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Aarhus School of Architecture Studio Regenerative Architecture Auรฐur Hreiรฐarsdรณttir

Thesis project summary 10.06.14

Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club 1. Setting 2. Program


Aarhus School of Architecture Studio Regenerative Architecture Auður Hreiðarsdóttir

Thesis project summary 10.06.14

contact: audurhr@gmail.com tel. 9119 4065

tutor: Kasper Guldager Jørgensen kgj@3xn.dk

Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club 1. Setting 2. Program


Intro What’s the story? 3 Project proposal 4 Focus areas 5

1. Setting

Location Basics 9 Demographics What about Gellerup? 10 Gellerup in pictures A visual 11 Gellerupplanen What will the new masterplan do? 15 Site and surroundings Between city and park 17 Cultural and social landscape Social sustainability 21 How to fit in 22 Health Public health 23 The healing power of water 25


2. Program

Functions Swim center meets climbing club 31 Programming Swim center capacity 33 Swim center 35 Climbing club 37 Hamam 39 Functions Space program 41


Intro

What’s the story?

Gellerup is not exactly known for its beautiful nature and interesting culture. On the contrary, it is a notorious neighborhood in Aarhus. Crime, social problems, endless concrete housing projects and ghetto blasters are in the foreground of the public image of Gellerup. Fortunately, that’s not all there is to it. In the center of Gellerup there is a swimming hall, carefully hidden behind tall trees and a plain facade of a barn-like building. An even better kept secret can be found behind the bars of the rear entrance of the building: Aarhus climbing club. These two functions are the subject of this project. A new masterplan has been made for Gellerup suggesting drastic changes of the area. New buildings, new jobs and new opportunities are the corner stones of the masterplan. One of the goals of the masterplan is to create new destinations,1 and that is where this project comes in. The project proposes a new building replacing the old, worn out swimming hall building. This is where Gellerup swim center joins forces with Aarhus climbing club. A swimming hall has an important local role as a social hub and a sanatorium. Gellerup has prevalent social and health problems and the swim center should directly address them and be a place of activation. The swim center has some extraordinary features that increase its strength as a destination for people in and outside of the local area: a hamam, an outdoor pool, hot water pools and a classroom pool. The climbing club has a slightly different role in the equation. It is not as generally public as a swim center. Its strength for Gellerup is its uniqueness and interestingness. It is very specific and therefore also brings a specific user group, increasing the diversity. This project summary consists of four chapters in two booklets. Location, demographics, new masterplan and social landscape are the subject of the first chapter. In the second chapter the program and capacity are discussed. The third chapter tells about the design parameters and goes into depth about the focus areas of the project. The fourth chapter briefly goes over the project proposal and how the parameters are translated into architecture.

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Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


Cowi and JWH Arkitekter, Dispositionsplan. Gellerup + Toveshøj. Ny Multifunktionel Bydel I Aarhus.

1

Project proposal Facilities

outdoor pool

hamam

training pool

hot pools

steam baths

“classroom”

playing areas

cafeteria

climbing club

Activities

socialize

swim

gymnastics

float

physical therapy

drink coffee

play

relax

massage

ice skate

women only

climb

mobility

mind

disease control

pain relief

detox

Benefits

community

Thesis project summary

Intro

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Intro

Focus areas There are six main focus areas in the project: energy, water, daylight, air, nature and people. The project is approached in a cradle to cradle manner. The book Cradle to cradle I det byggede miljø by 3XN and Vugge til vugge Danmark2 has inspired the way the focus areas are used as a driving force in the project. Throughout the project the aim has been to integrate the focus areas into the program and design of the building. In the early stages of the project the focus was largely on people and social inclusion in connection with the swim center as a public function. At the same time as the center should be a place of local importance it should be an attraction for people from the entire city. The project should take part in creating a positive image for the area. It should attract by being interesting and unique. The other focus areas are about careful use of resources. A swimming hall is in its nature a resource consuming building. The first task was to recognize the consumption and minimize its negative impact by using renewable energy sources and intelligent space planning. The next question to ask was whether the focus areas could do more than minimizing negative effect and start to enrich the building and environment around. The in depth summary of the focus areas can be found in the chapter Parameters.

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Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


Vugge til vugge Danmark and 3XN, Cradle to cradle i det byggede miljø.

2

Energy

Water

Daylight

Air

Nature

People

Thesis project summary

Intro

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7

Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


Setting

Thesis project summary

Setting

8


Location

Basics

Aarhus is Denmark’s second largest city In the metro area: 324.000 people 155.000 apartments Big goal: CO2 neutral 2030 9

Aarhus is Denmark’s second largest city with a population of 256.000 people in the urban area and 325.000 in the metropolitan area.3 Aarhus city center is by the sea from where the entire city slopes slightly upward. Important traffic veins reach into the city center, crossed by two ring roads. The inner ring road defines the city center. Gellerup is a part of Brabrand, a suburb west of Aarhus. It is surrounded by beautiful nature, which is contrasted by Gellerupparken’s large concrete

Gellerup

Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club

housing projects. Gellerup is the setting of this project. About 12% of the people of Aarhus metropolitan area have a nonDanish background. Most of them live in suburbs in the western part of the city, one of which is Gellerup.4 The future of Aarhus includes ambitious projects like a new tram system, development of the harbor area as well as the big goal of being CO2 neutral in 2030. Gellerupplanen is another large project that proposes changing Gellerup into a lively, mixed use city district.5

Aarhus C


Demographics

“Aarhus.” “Fakta og tal. Beboersammensætning og beskæftigelse (2012).”

3-5 6

What about Gellerup? In 2012 there were roughly 7.000 residents in Gellerupparken, which is Denmark’s largest housing association. The built fabric is dominated by social housing in large 4-8 story concrete and brick buildings. Roughly 80% of the residents of Gellerup (including the adjacent area Toveshøj) have an immigrant background and 51% of

adults are unemployed.6 Gellerupparken has had many social and criminal problems and is on the official list of ghettos in Denmark.7 The site for of the project is centrally located in the neighborhood.

Where are the locals of Gellerup from? Denmark 14% Turkey 7% Lebanon 33%

7.000

Kuwait 7%

Somalia 14%

people live in the area

Gellerup is socially isolated and its housing projects are

origin immigrants and refugees from nonwestern countries

age 0-17 18-64 65+

work not employed* working SU *51% of adults are not employed (25% are on a disability pension and 20% get cash assistance)

2400 units

2400 housing units in the area, 1.776 in Gellerupparken and 624 in Toveshøj

Thesis project summary

50% up to 50% of the population of Gellerup are muslim

homogeneous

80

nationalities live in the area Gellerup is a

ghetto

according to the Danish government’s list of ghettos

Gellerup is culturally rich and has activities like a circus, food clubs, dance festivals, workshops, concerts and exhibitions Setting

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Gellerup in pictures

A visual

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Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


Thesis project summary

Setting

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Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


Thesis project summary

Setting

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Gellerupplanen

What will the new masterplan do? In 2007 a new masterplan was made for Gellerup. The new masterplan proposes drastic changes of the area, which include demolishing some of the existing buildings, establishing urban streets and squares, redesigning park landscape, adding office spaces and raising new buildings in a more diverse scale.8

The goal is for the area to be an attractive urban district. There will be many functional and urban typologies, 1000 new jobs in the area and stronger public facilities. Diverse architecture will strengthen the image of the area and landmarks will be created. New destinations are proposed in the masterplan, among others a bathing facility.9

1000 new jobs in the area Aarhus tram will stop in Gellerup

go iconic! create icons and identity with strong architecture and landmarks

A street grid will be established with a new main street and urban squares like Verdenspladsen

the park

is the green heart of the neighborhood

new destinations: for instance bathhouse or hamam

hamam

Gellerup should be a multifunctional city district where it is good to live and work

human scale

groundfloors

no more no man’s land...

with shops, restaurants and cafĂŠs

public housing

now

2030

90%

30%

demolish

some housing blocks to make way for urban blocks and low-dense building projects 15

Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club

sustainable neighborhood in line with CO2 neutral Aarhus 2030


Nielsen, “Formand for Gellerup.” Cowi and JWH Arkitekter, Dispositionsplan. Gellerup + Toveshøj. Ny Multifunktionel Bydel I Aarhus.

7

8-9

swimming hall

current situation

the new street grid

the park

new buildings

multifunctional district

new destinations and landmarks

Thesis project summary

Setting

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Site and surroundings

Between city and park

Currently the swimming hall is quite isolated in the central green area of Gellerup. After the implementation of the masterplan however, it will be in the heart of the neighborhood, adjacent to a new urban street and a central square, Verdenspladsen. The square will be the neighborhood’s center of administration and activity

including a new library and culture house. re will be a tram stop at Verdenspladsen, so the site will be very well connected, not only to the main street of Gellerup but also to the rest of the city.10 Therefore the new swim center and climbing club can be an attractive point of destination for residents in the entire Aarhus area.

The site has a clear urban side and good access to the park. This contrast between city and park is an important factor in the project.

hill swim

The park around the swimming hall, (180 view, looking north).

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Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


Cowi and JWH Arkitekter, Dispositionsplan. Gellerup + Toveshøj. Ny Multifunktionel Bydel I Aarhus.

10

new square

hill

et a i n s t re new m

swim

Aerial of the current situation with the new masterplan overlaid in white.

Thesis project summary

Setting

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19

Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


Thesis project summary

Setting

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Cultural and social landscape

Social sustainability The physical environment directly forms our behavior, thinking patterns and our physical and emotional experiences. It affects us with and without our awareness.11 Social non-sustainability The industrialization brought opportunities to build fast and larger than before, which resulted in an unwanted scale jump and homogeneous building projects that had an unidentifiable international appearance. The modernistic idea of clean and airy apartments for the workers moved the apartments out of the cities, resulting in housing projects that are isolated, both in a social and urban sense. A boom in public housing in 1960-1980 resulted in 600.000 apartments built in Denmark in the period.12 Gellerup is one of descendants of this period. Nine challenges the isolated housing areas often have in common: 1. The area encloses itself 2. The area lacks a center and hierarchy 3. The architecture lacks identity 4. The area has a negative image 5. A poor connection between inside and outside 6. The apartments are alike and cannot be adapted to the individual resident 7. The buildings lack architectural detailing 8. There is a lack of functions and destinations 9. Expensive renovations take place on the wrong grounds without solving problems13 Monotypology, monofunctionality and too large scale are common denominators.14 These problems can easily be seen in Gellerup.

Social sustainability Social sustainability is when architecture and planning gives people good conditions to achieve ownership and attachment, makes movement and orientation easy, creates diverse experiences and sensual stimulation, creates clarity for visitors and residents, invites people to linger outside and gives opportunities for meetings to happen. Social sustainability promotes peaceful, secure and easy coexistence.15 Socially sustainable architecture and planning supports the creation of identity and sense of place, is constructed in a human scale, and is constructed in a way that gives people good conditions to build themselves into their home and experience themselves as a part of the local community.16 Ingrid Gehl’s list of human being’s basic living needs from 1971: 1. Need for contact - to look at, listen to and talk to others, to do something together with others 2. Need for isolation: to withdraw from others and outer disruptions 3. Need for experience: to see, hear, learn and realize 4. Need for expression: to be active, to create, to accomplish something 5. Need for play 6. Need for structuring: to be able to orient, to be able to place one’s belongings in the world according to oneself 7. Need for identification: to unite oneself with the surroundings 8. Need for aesthetics: to be influenced by something the observer defines as beautiful17 Social sustainability demands careful design of the physical environment and social infrastructure.18

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Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


Bjørn, “Socialt bæredygtigt byggery & by - Forsøg på en definition.” “Fakta og tal. Beboersammensætning og beskæftigelse (2012).” 21 Danmark and Sundhedsstyrelsen, Fysisk aktivitet og evidens. 22 “Fakta og tal. Beboersammensætning og beskæftigelse (2012).” 23 “Aktiviteter I Gellerupbadet.” 24 Bjørn, “Socialt bæredygtigt byggery & by - Forsøg på en definition.” 11-18

How to fit in The challenge Gellerup is a complex society suffering from isolation and homogeneity. The drastic changes of the area proposed in the new masterplan undeniably address the problem by introducing new typologies, architecturally and functionally. A public project like a new swim center should be a part of the change. The project should directly aim to help with the social problems. The planning and architecture will not be the only change in Gellerup, the social system also needs to wade deep waters to reach the masterplan’s goals.

19-20

Half of the adults in the area do not work.19 The lack of people’s everyday activity is a big problem. That problem in itself can be twisted to an opportunity. Gellerup is not an empty suburb. There are very many people in the area in the daytime even though currently there aren’t jobs in the area. That is a potential but there is need for activation. The group of people not working divides into people who are unemployed and people who are on a disability pension.20 The latter group has defined physical problems but both groups can suffer from physical and mental problems for numerous reasons, one of which is inactivity.21 A swimming hall is a place that can have varying user groups differentiating with time of day. In office hours the swimming hall can offer activities for healing and training, which would especially benefit the local community. That is not to say that it should not be open to all but weekends and evenings have a more commercial value attracting people in their free time. In a neighborhood where up to 50% of the residents are Muslim22 it needs to be taken into account that due to cultural customs about nudity a conventional mixed gender swim center will not be used by Muslim women. In order for the swim center to be a place of public health where everyone is welcome this has to be taken into consideration. Currently there is a female swimming session once a week in the Gellerup swimming hall.23 This will be taken further with an enclosed “classroom” pool that can by used for such sessions as well as other activities.

”The human being’s basic pleasures are not sun, air and green trees, but to be able to build up, utilize and use their creative power and ability for themselves and their surroundings.” Asger Jorn, Arkitekten 194724*

Achieving social sustainability is an important goal of the project. The points on social sustainability described to the left are helpful guidelines in creating a project that benefits the community, both locally and by inviting more people into the community. Thesis project summary

Setting

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Health

Public health Public health in Denmark Lifestyle illnesses are a great public health risk. One of them is physical inactivity, which is a large problem in Denmark, as well as in other countries. Physical inactivity is the cause of 7-8% of all deaths in Denmark. It is the cause of 100.000 hospital admittances, three million sick days and 3000 million kr. extra expenses in the health care system per year.25 Physical activity can prevent circulatory diseases, stress, muscle and skeletal diseases, some forms of cancer, mental illnesses and joint illnesses. People who are physically active are generally happier, have more energy, better social wellbeing, more self-confidence and are more self-efficient.26 Research shows that the Danish population is generally becoming more active. Looking closer it shows that the active are becoming more active and the inactive are becoming less active.27

Local perspective A key public problem in Gellerup is that only half of the adult population is active in a job or education on daily basis. The other half gets cash assistance (20%) or is on a disability pension (25%).28 There is a clear connection between inactivity in the job market and physical inactivity. According to the Danish Health and Medicine Authority it is a fact that physical inactivity is more common among people who are unemployed, poor, uneducated, obese and among immigrants. Unemployment, health and mental problems are the most actual reasons for inactivity in Gellerup. Many people have not managed to integrate into the Danish language and culture. Many people have suffered through abuse and trauma and many people suffer from psychiatric illnesses. 29 Inactivity can affect mental health and vice versa. Unemployment is a great stress factor. Stress can have many physical symptoms like insomnia, stomach pains, back and headaches, nausea and general discomfort.30 Mental illnesses were the reason for almost half of all new cases of disability pension in Denmark in 2008.31 Training and being in water has various health benefits, both physical and mental, which will be elaborated on hereafter.

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Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


Danmark and Sundhedsstyrelsen, Fysisk aktivitet og evidens. “Fakta og tal. Beboersammensætning og beskæftigelse (2012).” 30 “Arbejdsløse stresser mest.” 31 Psykisk sygdom og arbejdsmarkedet. 25-28

29

work inactivity in Denmark

1/12

Physical inactivity is the cause of 7-8% of all deaths in Denmark

100.000

hospital admittances a year in Denmark are caused by physical inactivity

3000 million kr.

extra expenses in the Danish health care system every year are caused by physical inactivity

3.000.000 sick days a year in Denmark are caused by physical inactivity

work inactivity in Gellerup

disability pension (4%) cash assistance (3%)

disability pension (25%) cash assistance (20%) other (6%)

Physical inactivity is most common among people who are unemployed, uneducated, obese, poor and immigrants.

In Gellerup many people suffer from psychiatric illnesses, trauma and abuse.

Stress

can cause insomnia and physical illnesses. Unemployment is one great stress factor.

physical activity is fantastic disease control

Physical activity can prevent heart, muscle, joint, mental and skeletal diseases and some forms of cancer.

Thesis project summary

people who are physically active are happier and have more energy

energy

happy

Setting

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Health

The healing power of water Exercise

Swimming

Exercising in water soothes pain, relaxes muscles, improves circulation and increases flexibility.

is an aerobic exercise that lowers the risk of diabetes and heart disease and improves cholesterol levels.

Exercising in water is great for everyone, and especially people...

...with joint pain

...who are obese

...with disabilities

...who are pregnant

The body becomes lighter in water, it is therefore optimal for people with lowered mobility to train in water.

Swimming is a combination of ...is great for people with arthritis, stretching, breathing and strength disabilities, MS, brain or spinal cord exercise. It tones the whole body injuries, pregnant women or those and burns a lot of calories.32 who are overweight.35 36 Swimming is an aerobic exercise ...has a stimulating and that lowers the risk of diabetes strengthening effect on babies’ and heart disease and improves motor development.37 floating is 33 cholesterol levels. ...benefits sufferers of asthma due the moist air they breathe while great tofor exercising.38 The body becomes lighter in water, learningWater andgymnastics, maternity yoga, which makes it optimal for people with lowered mobility and stiff joints baby swimming; floating and creativity or muscles to train in water. rehabilitation training are some good examples of water activities. Exercising in water: floatation helps to: ...soothes pain, relaxes muscles, Water relieves stress and improves improves circulation and increases well-being, whether people are z flexibility.34 soaking, floating zor swimming in it.39 40

floating relaxes the entire body

zero gravity

z

theta brainwaves

25

...relieve stress

...improve sleep

...balance metabolism

Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


Franco, “10 HEALTH BENEFITS OF SWIMMING.” CDC-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Health Benefits of Water-Based Exercise.” 34 “Dive in! Aquatic Therapy for People With Disabilities.” 35 Franco, “10 HEALTH BENEFITS OF SWIMMING.” 36 “Dive in! Aquatic Therapy for People With Disabilities.” 37 Hrefna Kristmannsdóttir and Sigríður Halldórsdóttir, Heitt vatn og heilbrigði. Heilsufarsáhrif heitavatnsnotkunar á Íslandi.

Franco, “10 HEALTH BENEFITS OF SWIMMING.” “Why Float?”. CDC-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Health Benefits of Water-Based Exercise.” 41-44 Hrefna Kristmannsdóttir and Sigríður Halldórsdóttir, Heitt vatn og heilbrigði. Heilsufarsáhrif heitavatnsnotkunar á Íslandi. 45 David Sobel, “Some like It Hot. Health Benefits of Saunas.”

32

38

33

39 40

Heat

Bathing in hot water or steam...

...flushes the skin of toxins

z ...sooths pain

zz

...improves ...increases mobility sleep

The health benefits of water exercise have been previously described. Adding hot water to the mix multiplies the benefits. Bathing in hot water: ...stimulates the skin and flushes it of bacteria and chemicals. This decreases the spreading of contaminating diseases. ...has a positive impact on mental health.41 ...has a good effect on the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. The body becomes balanced and

Thesis project summary

natural pain killer

...improves ...helps the mental body fight health disease

soaked in hot water the body produces hormones in the blood that induce a morphine-like reaction

more able to self-heal.42 ...soothes pain and improves mobility, strength and endurance.43 ...improves quality of sleep and decreases the need for pain, antiinflammatory, arthritis and sleep medication. Soaked in hot water the body produces hormones in the blood that induce a morphine-like reaction.44 Saunas and steam baths have similar effects on the body as the hot water.45

Setting

26


Exercising in water is great for everyone, Health and especially people...

The healing power of water ...with joint pain

...who are obese

Floatation

...with disabilities

zero gravity

...who are pregnant

floating is great for learning and creativity

The body becomes lighter in water, it is therefore optimal for people with lowered mobility to train in water.

floating relaxes the entire body

floatation helps to: z theta brainwaves

...relieve stress

zz

...improve sleep

...balance metabolism

Floatation is a very familiar but at the same time not so commonly practiced activity.

before falling asleep but people only enjoy this blissful feeling for a moment on every day basis.47

Floatation liberates the body from gravity. The central nervous system, muscles and the spine carry most of the body’s weight but are freed while floating. This is a unique bodily state as the back otherwise never gets complete rest, not even while sleeping. When the body is liberated from its own weight, metabolism can take place without effort. The result is that an hour of floating is as gratifying as four hours of sleep.46

Floatation: ...releases stress. ...increases creativity ...decreases learning difficulties ...increases concentration ...improves sleep and helps or cures chronic fatigue ...balances the body’s metabolism ...balances the activity of the right and left cerebral hemispheres48

While floating people can reach a Theta brainwave stage. This stage is associated with meditation and it takes a lot of practice and discipline to reach it. Reaching it by floating is more easily achievable. This is a stage the brain also reaches right

27

Floatation can reach our deepest muscles and release pain in joints, back and neck.49 It is a very simple activity that demands almost nothing from the person floating, but produces great physical benefits.

Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


Kristjánsdóttir, “Float.”

46-49

Training and being in water, especially warm water, has various benefits that directly address some of the key public health problems in Denmark, and especially in Gellerup: physical inactivity and mental health issues.

Thesis project summary

Setting

28


29

Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


Program

Thesis project summary

Program

30


Functions

Swim center meets climbing club The swim center and climbing club now coexist in the existing swimming hall building without interaction. The swim center and climbing club now coexist in the existing swimming hall building without interaction. The climbing club moved into a part of Gellerup swimming hall in 2008 and built climbing structures in and around the former diving pool that had been out of use for five years.50 The swimming hall and climbing club are completely closed off from one another. Aarhus commune runs the swimming hall51 and has a rental agreement with Aarhus climbing club.52 A swim center is a well-known function that is familiar to most people. A climbing club is a generally less known and less public function. It is a membership sports club whereas the swimming hall is a drop-in public function that combines sports, culture and leisure. The difference between the functions reflects the way they are

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represented in the project. The swim center is the main public attractor but the climbing club adds an interesting appeal. The functions compliment one another: By sharing a building with the climbing club the swim center’s users get familiarized and in touch with the climbing club in a way they otherwise would not. This can bring the climbing club more users and more public recognition. The climbing club on the other hand has a more specific user group that brings a new layer of diversity to the mix. Aarhus climbing club is a membership club,53 which means many returning guests that are invested in and responsible for the facility. The two functions share a reception and changing rooms, saving space and operational costs. The sharing could also bring benefits to the climbers, giving them access to the swimming hall.

Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


Lundgaard, “Beboernes hus. Nyt videns- og kulturhus i Gellerup.” Dahl, Gellerupbadet. 52-53 Ørum-Petersen, Aarhus climbing club. 50

51

Thesis project summary

Program

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Programming

Swim center capacity

Swimming in Aarhus Aarhus has four public swimming pools, including Gellerupbadet, as well as two beach baths.54 The swimming pools are indoors and mainly intended for swimming, training and playing. There is a program in Aarhus called ‘By i bevægelse’ which among other activities offers baby swimming and water gymnastics lessons.55 It is the intention to welcome these activities in the project and keep strengthening the program. The AGF swimming club also trains in the Gellerup swimming hall.56 While keeping these existing functions the new facility should provide a different experience with additional features: a hamam, hot pools and outdoor area. The aim for the outdoor area is to be a summer area for play, action and relaxation. The warm water pools should be open all year around and be more focused on the experience of bathing and unwinding as well as the various health benefits of the warm water. The hamam will be accessed at an additional charge but will be

well connected with the rest of the facility, sharing the same basic functions like changing rooms. Capacity The swim center should serve the whole Aarhus area. The dimensions of the program are influenced by existing facilities of Gellerup swimming hall as well as a competition held in Reykjavík in 2013. The competition was for an addition of Reykjavík’s city center swimming hall.57 The swimming hall serves the city center as a local neighborhood as well as the rest of the city and tourist industry. It has slightly bigger capacities, but is not too big to be used as a reference. The two are compared on the following spread. The Gellerup swimming hall is now approximately 2900m2 58 The current facility is already large and the proposal is rather to tweak and enrich its functions than make it bigger. The existing swimming pool is for instance very big, and in this project a smaller swimming pool is

46-49 Hrefna Kristmannsdóttir and Sigríður Halldórsdóttir, Heitt Vatn Og Heilbrigði. Heilsufarsáhrif Heitavatnsnotkunar Á Íslandi. 50 David Sobel, “Some like It Hot. Health Benefits of Saunas.” 51-54 Kristjánsdóttir, “Float.” 55 “Svømmehaller Og Havbade.” 56 “By I Bevægelse.” 57 “Aktiviteter I Gellerupbadet.” 58 Umhverfis- og skipulagssvið Reykjavíkurborgar and Íþrótta- og tómstundasvið Reykjavíkurborgar, Sundhöll

proposed, saving cubic meters of water for other types of pools. When looking at the densification proposed in Gellerupplanen as well as the fact that this facility should appeal to the greater Aarhus area it is rational to enlarge the program capacity. The biggest addition is the outdoor pool and the functional addition of the hamam and various pool functions. A part of Gellerupbadet was closed in 2004, the diving pool. This part now houses the climbing club. The reason it closed was the high renovation costs but also that it was not used enough to rationalize the renovation.59 Based on this it can be assumed that the original facility was too big. Therefore the size of the program is not much bigger than the current one but it has more capabilities. The functional difference is the biggest change.

The Gellerup swim center will serve the greater Aarhus area. The approach is to attract more users with a more varied experience instead of expanding in square meters.

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Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


“Svømmehaller og havbade.” “By i bevægelse.” “Aktiviteter i Gellerupbadet.” 57 Umhverfis- og skipulagssvið Reykjavíkurborgar and Íþrótta- og tómstundasvið Reykjavíkurborgar, Sundhöll Reykjavíkur. Hönnunarsamkeppni um viðbyggingu og 54 55 56

útisundlaug. Keppnislýsing. K. Blach Petersens Tegnestue, “Drawings of Gellerupbadet.” 59 Lundgaard, “Beboernes hus. Nyt videns- og kulturhus i Gellerup.” 58

In comparison: Aarhus

Reykjavík

4

17

324.000 residents

202.000 residents

81.000

11.832

Gellerup

Reykjavík

24.000

144.000

2.000

12.000

size 2.870m2

size 2.662 m2

public public swimming swimming halls halls

in the metroarea

people per pool

swimming hall

yearly users

monthly users

in the metroarea

people per pool

swimming hall

yearly users

monthly users

Gellerup swimming hall could accomodate 6 times more guests without expanding the building’s size.

Thesis project summary

Program

34


Programming

Swim center The proportions of the program are based on Gellerup’s existing swimming hall as well as a competition brief of a swimming hall in Reykjavík held in 2013. The proportions and capacity of the two are corresponding.

Gellerup swimming hall current situation main floor

5

functions scheme

1. family room 135m2

1

2. changing room 154m2

3. changing room 156m2

4. reception + administration 136m2

5. ventilation 74m2

8 7

9

4

hallways/walls/pool area etc. 1200m2

basement 9. baby pool 67m2 8. children’s pool 166m2 7. 25m swimming pool 400m2

2

3

6

Area 2.870m2

35

Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club

6. tech 80m2


Reykjavík swimming hall competition winning entry upper floor

addition scheme

existing

1. entry area 110m2

6. pool facilities 120m2

addition

1

2. administration 110m2

7. tech 200m2

8. swimming pool 25m 313m2

2

3. changing room 140m2

4. outdoor changing 40m2

5. outdoor changing 40m2

walls + circulation 200m2

9. slide 25m2

10. hot 35m2

steam12. steam 22m2

13. children’s 35m2

11. hot

lower floor outside existing

6

7

9 13

Area ≈ 3.500m2

addition

10

8

3 4

11

Current size 2.662 m2

4

Thesis project summary

Program

36


Programming

Climbing club The proportion of the climbing club is approximately double the size of what it is today, based on the growing number of users and popularity of the club.

Aarhus climbing club current situation main floor

4

functions scheme

1. top rope walls ≈200m2

2. bouldring ≈65m2

4. office 25m2

5. warmup 70m2

6. café/lounge 50m2

1 5

3. bouldring ≈50m2

2 6

walls/storage /circulation ≈170m2

3

Aarhus climbing club Aarhus climbing club was established in 1993 and moved into new facilities in Gellerup in 2008.60 It is a non-profit membership organization. The club has grown fast and the number of members has doubled in just a few years. The club has nearly 700 members.61 The existing facilities are already too small, and twice as much space is needed to be able to accommodate all the members.62

37

Programming The climbing club is built up on voluntary work and initiatives. The club is a community and therefore social functions where the climbers can relax, meet, plan and share experiences are important. In comparison to Aarhus climbing club’s current facilities the program has been doubled, as needed, with some additional features. Notes from a recent vision day at the club have also been taken into account when creating the program.63

Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club

Area 620m2


60

“Om klubben | Århus Klatreklub.” Ørum-Petersen, Aarhus climbing club. Aarhus klatreklub, “Visionsdag notater.”

61-62 63

Thesis project summary

Program

38


Programming

Hamam

The hamam is one of the wow-factors of the project, a reason why people come all the way to Gellerup for the swim center. At the same time it is a familiar place for people from the Middle East, that is, half the residents of Gellerup. But what is it?

General A hamam is a bathhouse where the main ingredient is steam. The body is gradually heated up with steam and purified via perspiration and a full body scrub. The hamam is often associated with Turkey and called Turkish bath but it is a phenomenon spread over the entire Middle East as well as Morocco.64 The word hamam means a bathroom or public bath place. It can therefore refer to all types of baths.65

Architecture The hamam has its roots from ancient Roman baths but was soon adjusted to the Islamic culture. The architecture and functionality is similar to Roman baths and the steam and ritual cleansing is derived from a Central Asian Turkic tradition.66 The dome of the main bath characterizes the architecture with its scattered light input from small openings in the ceiling. Gendered space Hamams are generally gender separate. They either have specific men and women sections or varying opening hours by gender.67

Three rooms The hamam is divided into three rooms. The first is the cold entrance and changing room. Next comes the warm room where the skin is warmed and detoxified by perspiration. The third is the hot room. This is the main room with the characteristic domed ceiling. Bathers lie on a marble platform in the center and get a purifying scrub and eventually a massage. The hot room also has niches with fountains in the corners for more privacy. After that the bathers return to the cold room with a stop in the temperate room for a wash. Back in the cold room guests relax, have a refreshment and prepare to return to the city again.68

The essential ingredients in a hamam are the three rooms: cold, warm and hot. The hot room is the main room and is characterized by a dome with ravishing diffused light led in through the ceiling.

39

Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


“Turkish Bath.” Akdag, Tyrkisk badekultur. “Turkish Bath.” 69 Falch Christiansen, Redegjørelse. Byrumsfornyelse med tyrkisk bad på Nørrebro torv. 70 Hult, “Hamam remix. Turkiskt bad i Göteborg.” 64-66 67

Cases Sultana Haseki Hürrem, Istanbul

68

Camberlitas, Istanbul

Interpretation

The Sultana Haseki hamam and the Camberlitas hamam are both in Istanbul and have similar structure. 1. Cold room. The preparation room where one starts by dressing and then ends up again after the bathing and prepares to go out again. Normal room temperature. 2. Temperate room. A buffer zone between hot and cold that can include running water for washing and even room for massage. 3040°C 3. Hot room. The main bathing room with a large marble podium in the middle and niches for more privacy. The domed ceiling has small openings letting diffused light into the room. This is the room where visitors get scrubbed and massaged and thereafter return to the cold room. 40-50°C69 70

Thesis project summary

Program

40


Functions

Space program Swim center The swimming pool 250m2 4 lane training pool Temp: 27°C The action pool 120m2 Pool for playing and action as well as a slide landing pool. Anything goes in this one. Temp: 30°C The baby pool 60m2 Small and shallow warmed pool for the little ones and their parents. Temp: 36°C The “hot pots” 2x10m2 Two hot sitting pools for softening muscles and mind. Temp: 38-40°C The classroom pool 120m2 Can be closed completely off. Different classes and activities take place here following a schedule, similar to a gym hall. Activities like baby swimming, water gymnastics, women only sessions, and rehabilition training. Temp: ± 34°C, adjustable

Climbing club Hamam 100m2 The hamam is a hot water vapour bath with different temperatures and experiences. More information in the hamam chapter. Temp: varies Sauna 30m2 A finnish sauna connected to the outdoors with an opportunity to go outside and cool down. Temp: varies Natural outdoor pool 400m2 Biologically purified outdoor pool, not heated up. Those courageous enough can swim in it in the wintertime and when it freezes over it will be used for ice-skating. A purification pool with plants will be adjacent to the pool. Temp: max. 23°C Administration 130m2 Offices, staff rooms, locker rooms, wc Pool service spaces 100m2 Medical, storage, laundry, cleaning depot, lifeguard

Top rope walls 400m2 The main climbing space with high walls for training and competing.

Club spaces 110m2 Lounge, kitchen/café, wc. Room for hanging out, movie nights, club meetings etc.

Bouldering walls 200m2 Bouldering is climbing without a rope. The walls are lower than the rope climbing walls and a security mat is placed underneath.

Administration 50m2 Office and large meeting room.

Warm-up/Cool-down 170m2 Warm up bouldring walls, medical, gym equipment, stretch etc.

Storage 70m2 Lockers and storage for climbing equipment.

Common spaces Changing rooms 2x220m2 Dressing area (80 lockers), private rooms for people with disabilities, drying area, showers, wc

Entry area 90m2 Reception, wc, cafeteria

Tech spaces Tecnical basement 200m2 Water treatment, hot water tanks, rainwater tanks, ventilation, electricity, storage

Additional technical equipment is spread around the building, especially utilizing the voids behind the climbing walls

Functions area ≈ 3000m2 41

Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


warm-up/ cool-down 170m2 club spaces 110m2

administration 50m2

top rope 400m2

bouldering 200m2 storage 70m2

entrance space 90m2

pool service spaces 100m2

administration 130m2

tech 200m2

changing room 220m2

changing room 220m2

hot 10m2 swimming pool 250m2

action pool 120m2

hot 10m2

classroom pool 120m2

baby pool 60m2 pool area 765m2

hamam 100m2 sauna 30m2

natural outdoor pool 400m2

Thesis project summary

Program

42


43

Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club


Thesis project summary

Program

44


Auรฐur Hreiรฐarsdรณttir http://audur.me 2014

Gellerup swim center meets Aarhus climbing club  

Redegørelse pt. 1

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