgnI¡ÃmWv. jjvTn XnYn kvIµ-]q-P-bpambn _Ô-s¸-«Xpw kvIµ-³ tZh-·m-cpsS s]cp-am-fmbn Ah-tcm-[n-¡-s¸-«-Xpamb XnYn-bm-Wv. {InkvXp-hÀj-¯nsâ BZy-\q-äm-−p-I-fn Ipam-c-ImÀ¯ntIb³ kmÀÆ-{Xn-I-ambn bp²-tZ-h-\mbn Bcm-[n-¡-s¸-«n-cp-¶p-sh-¶-Xn\v I\njvI-þ-Kp-]vX-Im-e-þ-bu-t[b Ncn-{Xw A\n-tj-[y-amb sXfnhv \ÂIp-¶p-−v. ]Xn-äp-¸-¯nepw kvIµsâ {]m[m\yw kqNn-¸n-¡p¶ ]cm-aÀiw e`y-am-Wv. AXn-\m s]cp-amÄ Ah-tcm-[-¯n\v jjvTn Gähpw A\p-tbm-Py-am-bn-cp-¶p. 28 Znhkw \o−p-\n-¶n-cp¶ alm-aLw Bcw-`n-¨n-cp-¶Xv kvIµsâ P·-\-£-{Xamb ssX¸q-b-¯n-\m-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¶Xv ChnsS kvac-Wo-b-am-Wv. Cuhn[samcp IenhmIyw ]n¡me¯v hymPambn krjvSn¡s¸«v sFXnly §fn FgpXnt¨À¡pI km²yambncp¶nÃ. aebmf¯nsâ Ncn{X¯n I]Sambn krjvSn¡s¸« ]cÂt]cpIÄ H¶pw Xs¶ ImWphm³ Ignªn«n Ã. tIcf¯nsâbpw saks¸mt«anbbpsSbpw tPymXnximkv{X]mc¼cyhpam bn At`Zy_Ôw ]peÀ¯p¶ KWn-tXm-]m-[n-bmWv IenZn\w. tIc-tfmÂ] ¯nbpw sFXn-ly-hp-amWv Ah-ew-_-sa-¦nepw tPymXnx-im-kv{X-¯nsâ kmt¦-

Xn-IX Ir{Xn-a¯ - n-\pÅ km²y-Xsb \ncm-Ic - n-¡p¶ Ime-kq-N\ - b - mWv `qau-`qt]mƒbw {]m]ym F¶ A£-ck - w-Jy. IV.

amam-¦-¯nsâ DÛhw {In. hÀjw 215 tem?

amam¦w AYhm alm-aLw F¶ BtLm-j¯ - nsâ tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]c - a - mb {]tXy-IX - I - Ä t\m¡n-bm \mw ImWp-¶Xv þ alm-aLw 28 Znhkw AYhm Hcp Nm{µ-am-k¡ - mew \o−p-\n-¶n-cp¶ BtLm-ja - m-Wv. 2. aI-cw- (ssX)am-k¯ - nse ]qb-¯n-em-cw-`n¨v amL-]uÀ®-an¡v Ah-km-\w. 3. BtLm-j¯ - nsâ amL]uÀ®-an-bnse Ah-km\w ]uÀ®-am´ amk-þk - wh-Õc - K - W - \ kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p. 4. Ipw`-ta-fs - b¶ (am-La - L - w, Nn§Kpcp) t]mse amam-¦hpw hym-g¯ - nsâ cmin-ØnXnsb Bkv]Z- a - mbn BtLm-jn-¡s - ¸-«n-cn-¡mw. 5. Xncp-\m-hm-bnse alm-aLw Ipw`-tIm-W¯pw BtLm-jn-¡s - ¸-«n-cp-¶p. alm-aLw BtLm-j¯ - n\v Cu tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]c - a - mb {]tXy-IX - I - Ä F§s\ kwPm-Xa - mbn? {InkvXp-hÀjw 215 se ]uÀ®-an-Ifpw Aam-hm-knIfpw \s½ Nn´n-¸n-¡p-¶-hb - m-Wv. 1.

]uÀ®-an-IÄ 215/08/26 23:11 215/09/25 15:46 215/10/25 10:25 215/11/24 05:44 215/12/23 23:52 216/01/22 15:20 216/02/21 03:40 216/03/21 13:22

10 11

c, N 151°50' 331°50' 181°11' 001°11' 211°06' 031°06 241°25' 061°25 271°47' 091°47 301°51' 121°51' 331°23' 151°23' 00°19' 180°19'

Aam-hm-kn-IÄ 215/09/11 05:10 215/10/10 14:30 215/11/09 00:50 215/12/08 12:26 216/01/07 01:11 216/02/05 14:52 216/03/06 05:23 216/04/04 20:41

c N 166°50' 166°50' 196°09' 196°09' 225°55' 225°55' 255°59' 255°59' 286°04' 286°04' 315°54' 315°54' 345°18' 345°18' 14°13' 14°13'

A History of India, Vol.I, p. 104, Penguin Books, 1990 A History of South India, pp.104-112, Oxford University Press, 1998.

11

12


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

alm-aL¯nsâ apI-fn ]dª {]tXy-I-X-IÄ s]cp-am-f-h-tcm[w \S¶ hÀj-¯nse kuc-þ-a-I-c-amkw AYhm ssXam-k-¯n \n¶pw DÄs¡m-−-XmsW¶v \ap¡v Cu ]«n-I-bn \n¶pw a\-Ên-em-¡mw.

hym-g-¯n-emsW¶-Xp-t]mse Xs¶-bmWv Xncp-\m-hm-bnse ]´o-cm-−p-k` - - AD 215 Â IqSn-bmXv.



]uj-þ-Ir-jvW-{]-Xn-]Zw ]qbw \£-{X-¯n Unkw-_À 24 \v aI-cm-Znbnepw ]ujm-´-]uÀ®an {In.-h. 216 P\phcn 22 \v aIw \£-{X-¯n-ep-amIp-¶p.



JÂZmb coXn-bn ip¢-{]-Xn-]-Z-m´y¯nse N{µ-ZÀi\w Bkv]-Z-am-bmWv Ie-−À \nÝ-bn-¨n-cp-¶-sX¶v Icp-Xn-bm N{µs\ ImWp¶ Znhkw apX 14 Znhkw ip¢-]£hpw XpSÀ¶v ]uÀ®an Ignªv NXpÀ±-in-bn cmhnse N{µ-ZÀi\w Akm-²y-amIpw hsc 14 Znhkw IrjvW-]-£hpw F¶ IW-¡n 28 Znh-k-§-fpsS Nm{µamkKW\ cmiy-kv]-Z-amb kucK-W-\-sbm-sSm¸w \ne-hn-en-cp-¶p-sh¶v Duln-¡mw.



s]cp-amÄ Ah-tcm-[s¯ XpSÀ¶v kmaq-ln-I-amb \S-]-Sn-IÄ¡pw aX-]-camb Ie-−À AYhm KWnX]cn-jvI-c-W-¯n\pw Xncp-\m-hm-bn s]cpamÄ kvIµ-P-b-´n¡v hnfn¨p Iq«nb ]´o-cm−p k` ]n¡m-e¯v almaLw BtLm-j-ambn amdn-sb¶v Icp-Xp-¶-Xn sXän-Ã.



]´o-cm−pk`¡v tPymXnÀK-WnXw kw_-Ôn-¨p-−m-bn-cp¶ kmaq-lnI D¯-c-hm-ZnXzw ]n¡m-e¯v imkv{X-Im-c-·m-cm tcJs¸Sp-¯s - ¸-«n-«p-−v. amam¦¯nemsW¶v ]clnXKWnXw kzoIcn¡s¸«sX¶v i¦chÀ½³ k{ZXv\amebn {]kvXmhn¨n-cn-¡p-¶Xv ChnsS {it²-b-am-Wv. ZrssKzjayhimXv almØeantX Iey_vZtI \nÝnXx kwkvImtcm hn_pss[cyXx ]clnXXzw tXjp hot\jzbw

Cu tÇmI-¯n\v tPymXnj]mc¼cy¯n e`yamb hymJym\w Ien 3785 \Ss¡ Xncp\mhmbn ]´o-cm-−p-k` Bcy-`-So-b-K-Wn-X-¯nsâ \yq\-X-IÄ ]cn-l-cn-¡p¶ ]pXnb ]clnXKWnXw kzoIcn¨psh¶mWv. Ien-hÀjw 3785  tIc-f-¯n \qX-\-K-WnXw D−m-bn-«n-Ã. lcn-Z-¯³ Bcy`-Sob KWn-X-¯n\v _oPw \nÀ²m-cWw sN¿pI am{X-am-Wp-−m-b-Xv. _oP{Inb sIm−p-am{Xw ]c-ln-X-sa¶ t]cn Hcp ]pXnb KWnXw amam-¦-¯n kzoI-cn-¡-s¸-«p-sh¶v Icp-Xp-¶-Xn A]m-I-X-bp-−v. i¦-c-hÀ½³ tcJ-s¸-Sp¯n-bn-cn-¡p¶ sFXnlyw ]qÀ®-ambpw icntbm? F¶ Hcp tNmZyw ChnsS Db-cp-¶p. 

alm-a-Lhpw Ipw`-ta-fbpw Xncp-\m-hmbpw Ipw`-tIm-Whpw

tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]-c-ambn t\m¡n-bm AD 215, s]cp-am-f-h-tcm-[-¯n-ep-]-cnbmbn alm-aLw AYhm Ipw`-taf BtLm-jn-¨ncp¶ Ime-am-Wv. Ipw`-taf hymg-¯nsâ {]tXy-I-Øn-Xnsb B{i-bn¨v Nn§-hym-gw ({]-bm-K), Ipw`-hymgw (l-cn-Zzm-cw), hrÝn-I-hymgw (\m-kn-Iv) C§s\ Ipw`-¯nsâ tI{µcm-in-bnse hymg-Øn-Xn-Im-e¯mWv BtLm-jn-¨n-cp-¶Xv. \mkn-¡nse Ipw`-taf hrÝn-I-

13

alm-a-Lhpw Ipw`-tI-{µ-§f - nse h - ym-gw Ipw`-tI-{µ-§f - nse hymgØnXn-bpsS {]tXy-Is - b-´mWv? DZm-lc - W - ¯ - n\v Ipw`-taf \S-¡p¶ Ipw`-hym-g¡ - mew t\m¡n-bm Gähpw ]pWy-Zn-\§ - Ä aIc-am-k-¯nse Aam-hmkn (]u-jw)bpw amL-aL - h - p-am-Wv. Ipw`-hym-g¡ - m-e¯v ]uj Aam-hm-kn-bpsS tPymXnx-im-kv{X-{]-kàn, AkvXa - b - ¯n\p tijw hymgw Zriy-am-Ip-¶X - m-Wv. ZznXo-b¡v Ipw`-¯nse N{µ\v AYhm Aar-XI - e - ¡v, -Kp-cp-tbm-Khpw km²y-am-bn-cp-¶p. Nn§-hym-g¡ - m-e¯v IÀ¡ Aam-hmky¡pw kam-\a - mb bpàn ]d-bmsa¶Xp IqSmsX Ipw`-kq-cy³ AkvXa - n-¡pt¼mÄ AYhm DZn-¡p-t¼mÄ hymgs¯ Aar-XI - e - b - mb N{µ-t\m-sSm¸w Zriyam-Ip-¶-Xn\pw km²y-Xb - p-−v. Ipw`-tIm-W¯v alm-aLw C¶v BtLm-jn-¡s¸-Sp-¶Xv Nn§-hym-gI - m-e¯ - m-Wv. Xncp-\m-hm-bn amam-¦hpw Nn§-hym-gI - me¯v (AD 1683, AD 1695)12\S-¶n-cp-¶p-sh-¶X - n\v sXfn-hp-If - p-−v. tIc-tfmÂ]¯n-b-\p-kc - n¨v tIbs¸cp-am-fh - t- cm[w \ÂIp¶ AD 215 ASn-Øm-\a - mbn t\m¡p-t¼mÄ hrÝn-Ih - ym-g¯ - nembn-cp¶p ]´o-cm−p k` \S-¶X - v. cmacmPIpetiJcsâ Øm\mtcmlWw AD820 embncp¶psh¶Xv s]mXpsh AwKoIcn¡s¸«p ImWp¶p. amam¦¯nsâ Imes¯¸än tcJIsfm¶pw ImWp¶nÃ. http://www.keralahistory.ac.in F¶ ssh_vsskän ImWp¶ {io. Fw.Pn.Fkv. \mcmbWsâ teJ\¯n \n¶pw cmPtiJcsâbpw ØmWp chnbpsSbpw Øm\mtcmlWw \S¶ hÀj§Ä AD 820, AD 844 ChbmsW¶v hyàamIp¶p. Cu c−v hÀj§fpw hrÝnIhymgw BsW¶ hkvXpX apIfn `qan`qt]mbw {]m]y kw_Ôn¨v \mw F¯nt¨À¶ \nKa\¯n\v km[qIcWw \ÂIp¶p. Ncn{XKXnbnse bmZrÑnIXbtWm s]cpamÄ Ahtcm[¯nsâXmbn e`yam Ip¶ AD 820 epw AD 844 epw hrÝnI-hym-gØ nXn? Ime-KX - n-bn Fs´ms¡ amä-§f - mImw alm-aLw BtLm-j¯ - n\v h¶n-cn-¡pI? Xncp-\m-hmbpw Ipw`-tIm-Whpw X½n alm-aL - ¯ - nsâ ]c-kv]c - _ - Ô - ¯ - n\v Imc-Ws - a´v? Ipw`-¯nse aI-¯n\v (alm-aI - w, tNmäm-\n-¡c aIw) tIc-f¯ - n-ep-−m-bn-cp¶ {]kàn Nn§-¯nse Xncp-thm-W-t¯-¡mÄ IqSp-Xe - m-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶v Ncn{Xw kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p. kqcy³ Ipw`-¯nepw N{µ³ Nn§-¯nepw \nÂs¡ D¯-c` - mcXw (Ipw-`t- a-f) hymgw Aar-XI - e - b - mb N{µ-t\mSv tNcp¶ \nco-£W - ¯ - n\v {]m[m\yw \ÂIn BtLmjw \S-¯n-bt- ¸mÄ, tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]m-c¼ - c - y-¯n\v t]cp-tI« tIcfw hymgw AÀ²-cm-{Xn-bn-ep-Zn-¨v kqtcym-Zb - ¯ - n D¨n-bn-se¯p¶ Ime-amWv BtLm-j¯ - n-\mbn \nÝ-bn-¨s - X¶v Icp-Xmw. {]`m-Xw, a[ym-Ów, kmbmÓw, AÀ[-cm{Xw F¶o \mev kÔy-If - nse Kpcp-hnsâ ZÀi\-amWv Ip`-¯nse aIs¯ hyXy-kvXc - o-Xn-If - n BtLm-jn-¡p-¶X - n\v t{]cI-am-b-Xv. 12

ae-_m-dnse \mb-·m-sc-¸än F.Fawcett F¶ kmbn-s¸-gp-Xnb ]pkvX-I-w

14


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008 D¯-c-`m-c-X-¯n Ipw`-taf \S-¡p-¶Xv {]bm-K, lcn-Zzm-cw, DÖ-bn\n, \mknIv F¶o Øm\-§-fn-em-Wv. Z£n-W-`m-c-X-¯nse ØnXn t\m¡n-bm tIc-f¯nsâ DÖ-bn-\n-bmWv Xncp-\m-hm-b (10N51, 75E45), DÖ-bn-\n-bpsS tcJmw-iapÅ ]Ýn-a-Xp-d-ap-Jw. Xncp-\m-hm-bpsS AtX A£mwit¯msS {]bm-K-bpsS tcJmw-i-¯n \n¡p-¶-Xmbn ]g-b-Im-e¯v k¦Â]n-¡-s¸-«n-cp¶ ØeamWv Ipw`-tIm-Ww (10N55, 79E25). V.

365.24219=1315237) D−m-Ip¶ hyXymkw 305.64 Zn\-§fpw chn-a[ - y-a¯ - n  hyXymkw 301015' Dw BIp-¶p. ]uj Aam-hmkn hsc Ignª IenZn\w 44538x 29.5305874 = 1315233.3, chn-a[ - yaw = 297027'. B[p-\n-Ia - qeyw 0 0 297 34'. 300 kqcy-a[ - y-a¯ - n\v Ien-Zn\w = 1315233.3+2.5 =1315236, AXmbXv AD500- wmam−v P\p-hcn 20þmw Xob-Xn, hymgmgvN a[y-ak - q-tcym-Zb - 0 ¯n\v kqcysâ Ipw`-a[ - yakw{Iaw F¶ KWn-X¯ - n\v chn-kv^pSw 301 26' AÀ²-cm-{Xn-I] - £ - hpw B[p-\n-IK - W - nXw 301030' Dw \ÂIp-¶p. ChnsS Ien-Zn-\a - mb 1315236 s\ kmb\þhÀj-amb 365.2422 sIm−v lcn-¨m ^ew 3600.99 ≈ 3601 BIp-¶p. AXm-bXv chn-a[ - yaw iq\yw. Ien-bp-KmZnbpw (þ3101CE, 18 s^{_p-hcn a[y-tam-Zbw 06:00) AD500-mam−nse kmb\ Ipw`kw{Iahpw X½n 3601 kmb-\hÀj§fpsS hyXymkw hcn-

Bcy-`-S³ amam-¦-¯nsâ \m«nÂ

tIc-f-N-cn{Xw, amam¦w Ch kw_-Ôn¨ Ncv¨-bn CXp-hsc tPymXnx-im-kv{X¯nt\m Bcy-`-St\m Imcy-amb {]kàn D−m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. Bcy-`-Ssâ \nco-£W-Øm\w 10N51BsW¶ Is−-¯Â Cu ØnXn¡v amäw hcp-¯n-bn-cn-¡p¶p. amam-¦-¯nsâ \m«n ]´o-cm-−p-k-`-I-fpsS ]Ým-¯-e-¯n-emWv Bcy-`Ssâ \qX-\-K-WnXw P·w-sIm−v Ipkp-a-]pcw hsc {]Jym-Xa - m-b-sX¶ Ncn-{X hkvXpX¡v Bdmw \qäm-−nse tIcfw sXfnhv \ÂtI−-Xp-−v. ]´o-cm−p k`, amam¦w Ch-bp-ambn _Ô-s¸« Xncp-\m-hm-bnse Bcy-`-Sob¯nsâ ]nd-hnbn Cu kmaq-ln-I-L-S-I-§Ä bmsXmcp kzm[o-\hpw sNep-¯n-bntÃ? Ien-hÀjw 3785 \Ss¡ (AD 683) CS-h-hym-g-¡m-es¯ ]´ocm−pk` kw_Ôn¨ sFXn-lyhpw i¦-c-hÀ½sâ ]cm-aÀihpw tIc-f-¯nse tPymXnx-imkv{X-]m-c-¼cyw ]Ým-¯-e-ambn hni-I-e\w sN¿p-t¼mÄ \ap¡v hfsc {]m[m\y-apÅ Nne DÄ¡m-gvN-IÄ e`n-¡p-¶p. 1. 2.

3.

(a)

(b)

{_mÒ-W-\m-bn-cp¶ lcn-Z-¯sâ KWnXw ]c-lnXw F¶v hnh-£n-¡-s¸«Xv hni-Zo-I-c-W-an-Ãm¯ kwK-Xn-bm-Wv. sXm−n (s]m-¶m-\n) Xpd-ap-J-\-K-cn-¡-Sp¯v ssP\-\m-bn-cp¶ Bcy-`-S³ Ae-Ivkm-{−n-b-bnse hnÚm\w D]-tbm-K-s¸-Sp¯n krjvSn¨ \qX\ hnjp-hm-kv]-Z-amb KWn-X-¯n-\mWv ]c-lnXw F¶ t]cv tbmPn-¡p-I. Xsâ kztZ-i-amb Xncp-\m-hm-bn \S-¶n-cp¶ ]´o-cm-−p-k-`-bpsS ]Ým¯-e-¯n-emWv Bcy-`-S³ Xsâ kn²m-´-§Ä¡v cq]w \ÂIn-b-sX¶v Xmsg¸d-bp¶ hkvXp-X-IÄ kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p. BcymÀ²-cm-{X-kn-²m-´-¯nsâ Ic-Wm-cw`w Xpem-hym-g-amb KX-Ien 3600 (AD 499)F¶v \nÝ-bn-¡p-¶Xn\pw _m_n-tem-Wn-b³ kuc-hÀj-am-\-amb 365.25875 kzoI-cn-¡p-¶-Xn\pw t{]c-I-am-bXv hrÝn-I-hym-g-amb KX-Ien 3601 se (AD 500) ]´o-cm-−p-k-`-bn Ah-X-cn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xn-\p−mbn-cp¶ km²y-X-bm-Wv. KWn-X-]-c-ambn t\m¡p-t¼mÄ BcymÀ²-cm-{X-kn-²m-´-¯nsâ Ic-Wm-cw`w KX-Ien 3600 F¶ AD499 se taS-kqcy-a-[yakw-{Iaw BIp-¶p. F¶mÂ, Ien-bp-Km-Znbpw KX-Ien 3601 se (AD 500) Ipw`-kw-{I-ahpw Bcy-`-Ssâ kn²m-´-¯n A´Àeo-\-am-Wv. F§-s\-b-¶mÂ, 3600 kuc-hÀj-§Ä (3600x365.25875=1314931.5) ¡v 3601 kmb-\-þhÀj-§-fp-ambn (3601x

15



I-bm Ien-bp-KmZn bYmÀ°-¯n kmb-\I - pw-`k - w-{I-aa - m-bn-cp¶p F¶v sXfn-bp-¶p. Cu kmb-\K - W - n-Xs¯ (3601EXp-kw-hÕ - c - § - Ä) _m_n-temWn-b³ kuc-hÀj-am\w D]-tbm-Kn¨v 3601EXp-{`-aW - -§Ä = 3600.8333 \ncb-\a - m-¡n-bXv a\-Ên-em-¡p-hm³ Ien-Zn-\a - mb 1315236 s\ Ønc-KXnhÀjamb (Anomalistic year) 365.25875 sIm−v lcn-¨m aXn. 1315236/ 365.25875 = 3600.833 F¶v ^ew. \S-¸p-Ien 3601 se Ipw`-kw-{I-a¯ - nsâ asämcp {]tXy-IX Cu Ipw`-kw{Iaw KWn-XZ- rjvSym AD 215\v kam-\a - m-Wv. kqcy-kn-²m´w bpKm-Zn-bn 0 54 Ab-\mwiw \ÂIp¶p-sh-¶Xv {i²n-¡p-I. AD215 se KWn-Xb - pàn {i²n-¡pI þ KX-Ien 3316 \v EXp-kw-hÕ - c - Z- n-\§ - Ä 1211143. Cu Ien-Zn\s¯ 365.25875 F¶ kuc-hÀjw sIm−v lcn-¨m ^ew 3315.85 AYhm chn-a[ - yaw 3060 BIp-¶p. kqcy-kn-²m-´¯ - nsâ DÛhw Ien 3316 emsW¶v CXn-\m hyà-am-Ip-¶p.



Ien-bp-KmZn Is−-¯nb hÀjw

AÀ²-cm-{X-]£ - ¯ - nsâ Ic-Wm-cw-`a - mb KXIen 3600 \v hnjp-hn-t\mSp tbmKw 0 sNbvX tajmZn (0 ) bpKm-Zn-bn hnjp-hn\v 500 ]Sn-ªm-dm-bn-cp-¶p. Cu 500 Ab\w KX-Ien 3600 \v \mw ImWp-¶Xv 600Bbn-«m-Wv. A[n-IA - b - \ - a - mb 100¡v ImcWw Ien-bp-Km-Zn-bnse Aam-hmkn AYhm kqcy³ bYmÀ°-¯n tajm-Zn-¡v 100 ]Sn-ªm-dm-bn-cp-¶X - n-\m-em-Wv.13 Cu ASn-Øm-\¯ - n Nn´n-¡pt¼mÄ KX-Ien taS-kw-{I-ahpw \S-¸p-Ien Ipw`-kw-{I-ahpw X½n BcymÀ²13

{Kl-a-[y-a-§sf kqcym-t]-£n-I-ambn \o−-Im-e-b-f-hp-I-fn-te¡v KWn-¡p-t¼m-fp-−mIp¶ k¦oÀ®-X-bm-emWv. On The Origin of ‘Kaliyugadi’ Synodic Superconjunction, IJHS,Vol. 33 (3) 1998, p.193, INSA, New Delhi-2.

16


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

cm-{X-]-£-¯n ImWp¶ bpàn D]-tbm-Kn¨v Ien-bp-Km-Zn-bpsS \nÀ®bw D−mb Imew Is−-¯mw.

bpKmZn k¦Â]-amWv hnhn[ Ime-bf - h - p-If - n tIc-f¯ - n ]cn-jvIc - n-¡s - ¸-«Xv.

\ne-hn-en-cn-¡p¶ \nc-b\ cmin-N-{I-k-¦Â]§f\p-k-cn¨v bpKm-Zn-bnse \yq\Xa Ab\w 450 BIp-¶p. kn²m-´n-I-ku-c-hÀj-am\w = 365.25875. (KX-Ien x EXp-kw-h-Õ-cw)/ 365.25875 = 3000= \S-¸p-Ien Ipw`-kw-{Iaw = KX-Ien + 0.8333 Ien F¶v apI-fn 600 Ab-\-¯n\v I− bpàn 450 Ab-\-¯n\v þ

amam-¦-¯nsâ AYhm Ipw`-ta-fb - psS ]Ým-¯e - ¯ - n Bcy-`S- k - n-²m´w bpKmZn \nÀ®-b¯ - nsâ clkyw AYhm 'bpKmZn' \nÀ®-bn-¡s - ¸« Imew \ap¡v Im«n-¯c - p-¶p. 4.

Ipw`-kw-{I-aw (ku-c-am-L-kw-{I-aw), amL-a-Lw, Kpcp a[ymImiw

0

(KX-Ien x EXp-kw-h-Õ-cw)/ 365.25875 = 315 = KX-Ien + 0.875Ien F¶mIp-¶p. Cu ka-hmIyw \nÀ²m-cWw sN¿p-t¼mÄ, KX-Ien 2761 {In.-ap. 340

emWv Ien-bp-KmZn \nÀ®bw F¶v D¯cw In«p-¶p. 500 Ab-\-¯n\v þ

(KX-Ien x EXp-kw-h-Õ-cw)/ 365.25875 = 3100 = KX-Ien + 0.8611Ien F¶m-Ip-¶p. Cu ka-hmIyw \nÀ²m-cWw sN¿p-t¼mÄ, KX-Ien 3068 AYhm {InkvXp-hn\v ap¼v 32 emWv Ien-bp-KmZn \nÀ®bw F¶v D¯cw In«p-¶p.

bpKmZn ASn-Øm-\-amb KWn-X-¯nsâ bpànbpw kuc-hÀj-am-\hpw Ipw`-kqcyØnXnbpw Bkv]-Z-ambn bpKmZn \nÀ®-bn-¡-s¸« hÀjhpw Nn{X-¯n \n¶pw a\-Ên-em-¡mw (X  Ien-hÀjw & Y  Ipw`-kq-cy³). 318

hrÝn-Ih - ymgw tIc-f¯ - n amL-aL - ¯ - n\v AYhm Ipw`-ta-f¡v F´p-sIm-−v kzoI-cn¨p? F¶v tNmZn-¨m Xt±-iob \nco-£W - ¯ - n\v {]m[m\yw \ÂIn F¶m-Wp-¯c - w.  P\p-hcn 20, 500 CE, Ipw`kw-{I-aw, kqtcym-Zbw 06:27, Kpcphnsâ D¨nØnXn (Upper Transit) 06:29. kqtcym-Zb - ¯ - n Kpcp-hnsâ a²ym-Im-ik - w-{Iaw (Upper Transit) Zriy-am-Ip-Ib - n-Ã.  amL-aIw, s^{_p-hcn 01, 500 CE, Ipw`kw-{I-aw, amL-]uÀ®-an, kqtcymZbw 06:26, Kpcphnsâ D¨n-ØnXn 05:45. Kpcp-hnsâ a²ym-Im-ik - w-{Ia¯n\v kqcy³ ]¯v Un{Kn-bn-tesd N{I-hm-f¯ - n\v Xmsg-bm-Ib - m IjvSn¨v Zriy-amWv.  GXp-Øe - ¯pw Xe¡v apI-fn Zriy-am-Ip¶ a[ym-Im-ik - w-{Iaw Gähpw hnti-ja - mb Xt±-is¯ \nco-£W - a - m-Wv.

316

5.

314

Bcymcv[cm{X-kn-²m-´¯ - nsâ Ic-Wm-cw`w Ignªv 23 hÀj-§Ä Ignªv I¶n-hym-g¯ - n-emWv (522CE) Bcy-`S- o-b¯ - nsâ (Zi-Ko-Xn-Im-kq-{X-¯nsâ) IcWm-cw-`w. 5 s^{_p-hcn 524 amL-aI - w. 524 CE se ]´o-cm-−p-k` BcymÀ²cm{X-kn-²m´w Xnc-kvIc - n¨v Bcy-`S- obw kzoI-cn-¨pthm? KX-Ien 3625se ]´ocm−v k` AÀ[cm-{Xn-I] - £w Xnc-kvIc - n¨v HuZ-bn-I] - £w kzoI-cn-¨p-sh-¶Xn\v Gähpw henb sXfn-hmWv BcymÀ²cm{Xkn-²m-´¯ - nsâ tIc-f¯ - n \n¶p-apÅ k¼qÀ® Xntcm-[m-\w. BcymÀ²-cm-{X-kn-²m-´s¯ B[p-\nI temIw Adn-bp-¶Xv alm`mkvIc - ob¯nse kw{K-lw, {_Ò-Kp-]vXsâ JWvUJm-Zy-I-w Chbneq-sSbpw hcm-la - n-ln-c³ ]cn-jvIc - n¨ kqcy-kn-²m-´¯ - n-eq-sSbp-am-Wv. Bcy-`S- o-b¯ - n\v tIc-f¯ - n ]e hymJym-\-§f - p-s−¦nepw AÀ[-cm{X-]-£-¯nsâ em©\ t]mepw tIc-fob tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]m-c¼ - c - y-¯n-en-Ã. aäp sXfn-hp-Is - f-´mWv?  AÀ[-cm-{X-]£w bh-\k - -Ôysb14 B{i-bn-¡p¶ Zn\-KW - \ - b - m-Wv. `mc-X¯nse Zn\-KW - \ kqtcym-Zbw ASn-Øm-\a - m-bm-Wv.

312 310 308 306 304 302 300 2500

2700

2900

3100

3300

3500

3700

tIc-f-¯n sF-Xn-ly-kn-²-amb Gähpw ]pcm-X-\-I-en-Zn\w {ioh-Ã-`-t£{Xw kw_-Ôn¨ 1111526, 29.04.59 BC F¶ {]Xn-jvTm-Zn-\amIp-¶p. {In.-ap. 340 \Spt¯m, ]n¶o-Sp-−mb skeq-¡kv bpK-¯ntem _m_n-tem-Wn Dcp-¯n-cnª

17

Bcy-`-So-bw Kncn-Xpw-K-¯n (KXIen 3623)

14

Sunset at Yavanapura, Alexandria (31N11, 30E00). bh-\-cpsS kmbwkÔy¡v Ggc-\m-gnI A[n-I-amWv DÖ-bn-\o-tc-J¡v ka-bw.

18


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

AÀ[-cm{Xn bh-\À¡v t]mepw Zn\m-cw-`-tam, IcWm-cw-`tam B-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. bh-\-þ-JÂZmb KWn-X-¯n kmbw-k-Ôy-bmWv Zn\-K-W-\¡v D]-tbm-Ks¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cp-¶-Xv. BNm-c-hn-cp-²-amb AÀ²-cm-{X-Zn-\-K-W\ tIc-f-¯n \n¶pw \o¡p-¶Xn AYhm DZ-b-Zn-\-K-W\ kzoI-cn-¡p-¶-Xn ]´o-cm-−p-k-`-bpsS CSs]-S XoÀ¯pw km²-am-Wv.





VI.

sImÃ-hÀjhpw tPymXnx-imkv{Xhpw

sImÃhÀjhpw tPymXnx-im-kv{Xhpw F¶v tI«m kmam\y P\-X-Xn¡v PnÚmk tXm¶m-sa-¦nepw ]WvUn-X-temIw ]pcnIw Npfn-¡p¶ kmwkvIm-cntIm-¶-Xn-bmWv C¶v tIc-f-¯nsâ apJ-ap-{Z. sImÃ-hÀjw Bcw-`n-¨n«v 67 hÀj§Ä Ign-ªp-−mb Xcn-km-¸Ån imk-\-§-fnepw {InkvXp-hÀjw 866 se ]mÀYn-h-ti-J-c-]pcw imk-\-¯nepw sImÃ-hÀjw D]-tbm-Kn-¨n-«n-söpw sImÃhÀjw BZy-ambn tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-¡m-Wp¶ imk\w sIm.-h. 149 se ({In.]n. 973) se am¼-Ån-¸-«-b-am-sW¶pw sI. inh-i-¦-c³ \mbÀ Xsâ thWmSnsâ ]cn-Wmaw F¶ IrXn-bn kaÀ°n¨p ImWp-¶p. sImÃ-hÀj-¯nsâ Cu A`m-h-¯n\p Imc-W-ambn At±lw ]d-bp-¶Xv {InkvXym-\n-I-fpsS hÀjam-bn-cp¶p sImÃ-hÀj-sa-¶m-Wv 15 . {InkvXym-\n-IÄ D]-tbm-Kn-¨p-sh-¶-Xn\v tcJ-IÄ D²-cn¨p ImWp-¶p-an-Ã. tPymXnx-im-kv{X-¯nsâbpw KWn-X-¯nsâbpw {XntIm-W-an-Xn-bp-sS-bp-sams¡ Gähpw al-¯mb ]mc-¼cyw Ah-Im-is¸-Sp¶ tIc-f-¯n {io. \mbÀ ]d-bp¶ emL-h-t¯msS Bbn-cn-¡ptam Hcp ]pXnb kwh-Õ-c-K-W\ \S-¸m-bXv? A§-s\-bm-Im³ Hcn-¡epw Xc-an-Ã. {InkvXp-hÀjw Bdmw \qäm-−n Bcy-`-S³, Ggmw \qäm-−n lcn-Z-¯³, H³]Xmw \qäm-−n tKmhnµkzmanbpw i¦-c-\m-cm-b-W\pw... C§s\ Ime¯n\v ambn-¡m-\m-Im¯ hn[w tPymXnx-im-kv{X-¯n\v kw`m-h-\-IÄ \ÂInb alm-tX-P-kzn-I-fpsS \m«n Hcp ]pXnb kwh-Õ-c-K-W\ D−m-bXv {InkvXy³ hWn-¡p-I-tfmSv ISw-sIm-−-Xm-sW¶v F§s\ IcpXmw? sImÃ-hÀjw aebmf¯nsâ X\Xmb ImeKW\bmWv. tIcfNcn{X¯n GXm−v a²ymImesa¶v hntijn¸n¡s¸Sp¶ {InkvXphÀjw 825  sImà ¯v Cu ImeKW\¡v cq]w \ÂIs¸«Xv kw_Ôn¨v hnhn[ sFXnly§Ä \ne\n¡p¶p.16 

hnhn[ k¦Â]§Ä

1.

slÀ½³ Kp−À«nsâ A`n{]mb¯n sImïv inht£{Xw Øm]nX ambXnt\mS\p_Ôn¨v Bcw`n¨ ImeKW\bmWv sImÃhÀjw. aX]c

15

sI. inh-i-¦-c³ \mbÀ, thWm-Snsâ ]cn-Wm-aw, Idâv _pIvkv ]pdw 31 Śarma, KV., Kollam Era, Indian Journal of History of Science, 31 (1), 1996, pp. 9399 INSA, New Delhi-2.

16

2.

19

3.

4.

5. 6.

amb Cu k¦Â]w BZyIme¯v s]mXpsh kzoIcn¡s¸«nsöpw ]n ¡me¯v sImÃw {]apJ hmWnPytI{µambtXmSp IqSnbmWv sImÃhÀj ¯n\v kzoImcyX D−mbsX¶pw tIcfkÀ¡mcnsâ HutZymKnI sh_v sskän ImWp¶p. 'BNmcyhmKt`Zy' F¶ IenZn\w (1434160) sImÃhÀjmcw`w Ipdn¡p¶ XmsW¶pw thWmSv cmPmhmbncp¶ DZbamÀ¯mWvUhÀ½ hnfn¨p Iq«nb ]WvUnX kZÊnsâ Xocpam\{]ImcamWv ]pXnb kwhÕcw \S¸m¡nbsX¶pw Hcp Iq«À hnizkn¡p¶p. IS]bmZnbnepÅ A£c kwJy ASnØm\am¡n NneÀ BZni¦cmNmcycpsS km¶n²yhpw {InkvXp hÀjw 825  k¦Â]n¡p¶p. c−v Bbnc§Ä \o¡s¸« ]cipcma AYhm `mÀ¤hm_vZamWv sImà hÀjsa¶ sFXnlyw, Cu ImeKW\bpsS Bcw`s¯ {InkvXphÀjw 825  \n¶pw {InkvXphn\v ap¼v 1175þmwam−nemsW¶v Ahyàamb [mcW \ÂIp¶p. ssihkn²\mbncp¶ kpµcaqÀ¯n \mb\mcpsS (tNcam³ s]cpamÄ \mb\mcpsSsb¶v asämcp ]£w) acWw Ipdn¡p¶XmWv {InkvXphÀjw 825 AYhm sImÃhÀjwmcw`sa¶pw sFXnly§Ä \ne\n¡p¶p. {InkvXphÀjw 823  sImïp h¶nd§nb I¨hS¡mcmb kpdnbm\n {InkvXym\nIfmcw`n¨XmWv sImÃhÀjsa¶v NneÀ ]dbp¶p. sImÃw XpdapJ¯nsâ AYhm ]«W¯nsâ Øm]\amWv {InkvXp hÀjw 825 F¶ Nn´mKXn¡v hncp²ambn sImÃs¯ kw_Ôn¨v hfsc ]pcmX\amb k©mcnIfpsS tcJs¸Sp¯epIÄ e`yamWv.

sImÃhÀjmcw`w KWnXZrjvSnbn hccpNn, Bcy`S³, `mkvIc³, lcnZ¯³, tKmhn-µk - zm-an, i¦-c\ - m-cm-b-W³ C§s\ {]JymXcmb tPymXnximkv{XÚ·mÀ sImÃhÀjmcw`amb {InkvXp hÀjw H³]Xmw \qäm−nse sImÃhÀjmcw`¯n\v (AD 825) ap¼v Xs¶ aebmf`qan¡v tPymXnximkv{XcwK¯v A\izcJymXn \ÂInbncp¶p. i¦-c\m-cm-b-W³ chn-hÀ½-Ip-e-ti-Jc - sâ B{in-X\pw atlm-Zb - ] - pcw hm\-\n-co-£W-tI-{µ-¯nsâ ta[m-hn-bp-am-bn-cp-¶p (AD 869se kqcy-{K-lW - \ - n-co-£Whpw Ipe-ti-Jc - s\ i¦-c\ - m-cm-bW - ³ hmKv`h - _ - o-P¯ - nsâ kq£vaX t_m²y-s¸-Sp¯n-bXpw 17 tIc-fK - W - n-X] - m-c¼ - c - y-¯n hfsc {]kn-²a - mWv). A§s\ tPymXnx-imkv{Xw t]mjn-¸n-¡s - ¸-«n-cp¶ Hcp Ime¯v kuchÀjKW\tbmsS \S¸n h¶ sImÃhÀjw Hcn-¡epw Aim-kv{Xo-ba - mbn {]N-cn¨ Hcp \m«p-\S- ¸n\v kwh-Õc - K - W - \ F¶ AwKo-Imcw \ÂIn-bX - à - . ]mc-¼c - ym-[n-jvTa - mb Hcp \qX\ kwh-Õc - K - W - \ kw_Ôn¨ tPymXnximkv{X]camb ssIs¿m¸v tIcf¯nsâ Ncn{X¯n AYhm sFXnly§fn e`yambncn¡Ww.

17

An Early Eclipse record of Indian Astronomy, IJHS, 37(4), 2002, pp.331-336.

20


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

C¯cpW¯n 'BNmcyhmKt`Zym' F¶ ]cÂt]cnsâ KWnX]camb XobXnbpw tPymXnx imkv{X]camb {]tXyIXIfpw hfsc {]kàamWv.

tIcfob kwkvIrXnbpsS ImeKW\

'BNmcyhmKt`Zym', IenZn\w 1434160, Pqenb³ Zn\KW\ (Pqenb³ Zn\w {Ko³hn¨v a²ymÓ¯n\v 2022625.5, sImïv shÅnbmgvN {]`mXw) A\pkcn¨v BKÌv 25. AD 825 shÅnbmgvN BIp¶p. `m{Z]Zip¢\hanbpw aqew \£{Xhpw tNÀ¶ Zn\w kn²m´KWnXw A\pkcn¨v I¶namkw H¶mw XobXn Bbncp¶p. an¡ teJI·mcpw tcJs¸Sp¯n ImWp¶Xpt]mse sImÃhÀjmcw`w BKÌv 15. AD 825 t\m Nn§amkw H¶mw XobXntbm Asö kqN\bmWv BNmcyhmKt`Zym F¶ IenZn\w \ÂIp¶Xv. adn¨v B Znhkw I¶namkw H¶mw XobXnbpw alm\hanbpw aqew \£{XhpamIbm inh{]XnjvTmZn\hpw sImÃhÀjmcw`hpw BsW¶ sFXnly¯n\v Du¶Â \ÂIp¶p.

]cÂt]cv sImÃw 1 I¶n H¶ns\ {]Xn\o[oIcn¡p¶Xn\m sImà hÀjmcw`w kqNn¸n¡p¶XmWv ]cÂt]sc¶ Imcy¯n kwibanÃ.

i¦cmNmcycpambn Cu sImÃhÀjmcw`¯n\v _Ôapt−m? F¶ tNmZy¯n\v D¯cw tXSpt¼mÄ \½psS {i²bn s]Sp¶ i¦cImew AD788 – 820 BIp¶p. 32 hbÊpam{Xw Pohn¨ i¦cmNmcyÀ AD 788 emWv P\n¨sX¦n AD 825  At±lw Pohn¨ncn¡pI km²yaÃtÃm? ]cÂt]cv ]dbp¶Xn\pÅ kuIcya\pkcn¨v cq]w \ÂIp¶XmsW¶ Xn\m BNmcyhmKt`Zym F¶Xn\v aäp sXfnhpIfpsS A`mh¯n i¦cmNmcy_Ôw IÂ]nt¡−XnÃ.18

cmPm¡·mcpsS ]mc¼cyhmgvN ]{´−v hÀjw AYhm hymgh«¡mes¯ \nbXs¸Sp¯nbncp¶ s]cpamÄ hmgvN¡v sImÃhÀjmcw`¯nt\mSSp¯v amäw h¶Xmbn IcpXs¸Sp¶p. AD 825 F´psIm−v sImÃhÀjmcw`¯n\mbn sXcsªSp¯p? AD 215 Dw Bbn Fs´¦nepw s]m¡nÄsImSn _Ôw AD 825 \pt−m? 610 hÀj§fpsS hyXymkamWv \ap¡v e`n¡p¶Xv. 610 kn²m´kuchÀj§Ä 222808 Zn\§fmWv. 7545 N{µamk§Ä AS§nbncn¡p¶p. AXmbXv, kqcyþN{µ

·mcpsS ØnXnIÄ BhÀ¯n¡p¶ ImeL«amWv. AYhm kucamk kw{IaXnYnIÄ AD 215 epw AD 825 epw kqcykn²m´w A\pkcn¨v kam\ ambncp¶p. 605 kn²m´kuchÀj§fpsS 220982 Zn\§fn 554 _mÀlkv]Xy kwhÕc§Ä kq£vaambn AS§nbncn¡p¶psh¶ KWnXw AD 820 se s]cpamfhtcm[¯n\pw AD 215 Dw BbpÅ s]m¡nÄsImSn _Ôs¯ km[qIcn¡p¶p.

]e Ncn{XImc·mcpw tIcf¯nsâ kmwkvImcnIamb DbÀ¨sb {_mÒWcp sS BKa\hpambn _Ôs¸Sp¯n H³]Xmw \qäm−p apXemWv Ncn{Xw tcJs¸Sp¯n¡mWp¶Xv. IenZn\kwJyIfpsS ]n¶nse imkv{XobX a\Ênem¡n AhbpsS XobXnIÄ¡v Ncn{XcN\bnepÅ A\ntj[yamb {]kàn Bcpw Xs¶ hyàam¡n ImWp¶nÃ. sNdnb Ien-Zn-\k - wJy AYhm ]cÂt]-cp-If - psS ImeL«§fn Ncn{XanÃ, tcJIfnà AXn\m ]mc¼cykn²amb ]cÂt]cpIÄ s]mfnbmsW¶ kao]\amWv tIc-fN - c - n-{Xc-N-\-bn ImWp-¶X - v. AD 215 emcw`n¨v AD 500, AD 524 F¶o ]´ocm−p k`IfpsS IS¶v lcn-Z¯ - sâ alm-Øew (Ien 3785) AD 820, AD 825, AD 844 C§s\ XmcXtay\ \qX\ImeL«hpambn tPymXnÀKWnX¯neqsS _Ôs¸«p \n¡p¶ Hcp tIcfNcn{Xw s]cpamfhtcm[¯nsâ ap¼v \ÂInb `qau-`q-t]mbw {]m]ym F¶ IenZn\hpw sImÃ-hÀjm-cw-`a - mb BNmcy-hm-K-t`Zym F¶ Ien-Zn-\hpw kqNn¸n¡p¶p. tIcf¯nsâ kmwkvImcnI Ncn{Xw sImÃhÀj¯n\v Bdp \qäm−v aps¼¦nepw Bcw`n¨ncp¶psh¶v hyàamb sXfnhv ]cÂt]cpIfpw tPymXnximkv{Xhpw \ÂIp¶p. tIcf¯n se t£{X§Ä¡pw s]cpamÄhmgvN¡pw tPymXnximkv{X¯n\pw sshZn-I] - mc-¼-cy-t¯-¡mÄ ]g-¡a - p-s−¶ kqN-\bpw ]cÂt]cpIÄ \ÂIp¶p.

`qau-`q-t]mbw {]m]ym (215CE), BNm-cy-hm-K-t`Zym (825CE) – kmaysa-´p-sIm−v? KWn-X-¯nse kwJy-IÄ - Df-hm-¡nb bmZr-Ñn-IX - b - mtWm apI-fn kqNn-¸n¨ AD 215 sebpw AD 825 sebpw I¶ym-Zn-bmb kuc-hÀj-§f - psS kmay-X¡v ImcWw? ]pXp-hÕ - c - ¸ - n-dhn F´v tPymXnx-im-kv{Xm-Sn-Øm-\¯ - n-emWv \nÀ®bn-¡-s¸-«Xv? B[p-\nI kq{X-§f - \ - p-kc - n¨v Sn hÀj-§f - nse ]pXp-hÕ - ca[ymÓ-¯n\v kqcy-ØnXn Xmsg \ÂIpw hn[amWv. 

27 BKÌv 215CE,06:00, chn kmb-\k - v^pSw = 152:07, N{µ³ = 335:19. \nc-

b\ I¶n-kw-{I-ahpw ]uÀ®-am-´þ- ` - m-{Z-]Z- ¯ - nsâ IrjvW{- ]-Xn-]Z- h - p-ambn ]pXp-hÕ - cw ]nd-¶p. Cu hÀj-KW - \ - b - psS Øew Xncp-\m-hm (10N51), ae-_mÀ BIp-¶p.



25 BKÌv 825 CE, 06:00, chn kmb-\k - v^pSw λ = 155:18, \nc-b\ - k - v^pSw = 150:30 (kn²m´ Ab-\mwiw KX-Ien 3623 \v tijw 60 hÀj-§Ä¡v Hcp Un{Kn). Cu hÀj-KW - \ - b - psS Øm\w atlm-Zb - ] - pcw (10N00) AYhm sImÃw (09N00) BIp-¶p.



Cu kqcyØnXn-IÄ kam-\a - m-Ip-¶s - X-§s\? kmb-\k - v^pSw c−v Ime¯pw A©vUn{Kn hyXym-ks - ¸-«n-cns¡ F´v kam-\X - b - mWv ImWp¶Xv?

18

21

22


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008  



amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

kam-\X CsÃ-¦n sImÃ-hÀjs¯ ae-_mÀ hÀjw F¶v hnfn-¨n-cp-¶sX´v? 19 C¶pw ae-_m-dnse kuc-hÀj-K-W\ I¶n-bm-Zn-bm-sW-¶Xv {i²n-¨m BNm-cy-hm-K-t`Zym \ÂIp¶ I¶n H¶mw XobXn D¯-c-tI-c-f-¯nse kwh-Õ-c-K-W-\-sbbpw ]pXp-hÀj-¸n-d-hn-sbbpw Z£nWtIc-f-¯n-te¡v sIm−p-h-¶-XmImw sImÃ-hÀjw F¶v \ap¡v Duln-¡mw. F´-Sn-Øm-\-¯n-emWv kwh-Õ-c-K-W-\-bpsS, Ie-−-dnsâ Cu ]p\À\nÀ ®bw?

VII.

A£mwiw φ 12 11 10.85 10 9.5 9 8

tIc-f-¯nsâ ]pXp-h-Õ-c-bpàn

C´y-bpsS hnhn-[-`m-K-§-fp-ambn X«n¨p t\m¡p-t¼mÄ kuc-þ-I-e-−À {]Nm-c¯n-en-cn-¡p¶Xv tIc-f-¯nepw ]g-b-tN-c-km-{am-Py-¯nsâ `mK-am-bn-cp¶ Xr¨n\m-¸-Ån-bpsS {]m´-§-fnepw am{X-am-Wv. bh-\-cp-ambpw JÂZm-b-cp-ambpw {InkvXp-hn-\p-ap¼v Xs¶ tNc-km-{am-Py-¯n-\p-−m-bn-cp¶ k¼À¡-¯m-emWv kqcym-kv]-Z-amb Ime-K-W\ tIc-f-¯n thcp-]n-Sn-¨-Xv. sak-s¸-t«m-an-b-bn \n¶pw ISÂI-S-s¶¯n tIc-f-¯n Z£n-W-]-Ýn-a-Xocw hmk-`q-an-bm-¡nb {Zmhn-U-cmtWm20 tIc-f-¯nse P\-XXn F¶ kwi-b-¯n\pw tPymXnx-im-kv{X]-c-amb s]m¡nÄsImSn-_Ôw hgn- sX-fn-¡p-¶p. sshZn-I-km-ln-Xy-¯n-ep-S-\of-ap-ÅXpw sshZn-I-kzm-[o-\-¯n D¯-tc´ybnemsI ImW-s¸-Sp-¶Xpw Nm{µK-W-\bpw EXp-kw-h-Õ-c-hp-am-Wv. cmin-N{Iw sshZn-I-km-ln-Xy-¯n ]camÀin-¡-s¸-Sp-¶-Xp-an-Ã. kuchÀj-K-W-\-bp-sSbpw cmin-N-{I-¯n-sâbpw khnti-j-amb ]mc-¼-cy-apÅ tIc-f-¯n ]pXp-h-Õ-c-¸n-d-hn¡pw X\-Xmb \nco-£W-bpàn D−m-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶v AD 215 sebpw AD 825 sebpw I¶ym-Zn-bmb kuc-hÀjKW\ kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p.



kqcy]c-a-{Im´n λ1 for δ = φ 30.74 27.98 27.57 25.27 23.94 22.62 20.01

27 BKÌv 215CE,06:00, chn kmb-\k - v^pSw = 152:07, N{µ³ = 335:19.

kqcy-{Im´n Xncp-\mhmbpsS A£mw-i¯ - n\v Xpey-am-Ib - m Cu ]pXp-hÕ-cZ- n\w `m{Z-]Z- I - r-jvW{- ]-Xn-]Zw Xncp-\m-hm-bn kqcysâ a[ym-Im-ik - w{I-a¯ - o-bXn (Zenith transit)BIp-¶p. AXm-bXv Cu Znhkw a[ym-Ó¯n Xncp-\m-hm-bn i¦p-Omb iq\y-am-bn-cp-¶p. 

25 BKÌv 825 CE, 06:00, chn kmb-\k - v^pSw λ = 155:18, kqcy-{Im´n 09047' BI-bm Gähpw kq£vaa - mbn Fd-Wm-Ip-f¯ - n\v (φ = 10:00)

AÂ]w sX¡v kqcy³ a[ym-Imiw XcWw sNbvX Znh-ka - m-Wv. \nco£W-¯nsâ ]cn-an-Xn-IÄ sh¨p-t\m-¡p-t¼mÄ Xr¡m-¡c hma-\-t£{Xw Cu KW-\¡v thZn-bm-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶v Duln-¡mw. KWnXw AÂ]w Øqe-ambn F¶-\p-am-\n-¨m Ipe-ti-Jc - ³ i¦p-Omb \nÀ®-bn-¸n-¨Xv Xr¡m-¡c - bnepw kq£vaa - m-sW¶v A\p-am-\n-¨m N§-\m-tÈcn hmg-¸Ån inh-t£{X-22hp-am-bn-cp¶p kqcy-\n-co-£W-¯nsâ thZn.

kqcysâ a[ymImi-kw-{Iaw þtN-csâ X\-Xmb bpàn

Bcy-`-Ssâ _Ô-s¸« {]amWw

\½psS kwh-Õ-c-K-W-\-bpsS, I¶n H¶n\v ]pXp-h-Õ-c-¸n-d-hn-bpsS ASn-Øm\-bpàn kqcysâ a[ym-Im-i-kw-{I-a-am-Wv (Zenith transit) 21 . Xmsg \ÂIp¶ ]«nI {i²n-¡p-I.

tKmf-]mZw tÇmIw 32:

19

tUm.-sI.-hn.-iÀ½-bpsS sImÃ-hÀjw F¶ apI-fn D²-cn¨ teJ-\-¯n C¡mcyw ]d-bp-¶p-−v. 20 {ZmhnSw = {Zm + CSw, {Umt¡m F¶ kÀ¸-¯nsâ \mSv F¶ hni-I-e\w tIkcn _me-Ir-jvW-]n-Å-bpsS injy-\mb tae-§¯v \mcm-b-W³Ip«n \ÂIn-¡m-Wp¶p. _m_n-tem-Wn\pw tIc-f-¯n\pw Cu hnti-jWw kmÀ°-I-am-Wv. kÀ¸-¯nsâ \mSv tNc-\m-Sv. 21 AÀ°w hni-Z-am-Ip¶ ae-bm-f-]Zw D]-tbm-Kn-¡m-\mWv {iaw. kqcy³ a[ym-Ó-¯n t\tc Xe¡p apI-fn D¨n-bn-se-¯p¶ Znhkw F¶mWv AÀ°-am-¡p-¶-Xv.

23

ω = 240 λ2 for δ = φ 149.26 152.02 152.43 154.73 156.06 157.38 159.99

£nXn-Pm-Zp-¶X - ` - m-Km\mw bm Pym km ]tcm `th-Ȧpx a[ymÓ \X-`m-KPym Ombm it¦mkvXp Xsskyh a[ymÓkqcysâ (bmtaym-¯c - kw{Iaw) D¶-Xmwi¯n\v (Altitude) `pP-Pymhv hcp-¯p-¶Xv, ]c-ai - ¦ - phpw \Xmw-i¯ - n\v `pP-Pymhv hcp-¯p-¶Xv i¦p-Om-bb - pam-Ip-¶p. 22

hmg-¸Ån inh-t£-{X-¯nse Ipe-ti-J-c-en-JnXw {]kn-²-am-Wv. {InkvXp-hÀjw 800 F¶v sI. inh-i-¦-c³ \mbÀ (th-Wm-Snsâ ]cn-Wm-aw) Imew \ÂIp-¶p. sImÃ-hÀj¸n-d-hn-bpsS Znhkw a[ym-Ó-¯n\v kqcy-{Im´n hmg-¸-Ån-bpsS A£mw-i-¯n\v Gähpw Xpey-am-bn-cp-¶p. \nco-£-W-¯nse ØqeX ]cn-K-Wn-¨m thZn Xr¡m-¡c Bbn-cp-¶p-sh¶pw A\p-am-\n-¡mw.

24


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008 AXm-bXv D¶-Xmiw i¦p-Omb iq\y-am-Ip-¶-Xn\v 90

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008 0

BIp-¶p. a[ym-Ó-

¯n \Xmwiw = φþ δ AYhm φ+ δ BIp-t¼mÄ D¶-Xmwiw = 90 \Xmwiw. Rsine D¶-Xmwiw = Rsine (900-\Xmw-iw) = -Rcos \Xmw-iw (]c-a-i-¦p). Rsine \Xmwiw = Rsine (φþ δ AYhm φ+ δ). AXmbXv φ = δ BIp-t¼mÄ \Xmwiw ]qPyw, D¶-Xmwiw 900 BIpIbpw Omb iq\y-am-Ip-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p. 23

VIII.

0

Xncp-thm-Whpw ]pXp-h-Õ-c-bpànbpw

ImÀjn-tIm-Õ-h-am-Wv, hnf-sh-Sp-¸p-Õ-h-amWv, amth-en-bpsS Fgp-s¶-Å-¯mWv Fs¶ms¡bpÅ [mc-W-IÄ t]mse {]kn-²-asÃ-¦nepw Xncp-thmWw ]pXp-hÕ-cm-tLm-j-amsW¶ Nn´m-KXn km{¼-Zm-bn-I-ambn \ne-\n¡p-¶p-−v. GXpIm-e¯v FhnsS HmWw ]pXp-h-Õ-c-am-bn-cp¶p? Xncp-thm-Wm-tLm-j-¯nsâ Ncn{Xw t\m¡n-bm kwL-Im-e¯v a[p-c-bnepw HmWw BtLm-jn-¨n-cp-¶psh¶v ImWp-¶p. AXp-sIm−v BtLmjw BhnÀ`-hn¨ Imew IrXy-ambn \nÀ®-bn-¡pI km²y-a-Ã. \nc-b-\-cm-in-N{Iw _m_n-tem-Wn {In.-ap. aq¶mw \qäm-−n \ne-hn-en-cp-¶p-sh-¶-Xn\v AhnsS J\\w sNbvXp In«nb skeq¡kv bpK-¯nse Ifn-a¬^-e-I-§Ä sXfnhp \ÂIp-¶p. kmb-\-K-WnX¯nsâbpw Ønccmin k¦Â]¯nsâbpw Ncn{X§Ä Ahy-à-am-Wv. I¶nbm-Zn¡v 1500bntesd kmb-\-kv^pSw hcp-t¼mÄ am{Xta tIc-f-¯nse A£mw-i-§Ä¡v δ = φ F¶ ØnXn kwPm-X-am-Ip-I-bp-Åp. I¶n-bmZn¡v 1500 kmb-\-kv^pSw AYhm 120 bn Xmsg {Im´n hcp-¶Xv {InkvXp-hÀjw 215 se kwh-Õ-c-K-W-\-bnem-Wv. ap¼v \mw I− `m{Z-]-Z-Ir-jvW-{]-Xn-]Zw 27 BKÌv 215CE, 06:00, chn kmb-\-kv^pSw = 152:07 F¶ ØnXn ]cn-K-Wn-¡pt¼mÄ `m{Z-]-Z-ip-¢-Zzm-Zin¡v (\mev Znhkw ap¼v) δ = φ AXm-bXv {Im´n ]{´−v Un{Kn-bn IqSp-X-em-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶v a\-Ên-em-¡mw. AXp-t]mse, almaLw ]uÀ®-am-´-am-k-K-W\ kqNn-¸n-¡p-I-bm ]qÀ®-ambpw KWnXkucamkw ASn-Øm-\-amb Hcp kn²m-´-þ-I-e-−À cmin-N-{I-¯nsâ KWn-Xm-hn-jvIcWw hsc D−m-Im-\n-S-bn-Ã.

\qäm-−nepw AXn\p ap¼pw D]-tbm-Ks - ¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¶X - n\v tcJ-bp-−v. `mc-X-¯n Ønc-cm-in-N{Iw e`y-amb IrXn-If - \ - p-kc - n¨v BZy-ambn ImWp¶Xv KX-Ien 3332 AYhm 231CE  BIp-¶p. kqcy-kn-²m´w D]-tbm-Kn¨v e`y-am-Ip¶ KWn-Xa - q-ey-am-Wn-Xv. 24 ssN{X-ip-¢-{]-Xn-]Z- hpw tajm-Zn kqcy-kw{I-ahpw Hcp-an¨ Cu hÀj-¯nse I¶n kw{Iaw ]cn-tim-[n-¨m þ 25 BKÌv 231CE, 12:00 (75E45), JD = 1805667.0, chn-kv^pSw λ = 150:31, N{µ³ = 275:54 F¶v B[p-\n-IK - W - n-X{- ]-Imcw e`n-¡p-¶p. Ien-Zn\w = 1217201.25. chn{Im´n 11:24' BI-bm c−mw Znhkw Ahn«-¯n\v Xncp-\m-hm-bnÂ

{Im´n A£mw-i¯ - n\v Xpey-am-Ip-¶p. 

HmW-¯nsâ NS-§p-IÄ

HmW-¯nsâ ]e NS-§p-Ifpw tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]c - a - m-Wv. Duªm kqcysâ D¯-c-þ-Z£ - nW Ab-\§ - f - psS {]Xo-Ia - m-Imw. D¯-tcm-¯cw Db-c¯ - n X«v X«mbn hr¯m-Ir-Xn-bn-epÅ ]q¡fhpw tI{µ-¯n \m«p¶ apfbpw i¦p Ombm\nÀ®-b¯ - nsâ {]Xo-Im-ßI - XbmWv. ]pen-Ifn (Xan-gn ]pen-sb-¶m knwl-am-Wv) knwl-cm-insbbpw Ic-Sn-Ifn k]vXÀjn-If - psS Great Bear F¶ \mam-´c - s - ¯bpw A\p-kvac - n-¸n-¡p-¶p. Nn§-¯nse ]¯v Znh-ks¯ HmWm-tLmjw \mw Cub-hk - c - ¯ - n {i²n-¡Ww. i¦p-Omb iq\y-am-Ip¶ Znhkw \nÀ®-bn-¡p-¶X - n-\pÅ sshj-ayw, \Xmwiw Ipdbpw tXmdpw OmbbpsS \ofw Ipd-bpw. ]pcm-X\ Imes¯ KWnX-\n-co-£W - Ø q-eX - I - sf IW-¡n-se-Sp-¯m A¯w apX Xncp-thmWw hsc Omb \nco-£n¨ncp-¶p-sh¶v Icp-Xmw. lrkz-amb kqcysâ AYhm hnjvWp-hnsâ Omb-bm-sWtÃm an¯p-If - nse hma-\³. A\p-Zn\w a[ym-Ó¯n Omb lrkz-am-bn-sIm-−n-cns¡ i¦p-Om-b-bpsS iq\yX F§s\ kq£va-ambn \nÀ®-bn-¡s - ¸-«p? Xncp-\mhm \ap¡v D¯cw \ÂIp-¶p.25

Xncp-\m-hm-bnse aWn-¡n-Wdpw Xncp-am-\w-Ip¶v `K-h-Xnbpw 24

Sidereal Zero point – a Mathematical Solution, IJHS, 35 (2), 2000, pp.117-122, INSA, New Delhi-2

cmin-N-{I-¯nsâ KWn-Xm-hn-jvI-cWw \S¶ Imew CXv hnhmZhn-j-b-am-Wv. Ime-N-{I-¯n ]e {]Xn-`m-k-§fpw BhÀ¯-\-hnt[-b-am-b-Xp-sIm−v ]e Ime-§Ä Cu tNmZy-¯n\v D¯-c-am-bp-−m-Imw. DZml-c-W-¯n\v JÂZm-bcpw bh-\cpw Ønc-cm-in-N{Iw {InkvXp-hn\v ap¼v aq¶mw 23 Ab\ tcJ¡v sX¡v, AXm-bXv DÖ-bn-\n¡v sX¡v (φ-δ) F¶-XmWv icn. kqcyNm-c-¯n {Kojva-{Im-´n¡v ]n¶nepw ap¶nepw Hmtcm Øm\-§-fn tIc-f-¯nÂ

kqcy\v {Im´n A£mwiXpey-am-Ip-¶p. Ch-bmWv λ1, λ2 F¶v apI-fn ]«n-I-bn \ÂIn-b-Xv.

25

25

We can find the following historical information from the Cultural Heritage of Kerala by A. Sreedhara Menon: Tradition current in South and Central Kerala links the festival with the Purānic legend of Vāmana defeating the legendary king Mahābali while in North Kerala the tradition is associated with the Māmānkam (Mahāmaghā) festival. There are references to Onam in ancient literature and inscriptions and the festival was popular in Madurai during the Sangham age. Onam was celebrated at Trkkākkara during the ages of Kulaśekharas of Mahodayapuram 800-1100CE under imperial auspices and it gave a new impetus to the Vaisnava movement.

26


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

Xncp-\m-hm-bnse amam-¦-¯n\v kmaq-Xncn Ipdn¨ cà-]-¦n-e-amb A²ym-b¯nsâ sFXn-ly-§-fn-eqsS \mw Adn-bp-¶p, AhnsS Nmth-dp-I-fpsS ihw B\-sb-s¡m-s−-Sp-¯n-Sp-hn-¨n-cp¶ Hcp aWn-¡n-WÀ D−v. \mem-¦Â IrjvW]n-Å-bp-sSbpw amam¦w kw_-Ôn¨ aäv D]-\ym-k-§-fn-ep-sams¡ Cu aWn-¡nW-dnsâ IY ]cm-aÀin-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p-−v. hÅp-h-\m-«nse Xncp-am\w Ip¶v `K-h-Xn(]n¡m-e¯v Xncp-amÔmwIp¶m-bn)26 bpsS Nmth-dp-Isf ]©o-I-cn¡p¶-Xn\v `qan-tZ-hn-bpsS aSn-bn-te¡v Xmgv¯nb aWn-¡n-WÀ. Cu sFXn-ly-¯nse Xncpam\wIp¶n\pw aWn-¡n-W-dn\pw tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]-c-amb Hcp Ncn-{X-ap-−v. Xncpam\wIp¶v apf-\m«n \ngef¶n-cp¶ kn²-`q-an-bm-Wv. I¶n-bnse BZy ]¯v Znh-k-§Ä kqcy-{Im´n tIc-f-¯nse A£mw-i-§Ä¡v Xpey-am-Ip¶ Zn\-§fm-Wv. Omb-iq-\y-am-Ip¶ Cu Ime-¯n\v ap¼v \nco-£-W-¯n-eqsS i¦p-Om-bbpsS am\w \nÀ®-bn¨ncp¶- Øe-amWv Xncp-am\wIp¶v. Cu ]Xnhv \nÀ¯nbnt«m AÃm-sXtbm `K-h-Xnsb {]Xn-jvTn-¨-tXm, Xncp-am\wIp¶nse ssP\-cpsS Nmap-WvUnsb s]cp-am-fnsâ ]n´p-W-tbmsS ssI¿-S-¡p-Itbm sNbvX Xob-Xn-bmWv sN¼-I-tZ-ti-c-tay þ 1258116, IenhÀjw 3445 \S¡p¶ Xn I¶namk¯nse ]qbw \£{Xhpw Zian XnYnbpamWv. AD 343 sk]väw_À 1 hymgm-gvN-bm-Wn-Xv. chn-kv^pSw 1580 bpw {Im´n 08040'Dw BIp-¶p. `m{Z-]-Z-IrjvW{]Xn-]-Z-¯nt\mSv tNÀ¶ I¶n-kw-{Iaw ]pXp-h-Õ-c-¸n-d-hn-bmbncp-¶p. Zi-anbpw ]qbhpw {]Xn-jvT¡v Xnc-sª-Sp-¯-Xm-Imw.

A¯w \£-{X-¯n-emWv N{µs\ ImWp-hm³ Ign-bp-¶X - v. A¯-¯n N{µs\-¡−v ]¯mw Znhkw Xncp-thm-Ww. A¯w ]t¯mWw F¶ sNmÃv Cu Bcy-`-Sh - Àj-¯nse I¶n-bn \n¶v ]IÀ¯n-sb-Sp-¯X - m-sW¶v tXm¶p¶ntÃ?

aWn-¡n-WÀ iq\y-Om-bm-Zn\w Is−-¯p-¶-Xn-\pÅ D]m-[n-bm-bn-cp-¶p. AXmbXv a[ym-Ó-¯nse kqcy\v \Xmwiw iq\y-am-Ip-t¼mÄ kqcy³ D¨n-bn-em-bn-cn¡pw. At¸mÄ InW-än t\m¡n-bm kqcy³ t\tc-ap-I-fn-em-I-bm ASn-h«amsI shbn X«n-¡m-Wmw. aWn-¡n-WÀ (Clock Well) F¶v t]cv h¶Xv Xs¶ Cu D]-tbm-K-¯n \n¶p-am-Wv. aWn-¡n-WÀ Nmth-dp-I-fpsS ih-an«v \nd¨ kmaq-Xn-cnsb Xncp-am-\w-Ip¶v `K-hXn ]mTw ]Tn-¸n-¨Xnsâ ^e-amsWtÃm ]n¡m-es¯ kmaq-Xn-cn¡v27 tImhn-eIw I¯n¨v Bßm-lpXn \St¯−n h¶-Xv.

Bcy-`-Ssâ Ime¯v Xncp-\m-hm-bn Xncp-thm-Ww Xncp-\m-hm-bnse \mhm-ap-Ip-µ³ hnjvWp AYhm kqcy-\m-Wv. Xncp-\m-hm-bnse {imh-W-\-£{XamtWm Xncp-thm-W-ambXv? GXm-bmepw Bcy-`-Ssâ Ime¯v Xncp-\m-hm-bn Xncp-thmWw {][m-\-am-bn-cn-¡p-hm³ tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]-c-amb Imc-W-§-fp-−v. Xmsg \ÂIp¶ ]«nI {i²n-¡p-I. Nn§wþI¶n kÔn-bnse Idp¯hmhv apX kqcyþN-{µ-Øn-Xn-IÄ \ÂIn-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. BKÌv 23 cm{Xn 26

\mem-¦Â IrjvW-]n-Å, alm-t£-{X-§Ä¡v ap¶nÂ, ]pdw 136, ]g-b-tc-J-I-fn Xncp-am-Ômw-Ip-¶n\v Xncp-am\mwIp¶v F¶mWv ]d-ªn-cp-¶-Xv, DÅq-cnsâ A`n-{]mbw tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«p-−v. Un.kn._pIvkv (1998) 27 amam¦w \n¶Xv kw_-Ôn¨ Ncn{Xw ImcWw ]d-bp-¶Xv Sn¸phnsâ ssP{Xbm{XbmWv. {io. kn.-cm-[m-Ir-jvWsâ Xo¡-S ISªv Xncp-a-[pcw Nmth-dp-I-fpsS IY ]d-bp-¶p. aWn-¡n-WÀ ih-an«v \nd-¨p-sIm-−n-cp¶ kmaq-Xn-cn-amÀ Fgp-¯-Ñsâ t¢i-\nÀ`-c-amb Pohn-X-¯n\pw Imc-W-am-bn-cp-¶p.

27

XobXn 499/08/22 06 499/08/23 06 499/08/24 06 499/08/25 06 499/08/26 06 499/08/27 06 499/08/28 06 499/08/29 06 499/08/30 06 499/08/31 06 499/09/01 06 499/09/02 06

- yaw chnkv^pSw chn{Im´n Ien-Zn\w chn-a[

N{µ³

1315085 1315086 1315087 1315088 1315089 1315090 1315091 1315092 1315093 1315094 1315095 1315096

141°33' 155°09' 169°01' 183°04' 197°16' 211°33' 225°51' 240°07' 254°18' 268°22' 282°18' 296°04'

151.29 152.28 153.27 154.25 155.24 156.22 157.21 158.19 159.18 160.17 161.15 162.14

149°23' 150°22' 151°21' 152°19' 153°18' 154°17' 155°15' 156°14' 157°13' 158°12' 159°11' 160°10'

11°47' 11°26' 11°05' 10°44' 10°23' 10°01' 09°40' 09°18' 08°56' 08°34' 08°12' 07°49'

I¶n-a-[y-ak - w-{I-a¯ - n\v chna[y{Im´n t\m¡n-bm D¨n-bn-emWv Xncp-\m-hmbnse a[y-ak - q-cy³. kv^pS-{Im-´n-bp-am-bpÅ hyXymkw chn_nw_-Ie - t- bmfw am{Xam-Wv. ]g-bI - m-es¯ KWn-X¯ - nsâ kq£vaX, ±_nw_mÀ²-Ie(15') BIp-¶p. i¦p-Om-bm-KW - n-X¯ - n a[y-{Im-´nbpw kv^pS-{Im-´nbpw X½nepÅ hyXymkw \nco-£n-¨d - n-bp-¶Xv ]caaµ-^e - ¯ - n-sâbpw atµm-¨¯ - nsâbpw kq£vaX Xn«-s¸-Sp-¶X - n\v D]m-[n-bm-bn-cp-¶p.

Xr¡m-¡c t£{X-¯nsâ Øm]\w Xr¡m-¡c - b - nse (10N00) hma-\t- £{Xw, Xncp+ImÂ+Ic, Im \m«n \ng Af-¶n-cp¶ Øe-am-Wv. Xncp-am\wIp¶nsâ Z£n-Wt- I-cf cq]w. Cu ImÂ\m«p-IÀ½-amImw ]n¶oSv sImSn-tbäw Bbn-¯oÀ¶-Xv. C{µ-[zPw F¶v _rlÕw-ln-Xb - n hcm-la - n-ln-c\pw ]pcm-W§ - fpw ]d-bp¶ {Kojva{- Im´n BtLmj¯nsâ an¯ns\ tIc-f¯ - nse kam-\a - mb \nco-£W - ¯ - n-\p-ta NmÀ¯n-bX - mWv HmWw kw_-Ôn¨ hma-\þ- _ - en sFXn-lyw. t£{X-¯n e`y-amb enJn-Xa - \ - p-kc - n¨v Ien-hÀjw 3705 kÀÆm-XnYyw \S-¶p-sh¶v ImWp-¶p28. sshjvWh - À {ZmhnU Xncp-thm-W¯ - n-t\mSv alm-_en sFXnlyw tNÀ¯v 3705 IenhÀj-¯n Xncp-ImÂI-cb - n hma\t£{Xw ]WnXpsh¶v Icp-Xmw. \S-¸p-Ien 3705, {InkvXp-hÀjw 603-am−v I¶n-am-km-cw-`¯ - nse kqcy-N-{µ-Øn-Xn-IÄ Cu hkvXpX hyà-am-¡p-¶p. 28

tae-§¯v \mcm-b-W³ Ip«n, kwL-km-ln-Xy-N-cn-{Xw, ]pdw 129.

28


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

XobXn

Ien-Zn\w

chnkv^pSw

chn{Im´n

N{µ³

603/08/20 06 603/08/21 06 603/08/22 06 603/08/23 06 603/08/24 06 603/08/25 06 603/08/26 06

1353069 1353070 1353071 1353072 1353073 1353074 1353075

148°14' 149°12' 150°11' 151°09' 152°08' 153°06' 154°05'

12°10' 11°49' 11°29' 11°08' 10°47' 10°26' 10°04'

246°11' 258°47' 271°05' 283°10' 295°06' 306°56' 318°44'

kw{Iaw XobXn chn-kv^pSw chn-{Im´n N{µ³ lcn-Z¯þI¶ymZn]p-Xp-hÀj¸n-dhn-: A£mwiw = {Im´n 10N00

hntijw Ab\mwiw

684/08/20 06 684/08/21 06 684/08/22 06 684/08/23 06 684/08/24 06 684/08/25 06 684/08/26 06

-01021' HmWw Ahn«w NXbw

Ab-\mw-iw, Kncn-XpwKw (3623) Ignª 81 hÀj-§Ä¡v 01021' BIp-¶p. Xncp-\m-hm-bnse kqcysâ D¨n-ØnXn (Zenith transit) Xs¶-bmWv ChnsS Ahew-_w. 23.08.603 CE , I¶n kw{Iaw a²ym-Ó-¯nepw kqcy-{Im´n At¸mÄ A£mw-i-Xp-ey-hp-am-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶v ]«nI hyà-am-¡p-¶p.

825/08/21 06 825/08/22 06 825/08/23 06 825/08/24 06 825/08/25 06 825/08/26 06 825/08/27 06 825/08/28 06 825/08/29 06

lcn-Z-¯sâ Imehpw I¶n-bm-Zn-bmb kwh-Õ-c-K-W-\bpw

ChnsS {]k-à-am-Ip-¶p. hnti-j-Zn-h-k-ambn BtLm-jn¨p h¶ δ = φ Zn\w ASn-Øm-\-ambn I¶n-amkw BZn-bmb kwh-Õ-c-K-W\ Hcp ]s£ Bcw-`n¨Xv Ien 3785 emImw. 

sImÃ-hÀjm-cw`w þ lcn-Z-¯-Imew = 3926 þ 3785 = 141 hÀj-§Ä.



141 Bcy-`-S-hÀj-§Ä = 141x 365.2586806 = 51501.47396 Zn\-§Ä = 1744

Nm{µ-amk-§Ä.

chn-kv^p-Shpw {Im´nbpw þ]p-Xp-h-Õ-c-¸n-dhn

29

196°59' 211°30' 225°49' 239°53' 253°43' 267°17' 280°36'

φ = 10N51 kw{Iaw

HmWw

151°24' 152°23' 153°21' 154°20' 155°18' 156°17' 157°15' 158°14' 159°13'

11°02' 10°41' 10°20' 09°58' 09°37' 09°15' 08°53' 08°31' 08°09'

196°37' 211°12' 225°27' 239°19' 252°50' 266°00' 278°50' 291°25' 303°46'

φ = 10N00 kw{Iaw HmWw

ChnsS Hcp Imcyw hyà-am-Ip-¶p. lcn-Z¯ - I - me¯pw sImÃ-hÀjm-cw-`¯ - nepw I¶n-kw-{Iaw bYm-{Iaw Xncp-\m-hm-bn-sebpw Xr¡m-¡c - b - n-sebpw kqcysâ a[ym-Im-ik - w-{I-ah - p-ambn (Zenith transit) s]mcp-¯s - ¸-Sp-¯n-bmWv ]pXnb hÕc-K-W-\¡v cq]w \ÂIn-bX - v. Xncp-thmW¯n\v iq\y-Om-bm-Zn\w F¶ ]Zhn Nm{µ-am-kK - W - \ A\p-kc - n¨v CS-bv¡nsS e`n-¡p-sa-¦nepw ]pXp-hÕ - c - ¸ - n-dh - nsb¶ Øm\w \jvSambn. kqcy-kw-{I-as¯ hÀj-¸n-dh - n-bm-¡p¶ kuc-Ie - −À \S-¸m-¡n-bX - p-aq-ea - mWv Cu amäw D−m-bX - v. IX.

AXm-b-Xv, kqcy-N-{µ-·m-cpsS ØnXn ]qÀ®-ambpw BhÀ¯n-¨-t¸m-gmWv sImÃ-hÀjmcw`w \nÝ-bn-¨-Xv. C§-s\-b-ÃmsX asämcp \nK-a\w km²y-a-Ã. ImcWw lcn-Z-¯\pw tKmhn-µ-kzm-anbpw i¦-c-\m-cm-b-W\pw Hcp imkv{X-]m-c¼-cy-¯nsâ I®n-I-fm-Wv. Ah-cpsS Ime¯v Aim-kv{Xo-b-tam, aXn-bmb imkv{X-bpàn CÃm-¯tXm Bb Hcp Ime-K-W\ Akm-²y-am-bn-cp-¶p.

11°41' 11°20' 11°00' 10°38' 10°17' 09°56' 09°34'

sImÃ-hÀjw, ]p-Xp-hÕ - cbpàn: A£mwiw = {Im´n 10N00

s]cp-am-¡-·m-cpsS Xe-Øm\w C¡m-es¯ sXm−n AYhm s]m¶m\n Bbncp-¶p-sh¶v Cu Ien 3705 se Cu t£{X-Øm-]\w kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p.

kmb\kv^pSw 152:30 \mWv Xncp-\m-hm-bn kqcysâ kv^pS-{Im´n A£mwi-Xp-ey-am-Ip-¶-Xv. CubSnØm\-¯n kq£va-ambn t\m¡n-bm I¶n kw{Ia¯n\v kqcysâ \Xmwiw iq\y-am-bXv c−-c-U-{Kn-tbmfw Ab-\mw-i-ap−m-bn-cp¶ Ime-¯m-Wv. lcn-Z-¯-Im-e-amb -Ien aµ-Øew (3785, CE684)

149°35' 150°34' 151°32' 152°31' 153°29' 154°28' 155°27'

HmW-¡m-es¯ BImihpw \mtSmSn k¦Â]-§fpw

HmW-¡m-es¯ BImiw A¶pw C¶pw Hcp-t]m-se-bm-Wv. \£-{X-§s - fÃmw Ah-cpsS Øm\-§f - n- Xs¶. EXp-N{I¯n\v AÂ]w amäw Ing¡v \n¶v ]Snªm-tdm-«p-−m-bn. HmW-¡me¯nsâ {]tXy-IX tIc-f¯ - n-s\-s´¶v apI-fn \mw ImWp-Ib - p-−m-bn. HmW-kq-cy³ tIc-f¯ - n\v Xe-sXm-«¸ - \ - m-Wv. A¯w apX ]¯v Znhkw sIm−v {Im´n c−-cU - n{Kn Ipdªv a[y-tI-cf - s - ¯bmsI HmW-kq-cy³ D¨n-bn \n¶v A\p-{K-ln-¡p-¶p. kmb-\k - v^p-Sa - \ - p-kcn¨v I¶n-bnse BZy-]¯v Znhkw sIm−v (km-b\ λ =150-1600) kqcy³ hS¡p 120N apX sX¡v 80N I\ymIp-amcn hsc \½psS D¨n-sXm«v t]mIp¶p. \½psS InW-dp-If - psS ASn-h«¯n HmW-¸q-¡fw t]mse {]Im-i[ - m-c-

30


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

sbm-gp¡n a−-¡m-«-½-sbbpw I\ym-Ip-am-cn-tZ-hn-sbbpw hW§n sXt¡m«v t]mIp-¶p. Cw¥ojv Ie-−À A\p-k-cn¨v C¡mew BKÌv 20 apX Hcp -]-£¡mew AYhm ]Xn-\-©p-Zn-h-k-am-Wv. C§-s\-bpÅ HmW-¡m-es¯ BIm-i¡m-gvN-IÄ \½psS kwkvIm-c¯nepw \mtSmSnk¦Â]-§-fnepw {]Xn-^-en-¡p¶pthm?

¶p. alm-`m-cX - ¯ - n ]c-aÀin¡-s¸-Sp¶ ss\an-jm-cW - y-¯nse Ejn-bmb iu\I³ Cu \£-{X-am-Wv.

1.

2.

25 BKÌv 825 AD: kqtcym-Z-b-¯n\v ap¼v Ejn-\m-K-Ip-f¯v (10N00) k]vXÀjn-Ifpw \mKhpw DZn-¡p-¶p. a[ym-Ó-kq-cy³ Xe¡p t\tc apI-fn hcp¶ sImÃ-hÀjw Bcw`n¨ Znh-k-am-Wn-Xv.

HmWw hnf-sh-Sp-¸p-Õ-h-am-Wv. I¶n-am-k-¯nse aIw AcnbpsS ]nd-¶mfmWv29. I¶n kw{Iaw `m{Z-]Zip¢-{]-Xn-]Zt¯mSv tNcp-t¼mÄ I¶n aIw c−v Znhkw ap¼v (IrjvW13-14 XnYn-I-fnÂ) {]`m-X-k-Ôy¡v N{µ-¡-ebpsS Ah-km\ Zriy-am-Wv. ^mÂKp-\-þ-ao-\-kw-{I-a-¯n\v ap¼v IrjvW-{Xtbm-Z-inbpw NXpÀ±-inbpw DÅ inh-cm{Xn Zn\w t]mse Ime-K-W-\-¡v, kuc-þ-Nm-{µ-K-W-\-Isf cRvPn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xn\v D]-tbm-Kn-¨n-cp¶ \nco-£WamIp¶p CXv. AXp-t]m-se, ap¼v kqNn-¸n¨Xpt]mse I¶n-kw-{Iaw 1500 kmb-\-kv^pSw AizXn \£-{X-¯n-em-sW-¦n aIw ]¯mw \£-{Xam-I-b kmb-\-kv^pSw 1600 Dw {Im´n I\ym-Ip-am-cn-bpsS A£mw-i¯n\v ka-hp-am-bn-cn-¡pw. \m©n-\m-«nse \mtSmSn k¦Â]-am-bmWv I¶n-þaIw Acn-bpsS ]nd-¶m-fmbn i¦-c³ \mbÀ D²-cn¨p I−-Xv.

k]vXÀjn \mKw

Fd-Wm-Ipfw Cc-b-\mÀ Ipfw AYhm Cc-b-\mÀ (inh³) Ipe-am-sW¶v XanÄ ]mc-¼-cy-¯n \n¶pw a\-Ên-em-¡mw. F¶mÂ, Ejn-þ-\m-K-Ip-f-amsW¶pw sFXnlyw ]d-bp-¶p. CXn-se-s´-¦nepw kXy-apt−m? shdpw samgn-am-ä-¯nsâ AYhm kwkvIr-X-h-XvI-c-W-¯nsâ ^e-amtWm Ejn-\mK-Ipfw F¶ k¦Â]w?

N{I-hmfw

chn

HmW-¡m-es¯ {]`m-X-k-Ôy¡v AÂ]w ap¼v Ing-¡³ N{I-hm-f-¯n-te¡v H¶v t\m¡n-bm D¯-c-am-bn. sImÃ-hÀjm-cw-`-¯nse ØnXn DZm-l-c-W-¯n\v t\m¡mw. i¦-c-\m-cm-b-Wsâ C¡m-e¯v atlm-Z-b-]p-c¯v \£-{X-_w-¥m-hp−m-bn-cp-¶p-shtÃm? 25 BKÌv 825 CE, kqtcym-Zbw 05:50 DÖ-bn\n ka-bw. c−-c-\m-gnI DZ-bm ]qÀÆw kqcy³ GXm−v 150.70 N{I-hm-f-ko-a¡v Xmsg \nÂs¡, N{I-hm-tfm-

]cn aIw \£v{X-t¯m-sSm¸w hS¡v k]vXÀjn-I-fnse {IXphpw ]pe-l\pw sX¡v Bbn-ey-¯nse ImÀt¡m-S-I\pw (αþHydrae) Zriy-am-Wv. sslt{U F¶ \£-{X-]p-RvP-¯n\v ]änb ae-bm-f-\maw \oÀt¡men F¶-Xm-Wv. Ejn-þ\m-K-Ipfw F¶ t]cn\v ASn-Øm\w HmW-¡m-e¯v k]vXÀjnIfpw \mKhpw kqcy\v hgn-Im-«n-I-fmbn Ing¡v DZn-¡p-¶-Xn-\m-em-Wv. Heliacal rise F¶ Cu {]Xn-`mkw FÃm ]pcm-X-\-\m-K-cn-I-X-I-fnepw \mtSmSn k¦Â]-§Ä¡v P·w \ÂIn-bn-«p-−v. DZm-l-c-W-¯n\v kndn-bkv F¶ \£-{X-¯nsâ kqtcym-]cn DZbw CuPn-]vänse Ime-K-W-\-bpsS aqe-¡-Ãm-bn-cp-¶p. Cu kndn-bkv \£{Xw Gähpw {]Imiw IqSn-bXpw Dog Star F¶v Adn-b-s¸-«n-cp-¶-Xp-am-Ip29



B−ptXmdpw HmW-¡m-e¯v hcp¶ alm-_en: hma\\pw hn{I-amÀ¡\pw

HmWw hni-Za - mbn NÀ¨ sNbvXp. hma-\³, hnjvWp-hm-Wv, kqcy-\mWv, kqcysâ HmW¡m-es¯ IpÅ-\mb \ng-em-Wv. Cu Ipų Nhn-«n-¯mgv¯p¶ alm-_e - n-sb¶ Akpc N{I-hÀ¯n BcmWv? BIm-i¯v tZhm-b\hpw Akp-cm-b\ - hpw D−v. Akp-cm-b\ - s¯ ]nXr-bm-\s - a¶v t]cv amän ]d-bp¶p. kqcy-¯nsâ D¯-cm-b\w tZh-tem-Ihpw Z£n-Wm-b\w ]mXm-fh - p-am-Wv. ssl{U F¶ \oÀt¡m-enbpw {Umt¡m F¶v {Zmhn-Uc - psS A\-´\pw Hs¡ ]mXm-f-¯nse \mK-§f - m-Wv. Aip-`s - a¶v s]mXpsh ]d-bs - ¸-Sp¶ Z£n-Wm-b\-¯n-em-sWtÃm HmWw BtLm-jn-¡p-¶X - v. C¡m-e¯v B−p-tXmdpw hncp¶p-h-cp¶ Nnc-RvPohnbmb N{I-hÀ¯n, Nn§w cmin-bnse aIw \£-{X-am-Wv. B−p-]n-dh - n-bpsS I¶n kqcy³ tPymXnx-imkv{Xw A\p-kc - n¨v aIw AYhm Regulus, α-Leonis F¶ \£-{X-¯nsâ DZ-bmÀ¡-\m-Wv. ss{IkvXh - a - n-¯p-I-

tPymXn-Ý{Iw F¶ Cu teJ-Isâ IrXn-bn Cu hnj-bw, k]vXÀjn-IÄ apXemb Zriy-§Ä NÀ¨ sNbvXn-«p-−v.

31

32


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

fnse Zmho-Zn-s\bpw tkmf-a-s\bpw t]mse Igp-X-IÄ (]q-bw) hen-¡p¶ h−n-bn-emWv alm-_-en-bpsS Fgp-s¶-Å-¯v.

Ôy¡v ap¼v Cu alm-_enbpsS D¶-Xmwiw IqSn-¡qSn \t`m-a[ - y-¯n-te-¡p-bcp-¶p. kqcy³ hrÝn-Im-´y-¯n-se-´p-t¼m-tg¡pw (16 \hw-_À 500 CE, Sun λ =2360) Nn§-¯nse Cu cmPmhv kqtcym-Zb - ¯ - n\v c−-c\ - m-gnI ap¼v D¨-¯nse-¯p-¶p. 500 CE KX-Ien 3601 ØnXn t\m¡n-bm Kpcp-_p-[i - p-{I-·mÀ¡v AkvXw `hn-¨I - m-ea - m-Wn-Xv. XpSÀ¶v kqcy³ 1P\p-hcn 501CE ¡v Xncp-thmWw Rmäp-th-eb - n-se-¯p-t¼mÄ aIw \£-{Xhpw Nn§w cminbpw Xmtg¡v ]Xn-¡pI--bm-Wv. Xncp-thm-Wk - q-cy³ Nhn-«n-¯m-gv¯p-¶X - p-t]mse Xs¶. AkvXw-`h - n¨n-cp¶ Kpcp _rl-kv]Xn DZn-¨p-bc - ¯ - nepw. FÃm-hÀjhpw \S-¡p¶ hma-\mh-Xmc IY CXm-Wv. I¶n-bnse D{Xkq-cy\v \ng-en-Ã, hm-a\ - \pw(Dwarf Shadow) aI-c¯ - nse Xncp-thm-Wk - q-cy³, hn{I-amÀ¡\v {Im´n Z£n-Whpw ]ca-hp-am-Ib - m \ng-en\v (`-qan-bnse hnjvWp-]Z- a - mWv \ngÂ) Gähpw ZoÀLX hcp-¶p. hma-\sâ _rl-Zm-Imcw ]mZ-¯nÂ, \ng-en {]I-S-am-bn.

HmWhpw alm-_-enbpw aIw \£-{X-amWv alm-_-en-bmb BIm-i-¯nse Akp-c-N-{I-hÀ¯n. aI]uÀWan alm-a-L-ambn BtLm-jn-¡p-¶p. Bcy-`-Ssâ Imes¯ Cu BIm-i-Nn{Xw {i²n-¡p-I. 24 BKÌv.- {In. h. 500. a[ym-Ó-kq-cy³ Xe¡p t\tc apI-fn hcp¶ ka-b¯v (\ng-en-Ãm¯ a[ym-Ó-§-fpsS ]p-Xp-h-Õ-c-Imew) kqtcym-]cn aIw \£{Xw DZ-b-¯n\v c−-c-\m-gnI ap¼v. alm-_enbmb aIw C¡m-e¯v ]pXp-hÀj-¸n-d-hn-bpsS kqN\ \ÂIn. ip{I\pw C¡m-e¯v kmam-t\y\ aI-¯n\v H¸w DZn¨p I−n-cp-¶-Xn-\m-tem, ip{Is\ Ime-K-W-\bn D]-tbm-K-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cp-¶-Xn-\mtem BWv ip{I³ Akp-c-Kp-cphpw alm_-en-bpsS Kpcphpw Bb-Xv. D¯c A£mw-i-§-fn Ncn-{Xm-XoX Ime¯mImw _Ô-s¸« sFXn-ly-§-fpsS ]nd-hn.

alm-_en kzÀ¤w Iog-S-¡p-¶p. \hw-_À 16, 500CE: kqcy³ A\p-cm[ (sF-{µ-\£ - {- Xw) bn Ncn-¡p-t¼mÄ aIw \£{Xw AXn-cm-hnse D¨n-bn-se-¯p-¶p.

aIw XmcKW aIw aIw Xmc

aIw

N{I-hmfw

kqcy³

24 BKÌv 500 CE, kqtcym-Zbw 05:49 DÖ-bn\n ka-bw. c−-c-\m-gnI DZ-bm ]qÀÆw kqcy³ GXm−v 150 N{I-hm-f-ko-a¡v Xmsg \nÂs¡, N{I-hm-tfm-]cn aIw \£v{Xw GXm−v 80 Db-c-¯n ImWmw. XpSÀ¶pÅ ka-b¯v {]`m-X-k-

33

Xncp-thmWw \£-{X-¯n kqcy\v ]c-a{- Im-´n-bp-−mb {In.-ap. \memw \qäm−v Ime¯mWv Cu an¯v cq]w sIm−-sX¶v hma-\³ hn{I-amÀ¡-\mIp¶ IYm X´p-hn \n¶v \ap¡v A\p-am-\n-¡mw. Xncp-thmWw \£-{X-¯n\v {Xnhn-{I-as - \¶v t]cp-−v.

34


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

aIw \£-{X-¯nsâ kqtcym-]cn Zriy-X-bpsS Cu hnti-j-X-I-fmWv tIc-f¯nsâ ]pXp-hÀjs¯ alm-_-en-bpsS ]pcm-W-I-Y-bp-ambn _Ô-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶Xv. HmW¡me I¶n-þ-]p-Xp-h-Õc kqcy³ (hn-jvWp) tIc-f-¯n a[ymÓ\ng hogv¯n-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. A]-cm-Ó-¯n-emWv sNdnb \ng hoW-Xv. hma-\-aqÀ¯n. aI-sa¶ alm-_-ensb ]mXm-f-¯n-te¡v Ab-¡p¶ `oam-Im-c\mb hnjvWp inin-c-{Im-´n-bnse ({im-hW \£-{Xw) Gähpw henb \ng hogv¯p¶ kqcy-\m-Wv. Cu {imh-W-kq-cys\ N{µ-\p-ambn _Ô-s¸-Sp¯n `m{Z]-Z-Zzm-Z-in-bnse hma-\-kq-cy³ alm-_-ensb ]mXm-f-¯n-te-¡-b-¨-Xmbn sFXnlyw ]d-bp-¶p. Imem-´-c-¯n imkv{Xo-b-amb an¯p-IÄ¡v tem]w h¶-Xm-Imw.

B²ym-ßnI _Ôw A[nIw {i²-bnÂs]-Sm¯ sN§-¶q-cnsâ imkvXmw]pcw (Nm-¯mw-]p-dw) F¶ t]cn Hfn-ªp-In-S-¡p-¶p. Cu _Ô-¯n\pw Bcy-`-S] - m-c¼ - c - y-¯n-\p-apÅ KWn-X] - c - a - mb sXfn-hmWv ChnsS \ÂIp-¶X - v.

kqcy³ {imhW \£-{X-¯n-se-¯p-t¼mÄ (inin-c-{Im-´n) D¨n-bnse Nmcw Ignª aIw \£{Xw ]Sn-ªm-tdm«v Nmªv AkvX-an-¡p-¶p. P\p-hcn amk¯n AXncmhnse Cu ImgvN ImWmw.

aIw

]pcm-X\ t£{X-kt- ¦-Xa - mb sN¦-ae - h - à - n-bpsS sN¦p¶v Adn-bmsX tIc-f¯nsâ kwL-Ime Ncn-{X-sa-gp-Xn-bh - c - p-−v. sN¦p-¶qÀ C¶s¯ sN§-¶qÀ, kwkvIr-Xa - m-¡n-bm timWm{Zn, timWn-X] - p-cw, \nWsh Fs¶ms¡ ]dbmw. Cu t]cp-If - n ]e Øe-§f - p-−m-Imw. Cft¦m ASn-IÄ ]cm-aÀin¡p¶ sN¦-ae - h - ÃnbpsS k¶n[n sN§-¶qÀ Xs¶-bm-Wv. Cu sN§-¶q-cn\v tPymXnx-im-kv{X-hp-ambn F´p _Ôsa¶v tNmZyw hcnI kzm`m-hn-Ia - m-Wv. NneÀ¡-dnbmw ]pen-bqÀ ]pcp-tjm-¯a - ³ \¼q-Xn-cn-bpsS \mSmWv, ]ns¶ ]m−-\mSv tKm]m-eh - m-cycpw aäpw. tPymXnx-im-kv{X-hp-ambn sN¦-ae - h - Ãn k¶n-[n-¡pÅ ]gb _Ôw kqNn-¸n¡p¶ Hcp AWvUm-Ir-Xn-bn-epÅ 30 Xd C¶pw AhnsS ImWmw. sFXnlyw ]d-bp-¶Xv s]cp-´¨ - \pw aI\pw IqSn ]WnXXpw Xo]n-Sn-¨p-t]m-bX - p-amb \ng hogm¯ Iq¯-¼ew AhnsS \n¶n-cp-¶p-sh-¶m-Wv. Hcn-¡epw \ngÂhogm¯ Iq¯-¼ew kqcy-\p-ÅI - m-et- ¯mfw km²y-as - öv BÀ¡pw a\-Ên-em¡m-hp-¶t- X-bp-Åp. sN§-¶q-cnse A£mwiw 090N30 BI-bm \ng hogm¯ c−v Znh-k§ - sf ChnsS km²y-am-Iq. \ng hogm¯ hr¯m-Ir-XnbpÅ Iq¯-¼ew bYmÀ°¯n ]g-bI - m-es¯ ssP\-·mÀ \ng-ef - ¡ - m³ D]tbm-Kn-¨n-cp¶ ImÂ\m-«n-bn-cp¶ Xd-bm-Wv. Cft¦m ASn-If - psS ]cm-aÀi-¯n \n¶pw ssP\-cpsS CS-bn Cu Øew {]kn-²a - m-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶v sXfn-bp-¶p. Cu k¶n-[nsb {]kn-²-am-¡nb tPymXnx-imkv{X LS-Is - a-´mWv? sN§¶qcpw Xncp-\m-hmbpw X½nÂ, ]¼bpw `c-X¸ - p-gbpw X½n F´mWv tPymXnximkv{X _Ôw?

N{I-hmfw 3.

imkvXmw-]p-cw (sN§-¶qcpw) Bcy-`-S\pw

Nne-¸-Xn-Im-c-¯n Cft¦m ASn-IÄ ]cm-aÀin-¡p¶ sN¦-a-e-h-Ãn-bpsS ]¼mXo-cs¯ Nph¶ Ip¶n\v tPymXnximkv{X {]m-[m-\y-apt−m? sN§-¶qcpw i_-cn-a-ebpw N{a-h-«hpw IqSÂam-Wn-Iyhpw t]mse ]pcm-X\ ssP\-k-t¦-X§-fm-tWm? tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]m-c-¼cyw AYhm Bcy-`-S-]m-c-¼cyw C¡m-cy¯n Fs´-¦nep sXfnhv \ÂIp-¶pthm? N{a-h-«hpw sN§-¶qcpw X½n-epÅ

35

30

IqÀ½m-IrXn F¶v \mem¦Â tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. IqÀ½-N{Iw tPymXn-j¯nse kmt¦-Xn-tIm-]m-[n-I-fn-sem-¶m-Wv. hni-Zmw-i-§-fn-te¡v ChnsS Ah-k-tcm-Nn-Xa-Ãm-¯Xp sIm−v IS-¡p-¶n-Ã.

36


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008 ]e`

A£mwiw

1.00 2.00 2.30 3.00 4.00 5.00 5.00 5.30 5.72 6.00

4.76 9.46 10.85 14.04 18.43 22.50 22.62 24.00 25.50 26.57

NcJWvUw taSw CShw anYp\w 238 476 547 714 952 1183 1190 1271 1362 1428

193 387 444 580 773 961 966 1033 1106 1160

79 158 182 237 316 393 395 422 452 474

Cu KWn-X¯ - nsâ ck-Ic - a - mb hiw ]e` H¶mb A£mwiw 4046'30" I\ymIp-am-cn¡v sX¡v 30 bntesd IS-en-em-sW-¶X - m-Wv. At¸mÄ ]e` H¶nsâ NcJ-WvU-§Ä \nÀ®-bn-¡p-¶X - n\v F§s\ km[n-¨p? Cu tNmZy-¯n\v Gähpw imkv{Xo-ba - mb D¯-ca - mWv sN¦-ae - h - à - n-bpsS \ng¯-db - mb sFXn-ly¯nse Iq¯-¼ew. Xncp-am\w Ip¶nse `K-hX - n-sb-t¸mse sN¦-ae - h - à - nbpw {Zmhn-U-þs - sP-\] - m-c¼ - c - y-¯nse kn²-·mcpsS Ime-{In-bm-]m-Z¯ - n\v km£n-bmbn-cp-¶p. sN§-¶q-cnsâ A£mw-i-w φ = 090N30, ]e` 12xTan φ = 2.00. sN§-¶q-cnsâ tcJmwiw 760B45', tZim-´cw Hcp Un{Kn tcJmwi hyXym-k-¯n\v tbmP-\-IÄ Bcy-`-Ssâ `q]-cn[n A\p-k-cn¨v H³]-Xm-Ip-¶p. tZim-´cw ka-b-¯n \mev an\n-«m-Ip-¶p. e¦-þ-D-Ö-bn\oþXn-cp-\mhm bmtaym-¯c tcJ¡v. N{a-h-«-¯n\v kq£w Hcp Un{Kn amdnb k¶n-[n-bmWv sN¦-a-e-h-Ãn-bpsS ]pcw. ]¼-sbbpw `c-X-¸p-g-sbbpw ]änbpw Cu am\w Sn Øe-§sf Ah-ew-_n¨v ]d-bmhp¶-XmWv. ]e` (hnjp-h-Omb) c−mb Øe-¯nsâ tPymXnx-imkv{X]c-amb {]m[m\y-sa´v? alm`mkvIcobw III.8  Bcy`S]mc¼cy¯n tajmZn cminIfpsS Nc JWvU§Ä hyXykvX A£mwi§fnteXp ImWp¶Xn\v D]tbmKn¨ncp¶ kq{Xw ChnsS `mkvIc³þI hyàam¡p¶Xv: ]e` 1 \v NcJWvUw x ]e` (Øm\obw) F¶mWv. ]e` F¶m hnjphÑmb. hnjpZn\¯n ]{´−wKpew DbcapÅ i¦phnsâ a²ymÓOmbbmWv ]e`. ]e` 1 \v A£mwiw 4046'30" Dw NcJWvU§Ä tajþhrj`þanYp\ {XntImW§Ä ¡v bYm{Iaw 240, 192, 81 ChbmIp¶p. Xmsg \ÂIp¶ ]«nIbn \n¶pw A£mwiw A\pkcn¨v D−mIp¶ hyXymkhpw ap³]dª kq{X¯nsâ D]tbmKhpw a\Ênem¡mw.

37

e¦-þ-D-Öb - n-\o- `c-X¸ - pg tc-J¡v ]¼m-tc-Jb - p-ambn tZim-´cw Hcp Un{Knbpw A£mw-ih - y-Xym-k¯ - m cmiyp-Zb - I - m-e§ - f - nse hyXymkw aq¶v hn\m-gn-Itbmfhpw BIp-¶p. {Kl-Nm-cKWnXs¯ cmiyp-Zb - I - m-e§ - f - p-ambn AYhm et¦m-Z-bh - p-ambn GtIm]n¸n¨v \nco-£W - ] - c - o-£W - § - Ä¡v (]e` Ah-ew-_ambn apI-fn ]dª coXn-bn KpW\¯n-eqsS Nc-J-WvU§ - Ä \nÀ®-bn-¡pI-bmÂ) ]e` Ht¶m ct−m Bb Øe¯v \nco-£W - mÀ°w \nÝ-bn¨ cmiyp-Z-b{- ]-am-W§ - Ä Bh-iy-am-bn-cp-¶p. sN¦p-¶q-cn-emWv ssP\À CXv km[n-¨s - X¶ Imcyw hyà-am-sWtÃm? Iq¯-¼e - -¯nsâ Xd-bpsS hr¯-]cn[n Af¶v hymkw \nÝ-bn-¨m F{X ASn Db-ca - pÅ ImemWv tI{µ-¯n \m«n-bn-cp-¶s - X¶pw cmhnse F{X \mgnI apX a[ymÓw Ignªv F{X \mgnI hsc-bmWv \ng Af-¶n-cp-¶s - X¶pw \ap¡v AÂ]w KWn-X¯ - n-eqsS a\-Ên-em-¡mw. ]¼-bpsS Ic-bn Ip¶nsâ apI-fn-emWv t£{Xw. ssP\-cpsS Nmap-WvUn-bmb i_-cn-bpsS k¶n[nbmb i_-cn-ae sN§-¶q-cn\v t\tc Ing¡v Htc A£mw-i¯ - n (09N30) ØnXn sN¿p-¶p. ]e` i_-cn-k¶ - n-[nbnepw 2.0 Xs¶. ]¼ Ing¡v ]Sn-ªmdv ]e` c−n-\pÅ A£mwitcJ t]mse InS-¡p-¶p. tNc-cm-Pm-¡· - m-cm {]Xn-jvTn-¡s - ¸« `ph-t\-iz-cn-bmWv sN¦-a-eh - Ãn F¶v \mem-¦Â tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«p-−v. sN§-¶q-cn\p Npäp-apÅ BÄhm-c· - mÀ ]mSn-]p-Ig - v¯nb Xncp-h³h-−q-cm-Zn-bmb Bdp t£{X-§f - p-−v.

38


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

sN§-¶q-cnse kwkvIr-Xn-bpsS Ime-¸-g-¡-¯n\pw {]m[m-\y-¯n\pw Ch sXfn-hm-Wv.

Bcy-`-So-bw tKmf-]mZw 31 þmw tÇmIw \mw ap¼v {]kn-²o-Ic - n¨ ]T-\¯ - nsâ c−mw `mK-¯n (sk-]vXw-_À 30) NÀ¨ sNbvXm-Wv.



Bcy-`-Ssâ `q]-cn[n aqey-¯n\v sN§-¶qcnse \nco-£Ww Ah-ew-_tam?

i¦p-Om-bm-K-Wn-X-¯n ssP\-\-·m-cpsS {]mhoWyw {]kn-²-am-Wv. lc-¸m-þtam-l-RvsP-Zm-tcm-hnÂt¸mepw i¦p-Om-bm-K-WnXw \ne-hn-en-cp¶p \K-c-]m-X-IfpsS Znim-Pym-anXn kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p. N{a-h-«hpw sN§-¶qcpw ]pcm-X\ ssP\-kt¦X§fm-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¶m Hcp ]s£ Cu c−p Øe-§fpw Bcy-`-S³ KWnX-¯n\v B{i-bn¨ Øe-§-fm-bn-¡qsS? KWn-X-bpàn sIm−v Bcy-`-Ssâ kv]jvS `q]-cn[n aqeyw sN§-¶q-cns\ B{i-bn-¨mWv \nÀ®-bn-¨-sX¶v \ap¡v a\-Ên-em-¡mw. N{a-h«w A£mwiw φ = 10 N51 sN§-¶qÀ A£mwiw φ = 09N30

bmtay-m¯-c-tcJ 75E45 bmtay-m¯-c-tcJ 76E45

KX-Ien 3623, 522CE I¶n-amkw DZm-l-c-W-ambn FSp-¡mw. kqcy³ N{a-h«w apXÂ imkvXmw]pcw hsc t\tc Ing-¡p-Zn-¡p¶ Znh-k-§-fnse chn-kv^p-Shpw (λ), {Im´nbpw(δ) HuZ-bn-Im-{Khpw (c−v ω, A¨p-X-−nsâ Ncn-hp-IÄ¡v) cmhnse a[y-a-kq-tcym-Zbw Bdp-a-Wn¡v Xmsg \ÂIp-¶Xv {i²n-¡p-I. XobXn 522/08/23 522/08/24 522/08/25 522/08/26 522/08/27 522/08/28 522/08/29 522/08/30 522/08/31 522/09/01

IenZn\w

chn λ

chn δ

A{Kw ω = 240

1323487 1323488 1323489 1323490 1323491 1323492 1323493 1323494 1323495 1323496

150°47' 151°46' 152°44' 153°43' 154°42' 155°40' 156°39' 157°38' 158°37' 159°36'

11°16' 10°55' 10°34' 10°13' 09°51' 09°30' 09°08' 08°46' 08°24' 08°01'

11040' 11018' 10056' 10034' 10012' 09049' 09027' 09004' 08041' 08018'

A{Kw ω=

km hnjphtÖym\m tNXv hnjphZpZ¥w_tI\ kwKpWnXm hnjphPybm hn`àm e_v[x ]qÀÆm]tc i¦px (30) kqtcymZbmkvXab§Ä¡v N{Ihmf¯n ]qÀÆþ]ÝnatcJbn \n¶papÅ hyXnbm\amb A{Kw AYhm ZnKwiw KWn¡p¶sX§s\sb¶v tÇmIw 30 ]dbp¶p. kqcysâ `pPPymhns\ (Rsine λ) ]ca{Im´nPymhv (Rsine ω) sIm−v KpWn¨v A£mwitImSnPymhv AYhm kztZiew_Iw (Rsine 90-φ) sIm−v lcn¡p ¶Xv A{Kw. i.e. α = (Rsine λ) *(Rsine ω) /(Rcosφ). XpSÀ¶v tÇmIw 31  ]dbp¶Xv þ B A{Kw A£Pymhnt\¡mÄ Ipdhmbncn¡pIbpw kqcy³ D¯cmÀ²tKmf¯nembncn¡pIbpw sN¿pt¼m Ä kqcy\v ]qÀÆþ]ÝnatcJbnepÅ D¶Xmwiw (prime vertical altitude of the gnomon) A{Ks¯ kztZiew_Iw sIm−v KpWn¨v A£Pymhv sIm−v lcn¨m e`n¡p¶XmWv. i.e i.e. Rsine h = α* (Rcosφ /Rsineφ). A£mwiw Ipd-hmb kml-Nc - y¯n kqcy-{Im´nbpw A{Khpw ka-am-Ip-¶X - n\m Bcy-`S- ³ {Im´n¡v ]Icw A{KPym ASn-Øm-\a - m¡n {]amWw \ÂIp¶p. \nco-£W - ¯ - n-eqsS A{Kw \nÀ®-bn-¡p¶ coXn ssP\-tPym-Xn-jI - r-Xnbmb kqcy-{]-Úm]vXnbn ({In.-ap. 200) e`y-am-Wv. kqcy-_nw-_¯ - n\v 30 Ietbmfw hymkapÅ-Xn-\m t\tc Ing-¡p-Zn-¡p-Ibpw A£mw-i¯ - n\v {Im´n-km-ayw-h¶v aqÀ²m-hn kw{I-an-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p¶ Znhkw \nÀ®-bn-¡p¶-Xn- AÂ]w ØqeX hcmw. C\n Xmsg ]d-bp¶ KWnXw {i²n-¨m imkvXmw-]p-damb sN§-¶qcpw imkvXmw-]p-da - mb N{a-h«- hpw F§s\ Bcy-`Ssâ KWn-X¯ - n A´Àeo-\a - m-sW¶v a\-Ên-em-¡mw.

0

23 38' 11029' 11008' 10046' 10025' 10003' 09041' 09018' 09056' 08033' 08011'

HuZ-bn-Im{Kw þ kqcysâ Ing-¡v-þ-]-Sn-ªmdv tcJ-bn \n¶pÅ hyXn-bm\amIp-¶p. kqcysâ ]c-a-{Im´n AYhm A£-s¨-cn-hn\v (ω, Obliquity of Earth's axis) kn²m-´-tPym-Xn-j-¯n kmÀÆ-{Xn-I-ambn ImWp¶ aqeyw 240 BWv. Bcy-`-Ssâ Ime¯v IrXy-amb aqeyw 23038' Bbn-cp-¶p. A{Kw KWn¡p-¶-Xn ω sâ Cu hyXymkw ImcWw 12 Ie-tbmfw hymXymkw hcmw.

39

imkvXmw-]p-dhpw(sN-§¶ - qÀ) N{a-h«- hpw X½n-epÅ A£mw-i-hy-Xymkw 81 Ie. Xncp-\mhmbnepw N{a-h«- ¯pw (100N51') kqcy³ a²ym-Ó¯ - n aqÀ²mhn kw{I-an-¡s - h, sN§-¶q-cn (090N30') i¦p-Omb¡v kq£vaa - mbn \nÀ®bn-¨m 01021' Ncn-hp-−m-tI-−X - m-Wv. Cu Øe-§f - psS tcJmw-ih - y-Xymkw Hcp Un{Kn-bm-sW¶v \mw ap¼v ImWp-Ib - p-−m-bn. Hcp Un{Kn tcJmw-ih - y-Xymk-¯n F¶m 81 Ie A£mw-ih - y-Xn-bm-\-¯nÂ, HuZ-bn-IÀ¡m{Kw (amplitude of the rising Sun) Øqe-Xb - m Hcp Un{Kn F¶v e`n-¡p-¶p. Cu A{K-hy-Xym-ks¯ {Im´nhyXym-ka - mbn KWn¨v `q]-cn[n \nÝ-bn-¡p-Ib - mWv Bcy-`-S³ sNbvXX - v. ssP\ imkvXr-k¶ - n-[n-If - pambn _Ô-s¸« Cu \nco-£W-^-e-amWv Bcy-`S- sâ `q]-cn[n aqey-§Ä¡v ASn-Øm-\w.

40


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

sN§-¶qcpw Xncp-\mhm AYhm N{a-h-«-hp-am-bpÅ AIew = 9 tbmP-\. ]g-bIm-e¯v Øe-tc-Jmwiw F¶ k¦Â]w `mc-X-¯n D−m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. H³]Xv tbmP-\¡v Xncp-\m-hm-bn Xncp-thm-W-¯n\v (δ = φ) \ng iq\y-am-Ip-t¼mÄ sN§-¶q-cn \ng-en\v sNcnhv Hcp Un{Kn-. \ng-ensâ Hcp Un{Kn sNcnhv Omb iq\y-t¯m-S-Sp-¯n-cn-¡p-t¼mÄ \nÀ®-bn-¡pI Akm-²y-am-sW-¶-Xn-\m-emWv DZ-bmÀ¡m{Kw \nco-£n¨v sNcnhv a\-Ên-em-¡n-b-Xv. Hcp Un{Kn Ncn-hn\v 9 tbmP-\-sb-¦n 3600 ¡v F{X F¶ bpàn-bn-eqsS N{a-h-«¯v `q]-cn[n 3240 BsW¶v \nÝ-bn-¨p.

¨n-«n-cn-¡p-Ib - m-Wv. Cu Aim-kv{Xo-ba - mb Iq«n-¡p-g-¡e - n\p ImcWw AXn-]p-cmX-\-amb tPymXnx-im-kv{X- \n-co-£W - - Im-eL - «- § - Ä¡v tijw kw`-hn¨ Ccp−-bp-K-am-Wv. tPymXnx-imkv{X an¯p-Ifpw JÂZmb KWn-X-¯nse bpK-kw-JyIfpw tNÀ¯v ]pcm-W§ - fnsebpw CXn-lm-k§ - f - n-sebpw Akw-_Ô Ncn-{X-cN-\ D−m-bXv Kp]vXI - m-e-¯pw ]n¶oSpw \S¶ kwkvIr-Xh - X - vI c - W¯neqsS km[n¨ Bcym-[n-\n-th-i-¯n-em-Wv. KtW-i\v B\-¯e sh¨p-sIm-Sp-¯v hnNn{X-amb aqÀ¯nXzw \ÂInb I - Y t]mse Ncn-{XhkvXp-XI - fpw an¯pw Iq«n-¡pg¨p−m-¡n-sb-Sp¯ tIc-fNcn-{X-IYmJymbn-Ib - nse \mb-I\ - mWv ]c-ip-cm-a³. F§s\ \mK-Ip-ei - n-tcm-a-Wn-bmb `mÀ¤-h\v ]c-ip-cm-a³ F¶ t]À e`n¨p? Nnc-RvPo-hn-bmb atl-{µ-Kn-cn-bnse Cu X]-kznsb ImWp-hm³ Ign-bp-¶s - X§s\?

sN§-¶q-cnse imkvXmw-]p-d-¯n\v N{a-h-«-hp-am-bpÅ A£mw-i-hy-Xymkw Bcy-`-S³ AÀ²-cm-{X-]-£-¯nse `q]-cn-[n-bmb 4860 (4948*Cos10.85) KqVambn A´Àeo-\-am-¡n-bn-«p-−v. `q]-cn[n 4860/360 = 13.5 tbmP-\. A£mwi hyXym-k-¯nsâ ]¯n-c-«n-bm-Wn-Xv. Cu aqeyw e`y-am-b-Xn\v ImcWw `c-X-¸p-gbn kqcy³ t\tc Ing-¡p-Zn-¡p-t\zmÄ ]¼-bn A{Kw H¶-c-Un{Kn hS-¡mWv. Hcp Un{Kn tcJmw-iamWm hyXym-k-sa¶v \mw HmÀ¡-Ww. tKmf-¯n tcJmw-i-¯n\pw A£mw-i-¯n\pw hyXy-kvX-s¸« tbmP\ ]än-Ã. H¼Xv tcJmwi tbmP-\¡v Hcp Un{Kn F¶v KWn-¨Xv A{Kw (=\n-g-ensâ Ncn-hv) H¶c-Un{Kn F¶v Xn«-s¸-Sp-¯n-b-t¸mÄ 9x 1.5 = 13.5 Bbn. A£mw-iþtc-Jmw-i§Ä krjvSn¨ Cu sshj-ay-amWv 3299, 4948 F¶n-§s\ c−v `qa-[y-]-cn-[n-aqey-§Ä \ÂIp-hm³ Bcy-`-Ss\ \ncvº-Ôn-¨-Xv. `mc-Xob tPymXnx-im-kv{X¯nse hni-Zo-I-cn-¡-s¸-Sm-\m-Im¯ sshX-c-Wn-I-fn-sem-¶mWv `q]-cn-[n-bpsS hyXyØ aqey-§Ä. sN§-¶q-cn-sebpw aäv ]e-Ø-§-fn-sebpw Iq¯-¼-e-§Ä AYhm I¯n \in¨-Xmb sFXnlyw tIc-f-¯n-eq-S-\ofw ImWp-¶p. ssP\-]m-c-¼-cy-¯n i¦pOm-bm-K-Wn-X-¯n\v thZn-I-fm-bn-cp¶ 'aXn-e-I-§sf' ]n¡m-e¯v t£{X§Ä ssIt¿-dn-b-hÀ I¯n-¨p-I-f-ª-Xm-Imw. Xmgv¶ PmXn-¡m-cmbn Icp-X-s¸Sp¶ IWn-bm-·mÀ AYhm KW-I-·mÀ ]c sh¨v Ien-Zn\w D]-tbm-Kn¨v {KlK-WnXw kq£va-ambn \S-¯n-bn-cp¶ tIc-f-¯nÂ, i¦p-Om-bm-K-Wn-X-¯n-\p-w Bcy-`-S³ ]d-bp¶ \nco-£-W-§Ä \S-¯p-¶-Xn\p th− kmt¦-Xn-tIm-]m-[nIÄ Ah-iy-am-bn-cp-¶p. i¦-c-\m-cm-b-W\v cmPmhv \£-{X-_w-¥mhv ]Wn-bn¨p sImSp-¯p. tPymXnx-imkv{Xw kmÀÆ-{Xn-I-ambn {]N-cn-¨n-cp¶ tIc-f-¯nse KW-I-·m-cpsS ]g-b-Ime \nco-£WØm\-§Äs¡-´p-]-än? X.

\½psS ]c-ip-cm-a³ BIm-i¯p \n¶p-h¶pthm?

1.

]c-ip-cm-asâ A£-bX - r-Xo-bb - nse (ssh-im-Ji - p¢ (3) P\\w

tIc-tfmÂ]-¯n-bnse sFXn-ly-a\ - p-kc - n¨v Aln-Ñ{- X-¯n \n¶pw {_mÒWsc agp-sh-dnªv t\Snb tIcf¯n sIm−p-h¶v Adp-]¯n \mev {Kma-§fn-embn Xma-kn-¸n-¨Xv ]c-ip-cm-a\ - m-Wv. s]cp-amiv Ah-tcm-[hpw aäv ]e {]XnjvT-Ifpw At±lw \S-¯n-bX - mbn sFXnlyw ]d-bp-¶p. ]pcm-W§ - Ä NncRvPo-hn-bm-¡p¶ Cu ]c-ip-cm-asâ P\vahmÀjnIw sshim-J-ip-¢X - r-Xo-b¡v \mw BtLm-jn-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p. Ncn-{X-]p-cp-j\pw Nnc-RvPo-hn-bmb ]c-ipcm-a\pw Hcm-fmtWm? \ap-s¡m¡ Adnbmw a\p-jy³ Nnc-RvPo-hn-bm-sW¶v kpt_m-[a - p-ff Bcpw Xs¶ Fgp-Xn-Ã. Nnc-RvPo-hnþ]-ci - p-cm-a\pw Bcy-£{- Xnbsc Ccp-]s - ¯m¶p {]mhiyw sIms¶m-Sp¡n `mc-Xs¯ c£n-s¨¶v ]pcm-W§Ä ]d-bp¶ ]c-ip-cm-a\pw XoÀ¨bmbpw c−v hyàn-If - m-Wv. GXv ]c-ip-cm-a\p-ambn _Ô-s¸-«X - mWv sshim-Ji - p-¢X - r-Xob F¶ P·-Zn\w F¶-XmWv \aps¡ms¡ PnÚm-k \ÂIp¶ asämcp kwK-Xn. 2.

sshim-Ji - p¢XrXo-b¡v ]n¶nse tPymXnx-imkv{Xw

kqcysâ iq\y-Om-bm-Zn\w, \Xn-iq-\y-Zn\w (δ =φ) kw_Ôn¨ ]«nI \ÂIn-bncp-¶Xv ho−pw {i²n-t¡-−X - p-−v. A£mwiw φ 12 11 10.85 10 9.5 9 8

kqcy]c-a{- Im´n ω = 240 λ1 for δ = φ 30.74 27.98 27.57 25.27 23.94 22.62 20.01

λ2 for δ = φ 149.26 152.02 152.43 154.73 156.06 157.38 159.99

{iocm-a{ioIrjvW³am-sc-¸-än-bpÅ Ncn-{X-]-T-\-§-fn ]e-t¸mgpw hnhmZw Xes]m-¡m-dp-−v. an¯p-I-fm Bhr-X-ambn \nÂIp¶, Cuiz-cXzw k¦Â]n¡p¶ Cu alXv hyàn-I-fp-sS-sbms¡ Pohn-X-Im-e-¯n\v ap¼v Xs¶ AhcpsS t]cn\v Imc-W-amb \mtSmSn IYm-I-Y-\-§Ä \ne-\n-¶n-cp-¶p. Cu kmlN-cy-amWv cma-s\bpw IrjvW-s\-bp-sam¡ Ah-cpsS Ncn-{X-]-Ým-¯-e-¯n-\p-]cn-bmb AXn-i-tbmàn IeÀ¶ IYm-I-Y-\-§-fpsS `mK-ambn \mw ]n¡me¯v ImWm-\n-S-bm-Ip-¶-Xn\v Imc-Ww. Ncn-{X-]p-cp-j-·msc ]e-scbpw C§s\ tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]-c-amb an¯p-IÄ Ahn-iz-k-\o-b-amb Nn{Xo-I-c-W-§-fn Xf-

Cu ]«n-Ib - nse λ1 for δ = φ aqey-§Ä {i²n-¡p-I. apI-fn hni-Za - m-¡n-bn-cp-¶Xp-t]mse DÖ-bn-\n¡v sX¡v, AXm-bXv A£mwiw kqcysâ ]c-am-{Im´n

41

42


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

AYhm A¨p-X-−nsâ sNcn-hn-s\-¡mÄ Ipd-hmb Øe-§-fn kqcy³ aqÀ²mhn kw{I-an-¡p-¶, \ng iq\y-am-Ip¶ c−v Znh-k-§-fm-Wp-Å-Xv. tIc-f¯nse 120N ¡pw 080N ¡pw CS-bn-epÅ `mK¯v Cu Znh-k-§-fnse kqcykv^pSw ]«n-I-bn \ÂIn-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. sshim-J-ip¢XrXob F§s\ 310 apX Xmtgm«v 200 hsc kqcy-kv^p-S-hp-ambn tbmPn¨p hcmw?

3.

Bcy-`-S³ ]d-bp-¶Xv {i²n-¡p-I þ bpK-hÀj-am-k-Zn-hkmx kaw {]hr¯mkvXp ssN{X-ip-¢mtZx þ AXm-bXv hÀjhpw amkhpw Znh-khp XpS-§p¶Xv ssN{X-ip-¢-{]-Xn-]Zw taS-kw-{I-a-¯n-t\mSv tNcp-t¼m-gm-Wv. At¸mÄ ssN{Xm-´n-I-¯n kqcy\v 300kv^pSw F¶v hcp-¶p. kuc-Nm-{µ-hÀj-§-fn 11 XnYn Ipd-bp-¶-Xn-\m c−m-as¯ hÀj-¯n sshimJ GIm-Z-in-¡mWv 300kqcykv^pSw hcn-I. aq¶mw hÀjw sshim-J-Ir-jvW-k-]vX-an, XpSÀ¶v \memw hÀjw sshim-J-ip-¢-Xr-Xo-b¡v kqcy\v 300kv^pSamIp-¶p. kqcykv^pSw 200¡pw 300¡pw CS-bn-em-Ip¶ XnYn-bmWv sshim-J-ip-¢-Xr-Xob F¶v ChnsS hyà-am-Ip-¶p. ap¼v \mw NÀ¨ sNbvX ]g-b-Im-es¯ Xncp-\mhm-bnse HmWhpw B−p-]n-d-hnbpw t]mse, kqcy³ \½psS sIm¨p-tI-c-f¯n\v \ng hogv¯msX aqÀ²m-hneqsS IS-¶p-t]m-Ip¶ Zn\-§Ä. DZm-l-c-W¯n\v `qau-`q-t]mbw {]m]y \ÂIp¶ s]cp-amÄ hÀj-¯n þ 

sshim-Ji - p-¢X - r-Xo-bbpw BIm-i\ - o-co-£W - § - fpw

ip\yOmbmZn\w AYhm aqcv²m-hnse kqcy-kw-{I-a¯ - nsâ Cu XobXn bpambn _Ô-s¸« an¯p-If - nse Nnc-RvPo-hn-bmb ]c-ip-cm-as - \¶ IYm-]m-{Xam-cmWv? apI-fn ]dª Xob-Xn¡v Ing-¡³ N{I-hm-f¯ - n-te¡v H¶v t\m¡nbm aXn D¯-c¯ - n-\v. s]Àkyqkv F¶ Xmc-]p-RvPa - mWv ]c-ip-cm-a³. Cu Xmc-]p-RvP¯ - nse {][m\ Xmc-amWv α-þs]Àkyqkv (Im´n-am\w1.82).

]c-ip-cm-a³ agp-sh-dn-bp¶ cq]-apÅ s]gvkyqkv XmcKWw. jj

20 G{]n 215 CE, 06:00 `c-X-¸p-g-bpsS ]X-\-Ø-e¯v 10N51, 75E45, λ1Sun = 28020'. N{µ-kv^pSw 66023' XnYn, ip¢-Xr-Xob cm{Xn-bn Ah-km-\n-¨p.

]I a²ym-Ó-kq-cy\v Xncp-\m-hm-bn Omb iq\yw. ]«nI t\m¡p-I. XobXn 215/04/12 06 215/04/13 06 215/04/14 06 215/04/15 06 215/04/16 06 215/04/17 06 215/04/18 06 215/04/19 06 215/04/20 06 215/04/21 06

Ien-Zn\w chnkv^pSw chn{Im´n 1211222 1211223 1211224 1211225 1211226 1211227 1211228 1211229 1211230 1211231

20°37' 21°35' 22°33' 23°31' 24°29' 25°27' 26°24' 27°22' 28°20' 29°18'

08°07' 08°29' 08°51' 09°13' 09°34' 09°56' 10°17' 10°38' 10°59' 11°19'

N{µ³

20 G{]n 215 CE, kqtcym-Zbw 05:46 DÖ-bn\n ka-bw. c−-v \ - m-gnI DZ-bm 0 ]qÀÆw (04:58) kqcy³ GXm−v 11 N{I-hm-fk - o-a¡v Xmsg \nÂs¡, N{I-hmtfm-]cn s]gvkyqkv Zriya-Ã. α-þs]Àkyqkv (D-Zbw 04:58) N{I-hm- fs¯ kv]Àin¡p¶-tX-bp-Åp. {]`m-Xk - Ô - y 04:33 (twilight hour) \v Bcw-`n-¡p-¶X - n\m α-þs]Àkyqkv (D-Zbw 04:58) N{I-hmfs¯ kv]Àin-¡p-s¶-¦nepw Zriy-

330°26' 342°19' 354°11' 06°02' 17°56' 29°54' 41°56' 54°05' 66°23' 78°51'

am-I-bn-Ã. Xncp-\m-hm-bpsS A£mwiw ]cn-KW - n-¨m -]g-bI - m-e¯v kqtcym-]cn {]`m-XkÔy¡v ap¼v Zriy-am-bn-cp¶ α-þs]Àkyqkv s]cp-amÄIm-ea - mb {InkvXp-hÀj-w c−mw-\q-äm-−n-te¡v Zriy-aà - m-Xm-bn-¯oÀ¶p. α-þs]Àkyqkv (D-Zbw 04:58) {]`m-kk - Ô - y¡v ap¼v IjvSn¨v Zriy-am-bncp¶ ka-ba - mWv kqcysâ tIc-f¯ - nse aqÀ²v\n-kw-{I-aw. AXm-bXv kqcysâ {Kojva{- Im-´n-

19 G{]n 215 CE cm{Xn-bn-emWv kq£va-ambn ]d-ªm XrXo-b. F´psIm−v 19/20 G{]n 215 CE Cu Znhkw ]c-ip-cm-a-P-b´nsb¶v hnfn-¡-s¸«p?

]qÀÆ-amb tIc-f¯ - nse a²ymÓOmbm-cl - n-XZ- n-\-¯n ( δ =φ, λ1) αþs]Àkyqkv AkvXa - n-¡p-¶p. {In.ap 1175 apX-epÅ kqcy-sâbpw s]gvkyq-knsâbpw _Ô-s¸« hnh-c§ - Ä Xmsg \ÂIp-¶p.

Ncn-{X-]p-cp-j-\mb ]c-ip-cm-a\v ap¼v Xs¶bmWv Nnc-RvPo-hn-bptS-Xmb Cu ]c-ip-cma Pb´n BtLmjw XpS-§n-bn-cp-¶-sX¶ Imcy-¯n kwi-b-an-Ã.

(Xmsg) 30 G{]n 1175BC: ]c-ip-cm-am_vZw Bcw-`n-¨p-sh¶v sFXnlyw ]d-bp¶ Cu Imew apX {InkvXp-hn\v tijw aq¶mw \qäm−v hsc s]gvkyqkv \£{Xw A£-b-Xr-Xo-btbmS-Sp¯v cmhnse

43

44


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008 kqtcym-]cn Zriy-am-bn-cp-¶p. `mÀ¤-h-s\¶ ip{I-t\m-sSm¸w ]c-ip-cm-as\ cmhnse ImWp-¶-XmWv Nn{Xw.

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008 A£b XrXob s]gvkyqknsâ DZb Ime-am-Wv (Heliacal rise of α-Perseus). Cu Xob-Xn¡p ap¼mbn s]gvkyq-kns\ an¯p-If - nse ]c-ip-cm-as\ ImWm-\mhn-Ã. Bcy-`S- sâ AKkvXy {]am-W¯ - n\v hn]-co-Xa - mWv ChnsS ØnXn. CSh-kq-cy\v AK-kvXy³ AkvXa - m-Ip-t¼mÄ ]c-Np-cm-a³ DZn-¡p-¶p. XI.

BZntN-c-cm-Pm-¡-·m-cpsS Imew

XÀ¡-hn-XÀ¡-PS- n-ea - mb tNc-Nc - n{Xw B[n-Im-cn-Ia - mbn ]d-bp-hm-\pÅ Adn-sh\n-¡n-Ã. XoÀ¯pw A{]-Xo-£a - mbn ]Xn-äp-¸¯ - nsâ31 Hcp tIm¸nbpw AXnse tPymXnximkv{X-]c - a - mb c−v ]cm-aÀi-§fpw s]cp-amÄ Ah-tcm-[hpw aäpw ]Tn-¨n-cp¶ L«-¯n ssI¿n-se-¯p-Ib - p-−m-bn. AÂ]w Nne IW-¡p-Iq-«e - pIÄ Fs¶ hnkvab - s - ¸-Sp-¯p-Ibpw XpSÀ¶v tIc-tfmÂ]¯n \ÂIp¶ s]cpamÄ Ah-tcm-[Imes¯ ASn-Øm-\a - mbn (215CE) BZntNc-·m-cpsS Imew Xn«-s¸-Sp-¯p-Ib - mWv sNbvXX - v. ]Xnäp-¸¯ - nse BIm-i¡ - m-gvNI - Ä¡v icnbmb hni-Ie - \w e`y-am-b-Xn-\m Ncn-{X-Im-c· - m-cpsS {i²-bn s]Sp-¯p-¶X - n\mbn Hcp Ipdn-s¸-gp-Xp-Ib - mWv Chn-sS. {io. Fw.-Pn.-F-kv. \mcm-bW - sâ s]cpamÄ Ncn{Xw F¶ IrXn e`y-aà - m-¯X - p-sIm−v Ncn-{X-Im-c-·m-cpsS s]cp-amÄ Ime-K-W\ F¶v apX Bcw-`n-¡p-¶p-sh¶v Xn«-s¸-Sp-¯m\pw Ign-bp-¶n-Ã. tae-§¯v \mcm-bW - ³ Ip«nbpw aäv Nnecpw BZn tNc-·msc {InkvXp-hÀjw Bdmw \qäm-−n k¦Â]n-¡p-¶p. sdman-eY - m-¸d - p-sSbpw aäpw ho£Ww apIfn ]d-bp-Ib - p-−m-bn 32 . ]Xn-äp-¸¯ - nse ]¯v ]Xn-I§ - f - n Fs«-®a - mWv e`y-am-bn-«p-ÅX - v. tXmÂhn kw`-hn¨ cmPm-¡· - m-sc-¸ä - n-bpÅ ]Xn-I§ - Ä \o¡w sN¿-s¸-«p-sh¶v A\p-am-\n-¡s - ¸-Sp-¶p. ]Xn-äp-¸¯ - n e`y-amb BZntN-c-cm-Pm-¡· - m-cpsS hwim-hen Xmsg \ÂIp-¶p.

`rKp

`rKp `mÀ¤-h³

N{I-hmfw chn

31

Imew

chn λ

chn δ

-1174 -974 -774 -574 -374 -174 26 226

28°28' 28°26' 28°24' 28°22' 28°20' 28°18' 28°16' 28°15'

11°06' 11°05' 11°03' 11°02' 11°01' 10°59' 10°58' 10°57'

s]gvkyqkv D¶Xmwiw 08°14' 07°31' 06°47' 06°03' 05°18' 04°33' 03°47' 03°01'

Aiyyar, GV, Patittupattu verses along with Malayalam translation, Kerala Sahitya Academy, Trichur, 1997. 32 http://www.tamilnadu.ind.in/tamilnadu_history/sangam_age/greek_and_roman_con tacts_in_sangam_age.php. “Based on the literary, epigraphic and archaeological sources, it is established by scholars that the Sangam Age flourished from Third Century B.C. to Third Century A.D”. Kerala Government site is silent about the date of the Cera rulers but the http://keralahistory.net/1b to 8b sites present some chronological details of the Kings: http://keralahistory.net/4b.html places Uthiyan Ceralathan who got defeated in the Venni War in 2nd century CE, Nārmudi Ceral at the middle of the 2nd Century CE, Ceran Cenkuttuvan at the end of 2nd century CE by taking the reign of Gajabāhu of Lankā from 171-193CE. Account takes the last of the reign of Ceras to the beginning of the 4th century CE and dates given appear to be inconsistent. Gajabāhu-I according to Kanakasabhā Pillai’s work ‘The Tamils 1800 Years Ago’ (1904) lived during 113-134CE and the dating is based on the Buddhist chronicle Dīpavamśa.

N{I-hmfw

04:33 DZbw 3:50 3:53 3:56 4:00 4:03 4:07 4:10 4:14

45

46


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008 ]XnIw 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008 1. tIc-tfmÂ]¯n \ÂIp¶ \mgn-I-¡Ãpw tNc-Im-ehpw

tNc-N-{I-hÀ¯n hmgvNImew s]cp-t©mdp DXn-b tNc BX³ -]XnIw Cà Ca-b-h-c-¼³ s\Spw tNc BX³ 58 ]eymss\ sNÂsIgp Ip«p-h³ 25 If-¦m-bvI®n \mÀapSn tNc 25 tNc sN¦p-«p-h³ 55 BSp-tImSv ]m«p tNc BX³ 35 sNÂh ISpwtIm Bgn BX³ 25 XIn-SqÀ Fdn´ s]cp-tN-c Ccp-s¼mssd 17 ISpt¡m Cfw-tN-c Ccp-s¼mssd 16 am´cw tNc Ccp-s¼mssd ]XnIw CÃ

tIc-tfmÂ]¯n \ÂIp¶ tNc-þs - ]-cp-amÄN-cn-{X-§f - psS \mgn-I¡ - Ãv `qau-`qt]mƒbw {]m]ym F¶ ]cÂt]-cn-eqsS {InkvXp-hÀjw 215 BsW¶v \mw ap¼v ImWp-Ib - p-−m-bn. Cu ASn-Øm-\h - Àj-¯n\v ap¼v tNc-hmgvN Ah-km\n-¨p-sh¶ k¦Â]-¯n ]Xn-äp-¸¯v \ÂIp¶ hmgvN¡ - mew D]-tbm-Kn¨v \ap¡v tNc-·m-cpsS Imew \nÀ®-bn-¡m-hp-¶X - m-Wv. \jvSs - ¸-«p-t]mb ]¯mw ]m«nse tNcsâ Imew Adn-bn-sÃ-¶X - n-\m AÂ]w Ahy-àX kwPm-Xa - mIp-¶Xv Dulm-t]m-l¯ - n-eqsS ]cn-lc - n-¡p-¶X - n\v Xmsg \ÂIp¶ ]«n-Ib - n {ian-¨n-cn-¡p-¶p. t]cp-IÄ s]cp-amÄ tNc³ 10 tNc³ 9 tNc³ 8 tNc³ 7 tNc³ 6 tNc³ 5 tNc³ 4 tNc³ 3 tNc³ 2 tNc³ 1

]Xn-äp-¸-¯nse Cu hmgvN-¡m-e-§Ä ]eXpw Hcp Xe-ap-d-bpsS cmP-N-cn-{X-§fn AYhm hwim-h-en-I-fn e`y-amb icm-icnhÀj-t¯-¡mÄ hfsc IqSp-Xem-Wv. F¶m F«p cmPm-¡-·m-cpsS Imew \ÂIp¶ ]Xn-I-§-fn IqSnb hÀj-amb 58 t]mse Ipdª Ime-amb 16 Dw 17 Dw ImWm-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. hkvXp-\n-jvT-amb hnh-c-amWv ]mW-·mÀ ]m«p-I-fn \ÂIn-bn-cn-¡p-¶-sX¶v hmgvN-¡m-e-§-fpsS Gä-¡p-d-¨n-en \n¶pw a\-Ên-em-¡mw. sI. G. \oe-I-WvTimkv{Xn apI-fn \ÂInb 259 hÀj-§Ä tNc-Ncn{XIm-e-ambn AwKoIcn¡p¶n-Ã. At±lw ]d-bp-¶Xv ZoÀL-amb Ime-§Ä Hcm-fpsS am{Xw hmgvN-¡m-e-aÃ,33 Ipe-hm-gvN-bpsS Ahy-àX sIm−v Hcm-fp-tS-Xmbn FgpXn-t¸m-b-Xm-Wv. imkv{Xn-I-fpsS hmZw kwLIhn-I-fpsS kmam-\y-_p-²nsb \ncm-I-cn-¡p-¶-XmWv. DXn-b³ tNc BX\pw CXcÀ¡pw A¶v \ne-\n-¶n-cp¶ kmaq-ly-hy-hØ-bn hmÀ²-Iy-¯nepw Ipam-c-·m-cp-−mbn F¶v Icp-Xn-bm Xe-ap-d-IÄ¡v ImWp¶ hfsc ZoÀL-Im-e-amb hmgvN-¡mew hni-Zo-I-cn-¡m-\m-Ipw. \ap¡v Cu hmgvN-¡m-e-§-fpsS clkyw a\-Ên-em-Im-¯Xp sIm−v Ah-bn HmhÀem-¸nwKv Btcm-]n-¡p-¶Xv icn-bm-sW¶v tXm¶p-¶n-Ã. ChnsS Cu tNcIme NÀ¨-bpsS ASn-Øm\w tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]-c-amb At\z-jWw BI-bm HmhÀem-¸nwKv kzoI-cn-¡p-¶n-Ã. ]Xn-äp-¸-¯nse tNc-Im-e-§fpw \memw ]m«nse KuX-a-\m-cpsSbpw ]pd-\m-\qdv ]pdw 229 sebpw BIm-i-\n-co-£-W§fpw Xr]vXn-I-c-ambn hni-Zo-I-cn-¡pI km²ytam F¶-XmWv \½psS {]iv\w.

33

"The number of years they are said to have ruled totals 201 while another three monarchs of the collateral line are said to have reigned for a further 58 years in all. Their reigns surely cannot have been successive and we must therefore postulate a very considerable degree of over lapping..." , KA Nilakantha Sastri, A History of South India, p. 109.

47

Ime-KW - \-I Ime-KW - \-II Bcw`w CE – hmgvN hmgvN 10 16 17 25 35 55 25 25 58

CE 215 205 189 172 147 112 57 32 7 -51

2 16 17 25 35 55 25 25 58

Beginning 215 213 197 180 155 120 65 40 15 -43

icn-bmb Ime-L«w213-215 CE 197-213 CE 180 – 197 CE 155 – 180 CE 120 – 155 CE 65 – 120 CE 40 – 65 CE 15 – 40CE -43 to 15 CE -43 to XX CE

]Xn-äp-¸X - nse ]XnIw CÃm¯ ]¯mw tNc\v c−v hmg-N¡ - mew \ÂIn ImeK-W\ \S-¯n-bX - n tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]c - a - mb ]m«p-If - nse ]cm-aÀi-§Ä¡v icn-bmb km[q-Ic - Ww e`n-¡p-¶Xv am´cw tNcen\v 215 CE Ah-ew-_a - mbn c−v hÀjw \ÂIp-t¼m-gm-Wv. 213 CE  Xs¶ At±-l¯ - nsâ Xncp-\m-hmbnse hmgvN Ah-km-\n-¨n-cn-¡mw. amam-¦¯ - n\v ap¼v am´cw tNcn-en\v Øm\{`wiw D−m-Ib - m s]cp-am-fns\ hmgn-¨p-sh¶v Duln-¡mw. 2.

Cu tNc-Im-e-K-W-\-bpsS km[pX

]Xn-äp-¸¯ - nse \memw ]m«nepw ]pd-\m-\q-dnse ]pdw 229 epw ImWp¶ hm\\n-co-£W - ] - c - a - mb {]kvXm-h§ - sf KWn-X¯ - n-eqsS a\-Ên-em-¡p-hm³ {ian-¨Xnsâ hni-Zmw-i§ - Ä Xmsg \ÂIp-¶p. 

]m«v \mev þ ]eymss\ sNÂsIgp Ip«p-h³

Cu ]m«nse KuX-a\ - m-cpsS ]cm-aÀi-an-Xm-Wv. shÅn \£{Xw hS¡v ag-¡\ - pIq-e-amb {Kl-§t- fmSv IqSn \n¶n«pw ag- s]-¿m¯ C¡m-e¯v t]mepw tNc³

48


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

P\-X-Xnsb kar-²-ambn Du«n-t¸m-äp¶p. Cu \nco-£Ww D−m-bXv 8 sabv 34 CE BsW¶v \nÝ-bn-¡mw. Nn{Xw t\m¡p-I.

Znhkw am{Xw _m¡n \nÂs¡ tcmln-Wn-bnse kqcy\v ip`-{K-l§ - Ä D¯tcm-¯cw Ing¡v \nÂs¡ Ime-hÀjw Bcw-`n-¡m-Xn-cp¶ ka-bs¯¡pdn¨mWv KuX-a\ - mÀ kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶X - v. apI-fn \ÂInb Ime-KW - \ - þII A\p-kcn¨v ]eymss\ sNÂsIgp Ip«p-hsâ Imew 15 -45CE BI-bm KuX-a\ - mcpsS \memw ]m«nse hm\-\n-co-£Ww At±-l¯ - nsâ Ime-¯mWv \S-¶sX¶v sXfn-bp-¶p.

{In.-h. 34, sabv 8

Kpcp



]pd-\m-\qdv \ÂIp¶ Ifss¦ I®n \mÀapSn tNc-ensâ ac-W¯o-bXn

]pd-\m-\qdv, ]pdw 229 A\p-kc - n¨v BIm-i¯ - n sImÅn-ao³ {]Xy-£s - ¸«v Ggmw Znh-kw `qan-Ip-ep-¡hpw tNcsâ ac-Whpw D−m-bn. hfsc ck-Ic - a - mb Hcp hm\-\n-co-£W - a - mWv \ÂIp-¶X - v þ34 'kqcy³ taS-¯n \nÂs¡ ImÀ¯n-IZ- n\w AÀ²-cm-{Xn-bnÂ, Ing¡v A\ng¯nsâ ]Ýn-aX - mcw apX ]Sn-ªmdv ]pWÀX-¯nsâ ]qÀÆ-Xmcw hsc Zriy-am-bn-cp-¶-p. ss]¦p\n (^mÂKp-\w) BZy-]I - p-Xn-bn aqÀ²m-hn Ncn-¨ncp¶ (Zenith transit) Xmcw Øm\w amdn-¡m- Wp¶p. Cu ImÀ¯n-IZ- n-\¯ - n hS-¡p-In-g¡ - ³ BIm-i¯ - n Hcp sImÅn-ao³ {]Xy-£a - mbn'

ip{I³ N{µ³ _p[³

s]cp-ao³, sImÅn-ao³ AYhm hmÂ\-£{Xw F¶v I−v lmen-bpsS hmÂ\£-{X-am-sW¶ \nK-a\ - ¯ - n 141CE BWv Cu aq¶mw tNcsâ Ime-sa¶ \nK-a\w {]Nm-c¯ - n-ep-−v. 75-76 hÀjw Bhr-¯n-bn ImW-s¸-Sp¶ lmenbpsS hmÂ\£{Xw 141CE ¡v apt¼m ]nt¼m h¶n-cn-¡m-\pÅ km²yX XÅn¡-f-bm-\m-In-Ã. {]tXy-In¨pw kwL-Imew kw_-Ôn¨v \qäm-−p-If - psS hyXymk-apÅ hmZ-KX - n-IÄ \ne-\n¡p¶ kml-Nc - y-¯n ]pdw 229 \ÂIp¶ hm\-\n-co-£W - ¯ - n\v ]qÀ®-amb hni-Ie - \w km²y-am-bm am{Xta lmen ASn-Øm-\a - mb \nK-a\ - -¯n\v km[p-Xb - p-Åp. Xmsg \ÂIp¶ hni-Ie - \w A\p-k-cn¨v 27 amÀ¨v 65CE ¡mWv hmÂ\-£{Xw ImW-s¸-«s - X¶pw G{]n 2 \v Bbneyw \£-{X-¯n tNc³ ac-Ws - ¸-«X - mbpw a\-Ên-em-¡mw.

N{I-hmfw chn

(a) ss]¦p\n AYhm ^mÂKp\ amkw BZy-]I - pXn ]uÀ®-am-´K - W - \ - b - nÂ

IrjvW] - £ - a - m-Wv. hm\-\n-co-£W - ¯ - n\v Gähpw tbmPn-¨Xpw IrjvW]£w Xs¶. 8 s^{_p-hcn 65CE apXÂ 21s^{_p-hcn hsc-bmWv C¡mew.

]Xn-äp-¸¯v \memw ]¯n KuX-a-\mÀ ]d-bp¶ Ing¡p I− ip`-{Kl-tbmKw þ ]eymss\ sNÂsIgp Ip«p-hsâ Imew. - 8 sabv 34 CE ({In.hÀjw). Cu Znhkw AkvX-a-\mZn c−c \mgn-I¡v ip{Is\ {Im´n-hr-¯-¯n\v hS¡v (D-¯-c-A-£mw-iw, Latitude +Ve) _p[³, N{µ³, ip{I³, Kpcp F¶ D¶-Xmwi {Ia-¯n {Im´n-hr-¯-¯n\v hS¡v ImWm-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. BÀ{Z-{]-th-i-¯n\v 20

49

34

"In the first half of the month Painkuni a star (celestial body, may be a star or a planet) was found to transit the zenith at midnight. As days passed and Sun entered Ātu or Medam (Aries), midnight had the first star of Anurādhā on the Eastern horizon and the last star of Punarvasu on the West. The zenithal body of the Painkuni first half was now found to decline from zenith at midnight and at this time on the day when Moon was in Krttikā (Alcyone), a brilliant Comet lighted the North East…”

50


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

(b) ^mÂKp\ IrjvW-]-£-w AÀ²-cm-{Xn-bnse BImiw t\m¡n-bm \ap-¡-

dnbmw {it²-b-amb \£-{X-§-sfm¶pw Xs¶ Sn ]Xn-\©p Znh-k-§-fn aqÀ²m-hn (Zenith) kw{I-an-¡p-¶n-Ã. At¸mÄ tNcsâ IY ]d-bp¶ ]mW³ aqÀ²m-hn I−Xv F´mWv? 8 s^{_p-hcn 65CE apX 21s^{_p-hcn hsc aqÀ²m-hn ]mW\v Zriy-amb {Klw i\n-bm-Wv. Nn{Xw {i²n-¡p-I. 18 s^{_p-hcn¡v i\n AÀ²-cm-{Xn-bn aqÀ²m-hn kw{I-an-¡p-I-bp-−m-bn.

If-¦m-bvI®n \mÀap-Sn-tN-c-ensâ ac-W-Im-es¯ i\n-bpsS Nmc-ØnXn 18 s^{_p-hcn 65 CE. ]pdw 229 (]pd-\m-\q-dv) Ipw`w-þ-ao\w amk-§-fnse i\nbpsS AÀ[-cm-{Xn-bn-se, \t`m-a-[y-ØnXn ]cm-aÀin-¡p-¶p. Ing¡pw ]Snªmdpw I− \£-{X-§-sfbpw ]d-bp-¶p.

[bnw

(α-Scorpio) ]Sn-ªm-d³ Geminorum ) Dw Zriy-am-bn-cp-¶p.

N{I-hm-f¯ - nÂ

]pWÀX-¯nsâ

(γ-

(d) Imew ChnsS hyà-am-Ip-¶p. kq£vaa - mbn Zn\-s¯-¸än ]mW³ kqNn-¸n-

¡p-¶Xv \mw {i²n-¡W - w. AÀ²-cm-{Xn¡v \t`m-a[ - y-¯n Ncn-¨n-cp¶ {Klw hyXn-Ne - n¨p ImWsh, taS-amk¯nse ImÀ¯nI Znhkw hS-¡p-Ing-¡³ Zni-bn s]cp-ao³ ImW-s¸-«p. 27 amÀ¨v 65CE BWv Cu Znh-kw.

(e) If-ss¦-I®n \mÀapSn tNc Ggmw Znhkw ac-Ws - ¸-«p. 2 G{]n 65 CE,

Bbneyw \£-{Xw.

(f) Cu XobXn \nÀ®-bs¯ lmen-bpsS hmÂ\-£{Xw ]n´p-W¡ - p-¶p.

ssN\okv hm\-\n-co-£W - t- c-JI - f - \ - p-kc - n¨v lmen-bpsS hmÂ\-£{Xw (þ) 11CE  {]Xy-£s - ¸-«n-cp-¶p. ASp-¯h - c - h - nsâ tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯e - mWv ]pd-\m\q-dnse tNcsâ Ncn-{X-¯n \mw ImWp-¶X - v.

(g) 65CE tKmkv]e - p-IÄ (kp-hn-ti-j§ - Ä) Fgp-Xs - ¸« Ime-ambn ]mÝmXy

hnZzm-·mÀ Icp-Xp-¶p. \t`m-a[yw XcWw sN¿p¶ {Klw am{X-amWv Hcp Øe-¯n\v apI-fn \n¶p F¶p ]d-bp-hm³ km[n-¡p-I. NmÂUn-b³ kn²-·mÀ¡v hgn-Im-«n-bmbn _Xvetlan\v apI-fn Hcp \£{Xw sN¶v \n¶-Xmb sFXn-ly-¯n\v t{]cIw apI-fn hyà-am-¡nb AÀ²-cm-{Xnbnse i\n-bpsS \t`ma[y-kw-{I-aa - m-Wv.

]pWÀXw



i\n

Ncn-{X-]-c-amb sXfn-hp-IÄ

]Xn-I-§f - nse hmgvN¡ - m-e§ - Ä ASn-Øm-\a - mbn apI-fn \ÂInb tNc-Im-e\nÀ®-b¯ - n\v Xmsg ]d-bp¶ Ncn-{X-]c - a - mb kwK-Xn-IÄ sXfnhv \ÂIp-¶p.

A\ngw

1.

{ioe-¦b - nse KP_m-lp-hp-ambn (113-134 CE ) tNc³ sN¦p-«p-hsâ (65120CE ) ka-Im-eo-\X - .

2.

Ccp-s¼mssd F¶ t]cpÅ Ah-km\ tNc-·m-cpsS Imew {InkvXp-hn\v tijw c−mw \qäm-−m-sW¶v enJn-X§ - Ä ASn-Øm-\-ambn \nÀ®-bn-¨n-«pÅ-Xmbn sFcm-hXw alm-tZ-h³ ]d-bp-¶p. 35 XISqÀ Fdn-´s - ]-cp-tN-censâ Imew ChnsS \nÀ®-bn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶Xv 180-197CE Sn \nÀ®-bt- ¯mSv tbmPn-¡p-¶p.

3.

hntZ-in-If - psS tcJ-IÄ. {Ìmt_m-bpsS `qan-imkv{Xw, ¹n\n-bpsS Ncn-{X-]T - \w (77CE), AÚm-X\ - m-am-hmb k©m-cn-bpsS Fcn-{Xn-b³ IS-ense

AÀ²-cm-{Xn-bn i\n \t`m-a[yw XcWw sNbvX-t¸mÄ Ing¡v A\p-cm-

35 http://www.tamil.net/list/2000-12/msg00937.html )http://www.harappa.com/script/mahadevantext.html#12, sFcm-hXw alm-tZ-hsâ A`n-apJw Cu sh_-ssk-äp-I-fn e`y-am-Wv.

51

52

(c) Cu ka-b¯v Ipw`w-þ-ao\w kÔn-bn kqcy³ (kmb\ λ =328 ) \nÂs¡ 0


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

s]cn-¹-kv (62CE), tSmf-an-tbm-knsâ `qan-imkv{Xw Ch kwkvIm-c-k-¼¶hpw hnI-kn-X-hp-amb tIc-f-¯n-\v, tdma-¡mcpw {Ko¡vImcpw aäp-ap-−m-bncp¶ I¨-h-S-_-Ô-s¯-¸-änbpw Øe-§-sf-¸-änbpw aXn-bmb hnh-c-§Ä \ÂIp-¶p. Ch-cpsS Ime-¯mWv tNc-·m-cpsS {]Xm-]-sa¶v AXn-\m Duln-¡mw. kao-]-Im-e¯v Ipgn-s¨-Sp-¡-s¸« \mW-b-\n-[n-Ifpw kam-\amb sXfnhv \ÂIp-¶p.

XII. Cu ]T\w ChnsS Ah-km-\n-¡p¶nÃ... tIc-f-N-cn-{X-s¯-¸-än-bpÅ Cu NÀ¨ ChnsS Ah-km-\n-¡p-¶n-Ã. ssP\-]m-c¼ - cy-¯n \njn-²-ambn H¶p-an-Ã. Hcp ]s£ hfsc ap¼v £tbm-·p-J-am-bn¯oÀ¶-Xp-sIm−v C¶v \mw ImWp¶ Aim-kv{Xo-b-X-bp-sS t]¡q¯v ssP\]m-c-¼-cys¯ sslµ-h-sa¶ ]mc-¼-cy-t¯mfw _m[n-¨n-«n-Ã. hkvXp-\n-jvTambn \mw a\-Ên-em-¡n-bm lc-¸m, taml-RvsP-Zm-tcmIfpsS Imew apX-epÅ tbmKm-ß-I, imkv{Xm-ßI kwkvIr-Xn-bpsS `mc-X-¯nse bYmÀ° ]n´pSÀ¨-¡mÀ ssP\cpw _u²-cp-am-Wv. `mc-X-¯nse P\-XXn GXv PmXn-bn s]«-h-cm-bmepw _lp-`q-cn-]-£hpw ssP\-_u-²-\m-K-]m-c-¼-cy-¯nsâ Ah-Im-in-I-fm-Wv. Ncn-{X-¯nsâ GtXm Ccp-fm− Imes¯ Bcy-kw-kÀ¤w ]utcm-ln-Xy¯n\v A{]-am-ZnXzw \ÂInb Hcp kmaqly hyhØsbbpw ]nWn-bm-f-·m-scbpw krjvSn-s¨-Sp-¡p-Ibpw ]ucm-Wn-I-ambn \ne-\n¶ kwkvImc¯n\p ta AXnsâ kzXzw Xncn¨dnbm\m-Im¯ hn[w kwkvIr-X-¯nsâ Hcp aqSp-]Sw AWn-bn-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. \½psS imkv{Xo-bhpw B²ym-ßn-I-hp-amb ]mc-¼-cys¯ tNmZyw sN¿p¶ B aqSp-]-Ss¯ \mw No´n-sb-dn-tb− Imew AXn-{I-an¨p Ign-ªp. kwkvIr-X-¯nse ]mWvUnXyw sIm−pw XÀ¡-hn-XÀ¡-§-fpsS C{µ-Pmew sIm−pw B[p-\nI a\-Ên\v XS-bn-Sm-\m-In-Ã. hkvXp-X-IÄ¡pw C{µn-bhpw AXo-{µn-b-hp-amb A\p-`-h-§Ä¡pw hmKvt²m-cWn sIm−v A{]-am-ZnXzw kn²am-bn-cp¶ Imew Ign-ªp. tbmK-Ýn-¯-hr¯n \ntcm[w F¶ \mK-]-X-RvPen ]d-ª-Xn\v t\Àhn-]-co-X-ambn hnIÂ]m-ßI t]¡q-¯p-IÄ sIm−v ]mhw a\p-jys\ ab-¡n-s¡-Sp-¯p¶ C¶s¯ B²ym-ßnI ]mc-¼-cy-aà \½psS bYmÀ° ]mc-¼-cyw. hkp-tZ-h-Ir-jvW-\n-eq-sSbpw _p²-\n-eq-sSbpw ssP\-\neq-sSbpw \Ip-eo-i-\n-eq-sSbpw I]n-e-\n-eq-sSbpw lc¸m Imew hsc, {InkvXphn\v ap¼v aqhm-bn-c-am−v hsc ]n¶n-te¡ InS-¡p¶ ]mc-¼-cy-¯n\v Ah-Imin-I-fmWv \mw. sslµ-h-sa¶ t]cn-s\´p {]kàn? t]cp-I-fp-sSbpw AXn-cpI-fp-sSbpw A¸p-d-amWv lc-¸m. t]cpw AXn-cp-Ifpw \½psS hnIÂ] krjvSnbm-Wv. FÃm t]cp-I-fnepw t]cn-Ãm-Xn-cn-¡p¶ GI k¯sb km£vXvI-cn-¡pI-bm-sWtÃm `mc-X-¯nsâ B²ym-ßnI ktµiw. cmjv{So-b-¯nsâ t]cp-hn-fnIÄ¡pw t]mÀhn-fn-IÄ¡pw AXo-X-am-bn, a\-Êp-Isf CSp-§nb Nn´m-K-Xn-Ifn Xf-¨n-Sp¶ hnIÂ]-hr-¯n-IÄ¡-Xo-X-ambn kXys¯ Adn-bp-hm³ B{Kln-¡p-t¼mÄ Pn\-s\-t¶m, _p²-s\-t¶m, inh-s\t¶m Hs¡-bpÅ t]cp-IÄ X\nsb amªp t]mIp-¶p. \mam-Xo-X-amb k¯sb¶ e£y-¯n-te¡v hnc Nq−p¶ Kpcp-¡-·m-cm-Wn-h-sc-Ãmw.

53

\½psS ssP\-_u-²] - m-c¼ - c - y-§s - f-¸än IqSp-Xe - d - n-bp-¶-Xn-eqsS am{Xta D]-\nj-¯p-¡f - nse ZÀi-\§ - f - p-sSbpw tbmK-im-kv{X-¯n-sâbpw Ncn-{X-]Ý - m-¯ew hkvXp\njvTa - mbn \ap¡v a\-Ên-em-¡m-\m-Iq. FÃmw sshZn-Ia - m-Wv, A²ym-ßhn-Zy-bpsS sImSp-apSn i¦-cm-ssZz-Xa - mWv Fs¶ms¡ Nn¯-hr¯n sNbvXh - À A²ym-ßn-IX - b - psS Hcp aqV-kzÀ¤w ]Wn-XoÀ¯n-«p-−v. kwL-Im-es - ¯-¸än \ap¡v H¶p-ad - n-bn-Ã, ssP\-þ_ - u-²þssih-kn-²s - c-¸än \ap¡v H¶p-ad - n-bn-Ã, \Ip-eo-i\pw hncÂan-−\pw hnÚm-\` - n-£phpw \ap¡v A\-`n-aX - c - m-Wv, i¦-cmNm-cyÀ am{X-am-sW-Ãmw. ]utcm-ln-Xy-¯nsâ PoÀ®X k½m-\n¨ Cu sIm¡qWn \n¶pw \mw ]pd¯p hc-Ww. Bcy-`S- sâ ktµ-ia - n-Xm-Wv. tIc-f-¯n-sâbpw `mc-X¯ - n-sâbpw bYm-XY - a - mb imkv{Xob ]mc-¼c - yhpw B²ym-ßnI ]mc-¼c - yhpw a\-Ên-em¡n \Ã-Xns\ kzoI-cn¨v ]Xncv XÅn [\yX tXSp-Ib - mWv \mw sNt¿-−X - v. PmXn-bnepw t]cnepw tZl-¯nepw A`nam-\n-¡p-Ibpw ss\\w Onµ´n ikv{XmWn F¶v ` - K-hZvKoX Dcphn-Sp-Ibpw acWs¯ t]Sn-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p þF{X henb sshcp-²y-am-Wn-Xv. imkv{Xt¯m-Spw kXy-t¯mSpw AYhm hkvXp-XI - t- fm-SpapÅ kao-]\ - ¯n t]mepw hnIr-X-Nn-¯h - r-¯n¡v hnt[-bc - m-sW-¶X - n\v CXnÂ]cw Hcp sXfn-sh-´mWv th−Xv? tbmK-im-kv{X-amWv `mc-Xob imkv{X-§f - psS sImSp-ap-Sn. FÃm `mc-Xob ZÀi\-§-fp-sSbpw ASn-Øm\w tbmK-hr-¯n-bm-Wv. C¶s¯ `mcXhpw temIhpw I−m ssP\-þ_ - p-²þ]X-RvPe - n-amtc-¡mÄ henb Ah-Xm-c§ - t- fm F¶v \ap¡v tXm¶n-t¸m-Ipw. tbmKn¡v \nÀÆ-N\ - a - n-Ã. tbmKo-iz-csâ `mhw Imfn-Zmk\v am{Xta hnh-cn-¡p-hm³ Ign-ªn-«pÅp. tbmK-þk - n-²] - m-c¼ - cyw inYn-ea - mIm-Xn-cn-¡p-hm³ Nne IÅ-\m-Wb - § - sf \mw Xncn¨dn-bWw. Nn¯-hr¯n IqSmsX AXv km[y-aà - . icn-bmb Nn¯-hr-¯n¡v GhÀ¡pw t{]c-Ia - m-Ip¶ Imfn-Zm-ksâ AÂ]w Nne hm¡p-IÄ D²-cn¨v Cu NÀ¨ Ah-km-\n-¸n-¡p-Ibm-Wv. Ipam-c-kw-`h - ¯ - n tbmKo-iz-c\ - mb inh-s\-¸än Imfn-Zm-ks - \-gp-Xnb tÇmI¯nsâ ZÀi\ kuc`w hm¡p-IÄ¡-Xo-Xa - m-Wv. X{Xm-án-am-[mb kan-Õa - n²w kzta-ha - qÀXy-´c - a - j - vS-aqÀ¯nx kzbw hn[mXm X]kx ^em\mw tI\m]n Imta\ X]-ÝN - mc (1.57) ]cn-`mj \ÂIp-¶n-Ã, e`y-amb ]mT-§Ä am{X-sa-gp-Xp-¶p. tbmKoiz-c³ AjvSaqÀ¯n-bm-Wv. Xt]m-^e - -¯nsâ hn[m-Xmhv, Xt]m-^ew sImSp-¡p-¶Xv At±lw Xs¶. A§-s\-bpÅ Hcp tbmKn X]-Êp-sN-¿p-Ib - m-Wv. tbmKn Bsc X]Êp sN¿p-hm³? Imfn-Zm-k{- ]-Xn` ]d-ªXv þ AjvSa - qÀ¯n-bmb Xsâ Xs¶ aqÀ¯n-Xz-amb Aánsb Pzen-¸n¨v X]Êp sNbvXp. F´n\v? Imfn-Zmk³ \½psS Nne alm-Ih - n-am-sc-t¸mse Dulm-t]mlw hyà-am-¡m³ {ian-¨nÃ. ]d-ªXv \mw {i²n-¡W - w. tbmKnsb BÀ¡pw a\-Ên-em-¡m-\m-In-Ã. AXpsIm−v `ph-t\-iz-cn-bpsS ASn-ab - mb Zmk-s\-gpXn þ tI\m]n Imta\ X]-ÝNm-c þ GtXm CjvSI - m-cy-¯n-\m-bn-s¡m−v X]w sNbvXp. tamln-\n-bpsS thjw sI«n tXmäp Xp¶w ]mSn tbmKn-\n-bmbn amdnb Ip¶n³a-IÄ, tbmKnsb¸än A]-hmZw ]dª {]Ñ-¶h - S- p-hn-t\mSv {]Xn-Ic - n-¨p.

54


amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

amXr-`qan hmÀjn-I-]-Xn¸v 2007-2008, amÀ¨v 2008

AInw-N\ kw{]-`hx k k¼Zmw {Xntem-I-\mYx ]nXrk-Qva-tKm-Ncx k `oa-cq]x inh CXyp-Zo-cytX \ k´n bmYmÀ°y-hnZx ]n\m-In\x

sfbpw Imän ]d¯n cma-þt- k-Xp-hnsâ t]cn ]mh-§sf _en Ign-¡p¶ kwkvIm-ca - mWv sslµ-h-kw-kvIm-cs - a-¦n AXv Dt]-£n¨v \mw \½psS icnbmb ssP\-þ_ - u² thcpIiv tXtS−Xm-Wv.

]n¨-¡mcs\¦nepw kÀÆ-k-¼-¯p-¡-fp-sSbpw Dd-h-nSamWv. NpSp-Im-«n-e-e-bpIbpw Dd-§p-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p-sh-¦nepw {Xntem-I-\m-Y-\m-Wv. hncq-]-s\-¦nepw awK-f-Im-cn-bmWv. ]n\m-In-bpsS kXyw Adn-bp-¶-hÀ hnc-f-am-Wv. hn`q-j-tWm-Ûm-ky-]y-\-L-t`mKo hm KPm-Pn-\m-ew_n ZpIq-e-[mcn hm I]men hm kyZ[ N{µ-ti-Jcw \ hniz-aqÀt²-c-h-[m-cytX h]px hn`q-j-Wm-`q-j-W-§-sfm-s¡-b-Wn-tª-¡mw, Icn-t´mtem, ]t«m, ]mt¼m, Xetbm-«n-tbm, N{µ-s\-¯-s¶tbm Ah³[-cn-¡pw. hniz-aqÀ¯n-¡mcp−v N«w sh¡phm³? Cu tbmKn inh-\mImw, Pnt\{µ alm-ho-c-\m-Imw, _mlp-_e - n-bm-Imw, IrjvW\m-Imw. t]cnà AYhm FÃm t]cp-Ifpw B k¯-bp-tSXp Xs¶. tbmKn-bpsS Cu hÀ®\ Imfn-Zm-k\p am{Xw km²y-am-b-Xm-Wv. CXv an¯-Ã. C¶v \s½ `cn-¡p¶ [mc-W, XmSn \o«n, ImWn-Isf tamln-¸n-¡m-\pÅ I¬sI-«p-Im-csâ ssÌen IYm-{]-kwKw \S-¯n tImcn-¯-cn-¸n-¡p-¶-h-s\ms¡ B ]gb kn²]m-c-¼-cy-¯nsâ DbnÀs¯-gp-t¶Â¡p¶ I®n-I-fm-sW-¶m-Wv. AsX, tbmKnIÄ \nÀÆ-N-\m-Xo-X-cmWv þ AXmWv \½psS anÌnIv ]mc-¼cyw þ Cu ]mc-¼cy-¯nsâ ]Ým-¯-e-¯n tamln-\n-am-tcm-sSm¸w \r¯w sNbvXv temIs¯ tamln-¸n¨ `kvam-kp-c³ t]mepw \ap¡v tbmKo-iz-c\m-Wv. ]e kplr-¯p-Ifpw BhÀ¯n-¨m-hÀ¯n¨v tNmZn-¡p-¶p. A²ym-ß-hnZy imkv{X-amtWm? XmSn \o«n-b-hsâ t]¡p-¯p-I-sf-Ãmw A²ym-ß-hn-Zy-bm-tWm, imkv{X-amtWm? imkv{X-am-sW-¦n AXnsâ kXym-ß-IX t_m²y-s¸-Sm³ ]mc-¼-cy-¯n hn[n-I-fntÃ? D−v. ssP\-\m-I-s«, _p²-\m-I-s«, sshjvW-h\m-I-s«, ssih-\m-I-s«, tbmKnbpsS kXy-¯n\v Htcsbmcp sXfnhv IWvTm-`-cW-amb aqÀJ³ am{X-am-Wv. C¡m-cy-¯n kwibw th−v. tXhn-Sn-Èn-IÄ¡n-Sbntem, NpSp-Im-«ntem Iq¯m-Sp-¶-h-s\-¦nepw Ahsâ Igp-¯n\v aqÀJ³ B`-cW-sa-¦n Im¡ hoWp-sIm-Åp-I. Nn¯-hr¯n {]I-Sn-¸n¨v \mS-I-am-Sp¶ asäm-cp-¯\pw tbmKn-b-Ã, hnIÂ]-w _m[n-¨-h\m-Wv, tbmK-{`-jvS-\m-Wv -þ DZ-c-\n-an¯w _lp-Ir-X-thjw þ-- Hcp Xcw {`m´m-Wv. bYmÀ°-tbm-Kn-bpsS IY {Ko¡v Ncn-{X-Im-c-·mÀ tcJ-s¸-Sp¯n-bn-«p-−v. {In.-ap. \memw \qäm-−n kn¡-µÀ IqsS sIm−p-t]mb Iet\mkv _m_n-tem-Wn Hcp Znhkw NnX-Iq«n AXnsâ taen-cp¶v Xo I¯n¡m³ BÚm-]n-¨p. N{I-hÀ¯n Xs¶ t\cn h¶v At]-£n-¨n«pw Iet\mkv Iq«m-¡n-bn-Ã. P\-XXn t\m¡n \nÂs¡ Xo Bfn-¡-¯n. {Ko¡v Ncn-{XIm-c-·mÀ tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv, Xo\mf-§Ä Ie-t\m-knsâ ico-cs¯ hngp-§n-b-t¸mÄ Hscmä Ah-bhtam I¬t]m-f-Itfm t]mepw A\-§n-bnsÃ-¶m-Wv. GXv t]cpw \ÂIq, A§-s\-bpÅ kn²-]p-cp-j-·msc krjvSn¨ ]mc-¼-cy-¯n\v þ AXmWv \ap¡v th−-Xv, imkv{Xo-b-X-bpsS FÃm am\-§-

55

icn-bmb XoÀ°-Øm-\§ - -sf-hn-sS-bmWv? Cuiz-csâ A[n-jvTm-\a - mb ico-c¯n-emWv bYmÀ° XoÀ°-§Ä? DZm-lc - W - ¯ - n\v KwK-bpsS Ic-bnse Imin `c-X-¸p-gb - psS Ic-bnse {ZmhnU\v F§s\ XoÀ°-ambn? ]©-X¯ - z-§f - n-sem¶nsâ aqÀ¯-cq-]a - mWv Pew. A§-s\-bpÅ Pew Hgp-Ip¶ FÃm \Zn-Ifpw FÃm-bn-S¯pw, Ah-bpsS Ic-bnse Hmtcm Ime-Snbpw XoÀ°-am-Wv. hcp-W, Akn Ch ]pcn-I§ - f - psS t]cm-Wv. Ch-bpsS a[y-amWv {`qa-[yw. Cu {`qa-[yamWv Iminbpw Ipcp-t£-{X-hpw, iw`p AYhm ØmWp, tbmK-aqcv¯n ChnsS \nh-kn-¡p-¶p. A¼-¯n-sbm¶v iàn-]o-T§ - fpw ]{´−v tPymXnÀenw-K§ - fpw \½psS ico-c¯ - n tbmKm-\p-`h - I - c - -ambn Zriy-am-Wv. `mc-X¯ - nse imkv{Xob ]mc-¼-cy-¯n-sâ \nZÀi-\§ - f - m-Wn-h. Aao_ F¶ GI-tIm-iP - o-hn-t]mepw P·w-sIm-Åm-Xn-cp¶ Ime¯v D−m-bn-cp¶ IS-ense ]md-¡q-«s¯ ico-c¯nse {]mW-kz-cq-]n-bmb cmasâ t]cn tkXp-hm-¡p-¶X - à \½psS imkv{X]mc-¼c - yw. ]mc-¼c - y-¯nsâ t]cn ]mIn-Øm-\n \n¶pw hcp¶ Aªq-dp-cq]m t\m«p-t]mse IÅw hn¡m-\n-d§ - p-¶h - c - mWv \½psS imkv{X]m-c-¼-cy-¯n\v I−w sh¨-Xv. \Ã-cm-a· - mÀ tkXp kz´w ico-c¯ - n tXSWw. Imin-bnse A¼-e¯ - nsâ DS-aI - f - m-bn-cp¶ XanÄsN-«n-IÄ Bcym-[n-\n-thi-¯m sXs¡m«v ]em-b\w sNbvXt- ¸mÄ inh-enw-Khpw FSp-¯p-sIm-−mWv t]m¶-Xv. A§-s\ Imin-bnse sN«n-IÄ sX¡-cm-bt- ¸mÄ iw`p-hns\ cma-\mY³ ({]m-Wþ- \ - m-Y³) F¶v t]Àhn-fn¨v IS¡-cb - n {]Xn-jvTn-¨psh¶-ÃmsX asäm¶pw hkvXp-Xb - à - . iw`p-hn-s\-t¸mse hnÔy-hm-kn-\n¡pw sXt¡m«v htc−n-h-¶pþ \½psS hnÔy-hm-kn-\n-bmWv tNmäm-\n-¡c - -bn tIc-f¯ - n\v Ipe-tZhn-bm-bn-cn-¡p-¶X - v. Cuim-hm-ky-anZw kÀÆw... FÃmw ]pWy-amWv ]hn-{X-am-Wv. cma-tk-Xp-hn-s\¡mÄ \½psS {i² ]Xn-tb-−Xv lc-¸m, taml-RvsP-Zm-tcm-hn-em-Wv. AhbmWv \½psS bvYmÀ° ]pWy-`q- an-IÄ. ]mIn-Øm-\nepw _w¥m-tZ-inepw F{X iàn-]o-T§ - Ä \jvSa - mbn? Imivao-cn-se{X \mK-þk - q-cy-t£-{X-§Ä \jvSa - m-bn? IS-ense Bcpw ImWm-¯ GtXm ]md-bn-Sp-¡ns\ kwkvIm-c¯ - n-sâbpw CXnlm-k-¯n-sâbpw {]Xo-Ia - m¡n kwc-£n-¡Ww? Cu kwkvIm-c¯ - n \n¶pw \ap¡v ]nt¶m«v t]mbn Bcy-`S- s\ \ÂInb B Ime-L«- ¯ - nsâ kwkvIrXn \ap¡v hos−-Sp-¡W - w. kXym-·I - X t_m²y-s¸-Sm³ hn[n-bn-Ãm¯ H¶pw imkv{X-aà - . Bcy-`S- s\ temIw HmÀ¡p-¶Xv \nco-£n¨pw ]co-£n¨pw kXyw t_m²y-s¸«v imkv{X¯nsâ ]mX sXfn-¡p-hm³ am\-hc - m-in¡v \ÂInb Blzm-\¯ - ntâ t]cn-emWv. sI. N{µ-lcnx

56


Astronomical Tradition and Kerala