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THE RIGHTS AND CLIMATE CHANGE Taming the Tiger Trade The Insidious Trade that is Turning Asia’s Tigers into Skin and Bone Pooling Financial Resources Entrepreneurs and the Landscape Enzzo Barrena Realities of Nature and the Human Body

No 11 / SPRING 2013


CONTENTS Climate Change 4... Contributors The People Who Made this Issue

14... The Antarctic Ocean

Sustainable Development 64... Visual Pollution


Environment & Art

98... A historic Year for Iconic Species

118... Enzzo Barrena Realities of Nature and the Human Body

34... The Rights and 6... Foreword Cathy Chami Tyan 8... Opinion Sustainable Energy

Climate Connection Towards a Human Rights-Based Approach to Climate Change

10... BookReviews Environment The Books We Love & Business to Read 48... Personal 12... Short News Conviction in Business Configuring a Lifestyle 54... Pooling Financial Resources Entrepreneurs and the Landscape

74... A pioneer Project Launches Quarry Restoration in Lebanon A Collaborative Success Story

104... Taming the Tiger Trade The Insidious Trade that is Turning Asia’s Tigers into Skin and Bone

Around the World in Photos

110... Antimony Mining Threat

82... Roots Reggae In Gambia

114... Robinia Pseudo Acacia The Magic Tree

128... Forestronika Festival, The Other Side Experience Sustainability Through Music & Art in the Scenic Mountains of Lebanon 132... Dihzahyners Changing the Cityscape Through Arts Eco-Living 142... Environmental Protection in Lebanon Myth or Reality? 144... Genetically Modified Foods Eco-Tourism 147... The Nile Breeze Felucca

Green Second. Photography Enzzo Barrena

152... URL page

Chairman, Andrea Tucci, Editorial Director, Cathy Chami Tyan, Editorial Project Coordinator, Mona Samari, Editing, Hala Habib Concept & Design, RAIDY | Photography, Adam Oswell, Alyssa Johl, Aude-Emilie Dorion, Bob Zuur, Dan Magraw, David Lawson, Enzzo Barrena, Gray Robertson, Klein and Hubert, Nathalie Rosa Bucher, Paul Williams, P.Tansom,, WE group Sales and Advertisements, Vanessa AbdelAhad,, Informations, Subscriptions,, P.O.Box 1396 Beit Mery, Lebanon Printing, RAIDY | Publisher, World Environment Group Copyright, The articles become part of the magazine’s archives. Further publishings on other issues must be authorized by the editor following the author’s consent ISSN 17379229

WORLD ENVIRONMENT MAGAZINE’s policy is to use papers that are wood free, renewable, recyclable and from sustainable sources. In addition, all waste is sent for recycling. WORLD ENVIRONMENT MAGAZINE is available online at 2

CONTRIBUTORS Marcos Orellana is a Senior Attorney at the Center for International Environmental Law, Director of its Environmental Health Program and Adjunct Professor at the American University Washington College of Law. At CIEL Dr Orellana has worked with NGOs and local communities worldwide to strengthen and apply tools for global environmental justice, including with respect to chemicals and waste, oceans and biodiversity, and trade and investment.

Sam Ghauch is an Engineer, Entrepreneur, and Senior Energy Consultant. He is a holder of a Master’s Degree in Industrial Systems Engineering and Management from the University of Cambridge. He is the founder and interim CEO of Senerg sarl; an energy service company having the sole purpose of saving energy and the environment. Sam has an unquenchable thirst for the betterment of society to embrace sustainable energy and environmental awareness.

Sherine Boueiz is a dynamic international professional with a keen interest in Wellbeing and a passion for Nature. A Psychologist by background, she has worked for multinationals in the United Kingdom and in the Middle East on various Corporate Communications projects, such as Corporate Social Responsibility and development. She is also devoted to activities involving health and relaxation therapies, like TaijiQuan or Natural treatments, all with the aim of improving the quality of life.

Sarah Stoner (report author) works as the Tiger Trade Data Specialist WWF Tiger Alive Initiative and TRAFFIC based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sarah originates from a law enforcement background where she previously worked as an Intelligence Analyst with Greater Manchester Police working within the Force Intelligence Bureau, then more recently with the UK National Wildlife Crime Unit based in Scotland. Sarah is currently compiling a comprehensive database which aims to increase insight of transboundary tiger killing and trade and to catalyse law enforcement efforts across Asia.

Natalia Pervushina (report co-author) is working as a Tiger Trade Programme Leader for WWF Tiger Alive Initiative and TRAFFIC based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Natalia has an expertise in wildlife trade issues, customs regulations and environmental policy related to trade in endangered animals and plants. She has been working as a Chief Customs Officer in the Russian Customs as well as TRAFFIC programme officer based in the Russian Far East in Vladivostok. Natalia is pursuing her Phd at the Central European University in Budapest, Hungary, specializing on the topic of Environmental Security in the Amur-Heilong River Basin and transborder Russian-Chinese ecological issues. 4

Zeina Ghossoub el-Aswad started her carreer as a clinical dietitian twenty years ago, she has since trained as a wellness executive and life coach. She guides individuals, publishes books and numerous articles, gives seminars and lectures, appears on national and international television shows, owns and operates a premier wellness center, and is completing her doctoral studies in counseling. She is a member of the International Coaching Federation and is becoming a master’s wellness coach. She is the highest credentialed coach in the Middle East and is affiliated with world renowned coaches like Dr. Cathy Greenberg. She brings years of experience and a wealth of unsurpassed knowledge in wellness coaching.

Nathalie Rosa Bucher is a freelance journalist and world traveler, of French and German origins. She has set her bags in Lebanon and has become passionate of Lebanese culture and way of life. She is also a keen believer in the urgent need of renewable energy. She is currently collaborating with MIRROS Communication & Media Services on many topics amongst them environment and socio-economy.

Mia Ayoub Livingston is a postgraduate student from the University of Auckland Business School in New Zealand, Mia Ayoub has a background in Marketing and Management, with a strong focus on environmental sustainability through business practices. A New Zealander/Egyptian, she is a world traveler and has great passion for the outdoors, the environment and immersing herself in different cultures. She participates in various charity events for street children in Cairo and partakes in the organisation of events supporting Earth Day. Based in El Gouna on the Red Sea in Egypt, Mia is a freelance writer and runs a small family business.

Azza Turki was selected from a pool of candidates by WE magazine to attend and cover the CITES meeting in Bangkok as part of the Tunisia Environment Reporting Network Grant, which gives the opportunity for Tunisian journalists to branch out into environment reporting. In Tunisia, Azza is the editor of the Politics and Society pages of an influential publication called Réalités - a weekly Tunisian news magazine.

Enzzo Barrena a self-taught artist from Peru, Enzzo Barrena had only recently discovered the means by which to express his passion for art. Enzzo’s art is unique. It does not portray life as we see it, he manipulates images to portray life as we feel it to transmit his senses in ways that are identifiable in humans such as sadness, heartbreak, pain, loneliness, etc.

Hala Habib was born and raised in Nigeria. She studied Communication Media and Business Management at BUC and has since worked in the field of communication. She has established and headed as editor-in-chief several English-language magazines and contributes and edits magazines from different fields. She worked at the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) from 2003 till 2010 as Communication Officer and was in charge of a TV program for youth called SAWTNA.

Bob Zuur is a marine biologist and a Marine Advocate for WWF-NZ (Worldwide Fund for Nature). In 1977 he spent three months in a tent on the ice near White Island, south of Scott Base, studying the growth of fish living under the ice. Ever since, he’s wanted to champion and protect this magical and precious place. He’s worked with the Ministry for the Environment, Department of Conservation, Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Fisheries. This included work on the effects of fishing on marine mammals and seabirds, Antarctic policy, and heady stuff such as climate change and oceans governance. His current work with WWF focuses on fisheries, offshore oil exploration and seabed mining, and on increasing protected areas in our marine environment. Bob is a skilled nature and event photographer and is a passionate windsurfer and motorcyclist.

Aude Emilie Dorion is a freelance phoographer and writer. She is an associate Features Editor at Light and Composition magazine at parisian office, where she edits and writes feature articles. Graduated in history of art and theater at la Sorbonne University and studied photography at INAsup (National Institute of Multimedia). Sensitive to the effect of globalization on modern cultures and the inequity of the world’s economic development, tensions and transformations are at the heart of her creative work. In the permanent flux of contemporary societies, her work oscillates between “l’ici et l’ailleurs”, yesterday and today, local and international, private and public. Merging art and social justice, Aude-Emilie Dorion gives a particular attention to the urban environment and the left behind communities. She works in the fields of fine art, journalism, editorial, and commercial photography.

Blair Palese is the Communications Advisor for the global Antarctic Ocean Alliance (AOA), working to establish the world’s largest network of marine reserves in the waters around Antarctica. Ms. Palese has worked as editor-in-chief of Greenpages Magazine and has been a contributing writer of range of international publications. She has worked with a large number of environmental organizations primarily on oceans and climate change issues Greenpeace International, US, Australia and China, Australia, the Pew Environment Group and The Climate Group. In the 1990s, Blair was head of PR for The Body Shop globally based in the UK. In 1996, she addressed the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development in New York on the role of public communication in addressing global environmental problems.

Elias Chnais is an environmentalist with a background in agricultural engineering. For the past six years, thanks to his work at AFDC, Elias worked on forest management strategies that cater for the needs of the environment, especially the respect of native biodiversity, as well as for the hopes and aspirations of the rural communities living near these precious forests. In addition, Elias has worked on the restoration of several degraded landscapes throughout Lebanon and is a co-author of two environmental books published between 2011 and 2013.

Mona Samari Originally Tunisian, and born in London, Mona comes from a human rights and environment protection background, with over ten years experience as a campaigns and communications professional. Over the years, Mona has worked on a number of human right campaigns with a special focus on access to information, freedom of expression and whistleblower protection. As part of the International Partnership Group for Azerbaijan, Mona worked on the release of imprisoned Azeri journalist Eynulla Fattulayev, who was awarded the 2012 UNESCO Press Freedom Prize. More recently, Mona established the Middle East Office of ARTICLE 19 in Tunisia and organized workshops for journalists in rural areas of Tunisia on how to guarantee freedom of expression in the new constitution. In addition to human rights work, Mona has been working on major marine conservation campaigns since 2007, with a special focus on commercial endangered species conservation in European waters and more recently, Antarctic ocean conservation campaigns. Mona was also involved in the launch of the Arab Youth Climate Movement in 2012. In her spare time, Mona curates art exhibitions in London.


Spring - Summer 2013

FOREWORD Just as Tunisia was at the forefront of the Arab uprisings, it is also leading the way in a new green revolution that is now brewing in the region, with the establishment of a network of environment journalists. WE Magazine is very proud to announce that we have received a grant from Internews Europe and the Earth Journalism Network to set up the Tunisian Environment Reporting Network (TERN). As part of the first activity of this project, we selected a Tunisian journalist to attend the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) in Bangkok. You can read the report from Azza Turki in this issue. This was the first time that a Tunisian journalist had been given the opportunity to cover CITES since the resolution was adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of IUCN (The World Conservation Union). In the next edition of WE, we will report back from the first TERN workshop to be held in Tunis and will feature articles from members of the network. On a more global note, climate change is the biggest issue facing the planet. According to scientists, rising temperatures caused by increased greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation and human activities are to blame. Climate change affects animal species, causes more frequent droughts and storms, raises sea levels, and damages precious ecosystems. These changes are already under way around the world, which is clear from the drastic changes in weather conditions, and increase in natural disasters. As the planet gets warmer, parts of the Antarctic are warming faster than the global average. In the section dedicated to the Antarctic, Blair Palese from the Antarctic Ocean Alliance describes this fragile region, as one, which constitutes approximately 10% of the world’s seas, while to date, only 2% of the world’s oceans are strictly protected and considered as marine reserves. With only a few months to go before the next CCAMLR meeting in July at Bremerhaven, Germany, Non Governmental Organizations are increasing pressure for the protection of the most intact marine ecosystems left on our planet, requesting more public support and awareness to ensure success, particularly in critical countries. Through the lens of Bob Zuur, this issue takes us for the second time deep into the beauty of the Antarctic Ocean to expose problems of climate change in this part of the world. Climate change not only affects animal species but it is also creating immense problems with entire populations being displaced. Carlos Orallena explains the need to protect the rights of people in the fight against climate change. Finally, the choice of our cover from Enzzo Barrena's artwork depicts humanity’s sad future if the world does not react rapidly to the impacts of climate change by stopping deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions. Enzzo eloquently sums it all up, “Nature is everything. It is the beginning and the end there is no humanity without nature”. - Cathy Chami Tyan, Chief editor 6

pinion SUSTAINABLE ENERGY In the search of a sustainable future, we must not forget that in the beginning was the ‘Energy’ and in the end nothing will be left but the ‘Energy’. As above so below, as sideways so within, energy is omnipresent. Yet, within this sea of energy, we still cannot figure out how to tap into abundant, clean, economical, and sustainable forms of energy. The complexity of the energy systems and the looming conflict between energy demand, supply, and climate change create one of the greatest challenges for mankind. Humanity is seeking more efficient energy systems in order to keep growing economically whilst preserving its thin biosphere. As we don’t have abundant, clean, and cheap energy, finding the best energy mix is vital for a sustainable future and low-carbon economy. Conventional energy sources lay a heavy burden on our environment. Climate change caused by the increasing amount of CO2 in the atmosphere due to burning fossil fuels is threatening our ecosystem. Moreover, the ever-increasing earth’s population and demand for energy are breaking the patient’s limit of our Mother Nature. One of our biggest worldwide challenge is how can we transform our current energy system into sustainable one. Do conventional energy and renewable energy have to compete or complement each other? Should the renewable energy be centralized or decentralized? What would be the optimal energy mix taking into account several criteria such as land use, water use, energy security, and climate change. Should we push towards more investments in renewable energy to increase supply or towards investment in energy efficiency to curb our energy demand? Can energy conservation and energy management systems play an important role in limiting our energy consumption without sacrificing the benefits we enjoy in employing energy services? The invisibility and complexity of energy resources necessitate the management of energy usage. Energy monitoring and measuring are crucial for sustainable energy development for it helps towards controlling, reducing, and eliminating energy wastage. Shouldn’t we focus on the energy performance and its direct impact with demand and use of energy in the built environment whether for domestic, industrial, or commercial use? Lighting and space heating/cooling within a building envelope are of significant impact in the demand side management of a sustainable energy system. Can we employ technologies and policies towards implementing viable models for net zero energy housing and retrofitting our buildings to the best rating standards of ‘green’ certificates? Energy efficiency technologies, insulation, domestic combined heat and power, geothermal heat pumps, and lighting efficiency and controls can all contribute positively to the transformation of our energy systems but to what extent? Behavioural change and analysis of decision-making are another area that we should consider. Changing the way we consume energy and learning to adapt our life using energy smartly is inevitable for a sustainable future. Human resistance to change is a fact but furthering our understanding in behavioural science and cognitive engineering will help us to develop decision support tools that can be used for implementing actions in energy conservation and energy efficiency technologies. It is interesting to assess the effectiveness of incentives in carbon trading, feed-in tariffs, smart-meters, energy monitoring devices, and ‘green’ certificates. Can we learn to accomplish more work with less energy? Would energy conservation become an issue of survival? Can we break the chains of global warming and the threat of climate change? Can we heal our environment and economy through energy efficiency alone? In a world where energy is like oxygen an essential component of life where it concerns all people and nations, sustainable energy is no longer an option rather a must. As above we have the sun so below we have geothermal and hydro, as sideways we have the wind so within we have the mental energy. Whether mining or growing fuels, harnessing or conserving energy, the real world energy complex problem is yet to be solved. - Sam Ghauch 8



BOOKREVIEWS Governing Sustainable Urban Renewal

Living Within a Fair Share Ecological Footprint

Partnerships in Action

By Robert Vale, Brenda Vale

By Rory Shand

Governing Sustainable Urban Renewal: Partnerships in Action uses detailed case studies from the UK, Germany and USA to explore the effect of institutional design and modes of governance and evaluates policy outputs, outcomes and best practice. In doing so, it illustrates where power and decision making lies in the delivery of urban renewal initiatives and examines the roles for communities in the governance process.

Land and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding By Jon Unruh, Rhodri Williams

Land and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding is part of a global initiative to identify and analyze lessons in post-conflict peacebuilding and natural resource management. The project has generated six edited books of case studies and analyses, with contributions from practitioners, policy makers, and researchers. Other books in the series address high-value resources, water, livelihoods, assessing and restoring resources, and governance.


This book does not focus on the problem but on the solution, by showing what it is like to live within a fair earth share ecological footprint. The authors describe numerical methods used to calculate this, concentrating on low or no cost behaviour change, rather than on potentially expensive technological innovation. They show what people need to do now in regions where their current lifestyle means they are living beyond their ecological means. The book clearly demonstrates that change in behaviour now will avoid some very challenging problems in the future. The emphasis is on workable, practical and sustainable solutions based on quantified research, rather than on generalities about overall problems facing humanity.

Design Education for a Sustainable Future By Rob Fleming

Sport Management in the Middle East A Case Study Analysis By Mohammed Ben Sulayem, Sean O'Connor, David Hassan.

A unique guide to sport management in a region of fundamental importance in world sport, this book is essential reading for any serious student or scholar of sport management, sport business, Middle East studies, or sport and society. Sport Management in the Middle East is the first book to offer a serious and in-depth analysis of the business and management of sport in the region.

Sustainability is a powerful force that is fundamentally reshaping humanity’s relationship to the natural world and is ushering in the Age of Integration. The move from wellintentioned environmental friendliness to the higher bar of integral sustainability and regenerative design demands a new type of design professional, one that is deeply collaborative, ethically grounded, empathically connected and technologically empowered. This book contains the integral frameworks, whole system change methodologies and intrinsic values that will assist professors and their students in an authentic and effective pursuit of design education for a sustainable future.

Ecohouse 4th Edition By Sue Roaf, Manuel Fuentes, Stephanie Thomas-Rees

Ecohouse provides design information about the latest lowimpact materials and technologies, showcasing the newest and best ‘green’ solutions. Revised and updated, this edition also includes new case studies inspiring readers with more real-life examples of how to make an ecohouse work.





By Jane J. Lee, National Geographic

BUCKLE UP—THANKS TO CLIMATE CHANGE, AIRLINE PASSENGERS MAY BE IN FOR A BUMPIER RIDE By 2050, airplanes could see a doubling in instances of moderateintensity turbulence over the North Atlantic Ocean—one of the world's busiest flight corridors—due to shifts in the jet stream as a result of global warming, according to a new study. Those bumps could also become stronger due to the intensification of conditions that lead to a type of turbulence called clear-air turbulence, according to the study published online in the journal Nature Climate Change. Unlike the turbulence associated with storm clouds, clear-air turbulence is mainly associated with jet streams—large rivers of air in the atmosphere—and can occur in clear blue skies. "The pilot can't see it and the sensors onboard can't see it—that's why it's a particularly dangerous form of

Areas of predicted clear-air turbulence at cruising altitudes over the North Atlantic Ocean on a simulated winter day under doubled carbon dioxide conditions.


turbulence," said Paul Williams, an atmospheric scientist at the University of Reading in the United Kingdom and lead author of the new paper. Turbulence occurs mostly because of a change in airspeed with respect to height. It happens mostly in frontal areas—places where air masses of different characteristics meet—and jet streams. Since climate change will accelerate the jet stream over the North Atlantic, Williams said, that river of air will flow faster, making the atmosphere more susceptible to turbulence—much like a fastrunning river develops white water.

Shake, Rattle, and Roll? This doesn't mean that airplanes will start to shake apart over the North Atlantic by mid-century. The most severe turbulence, more powerful than what Williams modeled in his study, exerts about 1.5 G forces on an airplane, said Bret Jensen, a spokesperson for Boeing, an aircraft manufacturer based in Seattle, Washington. But airplanes are designed to withstand 2.5 G forces before taking damage, and 3.5 G forces before experiencing structural failures, he added. The real danger lies with injuries, particularly to the flight crew, Since flight attendants aren't usually buckled in, they can get thrown around the cabin, he said. "They're really the ones most at risk." In the meantime, Williams said his work has changed his habits when he flies: "I used to not keep my seatbelt fastened, but now I always do".

"A small colony of erect-crested penguins huddled together near the shore waiting for their summer feathers to be replaced by a new winter coat. Fur seal pups played in the waves. Sheer cliffs plunged a hundred meters down into deep azure blue water. Overhead, Antipodean albatrosses wheeled in the gusts. This incredible scene epitomized New Zealand’s subantarctic islands." -Bob Zuur, Antarctic blog



Magazine The Antarctic Ocean....................14 By Blair Palese

The Rights and Climate Connection Towards a Human RightsBased Approach to Climate Change......................................................34 By Marcos Orellana

By Blair Palese

The Antarctic Ocean US, Australian and New Zealand leaders combining efforts for Antarctic marine protection as decision looms on two of the world’s largest marine reserves. �

New US Secretary of State John Kerry, Australian Foreign Secretary Bob Carr and New Zealand Ambassador to the US Mike Moore came together at an event at National Geographic in Washington in March 2013 to announce their commitment to ensure the passage of two proposals for large-scale Antarctic marine protection later this year. At a function that included the screening of the New Zealand film The Last Ocean, about the need to protect the Ross Sea’s intact ecosystem in Antarctica, the three nations called on all nations around the world to support their Southern Ocean protection proposals. “Antarctica is a collection of superlatives. It has beguiled humankind for centuries and it is one of the last places on earth that we can protect [while it’s intact] and ensure it remains a place of peace,” said Secretary of State Kerry at the event, hosted by the Pew Environment Group, part of the Antarctic Ocean Alliance. "We can learn much from the Ross Sea. The climate change science is screaming at us and we must listen and act to help our environment,” Kerry said. “Imagine the possibilities if we protect this living laboratory. The no-take area [we are proposing] would be four times the size of California.” Regarding efforts to protect key habitats of the Southern Ocean, Kerry spoke passionately about ensuring that we are not casual about our oceans. He said the US was “proud to join New Zealand and Australia, which have been great stewards of the oceans” in supporting Antarctic marine protection efforts.

Last Ocean Documentary The award-winning documentary, “The Last Ocean: the Toothfish and the Battle for Antarctica’s Soul,” made by New Zealand filmmaker Peter Young, was screened at the event and as part of the Washington, DC Environmental Film Festival. The film describes the Ross Sea as one of the last places on Earth where the delicate balance of nature still exists, with scientists describing it as a “living laboratory”. Young attended the Washington DC reception for political leaders urging them to do all they could to ensure these unique waters are protected. “There are so few untouched areas of ocean left, we have to protect them” said Peter Young. “In the Ross Sea we have an opportunity to do something special and to gift this unique corner of the world to future generations.” Í

Climate Change

Ice floes and iceberg

Ice near McMurdo Station

Icebergs near Cape Hallett

Climate Change The Antarctic Ocean

The Southern Ocean: The Last Frontier Antarctica’s Southern Ocean constitutes approximately 10% of the world’s seas. To date, only 2% of the world’s oceans are strictly protected as marine reserves and overfishing and other environmental damage has put many ocean environments at risk. Climate change is already affecting the abundance of important food sources for penguins, whales, seals and birds in Antarctic marine habitats. The body that regulates these waters, the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), will hold an extraordinary meeting in July 2013 to consider the passage of two specific proposals for extensive protection of Antarctica’s Ross Sea and for marine areas in East Antarctica. Last November, the 25 CCAMLR nations failed to pass the two proposals. At the special intercessional meeting in July 2013 in Bremerhaven, Germany, CCAMLR members will again be considering both proposals. Nations that hold the keys to success in designating the two Antarctic marine protection proposals include China, Russia and the Ukraine. “The Ross Sea is one of the most pristine ocean environments left on Earth,” said Steve Campbell, Campaign Director for the Antarctic Ocean Alliance, a coalition of over 30 international environmental groups around the world working to ensure CCAMLR delivers on its commitment to establish a network of marine protected areas in the Southern Ocean. “With threats from climate change and commercial fishing growing, now is the time to protect this incredible marine environment while it is still largely intact,” he said. Í 21

Climate Change The Antarctic Ocean

Ross Sea Proposal – Conservation Consensus Needed The US and New Zealand joint Ross Sea protection proposal calls for 1.6 million sq km of marine habitat to be protected as a no fishing zone, with some “research fishing” areas established as part of the proposal – 2.27 million km2 in total. A number of nations currently fish in the Ross Sea for Antarctic toothfish a long-lived and poorly understood apex (top line) predator often marketed as “Chilean sea bass”. “The AOA believes the current joint US-New Zealand Ross Sea proposal to fully protect 1.6 million km2, and recognition of two further parts of the Ross Sea – the Spawning Protection Zone and Special Research Zone, should be designated in 2013 as the foundation for protecting all key ecosystems in the Ross Sea region,” Campbell said. “The current proposal should be improved over time by the CCAMLR Commission to provide the Ross Sea the full protection needed.”

New Zealand

King penguin Antarctica

“We are very proud of the United States/New Zealand proposal for a Ross Sea Marine Protected Area, which would be the largest of its kind in the world,” said NZ Ambassador Mike Moore. “Our joint proposal is born out of a shared commitment to the environment, and a shared vision for the management of our oceans and fisheries. To us, it represents the best chance of successfully establishing an MPA in this important region and it represents the best chance of successfully establishing an (MPA) in this important region.” Also on the table at the next CCAMLR meeting in July 2013 is a proposal by Australia, France and the European Union to protect 1.9 million km2 of key ocean habitat in East Antarctica. Í 23

Ice cave

Southern skua Franklin

Whiteheaded petrel fish

Giant petrel Macq

Giant petrel white

Royal penguin Antarctica

Australia “Australia recognizes that Marine Protected Areas are valuable ocean management tools used to protect marine biodiversity, species or populations at risk of extinction, habitats that are critical for the lifecycle of species, and the structure and function of ecosystems,” Said Australian Foreign Affairs Minister Bob Carr. “The Australian Government recently created the world’s largest representative network of marine protected areas. Australia supports the protection of the Ross Sea, and is working on a similar initiative with the European Union and France to create marine reserves off the coast of East Antarctica.”

Russia and China Russia and China were reluctant to progress the necessary unanimous agreement to establish any of the proposed marine reserves last year. The countries supporting protection proposals should commit to collaboration with China and Russia to overcome political and scientific concerns and ensure support for the overwhelming scientific evidence that backs the creation of Southern Ocean marine reserves. Í 28

King penguins and ele

Platelet ice Ross Sea

International Consensus Needed “The international community must work together to ensure that these Antarctic waters are designated, and that the protections they agree to are permanent and comprehensive, without loopholes that will allow more incursions from industrial fishing,” said Joshua Reichert, Executive Vice President of the Pew Charitable Trusts, hosts of the Washington event. “The countdown to consensus starts now.” Alex Rogers, Professor of Conservation Biology at the University of Oxford, UK, and a supporter of 32

The Antarctic Ocean Alliance Antarctic marine protection, said that the debates at CCAMLR are indicative of a wider “global dichotomy” about how countries approach ocean resources, with a conservation and ecosystem-basedmanagement approach versus less constrained exploitation. Rogers warns that “time really is running out on these issues. If we don’t get protection in place now, exploitation of these systems will increase. Even a delay is a serious issue."

The AOA’s research has identified over 40 percent of the Southern Ocean that warrants protection in a network of large-scale marine reserves and MPAs based on conservation and planning analyses outlined in its report, 'Antarctic Ocean Legacy: A Vision for Circumpolar Protection' released last year. Public support for Antarctic marine protection has grown significantly over the last year and more than 1.2 million people took action for largescale Southern Ocean protection in 2012. The AOA is made up of

Climate Change The Antarctic Ocean

Sea of king penguins

international organizations including the Pew Environment Group, WWF, Greenpeace, the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW), the Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition (ASOC) and many others from countries including China, Korea, Russia, Norway, New Zealand, the US, Germany and the United Kingdom. Government support by countries including the US, Australia, New Zealand, EU and France is an important part of ensuring wider international support.

“The governments who have put forward these first large-scale proposals for Antarctic marine protection will be sending delegations to the countries who have not been convinced to date,” the AOA’s Campbell said. “But with only a few months to go before the meeting in July, more public support and awareness of what’s at stake is necessary to ensure success, particularly in critical countries.” “With Antarctica’s land already protected through the Antarctic Treaty system, we know that such

conservation efforts are possible,” Campbell said. “But if we aren’t able to garner support at this year’s special CCAMLR meeting, we may be missing a critical opportunity to ensure the Southern Ocean remains relatively pristine now and for future generations.” All eyes are now trained on the next CCAMLR meeting at Bremerhaven, Germany in July 2013 and the pressure is on to deliver protection for the most intact marine ecosystems left on our planet.


By Marcos Orellana

The Rights & Climate Connection Towards a Human Rights-Based Approach to Climate Change In 2005, the Inuit submitted a petition to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), seeking relief for human rights violations caused by the failure of the United States to regulate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Faced with radical changes in the Arctic environment upon which they depend, the Inuit called on the United States – the world’s second largest emitter of GHGs– to reduce its role in perpetuating the Inuit’s injuries. Among other things, the petition requested that the US respect its human rights obligations and assist the Inuit in adapting to the alarming impacts of climate change. Though the Inuit case was one of the first to illuminate issues of human rights within the global climate change debate, it was not until 2011 that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) made its first official reference to human rights in the Cancun Agreements. Today, the voices of marginalized populations speaking out for human rights and climate change have grown into a global clamor. As evidenced in the Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development and the Doha climate talks in late 2012, humans rights and environmental organizations are increasingly demanding the protection of human rights in spaces devoted to action on climate change and sustainable development. Í

Ocean of Palm: The Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) partially funded the Aguan Biogas project an area in Bajo Aguån, Honduras - a region that has been the site of land grabs and seen an intense escalation of violence and repression against local farmers since 2009.



The communities of Newtok, Alaska, and the Carteret Islands, Papua New Guinea are among the first in the world to choose relocation as the best means of adapting to global climate change and ensuring their cultural survival. Here, they meet for the first time to discuss their strategies.


Climate Change Definition Of Human Rights-Based Approach A human rights-based approach brings a human rights framework into the development of policies and programs in order to protect rights recognized by international law including the rights to life, water, health, food and a healthy environment. A rights-based framework emphasizes principles of transparency, participation, nondiscrimination, accountability, human dignity, empowerment, and the rule of law. A rights-based approach also personalizes issues that are otherwise technical and abstract while highlighting their urgency by focusing on victims. A rights-based approach also draws attention to legal duties. A rights-based approach establishes the state’s accountability in achieving equity in the use of natural resources, common property, and the distribution of environmental costs and benefits. In government, a rightsbased approach can also facilitate increased accountability in the private sector, which is increasingly important given its role in natural resource extraction and processing, pollution control, development of alternative energies, and in the delivery of environmental goods and services.

Marcos Orellana participates in the Africa regional consultations on human rights and the environment during the 27th United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Governing Council (GC) meeting in Nairobi.

Climate Change Affects Human Rights Climate change is often portrayed in terms of ecological and environmental effects. However, the effects of climate change can hinder the enjoyment of human rights through both the physical impacts of climate change and through the impacts of climate change policies. The impacts of climate change on Ă?

The climatic changes disturb various human activities across the globe, including loss of land, damage to coastal property, depletion of agricultural soils, contamination of water supplies, spread of disease, disruption of educational services, and displacement of at-risk communities. In short, the physical impacts of climate change pose a real threat to livelihoods, depriving many people of their basic means of subsistence.


human rights include extreme weather events, rising sea levels, rapid increases in Earth’s temperature, and unexpected changes in precipitation patterns. The climatic changes disturb various human activities across the globe, including loss of land, damage to coastal property, depletion of agricultural soils, contamination of water supplies, spread of disease, disruption of educational services, and displacement of at-risk communities. In short, the physical impacts of climate change pose a real threat to livelihoods, depriving many people of their basic means of subsistence. Environmental degradation can also violate cultural rights, especially for indigenous peoples whose cultures and traditional beliefs are tied to the land and territories they inhabit. Human rights are also impacted by policy responses to climate change in both adaptation measures and mitigation measures. Adaptation measures improve the capacity of societies to effectively respond to the threats of climate change. For example, community relocation is an adaptation measure increasingly considered by Small Island Developing States and other coastal communities threatened by rising sea levels and extreme weather events. While adaptation measures are meant to reduce vulnerability to climate impacts, they may in some cases exacerbate existing social inequities by further disempowering and marginalizing the most socially disadvantaged groups. Mitigation measures aim to slow the effects of climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. For example, REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) has been conceived as a market-based mechanism that allows developed Í


Palm Harvest: Harvesting palm fruit in Bajo Aguán, Honduras.

CIEL: Center for International Environmental Law is a non-profit organization that uses the power of law to protect the environment, promote human rights, and ensure a just and sustainable society. CIEL seeks a world where the law reflects the interconnection between humans and the environment, respects the limits of the planet, protects the dignity and equality of each person, and encourages all of earth’s inhabitants to live in balance with each other. CIEL is dedicated to advocacy in the global public interest, including through legal counsel, policy research, analysis, education, training and capacity building.

countries to pay to prevent deforestation in developing countries. This mitigation measure has the potential to violate various human rights, such as traditional resource use by forest-dependent communities in newly established REDD+ protected areas. To prevent threats to human rights, mechanisms such as the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development

Palm Fruit: The fruit that makes the palm oil. Palm oil, one of the world’s leading agricultural commodities, is widely used as a food ingredient and cooking oil. Unfortunately, the vast plantations that grow oil palm trees often results in the clear-cutting of large tracts of remaining forest.

Mechanism (CDM) need stronger social and environmental safeguards. Where adequately implemented, safeguards can prevent harm and provide aggrieved parties with legal recourse for loss and damage. In Honduras, for example, the Aguan Biogas project (partially funded by the CDM) has been directly connected to human rights abuses against local farmers. Although the project region

is currently under investigation by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, there are not sufficient safeguards within the CDM to prevent or remove such projects.

Access Rights: A Key Component of a Rights-Based Approach Access rights refer to the rights of

Climate Change access to information, public participation and access to justice, and they are central to articulating a rights-based approach in the climate change context. Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development–adopted in the Earth Summit in 1992 and strengthened at Rio+20 in June 2012 – asserts that access rights are critical to sustainable development.

In this connection, the December 2012 Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Doha, noted that “improving awareness and understanding of climate change, and creating solutions to facilitate access to information… are key to winning public support for climate related policies.” Involving civil society and vulnerable populations in decision-making

allows communities to take ownership of adaption and mitigation processes at the local level. Full and effective participation also enhances the ability of adaptation and mitigation measures to advance sustainable development while protecting the rights of those communities most vulnerable to climate change. Í

Climate Change Strengthening the Connection Between Human Rights and Climate Change Vitalino Álvarez is a spokesperson for Unified Peasant Movement of the Aguán (MUCA in its Spanish acronym). He has been arrested and jailed numerous times and was recently publicly denounced by the leader of the military's mission to the Aguán for having accused the military of human rights abuses.

The connection between human rights and climate change are increasingly relevant in envisioning a global response to address climate change. First, an understanding of these linkages allows states to use existing international human rights standards and mechanisms to address human rights violations caused by climate change. For example, the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food of the UN Human Rights Council has prepared reports identifying climate-induced desertification and environmental degradation as major threats to food security. Other special rapporteurs have also explored climate change within their mandates, such as in relation to the right to water and sanitation, as well as extreme poverty. Second, linkages between human rights and climate change form the basis for international cooperation in assisting states in need of climate adaptation and development. Because many forms of environmental degradation are transnational in character, this crossborder cooperation is vital to addressing global environmental threats and protecting the rights of those affected. These linkages also encourage states to address their international obligations under the UN Charter to assist low-income countries in adaptation and mitigation strategies; this cooperation is particularly important because lowincome countries lack the resources to protect their populations from climate impacts. Third, these linkages enable states to identify particular threats to vulnerable groups such as Í 43

indigenous and tribal peoples and the rural poor. Such groups are particularly at risk for climate-induced damages because a) their livelihoods tend to be closely tied to the natural environment, b) they are generally less informed about their human rights; and c) they may lack resources to adapt to climate impacts.

Incorporating Human Rights to Address Climate Wrongs In late February, over 1,300 participants from 147 countries representing government, academia, NGOs, and industry convened in Nairobi for the United Nations Environment Programme’s (UNEP) 27th Governing Council (GC). In light of Rio+20, this GC was historic in becoming the first to welcome universal membership. In addition to adopting decisions on chemicals and waste, oceans, and law and governance, delegates to this historic GC made important strides in advancing a human rights-based approach. Most notably, the GC pledged to develop by 2014 a process for stakeholder participation that will better promote transparency and effective engagement of civil society in the work of the new and improved UNEP. This process may serve as a model for other UN bodies, including the multilateral environmental agreements administered by UNEP, as the momentum to adopt and implement a human rights-based approach to climate change continues to gain support. 44

Climate Change

Posters on the streets near the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio +20) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


"A good company delivers excellent products and services, and a great company does all that and strives to make the world a better place." - William Ford Jr., Chairman, Ford Motor Co.



Magazine Personal Conviction in Business Configuring a Lifestyle............... 48 By Sherine Bouez

Pooling Financial Resources Entrepreneurs and the Landscape............................................54 By Sherine Bouez

Environment & Business

By Sherine Bouez

Personal Conviction in Business Configuring a Lifestyle

Georges Bou Jaoude, Chairman & CEO of FFA Real Estate, passionately points out that Sustainability is an integrative part of each of the entities related to FFA Real Estate developments, consequently perspiring from private convictions and commitments well into every aspect of the corporate strategy, on its expanding path to Green. “We are all fervent about increasingly expressing our way of life in our projects, and this common vision permeates our growth strategy” says Bou Jaoude. He explains how innovation and heritage can fuse to create a springboard for the enhancement of the ecosystem and local quality of life, unique to each ‘microcosm’ in such a diverse country and elsewhere. Í 49



With a wide realm of projects such as Foch 94, Marfaa 94, the firm is in the course of developing its latest landmark in sustainability, Badaro Gardens, and most recent project Amchit Bay Beach Residences. This track record is in line with the same green spirit, such as the luxurious ecological mountain retreat and wellness spa, Naas Spring, or the vicinity of Lebanon’s snowy peaks, Ahlam Mountain Resort. As to Uptown Badaro, it is a mixed-use, residential and commercial development launched by FFA Real Estate in response to the success of its first project in the area, Badaro Gardens. Based on the company’s all-encompassing role from management through to development and promotion, Bou Jaoude explains that the green efforts of FFA Real Estate come full circle with close quality control and adherence, at the level of conception as well as at every step of the way.

Sherine Bouez: How does the investor come into the green equation? Georges Bou Jaoude: We are as picky about our clients as we are about our developments since we are forming a genuine community, aware of the importance of preserving what is left of nature. These are also demanding investors for whom quality of life comes with no compromise, and fully living and ‘breathing’ a whole region with all its unique assets through their development is non-negotiable. S.B: What have you put in place for air quality? G.B: In-door air quality has been 50

planned according to Ashrae requirements, such as with the use of low VOC paint to avoid carcinogenic products. In the apartments we also installed individual thermal controls for heating and cooling in different independent spaces, as well as installing VRV air-conditioning as a cooling system. S.B: In what ways is the project sustainable and what aspects are important for developers to bear in mind at the stage of conception? G.B: As far as location and transportation are concerned, Badaro is an urban area, and the development is within 400 meters, or quarter of a mile, from public

transportation. This translates into approximately a 4 to 10 meter walk from transportation, but also local amenities that form the basic services such as supermarkets, hospitals, restaurants, beauty centers and others, are in line with the LEED’s community connectivity requirement. Through private and public gardens, we have focused on the green and open space requirements of the zone of Badaro, and even exceeded the local zoning to ensure extra green roof gardens, planters, public and private gardens. As far as waste management is concerned, the storage and segregation room collects the waste from residences, in which a 2-bin

Environment & Business

LEED scores serve as useful guidelines, but of equal importance is the instigation of environmental practices despite the current surrounding conditions.

policy has been implemented in the residences under the sink: One for organic waste picked by waste collecting companies, and a second one for recyclable waste, that is then bought by off takers or recyclers. During the construction phase, management waste segregation of wood, metals, cardboard, rebar for reinforced concrete, empty containers, are also carefully filtered to be separately reused or recycled. This process minimizes the burden on containers and diverts it elsewhere for alternate use. The plan, which is in line with the efforts of FFA Real Estate to contribute to a greener city, is expected to be completed over the

next year. The concept even includes bicycle racks to ensure facilities other than cars are made available for the residents’ commuting. Even though the surrounding is still getting up to speed with these new environmental concepts, they are important to initiate. LEED scores serve as useful guidelines, but of equal importance is the instigation of environmental practices despite the current surrounding conditions. For instance, Amchit Bay Beach Residences offer uninterrupted sea views and direct beach access, which has now sadly become a rarity, although Lebanon benefits form a long coastal stretch of land. FFA Real Estate believes in starting somewhere, by providing the

optimal context for a communal identity to take shape over time helps maintain the pristine aspects of the surroundings and create a lifestyle, rather than simply build developments.



During the construction phase, management waste segregation of wood, metals, cardboard, rebar for reinforced concrete, empty containers, are also carefully filtered to be separately reused or recycled.

A Question to Mazen Makki, Head of the Environment & Sustainability Department at Rafik El-Khoury & Partners S.B: What can you tell us about the environmental aspect of the building? Mazen Makki:To reduce heating and cooling demands or loads, we strived to prevent the exchange between the inside of the structure and the outside climate fluctuations. All the external walls of the building envelope are ‘double skin’, and the windows are double-glazed. We have installed solar panels for water heating, which are only backed-up by electrical heating in case of sunlight insufficiency. This significantly reduces energy consumption, and obviously the bill too. Although one can argue that this involves an investment consideration at a time of economic cautiousness, the CO2 emissions payback period is very short. It is of about 2 to 3 years in the summer, and reduces your bill by as much as 90%. Energy efficient lighting has also been put into place. Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) with the same luminosity as standard use lamps are available on the market and reduce energy consumption by up to 60 to 70%. These are only slightly more expensive lamps, with the obvious advantages they offer from day one. On the electro-mechanical front, we applied the Ashrae Requirement Standard 90.1-2007 for the use of a maximal pre-set wattage, in different spaces such as common areas, kitchens, living rooms etc. For common areas we also devised Lighting Controls that automatically switch lights on and off through motion sensors, as well as independent light control for different areas and rooms. External lighting for gardens and façade operate on a controlled timer. As far as the collection systems are concerned rainwater is gathered from the roof and garden, in addition to condensate water from the air conditioning system. The whole is sand filtered, treated, and then stored in a tank in the basement, consequently used for irrigation. This is one of the ways in which we focus on a big number of green spaces and beautiful eye views, while ensuring ways to maximize available resources. On the domestic front, water efficient fixtures for all taps and showerheads as well as low flush toilets meet LEED requirements to reduce water flow volume. Again, comfort meets environmental consideration since, as is the case with LED lamps, the experience and comfort remain unchanged. 52

By Sherine Bouez

Pooling Financial Resources Entrepreneurs and the Landscape Ă?

My eyes glided to infinity along a major stretch of untouched land as I stood there in Basbina, Lebanon, with a backdrop of some of the finest mountainous landscapes overlooking the entire region, including the Cedars, Tannourine, and Faraya. When he arrived here at the Ixsir domain, the Architect, Raed Abilama, stood in awe in front of a view he thought ‘looked like Tuscany’, and pledged to make his architectural mark as invisible as possible to preserve this unified field of intact natural heritage: certainly, this is one of the very few vast coastal zones in the country, if not the only one, that has not born the mark of urbanization. His wish was perfectly aligned with the vision of Etienne Debbane, CEO of Ixsir, and, luckily, private investors such as Carlos Ghosn took interest in it and made the project possible.

“From this humbling experience grew the spirit of the project, which was conceptualized to fully blend into the landscape by building an underground cellar, planting a low rooftop garden, and integrating inventive ways of upholding this abandoned Seigniorial House” says Hady Kahale, General Manager of Ixsir, and one of the founders along with Etienne Debbane, also CEO of Exotica. Stepping inside for a guided tour of the premises comes as a surprising treat to an ultra-modern, minimalistic layout of the latest winemaking technology, in an inspiring medieval context- truly an artistic gem. Located on the hills of Batroun, in the North of Lebanon, this 17th century bastion of regional heritage now shields a hip winery that was developed as a function of sustainability. It is worth noting that, in just two years, Ixsir has won a Green Good Design award from the European Center for Architecture,

Art, Design and Urban Studies and The Chicago Athenaeum. It was also selected by CNN as one of the 12th Greenest Buildings in 2011, and received in 2012 the Grand Gold medal at the International Wine Championship organized by ‘Selections Mondiales des VinsCanada’, as well as reaping five medals at the London International Wine Fair. Sherine Bouez: What was the inspiration behind the birth of Ixsir? Hady Kahale: The vision behind Ixsir was to rediscover the best soils of Lebanon and to reveal their unique identity. Grapes are carefully gathered from six different hilly vineyards in Lebanon (Jezzine, Niha, Kib Elias, Deir El Ahmar, Ainata, Batroun) following strict guidelines for transportation and creating a unique diversity of taste. The idea was to come up with a bottle that can tell a common story and embody the country’s rich diversity. Winemaking and aging take place in this central winery, with a total area of 120 hectares of clay-calcareous soil. The grapes we select include Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Tempranillo, Caladoc, Merlot, Viognier, Muscat, Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay and Semillion. Our aim is to produce the best quality with a unique blend, leveraging on the preservation of the natural landscape and saving energy for future generations. We also wanted to counter the exodus trend of villagers abandoning their land for more profitable ventures. We selected families of vine growers and provided them with thorough training to cultivate the finest grapes. This allowed them to stay on their homeland and work a soil they have known well and owned for generations. To date, 250 families are valued partners of Ixsir’s. The winery is designed to be a high58

performance structure with low impact on the environment. S.B: What can you tell us about the unusual bulletproof skylights? H.K: Anywhere you find yourself in the underground winery, you will be able to locate an opening to natural light. This was done with two purposes in mind. On the one hand, this obviously majorly economizes on the use of electrical light at a basement level, thereby reducing the winery’s carbon footprint, even on cold winter days. On the other hand, wine makers spend hours working in a space that still has a link with natural daylight, and enables them to keep track of the time of day, the weather, or luminosity, surrounded by native trees and greenery from all vantage points. Wine makers work the land and have a deep connection to it that is imperative to maintain, since this perspires into their own wellbeing and the fruit of their work. When needed, led and fluorescent lamps are used. S.B: What process can other winemakers use to significantly reduce their energy consumption? H.K: The winery can be accessed on different levels and relies naturally on gravity along the wine making process, therefore significantly cutting back on the use of mechanical pumping systems. The top of the vat is accessible to drop the grapes in at the initial phase. Different floors are linked by tubes running through the concrete columns, all the way to the lowest level to which the wine flows for the final bottling stage. Two particularly delicate moments in winemaking are the following: Firstly, the placement of the grapes in the fermentation tank. Secondly, the transfer of the wine to oak barrels for Í

aging. We wanted to use natural viniculture techniques for both of these processes to save energy, but also avoid torturing the hard grape with unnecessary pressure for a significant boost to the quality of the ensuing wine. This was made possible by configuring the necessary disposition of a smooth downward flow. S.B: What is the main advantage of having an underground winery? H.K: Built underground, the winery uses the earth’s natural temperature to optimally age its wine. It reaches a 12 meters depth for 3 underground floors. Rather than using cooling machines for 6 or 7 months to level the Lebanese temperature, we use it for 1 month only! Thermal regulation is a natural process at this depth where the earth keeps a constant and optimal temperature, perfectly suited for wine making. S.B: How did you solve an environmental challenge? H.K: The region is not abundant in water supply. Rainwater is used for irrigation purposes, through a recuperation system using big pipes and the natural inclination of the land. Not a drop of water goes to waste! Ixsir recycles all its outputs such as wastewater, and fruit residue (skin, seeds, and stems), for composting. Recycled water is also used to irrigate the green rooftop where we planted the whole variety of Lebanese grapes to avoid adding cement to the scenery. This is also the only botanical vineyard in Lebanon where you can find the likes of Merlot, Syrah, or Cabernet Sauvignon all in the same place, forming a ‘mini eco-system’ with all the wild and natural plants of the region represented. The oak tree is also part of the visitors’ tour with explanations about the making of


corks for the bottle’s final touch. With the rapidly growing investments in Lebanese winemaking for local distribution and export, the market today counts over 35 brand names. ‘Grapes need extensive follow-up and significant financial sacrifices, since one needs to let go of many grapes for alternate uses in order for the vine to give all its attention to the remaining few’ says Nagi Saikali, Export Manager at Ixsir. Doing things authentically by taking into account the eco-system as a whole is indeed a laborious undertaking, in this case made possible by successful Lebanese entrepreneurs who shared a common dream and joined forces to make it happen. Í

Anywhere you find yourself in the underground winery, you will be able to locate an opening to natural light. This was done with two purposes in mind. On the one hand, this obviously majorly economizes on the use of electrical light at a basement level, thereby reducing the winery’s carbon footprint, even on cold winter days.

A Question to Raed Abillama’a, Ixsir’s Architect: S.B: How did you leverage on authentic building practices here? Raed Abilama: Traditional vernacular Lebanese Architecture is devised in a very ‘green’ way, as opposed to the new architectural models in our country, no matter how aesthetic some of the projects might look! This old structure naturally consumes little energy: amongst other features, it is conceived with thick walls, small windows, or controlled aeration and draft. Since it offers freshness in the day, and preserves the heat in its stones for the night, it is perfectly adapted to the Lebanese climate! Restoration work here only involved repairing and cleaning up the existing condition of the house. This also meant taking into account the spirit of its history, past uses, and symbolic meaning. For instance, failing stones were replaced simply with the aim of leveling the structure. Also, the wiring system was cautiously integrated into the walls using the cracks between the stones to insert and guide the journey of the cables across the space. One of the broken corners of the house was converted into a staircase made out of the remaining fragmented stones that were salvaged to link the ground floor to the lower levels of the winery. In addition, people who work here ‘own’ the production process, closely nurturing the grapes every step of the way leading to the birth of a bottle. Therefore, the use of innovative skylights not only affords a functional necessity, but also maintains a spiritual bond with Nature, essential for human awareness and evolution.


“The sustainability revolution will, hopefully, be the third major social and economic turning point in human history, following the Neolithic Revolution - moving from hunter-gathering to farming - and the Industrial Revolution.� - HRH Prince Charles



Visual Pollution..................................64 By Nathalie Rosa Bucher

Quarry Restoration in Lebanon................................................... 74 By Elias Chnais

By Nathalie Rosa Bucher

Visual Pollution Wind farms compellingly exemplify how subjective the issue of visual pollution is: On the one hand, enthusiastic proponents of these giant modern windmills, who deem them aesthetically appealing, and hail their propensity to harvest a renewable energy, pitted against fervent opponents who cite noise disturbances, and label the turbines as anything but soft on the eye.

Sometimes defined as visual clutter or in German even as aesthetic pollution – the term encapsulates its subjective nature – visual pollution encapsulates the unattractive and man-made visual elements of a vista, a landscape, or any other feature that we may feel uncomfortable looking at. It can be caused not only by (giant) billboards, business signs, street signs, telephone and utility poles, electricity wires but also garbage (think littered beaches, rivers, roadsides, or overflowing garbage containers, plastic stuck in fences or trees, a pile of cigarette butts outside bars, clubs or on beaches), open-pit mines that ravage landscapes (Edward Burtynsky’s astonishing documentary Manufactured Landscapes comes to mind), dog poo, rubbish dumps, mobile phone towers… More than a century before Naomi Klein’s No Logo, Émile Zola published a satirical short fiction story Death by Advertising in 1866. Centered around Pierre Landry, whose purpose is to show both the absurdity and the dangerous consequences of Í

Sustainable Development


Visual Pollution, rubbish bin.

incessant advertising, it commences like a dark, surrealist modern fairy tale: "Let me tell you the story of a man killed by advertising." Poignantly, Zola writes that Pierre suffered mental damage just as he suffered physical pain because "advertising attacked his mind as well as his body." In her essay “On Photography”, published in 1977, Susan Sontag writes that “industrial societies turn their citizens into imagejunkies; it is the most irresistible form of mental pollution.” “Some billboards, like Aïshti’s advertisements, are very provocative,” American University of Beirut-based Professor of Urban Design Professor Robert Saliba readily agrees. “They make for an interesting read of the culture in the city. Personally I am not against billboards”. To Saliba these texts mirror Beirut: East and West can be read very easily just by looking at the (different) means of advertising and messages; the Northern suburbs don’t reflect what can be found in the Southern suburbs. “This is what we call cultural landscapes, a mosaic of cultural landscapes. It encapsulates the imperfections of the whole system. It also provides a breathing space for our libido.” “As urban centers grow and the city population density intensifies, this battle to preserve a citizen’s right to a beautiful, non-commercialized environment becomes even more important and precious,” argues the author of “Emotional Branding” and corporate brand guru, Mark Gobé. Increased density across Lebanon over the past 30 years has gone hand in hand with the erosion of public space and the proliferation of outdoors advertisement, much of it illegal, hazardous, adding neither value nor beauty to what in most instances ultimately is public space. Saliba points towards two Í

Sustainable Development

Love or loathe it - graffiti offers space for all sorts of voices and concerns, beauty and ugliness to come out. Ain Mraisseh.


Just like graffiti would be used to demarcate political territories during the war-torn 70s and 80s, today flags and banners are being put up to achieve the same. Zarif, Beirut.

Huge, photoshopped billboards advertising all kinds of beauty treatments dominate Lebanon's billboard jungle.

Sustainable Development exceptions: Beirut’s city center (“Downtown”) and malls, which are subjected to stringent rules and regulations, consistently enforced to protect the formidable corporate interests at stake. Both quality and form of advertising have changed so significantly, that ads rarely blend in but overwhelm. Visual clutter often disorients people or obstructs formerly scenic cityscapes, landscapes and routes. The strip between Beirut and Jounieh is a prime example. Banners of various political figureheads, sons of Trablous, tower all over Tripoli’s magnificent old city. Beirut, the specialist in all styles, has by far the most, the worst and best of the panoply of what tends to be classified as visual pollution: from faded political graffiti to demarcate territories during the war, to present sectarian fault lines, commercial messages and branding of all types, sizes, colors and all variations, in Arabic, English and French. According to Ogilvy Chief Creative Officer Steve Hayden, Americans used to be subjected to around 2000 visual advertisements a day in the 1980s. This figure has increased to about 5000 to 6000 by today. Looking at images of Martyr’s Square, Hamra Street and Lebanon’s main arteries 30 to 40 years ago and comparing these images with today’s reality, the number of advertisement and messages Lebanese are subjected to has grown just as exponentially. The phenomenon, which is a global one, has elicited various responses from cities, lawmakers and citizens. Most consumers don’t realize that there are laws restricting billboards and that they are not enforced; the billboard lobby after all, has significant (financial) clout. Not only since No Logo lead to an increased awareness, consciousness and debate around brands and big

corporations, have consumers, acclimatized and subjected to having advertising messages on lampposts, fences, walls, buildings, roof tops and any ‘brandable’ surface stood up and fought outdoors media, in the streets through grassroots activism or also in the courtrooms. Bans on billboards now exist in many countries—various US states prohibit them, as do some 1 500 towns around the world. In Brazil, the mayor of São Paolo, Gilberto Kassab, in 2006, took a bold move: the “Clean City Law” outlawed the use of all outdoor advertisements, including on billboards, transit, and in front of stores and saw 15000 billboards cluttering the world’s seventh largest city taken down. The ban has been upheld and concerns around loss of revenue for businesses and jobs proved unwarranted. Rather than causing economic ruin and deteriorating aesthetics, an overwhelming majority of city residents have found the ban to be beneficial, according to a 2011 survey. The removal of logos and slogans exposed previously overlooked architecture, revealing a rich urban beauty that had been long hidden. In São Paulo the ban indeed has provided the metropolis with a new language and identity and reminds the world that it’s a city’s inhabitants and cultural heritage that bring the true flavor. Billboards of various sizes cause visual pollution, leading either to disorientation by covering familiar sites and objects or becoming hazardous when obfuscating the view for pedestrians and drivers. What is the appropriate balance for municipalities to strike between preserving the rights of individuals to freedom of expression while attempting to control the proliferation of advertising signage and other forms of visual pollution? Í 69

This building in Hamra's Makdissi Street added color and greenery to its facade.

Long gone are the days when buildings were not to completely block their neighbor's views. Ain Mraisseh.


Sustainable Development The issue goes far beyond brands and billboards as Lebanon is going through an intense destruction of natural beauty. “Inside the urban, the rural environment is rapidly disappearing – it is a case of urbanisme sauvage. That’s what Lebanon and Beirut is about.

Outdoor advertisers pay municipal authorities for the use of public space. For cash-stripped municipalities, this is often a lucrative source of revenue or is used in exchange for services the municipality is unable to provide, for example bus shelters or benches. According to the Lebanese chapter of the International Association of Advertising (IAA), the billboard industry market was valued at $45 million in 2011, representing 26% of the advertising share. Advertisers point out that the proliferation of illegal billboards is bad for business because it distracts attention from legal ones. And the more legal advertising there is, the more reluctant city governments will be to part with the revenue and services it brings. Following a decision by the Lebanese Interior Ministry, some municipalities, in an attempt to curb the amount of illegal billboards, began removing hazardous signage in late 2012. Unless, as in the case of the municipality of Saida, which all year round keeps a more watchful eye than others in the country, the laws that apply are consistently implemented, the highly lucrative business of illegal billboards will not abandon its guerrilla marketing tactics. Bearing in mind Marshall MacLuhan’s famous premise about the medium being the message, one ought to ask how effective are billboards? How has social media impacted on outdoors advertising? In Lebanon, as in other countries around the world, notably Great Britain, the rise of the Internet and other social media parallel to the decline of TV and other more traditional media channels, have lead to an increase of outdoors media. A range of other, subtler forms of branding and advertising, such as sensation, word-of-mouth or influencer marketing are changing the industry. While newspaper advertising

has sharply declined, the conventional modes seem to still prevail. The motto in Lebanon often is: bigger is better and more is, well, more. Glamorous, lascivious women pose in aid of virtually any good or service and courtesy of Photoshop nobody is spared from setting eyes on perfect individuals. At times, though, the Photoshop, just like plastic surgeries sometimes, go wrong, body parts, as in the case of the now infamous Exotica ad, get mixed up. “Visual pollution – I am against this term, its normative connotation. I’m in love with strips like Las Vegas, or Sunset Strip in LA – I documented and studied them. There is however something that should be emphasised: visual pollution is really a big problem to be addressed when the landscape is being polluted by construction,” Saliba puts forward. A tireless heritage campaigner still at 90, Lady Yvonne Cochrane has dedicated her life to preserving old Lebanese palaces and houses and trying to raise awareness about the value of her country’s beauty and heritage. She not only laments the loss of old buildings and how green Beirut used to be – she remembers Achrafieh as a green hill – but a greater quality of life and social cohesion due to the way people used to live. And build. Unthinkable today, one building rule that applied – and seems to have been adhered to – was ‘don’t block your neighbors’ view’. “Back then, density was low. The “Clear Eyesight Span” rule dates back to the 1920s/30s, when multistorey buildings first came up in Beirut,” trained-architect and urban planner Fadi Shayya explains. For Shayya anything that disrupts at different scales and in certain contexts effectively is visual pollution, encompassing litter and billboard clutter as well as buildings. Í 71

“We should look at buildings not only as architecture but as objects in the city,” he underlines. “It’s very important to look at buildings as sources of visual pollution. For example, real estate along the Corniche; all these towers that have sprung up there have created a disconnection. Buildings that used to have a view to the sea, including the AUB, have lost some or the entirety of that view, are disconnected. Beirut is a city full of physical barriers – and many buildings are part of the disconnection from memory, from the landscape. It’s a heavy price for a city like Beirut to pay, and as a result, it is loosing its identity rapidly.” “As urban designers, when we are talking about urban design, we talk about visual quality and the experiential experience of the city,” Saliba explains. “Sometimes chaos is interesting even visual chaos is interesting but it’s a question of degree. If I want to take a prescriptive point of view as an urban designer, then Beirut is the ugliest city on earth. Is it ugly and exciting? It’s sometimes ugly and exciting, sometimes pure chaos that hurts the eye, the feelings.” Shayya agrees with French philosopher, Michel Serres’s radical stance on pollution, laid out in his book Malfeasance, considered the first truly philosophical work of the mental environmentalist movement. In it Serres maintains that he who dirties space with billboards full of sentences and images hides the view of the surrounding landscape, kills perception, and skewers it by this theft. Saliba points out that the issue goes far beyond brands and billboards as Lebanon is going through an intense destruction of natural beauty. “Inside the urban, the rural environment is rapidly disappearing – it is a case of urbanisme sauvage. That’s what Lebanon and Beirut is about.”


An old house in Sanayeh, opposite the park covered by a towering new block of flats encapsulates the current mode of building. Sanayeh.


Sustainable Development

By Elias Chnais

A Pioneer Project Launches Quarry Restoration in Lebanon A Collaborative Success Story

Quarrying and mining for primary resources is as old as humanity itself. Even before humans settled down in agricultural societies, abandoning the old hunter gatherer nomadic lifestyle, precious metals and stones were needed and sought after. As societies become more complex, the need for the Earth’s primary resources skyrocketed inevitably damaging and disfiguring virgin ecosystems. � 75



Quarries, an Imposing Threat to Lebanon’s Biodiversity Lebanon has a variety of Mediterranean type ecosystems harboring an impressive array of plants. These plants are adapted to the local conditions in their habitats. Through centuries of anthropogenic abuse many of these ecosystems underwent degenerative processes. Agriculture, grazing, fires, urban expansion and industries that tap into the country’s finite primary resources all contributed to transform and degrade the Lebanese landscape.

A Peek into the Lebanese Legislations The Lebanese regulations, through several decrees, govern the establishment of quarries with provisions on the rehabilitation process following the termination of the quarrying operations. Decree 8803 issued in 2002 offers a comprehensive approach to the issue of stone and gravel quarries. It defines quarries and describes the procedure to abide with in order to get a quarrying permit (article 7). In addition, the permit determines the ways of waste disposal and mitigation measures the investor has to do in order to avoid damage to the surrounding environment. Article 14 tackles the process of rehabilitation the investor has to implement after the end of quarrying activities based on the specifications determined in the permit. The number of quarries steadily increased from 711 to 1,278 from 1996 to 2005 with the areas excavated nearly doubling in size from 2,875 to 5,283 hectare. Most of these quarries are located in forest and 76

scrubland ecosystems noted for their rich diversity in fauna and flora. Quarrying is a highly ecologically demanding activity that rapidly degrades the landscape and affects hydrological and biological processes. However, quarried sites can be restored and rehabilitated effectively mitigating most of the damages that occurred the time the quarry was used. The restoration process itself requires time, knowledge and resources. Although the Lebanese legislations tackle the issue of quarries, quite often there is no or little respect to the laws in place.

A Pioneering Initiative at the National and Regional Level Cement manufacturing is a resource and energy intensive process which requires sustainable solutions. The Northern part of Lebanon is a hot spot for cement production, especially in the area of Chekka and its surrounding. Holcim Lebanon, one of the cement companies in Lebanon, operates a grey and a white cement plant in Chekka, several ready mix plants and a grinding station in Northern Cyprus. Under its commitment to sustainable development and the continuous improvement of environmental performance, Holcim is committed to rehabilitating its quarries in compliance with the Holcim Group Guidelines. Therefore, biodiversity management is embedded in Holcim’s long-term strategy. In 2012, Holcim Lebanon signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the world’s largest conservation network, through its regional office of Western

Asia (ROWA) based in Jordan to restore an old quarry in Chekka. IUCN ROWA chose two local partners to complete this mission, to assess the state of the quarry and design a comprehensive, feasible and scalable restoration plan. The selected partners are the Association for Forests, Development and Conservation (AFDC), a local NGO with a strong knowledge in native floral biodiversity and an expert in reforestation and landscape restoration and the National Council for Scientific Research (CNRS), one of Lebanon’s most prominent and respected scientific institutions. Through this project, Holcim Lebanon and its partners aim to show a real life model of what a restored quarry would look like which will provide local technical know-how for the future restoration of quarries. A project set up in phases The project is divided into four phases to ensure successful and efficient planning and execution. The first phase focused on biodiversity assessments of the site, followed by the design phase to find the appropriate restoration scheme suitable for the quarry. The third phase which is execution, extends from early 2013 till 2014 and is followed by maintenance and monitoring. Work on site was initiated by a series of assessments whereby AFDC took charge of the flora study while IUCN ROWA team took charge of studying the fauna at the quarry and its immediate surroundings. A Swiss expert complemented the assessments with a study on the hydrological processes within the quarry site. The design of the restoration was headed by CNRS in Í

coordination with AFDC and European consultants who offered more insight into the restoration possibilities. The design phase was challenging due to the complexity of the site and its specificities. Therefore, several meetings between Holcim Steering Committee and the project partners took place to discuss restoration scenarios. Taking into account the objective of the project, Holcim’s vision and the expertise of all partners, the final design was oriented towards integrating the quarry within its natural landscape rather than completely transforming it. Several species of trees and shrubs were chosen to create a diverse ecosystem able to sustain a large number of animal species. Since the site is mostly devoid of soil, the addition of soil was foreseen in certain areas of the quarry; it will be stabilized by retaining structures. The added soil will speed up ecosystem dynamics and plant establishment. However, rocky outcrops and areas with little soil were also integrated within the design in order to diversify the habitats in the restored quarry and allow for more natural healing processes to take place. The project is currently in the implementation phase and


completion of restoration work will be in 2014. To ensure a successful restoration, monitoring will follow and will extend for several years beyond the timeframe of the project. Some academic institutions already expressed their interest in taking part in the monitoring activities, thereby allowing graduate students to get involved up close and personal with a unique environmental initiative.

A Unique Experience, a Role Model for Other Businesses Holcim’s commitment to biodiversity management resulted in this unique opportunity in which the private sector, a national scientific institution, a local NGO and a global network of experts to join hands to accomplish this pioneering project. This project presents a significant learning process to all partners through an exchange of knowledge and expertise, to better understand the challenges behind quarry restoration. It will set a standard and contribute to the development and sharing of rehabilitation best practices for limestone quarries in the Mediterranean environment and particularly in Lebanon.

Sustainable Development About AFDC: The Association for Forests, Development and Conservation is a leading local environmental NGO established in 1994. Since its early days AFDC focused on forest preservation, restoration and forest fires management. In 2009, the council of ministers ratified the “National Forest Fires Strategy� prepared by AFDC along with local partners, making the strategy an official state policy. AFDC continues to work on local forest management and forest fires management plans that put the local communities at the heart of its efforts.


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"Photography is a way of feeling, of touching of loving... What you have caught on film is captured forever... " - Aaron Siskind



By Aude Dorion

ROOTS REGGAE IN GAMBIA Every year, reggae legend Mad professor and the Ariwastudio organize ‘Back to Africa’ in Gambia, an annual dub music festival which attracts musicians and fans from across the globe. As the official photographer of the festival, Aude Dorion‘s collection of images from the rural area of Batokunku (which translates to farm by the sea) capture the spirit of the Batokunku people. In exerts from her diary, Aude gives us a glimpse into everyday life in Gambia. Í


Women surrounding the bride on a wedding celebration in Batokunku..

Woman of discretion walking in the celebration cortege, Batokunku.

Woman dancing on a wedding celebration in Batokunku.

The idea of going back to Africa is one that has resonated throughout reggae music since its creation. Before I started collaborating with Ariwa, an experience of Africa was nothing but a distant dream, it is now the second time I am here, my bag filled with photo prints and contacts, I am on my way to see all the people I had met there the year before. Gambia is Africa’s smallest nation, a narrow strip of land along the Gambia river, surrounded otherwise by Senegal. It is a truly beautiful place yet not entirely utopian. It is ruled by an autocrat who seized power in 1994, and the country remains extremely impoverished. Life in Gambia is extremely difficult for everyday people. The monthly income is approximately 25 euros. Most of the people I came across were farmers, with peanuts, rice, millet, and sorghum being their main crops. While the people of Batokunku produce their own food, some produce is gathered from the fish market of Tanger a few miles away. During planting and harvesting seasons, much time is spent in the fields. At other times, the men I met told me they worked in part-time businesses to supplement their incomes. Others raise goats, sheep, bees, and poultry. Cattle are sometimes kept, but only to gain prestige or to use as a "bride price." The society is patrilineal (maledominated), with the smallest social unit being the family. Typically, the oldest man is the leader of the community. Different groups are usually recognized by their symbolic emblems, animals, and plants. As I spent more time here, I came to realise that during dancing celebrations, one could recognize which clan women and men came from by their clothes. � 90

Women dancing at the festival. The force of their movement and the camaieu of bright purples and ochres from their clothes, elusive sensation, vivid memory.

Little girls dancing in a circle, Batokunku nursery school.

Street scenery, Serenkunda market, one of the major trading place of the area.

Portrait of a little girl nursery school Batokunku.


I was happy to learn whilst sitting chatting with the locals under the baobab tree, that if someone travels to another village, he or she is shown hospitality by the villagers who share the same last name. Batokunku is made up of clans, or family groups all having the same name. The village is surrounded by a wall, and in the center of it there is a wind mill. Houses are made of mud with either thatch or tin roofs. Traditionally here, the men do the heavy farm work and fish, while the women cook, clean and care for the children. In the village there is a nursery school. The kids of the village love their school time. Every morning they are in the classroom with their

teacher Sally for a few hours; in the afternoon they stay at home with their mums. All children have to go to school until the age of ten, however, with many single parents in the Gambia and very high school fees, single mothers can rarely send more than one child to school. Parents formerly arrange their daughters marriages. The groom is required to work for the bride's family both before and after the wedding. The courtship begins with the offering of Kola nuts to the parents of the bride-to-be. The groom must also pay the girl's family a "bride price". Unions follow the Islamic tradition with an infusion of traditional customs. Among them the women dancing around the bride. Islam has been blended with traditional beliefs, which involves worshipping the spirits of the land. The artisans of the village are generally looked upon with awe and respect because their crafts often involve spiritual rituals. At the beginning of the festival, women from all the neighborhoods were wearing their celebration clothes. Women from the fishtown of Tanger came to join in the dancing as well. There was a real festive atmosphere. When the drums start rolling and the sound fills the whole atmosphere, there is nowhere else like Gambia... There is a rich cultural heritage here and the oral literature is considered some of the best in the world – with the festival now over, it will remain in people’s minds as a celebration of traditional music, Reggae and Dub under the stars of Batokunku.

“We shan't save all we should like to, but we shall save a great deal more than if we had never tried.” - Sir Peter Scott, WWF founder

BIODIVERSITY Magazine A Historic Year for Iconic Species ....................................................98 By Azza Turki

Taming the Tiger The Insidious Trade that is Turning Asia’s Tigers into Skin and Bone............................................. 104 By Sarah Stoner & Natalia Pervushina

Antimony Mining Threat Near Manciano In Maremma South Tuscany................................................. 110 By Gabriella Porelli

Robinia Pseudo Acacia The Magic Tree.............................. 114 By Hala Habib



By Azza Turki

A Historic Year for Iconic Species Marks New Era at CITES This special Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) report is brought to you by the newly launched Tunisian Environment Reporting Network, who attended the 40th meeting of the Parties as part of the Internews Europe and Earth Journalism Network grant, supported by World Environment Magazine. Trade, environment and development ... This is the triptych on which the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) is based. This year marked the 40th Anniversary of the Convention, which was held in Bangkok in March 2013.

To those who are not familiar with CITES, on the surface it appears that key concerns stem from a strictly environmental angle, however, most of the key issues discussed during the two week long meeting exert a substantial financial impact which amounts to billions of dollars. Often, an entire country’s economy can be based on assuring the trade in certain commercial animal and plant species. Behind the diplomatic delegations niceties of the 170 countries attending the Conference, real power relations are at play. In between the committee and plenary meetings and side events, there is also receptions and cocktails taking place alongside the discussions, whispers of suspicions of bargaining or even of threats. One thing is for sure, the stakes are not insignificant at CITES. Far from it... once every two years, the highest structure provided by the CITES Parties 98

Conference meet to come to a consensus on a coveted species’ "commercial" future, that is to say for the survival of some of them, such as sharks, elephants, rhinos, crocodiles or polar bears. Today, CITES provides protection to more than 30,000 wild flora and fauna. A protection equivalent first and foremost to control and regulation. In fact, far from preconceived ideas, the Convention does not prohibit endangered species trade, as its role is to organize to varying degrees, three appendices, reflecting different degrees of protection provided. Appendix I includes species threatened with extinction whose trade "is only permitted in exceptional circumstances." Appendix II includes species threatened in the medium term "specimens which trade must be controlled to avoid incompatible utilization with their survival." Í

Biodiversity Endangered Species

The inclusion in Appendix III, the least discussed, is required by a country seeking assistance from other CITES Parties to control trade in certain species. Also according to the Convention, "any importation or exportation of species listed in any of the appendixes, must be authorized through a licensing system" issued by a member of the country’s administration whose decision is based on that of a scientific authority. It is easy to tell which species are of commercial interest by the intensity of the debate surrounding their appendix listing or de-listing. This year, discussions surrounding the polar bear listing dominated the first week of CITES.

Bad Week for Polar Bear as States Fail to Reach Consensus The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) was not granted full protection against international trade, as the transfer of the polar bear from Appendix II to Appendix I was not adopted. Supported by Russia, the United States put forward the proposal to further limit trade on the species and body parts. But this proposal was met with equal fervour from Canada, who brought representative from the Inuit to make a pledge against the listing during the committee meeting. Since 2005, IUCN had transferred the polar bear status from "least concern" to "vulnerable." In September 2007, experts from the United States Geological Survey even published a report in which they forewarned of the disappearance of two-thirds (of the population) by 2050, worldwide. Those scientific data have already led some states to take drastic measures. In 1956, Russia banned the hunting. More recently, the United States placed


polar bears on the endangered species list. Canada is the only leading exporter of polar bear parts and the only state that allows trading export. During the heated debate between those putting forward the proposal and those opposing it, the compromise solution of the European Union consisting of "establishing enhanced surveillance of hunting quotas accompanied by further studies on the polar bear populations "was taken aback. The antagonism and the indecision of some States were not the only fatal cause to the non-inclusion of polar bears in Appendix I, as disputes between NGOs also marked the voting. Certainly, for the WWF, polar bears were not considered as threatened by trade but by climate change. Dr. Colman O'Criodain from WWF explained: "CITES is not the appropriate body to its preservation." "The main threat to polar bears is climate change, which are primarily responsible governments behind this proposal. If the proposal was adopted, we would be worried for spreading a false sense of security. If trading was a direct threat, we would have seen things differently but this is not the case. The species are already regulated by CITES. They appear in Annex II,” "It is true that climate change is the biggest threat," concedes Azzedine Downes. President of the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW). Then he immediately proceed with a question: "But why add another threat to the existing one? “

Good Week For Sharks As Key States Insist on Protection Listing After the heated polar bear debate which dominated the discussions, came the intensity of the five key

species shark listing proposals. “We call on all parties to recognize the urgency of the situation and start to work towards the conservation of those species," declares Sonja Fordham, President of Shark Advocates International at a press conference. Their joy as their tenacity is understandable. Flashback ... After a relatively calm week, the committee I chaired by the Canadian Carolina Caceres, opens on March 11th in a highly tense atmosphere. In the committee room where the shark debates are about to take place, some 170 delegations rub shoulders with conservation groups, divers, associations, organizations and fishing interest lobbyists. It was 9 in the morning when the proposal to list the oceanic white tip on Appendix II was put forward by Brazil, Colombia and the United States. "The registration (Annex II) does not prohibit international trade. This would strengthen regional cooperation and legitimate trade. We invite you to cross the historic step in promoting the precautionary principle. Do not wait until the situation gets worse,” pleaded in its presentation the Colombian delegation who proposed an 18-months period in order to enable parties of resolving the related technical and administrative problems. Rarely used for subsistence purposes, the oceanic whitetip shark is caught as incidental by catch, or targeted for its fins (2% of the animal) which are marketed primarily in Asia. The proposal was supported by the European Union which stated its "commitment to earmark funds by supporting the capacity building for the implementation of CITES marine species registration." Many countries including New Zealand, Mali and Senegal joined in the debate to back


Arab Countries and Shark Conservation A number of North African and Middle Eastern states – notably Yemen, Jordan and Qatar came out strongly in support of shark conservation and the CITES listings proposed. Egypt co-sponsored the European Union’s porbeagle proposal – a key commercial species highly targeted by fisheries. The Jordanian delegation expressed that it “hope(d) that the vote on sharks would go through” whilst the delegation from Yemen stated that they “looked forward to more cooperation between nations.” West African Connection The seven West African member countries of the Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission (CSRP) tasked with working towards the harmonization of long-term policies of member States in the preservation, conservation and exploitation of the fisheries resources came out in full support for the shark proposals during the committee debates. "Since 2001, we set up a sub-regional action plan as we become aware of the shark’s threat. We trained educators and researchers to recognize the species. We supported research centers. This allowed us to have a clear idea of the situation of each species,” explained the biologist Dr Mika Diop, Program Officer at the Permanent Secretariat of the Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission (SRFC). Long known for their local fisheries and the livelihoods which depend on it, West African countries came out as major advocates of all the shark proposals at this CITES meeting, with a number of countries led by the Senegalese delegation highlighting the important role of the species as an apex predator and calling for worldwide protection and cooperation.


Biodiversity Endangered Species

technical, practical and scientific arguments on why the species should not be accorded protection, also citing that it was only regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs) that should oversee marine issues and not CITES. The Japanese delegation also cited the difficulties in distinguishing these species from others and possible problems linked to implementation as well as the impact on fishermen and the likely increase in illegal trade. A succession of delegations from many countries including China, Singapore and some Caribbean islands came forward to share the concerns raised by Japan.

Tip of the Iceberg

the Colombian proposal. Many Arab countries, imcluding Egypt, Yemen and especially the countries of West Africa pledged their support throughout the debates. "Since 2001, we set up a subregional action plan as we become aware of the shark’s threat. We trained educators and researchers to recognize the species. We supported research centers. This allowed us to have a clear idea of the situation of each species, "explained the

biologist Dr Mika Diop, Program Officer at the Permanent Secretariat of the Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission (SRFC).

Asian & Caribean States Backlash However, the positive trend does not last. In the room, certain smiles seemed to clench when the representative of the Japanese delegation took to the floor to present

"Despite the decisive blow given by FAO experts who said that "the oceanic whitetip shark meets the scientific criteria" for inclusion in Annex II, the battle to get the species listed was fierce and the vote took place by secret ballot, as requested by Japan. The oceanic white tip proposal was adopted by two-thirds of the vote. And as stated by Dr. Colman O'Criodain, this set the tone for the rest of the shark discussions thereafter. The 43rd Proposal (relating to the registration of three species of hammerhead sharks in Appendix II), 44 (relating to the registration of porbeagle in Appendix II) and 46 (relating to the registration of the manta ray on Appendix II) were all adopted. Even the sawfish was transferred from Appendix II to Appendix I making March 11th, a particularly prolific and historic day for marine species. 103



By Sarah Stoner & Natalia Pervushina

Taming the Tiger Trade The Insidious Trade that is Turning Asia’s Tigers into Skin and Bone Wild tiger numbers are at an all time low. Loss of habitat and prey are just two of the threats facing the species, however another insidious factor is depleting their numbers further still: the trade in their bones, skin, meat and other body parts. Understanding the scale and nature of this underground trade is fundamental to tackling its effects: but who is behind it, why are tiger parts being trafficked, what motivates the consumers, and where are the tigers sourced and destined? �


Biodiversity Endangered Species

Amur Tiger Panthera tigris altaica


In 2010, TRAFFIC published Skin and Bones, an analysis of the Tiger seizures reported across 11 of the 13 countries where Tigers are still found in the wild. It was the first time that seizures of tiger parts, products and derivatives had been analyzed in detail and it produced some startling results. Alarmingly, it found that parts of at least 1,069 Tigers had been seized in 11 tiger range countries over the previous decade an average of 104 animals per year; or around two per week. The report was released shortly ahead of a Tiger Summit that took place later the same month in St. Petersburg, Russia. There, representatives from all 13 of the tiger range countries finalized a Global Tiger Recovery Program, a plan that aims to double the number of tigers in the wild by 2022. Three years on, and TRAFFIC repeated the analysis of tiger seizures, and found the situation little changed since 2010. In total, TRAFFIC found evidence that parts of 1,425 Tigers had been seized in 12 of the 13 Tiger range countries between 2000 and 2012. A number of additional seizures had come to light from the years of the first study, and overall there was a similar, albeit slightly increased, average of 110 tigers killed for trade per year. Clearly, the illicit trade in tiger parts continues, despite the high-level political commitment and momentum generated in 2010 by relevant governments to address tiger 106

conservation priorities. However, TRAFFIC gives us far more of an insight into this trade than just its sheer scale. Detailed information from India allowed a spatial analysis of the data to be carried out. Indeed, of the 13 tiger range countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand, Viet Nam), only India had sufficiently detailed seizure records for such an analysis to take place. Through mapping the locations of seizures and applying some statistical analysis, it was possible to identify five trade “hotspots” within India. These included Delhi, while the other four were close to tiger reserves in different parts of the country (Uttar Pradesh, central India, West Bengal (Sundarbans) and the southern India landscape of the Western Ghats). Moreover, 89% of all the seizures were outside protected areas, emphasizing the importance of antitrafficking actions to disrupt trade chains and prevent incursions into tiger habitats. The benefits of such analysis to enhance law enforcement efforts to protect tigers are obvious – and will provide an essential complement to anti-poaching efforts inside tigerinhabited landscapes, such as patrolling by rangers. The report also found the existence of the illegal online selling of tiger parts in China. An emergence in intelligence-led policing may be Í

“When it comes to looking after all the species that are already endangered, there's such a lot to do that sometimes it might all seem to be too much, especially when there are so many other important things to worry about. But if we stop trying, the chances are that pretty soon we'll end up with a world where there are no tigers or elephants, or sawfishes or whooping cranes, or albatrosses or ground iguanas. And I think that would be a shame, don't you?” - Martin Jenkins, Can We Save the Tiger?

The illicit trade in tiger parts continues, despite the highlevel political commitment and momentum generated in 2010 by relevant governments to address tiger conservation priorities.

Biodiversity Endangered Species One of two tigers seized by Thai authorities in a house on the outskirts of Bangkok.

Male Amur Tiger


Biodiversity Endangered Species TRAFFIC has an enviable reputation as a reliable and impartial organization, a leader in the field of conservation as it relates to wildlife trade. TRAFFIC was established in 1976 and has developed into a global network, research-driven and action-oriented, committed to delivering innovative and practical conservation solutions based on the latest information. TRAFFIC is a strategic alliance of WWF and IUCN.

Tiger skin displayed for sale at one of many retail outlets for tiger products in Mong La Special Region 4, Shan State, Myanmar.

driving trade underground and displacing traditional tiger trading which previously took place in open markets. Law enforcement agencies are encouraged to monitor how enduser markets operate to ensure criminal syndicates cannot continue to evade detection. The question therefore must be raised as to why such data are not compiled on a routine basis by all tiger range countries. Here, the organization believes the establishment of a routine tiger seizure reporting system, compatible across all tiger range countries could provide huge benefits to those policing the illegal trade: if more robust information was routinely collected, analyzed and shared between countries, real inroads could be made into targeting the transboundary smuggling syndicates behind tiger trafficking. It will continue to collect and analyze tiger seizure data, both to provide information at a policy level — and to provide a basis for tiger range country officials to evaluate whether they are succeeding in taming the tiger trade or not. The information will also be used to provide strategic intelligence for law enforcement initiatives coordinated through CITES-led processes. CITES is the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. The sheer volume of tigers being traded strongly suggests that the

current wild tiger population of 3,200 may not be enough to satisfy demand. While such analyses do not directly provide information into the origin of the tiger parts found in trade, they do give clues as to where they came from: the number of seizures close to tiger-inhabited protected areas in India strongly suggests they involve animals of wild origin. By contrast, seizures in Thailand, Lao PDR and Viet Nam, countries with smaller wild tiger populations, but all with tiger breeding facilities, suggests the parts may involve animals from captive facilities. The updated analysis in 2013 found that there has been an increase in the seizure of live tigers in recent years: 61 live animals between 2010 and 2012, almost exactly the same number of live animals seized during the entire previous decade. Thailand alone accounted for 30 of these animals, followed by Lao PDR (11) and Indonesia (9) and Viet Nam (4). TRAFFIC believes a system should be established to enable transparent reporting on the disposal of tigers that have died in captive facilities. In addition, a DNA database to inventory all tigers held in captivity will permit testing of seized tigers to determine their source. The ability to trace the origin of any tigers subsequently interdicted in trade would have clear law enforcement and deterrent benefits.


By Gabriella Porelli

Antimony Mining Threat Near Manciano In Maremma, South Tuscany



A Canadian mining company, named Adroit Resources Ltd, has obtained provisional licenses to start exploratory drilling for antimony reserves in an unspoilt area of Southern Tuscany. However, the granting of the licences are subject to Italian VIA (Evaluation for Environmental Impact) sanctioning before they go ahead. This only came to the attention of local residents around the beginning of October 2012 after the conditional permit was granted.

typical landscape looking west

The village and area of Manciano in Tuscany is coordinating structured opposition to the plan going ahead. There are a few rustic farmhouses and homes dotted about the hillsides, in a very beautiful, unspoilt countryside, surrounded by luscious mediterranean "macchia" (wild woodland). The woodland harbors wild boar, indigenous porcupine, Maremma cattle. Manciano residents have allotments or olive/vine plantations in the area in question. Our local sheep farmer, Giuliano, and his son, Stefano, are really worried that their source of income and way of life, will be stripped away from them. Their neighbors, who have invested time and money in their herds of Maremma cows and maintenance of rare breeds, are equally concerned.

The prospect of open cast mining of antimony, whose dust when inhaled is very toxic, is alarming anywhere, and now it threatens an idyllic corner of Europe. Any mines would produce great gashes in the middle of rolling farmland and woodland. It is a site that attracts “green” tourism and “agriturismo”. Mining would be coincident with an important drinking water aquifer identified in the region, with the risk of reaching of the toxic material into the aquifer. The site is also located at its northern perimeter 2 kilometers from the village of Manciano. Quite apart from the aesthetic and agricultural implications, the human implications are horrendous. China shut down many of its antimony mines, partly because of the pollution generated. Alternatives to mining antimony are its recovery from lead batteries, phosphorous for textiles. Cambridge scientists have expressed round condemnation of any thought of drilling for antimony over an acquifer. Adroit intend to explore other sites in Tuscany with intent to mine rare earths. A committee has been formed in Manciano to fight this threat to the local environment and to health, which organized a meeting in Manciano on 21 October. Presentations were made, exploring the legal, health, environmental (both farming and biodiversity), geological, economic, landscape impact. Í 111

At the meeting, the mayors of Manciano and Capalbio were present. After a lively debate, the meeting voted unanimously to�: commit the public authorities at local, provincial and regional level to adopt a policy to oppose the granting of licences for research and subsequent opening of this mine" (transl. from Italian). The vote was unanimous with one abstention. Italia Nostra, Fondo Ambiente Italia are among the organizations that have presented their condemnation of this project to the regional authorities of Tuscany.

Overwhelming Reasons for Stopping the Licences: Landscape/Tourism: The area is one of the remaining areas of Tuscany with a low density population and rolling hillsides and thus retains it native forest. Agriculture is in harmony with this forest. It is popular with the natureloving tourist, and is not far from the spa of Saturnia. Tourism in the widest sense accounts for a good 50% of GDP according to some estimates. Medical: Antimony dust can cause lung cancer, and there have been cases of early death from previous mining in the area. Contaminated water could enter the potable waterways. Why did the Chinese shut

their operations down? Not only for economic reasons but also for environmental and medical ones. Studies show that long-term inhalation of antimony can lead to lung cancer, altered electrocardiograms, vomiting, possible though not proved infant death syndrome. Chronic exposure can cause irritation in the eyes, skin and lungs. Environmental/Agriculture: The exploratory drilling (Phase 1) involves concrete plugs after drilling which would effectively reduce available water by 15% and ruin the terrain for agriculture. Phase 2 would introduce a much more hazardous situation which would seriously jeopardise biodiversity, flora and fauna. Mining

would be a contravention of the Natura 2000 Habitats Directive, EEC commitment to biodiversity and the recent European Parliament resolution of 20 April 2012 which enshrines the priorities of ‘meeting the food, natural resources and territorial challenges of the future’ and having regard to financing Natura 2000 which will benefit nature and people. There are a number of specialist breeders raising herds of indigenous Maremma cattle, horses, who contribute to the maintenance of vital DNA for the future. Geological/Water: The drilling area sits right at the top of an important aquifer, called the Capalbio acquifer, which has an estimated volume of 11

cubic meters of potable water. This is a strategic resource not only for Manciano and downstream Capalbio 17 kilometers away, the seaside town of Orbetello, but is also essential to a 5 million euro investment in water supplies involving Lake Burano. To put this water at risk by irreversible contamination would be criminal as well as a waste of this investment. There is no 100% insulation of the aquifer from antimony leaching. Economic: Adroit is a "Shell" company which intends to mine and process 20,000 tons of antimony in this area. Adroit believe that they would make 260 million dollars 200 million Euro over 40 years' mining. The Italian state would get just 7% of this in

tax, giving a mere 350,000 euros annually, the local village gaining just 52,500 euro. A former manager of the small Tafone mine nearby, now closed because exhausted, which would be used to process the ore, says Adroit’s boast that they could find high concentrations is misplaced: they would be lucky to find higher concentrations than 2%. Moreover, their promise of 100 jobs in the mine (which may never happen) should be compared with the annual value of the water at risk estimated at 7.7 million euros. The jobs and livelihoods lost in agriculture dependent businesses such as the cheese factory which depends on supplies of fresh sheep’s and cow’s milk for their production of pecorino and ricotta, exported internationally.

Sheep bred for their milk that goes into making ricotta & pecorino, exported worldwide



By Hala Habib

Robinia Pseudo Acacia The Magic Tree With all the man-made environmental disasters that the world is enduring in the modernlife era, urgent measures have to take place to correct the impeding meltdown scientists warn about to avoid doomsday. In comes the Robinian solution, the magic potion that will revamp the depleted forestation that act as the earth’s lungs. On a smaller individual scale, the Rubinia Pseudo Acacia is a prototype tree that answers the needs of people on a social, economic and environmental scale.

Lebanon, a small “green” country in the mostly dry desert-like Middle East, has lost some of its green forest lands to fires, construction and other elements. Lebanon used to enjoy over 50 percent green land. A small group of individuals have come up with a project that will replant barren lands across the Lebanese mountains. Rabiha Wahid Sfeir Biologist, Chemist, Specialist on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Selected as the Winner of the "Green Mind Award 2012" in the category: Green Individual, and Yola Noujaim, responsible for the Environment Support Program & the Growth of Medicinal Plants are heading this ambitious project glory to replant the Robinia across barren areas in the Lebanese mountains. This planting 114

project, like other tree planting projects across the world (including pine, olive, eucalyptus…) has an environmental, and a socio- economic impact. The tree was named after Linné Jean Robin (1550-1629), naturalist, and botanist of King Henry IV of France, who first introduced it in France. The species name refers to its resemblance pseudoacacia, relative to the genus Acacia, which is part of the "mimosa-season."

Environmental Impact: Worldwide, the Robinia is planted to replace the teak wood forests, which have disappeared. Its properties allow it to play an important environmental role. Robinia pseudo acacia commonly known as the Black Locust


comes from the Fabaceae family. It is a fasy growing tree that can reach a height of 20 to 30 meters in a few years. Robinia grows to be a beautiful tree with white flowers that hang in clusters and releases sweet frangrance. This species is distributed around the globe and has been widely planted to stabilize sandy, rocky, and woody terrain. It is a pioneer tree, growing in all types of fields and thrives in all types of soil and atmospheric conditions. Not only is it highly resilient in a variety of soils, but it also grows back even faster from its stump after harvest by using the existing root system. The Robinia was introduced in Lebanon over 200 years ago and is found in the capital Beirut as well as across the mountains. It is mentioned in the book of Professor Georges Tohme "Illustrated Flora of Lebanon� who notes that the plant now belongs to the Lebanese biodiversity, without being endemic.

Economic Value: The Robinia tree has become an important economic booster in third world countries, such as India, Africa and parts of Asia where nearly the entire tree is cultivated and used to make vital products. Wood: Pale yellow and brown in color the Robinia has a very strong and close-grained composition. It is one of the heaviest and hardest woods, and is known to be very durable, making it prized for furniture, flooring, panelling, fence posts and small watercraft. Black Locust is highly valued as firewood for wood-burning stoves; it burns slowly, with little visible flame or smoke, and has a higher heat content than any other species that grows 116

widely. It has the ability to burn even when wet being an advantage in rainforest countries across the equator. The fact that it grows rapidly makes it always available for firewood needs. The Robinia contains flavonoids which allows the wood to last over one hudred years in the soil. With fertilizer prices rising, the importance of Robinia as a nitrogen-fixing species is also noteworthy. The mass application of fertilizers in agriculture and forestry is increasingly expensive; therefore nitrogen-fixing tree and shrub species are gaining importance in managed forestry. Honey: Blossoming in March/June, bees make an excellent honey that is blond or white from the Robinia tree flowers. The bees produce over 35 kilograms of honey per hectar. It is also used to make soap and foaming gel. Homeopathy: It is used against digestive disorders through the infusion of its leaves as well as a remedy against gastric acidity, while the roots and barks are used as a purgative. Essential Oils: Essence from the tree and flowers are used in the perfumery and cosmetic industry.

Social Advantage: This project is addressed to municipalities and landowners that own abandoned, uncultivated, barren land. The income that is generated from this forestation can be shared between municipalities and active farmers. Not only will abandoned land be cultivated, but it will generate an income for its owners while at the same time contributing to restoring greenery to the Lebanese landscape.

Cultivation Benefits: It is possibility to sow the Robinia tree seeds in rows of 4ml/8kg over a space of 10,000 square meter. This process is easier and less costly than planting young trees. Over 1,500 plants can be spread over an area of 10,000 square meters preferably during the Autumn season, with plants that are over one year old, and a height of 50cm. After 8 years, branches of the tree can be harvested for use and after 15 years, 500 trees survive in 10,000 square meter area. After 30 to 40 years, the trunk can be sowed off allowing the Robinia tree to rejuvenates itself after cutting. Active care is required for the tree every five years, including thinning, cleaning, cutting, etc. This is equivalent to one-fifth of the area each year. The Robinia can grow up-to 20 to 25 meters in height and is resistant to drought and dry soils which makes it an excellent option for the Middle East region. The tree does not thrive in stagnated water. As a nitrogen-fixing species, the Robinia tree can enrich the soil thus making it a self sustainable plant. The Robinia tree has become an important economic booster in third world countries specifically in Africa and Asia where nearly the entire tree is cultivated and used to make vital products. The aim of the project is to protect the resources that remain in the country and to create new forests in lands that have been depleted and scarred by natural effects or from quarries, construction etc. Focus will be given to projects to plant woodlots near villages and to furnish firewood on short rotations. The project will cater for private plantations, commercial plantations and windbreaks.

"It is human nature to be inspired by our surroundings. Sights, sounds, the sheer air we breathe, can affect many an artist, coming from both conscious and unconscious sources." - Jacques Versey


Magazine Enzzo Barrena ................................118 By Mariejoe J. Raidy

Forestronika Festival, “The Other Side�, Experience Sustainability Through Music & Art ........................................................ 128 By Nicole Salwan

Dihzahyners...................................... 132 By Nathalie Rosa Bucher

Green Second

Environment & Art

By Mariejoe J. Raidy

ENZZO BARRENA Realities of nature and the human body A self-taught artist from Peru, Enzzo Barrena had only recently discovered the means by which to express his passion for art. Enzzo’s art is unique. It does not portray life as we see it, he manipulates images to portray life as we feel it to transmit his senses in ways that are identifiable in humans such as sadness, heartbreak, pain and loneliness... Enzzo Barrena is a savior. “I believe that art today has lost that link with emotions and I want to rescue it, not only do I want the viewer to find an answer in each piece, but to also feel the intrinsic visual. There is a connection not only of form but of substance.” WE Magazine pries through the depth of this creative artist’s thoughts to explain his Dali-like 21st century art-form. Í 119

The Ride

Environment & Art

WE: Your work is very expressive and profoundly imaginative, what inspires you? Enzzo Barrena: I think inspiration comes from experience of life, I try to see beauty in so many ways not only from the superficial aspect. I believe beauty is a state of mind. From that perspective I see every situation as a possible ignition to create art. I try to create my perception in common things like sleep or a walk in the street or in deep emotions like loneliness or sadness. Inspiration is an act of thought so the wider one thinks, the more possibilities become available. Inspiration can be triggered by a movie, a book, an ant on the desk, music, an animal etc. It could be anything, the key for me is to always ask myself: what if? WE: You use nature and the human body to go back to basic things in life and emerging emotions out of them. E.B: That's true I want to go back to basic. I think in the modern era art has lost the connection between the piece of art and the viewer. With my art I want people to feel the connection with every piece they see and identify with emotions. The human body helps me to achieve that. All my art is an expression of myself but it is also a search for Ă? 121

“I think women are the most beautiful creatures in the world, and the piece talks about my search for beauty, the bonsai represents care, art, and the patience to reach that beauty.”

answers to the usual questions: who am I? what am I doing here? why is the world like that? WE: What is your relationship with nature and what role does it play in your art and life? E.B: Nature is everything. It is the beginning and the end; there is no humanity without nature. WE: Tell us a little about the inspiration behind and meaning of the three art works The Initial Flight, The Ride, the Skinbonsai. E.B: The Initial Flight, I combined two things that I like, a rhino and the act of flying. Like every kid I always wanted to fly. That’s where I got the idea from, and then I created a short story about a ritual of the initiation of a boy to a man, through which he needs to travel through the desert to the end of the world and jump... It is a long story but that's the idea. Life is a journey through obstacles. The Ride, one day I saw a little girl in the park and she left her bicycle by a tree to go and play with other kids. They were screaming, laughing and playing, making a lot of noise. I looked at the old tree and I started to think, "Maybe the tree wants to get on that bicycle and runaway to be in peace". That was what ignited the idea, I wanted to portray a feeling 122



“I combined two things that I like, a rhino and the act of flying. Like every kid I always wanted to fly. That’s where I got the idea from, and then I created a short story about a ritual of the initiation of a boy to a man, through which he needs to travel through the desert to the end of the world and jump...”

of freedom, of joy. Life itself is a ride. Skinbonsai, I think women are the most beautiful creatures in the world (I hate to admit it), and the piece talks about my search for beauty, the bonsai represents care, art, and the patience to reach that beauty. WE: Who is Enzzo Barrena? An artist? Or a working person who does art for his own pleasure? E.B: Who am I? that's a tough question but I definitely make art because it is a passion. It is a way of expressing myself and when people get connected and relate to it, this gives me a wonderful feeling of achievement. Art is a gift. WE: Any last thoughts you want to share? E.B: We have to look at the sky from time to time. We should feel marvelous because we are alive, and that is a gift. I think the world is full of ideas and we just need to be alert to grasp them.


The Initial Flight

The Only Earth

Environment & Art

"In Enzzo’s world the viewer enters in a different dimension, a world where common identified objects are twisted from their initial context and juxtaposed with different images to offer a whole new meaning. That new meaning is Enzzo’s Reality. Each one at a different degree can relate to Enzzo’s world, some will find universality beneath the perceived image (birth of humanity, women as the source of life, etc), others will enjoy the phantasmagoric character of the protagonist. But it is undeniably clear that his influence of work is that of the surrealist and the post surrealist, in which the world is not what we perceive but rather what we don’t see, and where empty deep spaces reflects the depth of the subconscient. " Cynthia Nouhra, Gallery Owner. 127



By Nicole Salwan

Forestronika Festival, “The Other Side” Experience Sustainability Through Music & Art In the scenic mountains of Lebanon Since 2008, a festival in the Middle East has been increasingly ripening up into solid foundations for sustainability. It’s mission: A Sustainable Dawn for a Brave Festival.

With the curious mind of an experiential child that never gives up on their dreams, a restless community has been passionately thriving to create a space for music, art and sustainability to co-exist and interweave under one starry sky. A space where environmental protection is key for the sustainability of its culture and its evolution. This is the 6th edition of Forestronika Festival, a global event that celebrates nature. Since 2008, Forestornika Festival has been the meeting point to hundreds of music and nature lovers coming from from Lebanon and all over the region. This year, with a 128

theme titled “The Other Side”, Forestronika 2013 has grown even deeper into its annual agenda to serve you yet another culturally rich and ecologically diverse festival. On its 2013 agenda, a lot of new topics, two international stages, more NGO partnership, art installations, a wonderland location by the river side, along with many self development disciplines and nature activities. “It all started with a chill-out zone during the first years of the festival, but last year, the area was transformed into an alternative stage that hosted live musicians and local talents with a

variety of genres, from experimental to progressive, jazz & blues, rock and reggae,” said Nicole Salwan, the festival’s organizer. “This year the alternative area will be hosting an even wider range of arts like dance and poetry, and instrumental workshops for those who would like to dab in music. We’ve been preparing for an exceptional event and meaning to spread the green awareness as much as possible particularly this year. On the social responsibility level, Forestronika community is working continuously on separate environmental activities Í

Forestronika Community’s main goal is to expose people to an alternative way of life; to make them ask more questions. To re-open the curiosity channel they have lost after childhood while getting busy in their daily lives.

such as monthly beach clean-ups along the coastline of Lebanon involving a large number of volunteers. We have a world music nights organized and hosted in Beirut so NGOs can discuss their missions and organize mutual events. Forestronika Festival, a Sustainable Growing Project

‘We are aiming at becoming a fully sustainable festival within the span of 4 years. A small number of festivals worldwide are actually working on a sustainable course of action for their power supply, waste management and human waste process. We are in the process of replacing the non-renewable energy we are usually use to generate electricity for four days non-stop in the festival area, with a renewable energy system.

All the garbage collected inside the festival will be separated and recycled by us and our partners in the field. Biodegradable soap will be the only kind of soap allowed to be used in the venue and the river by our attendees. Last but not least, collaborating artists and designers will build pieces of art out of the waste collected during the festival. This waste-management system and the energysaving system is a challenge for us as organizers of the festival, and it is a very important investment financially. We welcome all support from the private sector as well as the public sector working and specializing in this field in Lebanon. What this country needs is projects like ours that will be the lead that will eventually lead to a change of behavior. We are certain that our community is going in the

right direction for a sustainable tomorrow, a more aware citizenship, and a joyful time in nature by understanding it,” said the festival organizer. The festival started off as a three days music oriented camping in the year 2008 and has now become a massive get together for nature lovers. People who take part in the festival range from students to people who need to disconnect from the daily routine of the city, to those who are young at heart and want to soak in the positive energy of the 4day eco-conscious artistic and musical festival. This year work on the festival started and is launched to the public four months prior to its official opening date. Artists from around the globe are joining to make this celebration an international happening. Musicians are invited to play some of life’s most enthusiastic

rhythms. There will be joy expressed in all its colors and shapes through the painting station, the Djembe workshop, circus art classes, and much more. Exotic instruments players will be invited to perform and introduce unusual music instruments to the public. A full schedule to keep participants days and nights busy and filled up with valuable ecologyrelated information, ‘eargasmic’ sounds and beats, self expression and development activities and collective sessions. There will be something for all tastes. Forestronika community’s main goal is to expose people to an alternative way of life; to make them ask more questions. To reopen the curiosity channel they have lost since childhood being busy with the hassle of their daily lives. 131



By Nathalie Rosa Bucher

Dihzahyners Changing the Cityscape Through Arts Seen from Aley or from above, Beirut lacks green and is a rather predominantly grey built-up affair. All of Beirut? Street art projects ranging from painted doors, to colorful, redecorated walls, to large-scale interventions such as the mural painted by Chilean artist Inti at the end of Hamra Street undertaken by various creative and dynamic groups have been changing the cityscape increasingly so over the past year. Ă?


A collective of inspired, driven and passionate young artists and designers got together and decided to create initiatives to make Beirut brighter and more beautiful through color. A few formerly grey, unspectacular staircases have turned to veritable eye candy. Their key ingredients consist of tons and tons of paint and brushes, immeasurable creativity and a love for detail. “They also include, paint rolls, stencils if need be, sticks to mix the paint with, buckets, smaller cups for making different colors, smaller brushes for precision, a lot of water, a lot of wet wipes and lots of bottles of paint thinner that everyone ends up fussing over the last drop for,” the collective explains. The effect of these beautification efforts on the built environment but more importantly so, on those living nearby, Beirutis and visitors passing by as well as the process involved in conceptualizing, organizing, executing and completing Paint Ups are as positive and inspiring as they are colorful. In order to bring about positive change but not doing so at the cost of alienating the public, Dizahyners have worked closely with the municipalities and nearby residents for all the projects completed thus far – with spectacular results. Í


Environment & Art


“People are blown away by someone caring for their streets at all, let alone taking out hours to create public events and initiatives that add paint and color to brighten up the streets and stairs of their city. They help out, give us their opinion on designs and colors, offer us food, water and blessings,” Dihzahners expand on the Paint Up process. “It's truly motivating and inspiring. We do get permits from the municipalities that we paint in, but they have been great about it, encouraging us to continue with our initiatives. We also make it a point of asking neighboring residents what they think, if they would like us to change or add or remove anything in our designs – we create mockups before every event. We make sure they're fine with us invading their space for a while to make it more colorful.” A staircase project, “Scala”, German artist Horst Gläsker completed in Wuppertal, Germany, painting 112 steps between two close-set houses, sparked a longstanding desire to add value, to transform one dull staircase into a landmark by giving it that kind of jazzy make-over. The group had been conducting research and become familiar with street art from around the world, as well as graffiti, outdoor and urban design, but wanted to aim at making a real difference in the landscape of Lebanon. “We really want to change communities that people live in. We thought because we were still a small group at the time, that we would start with stairs, and possibly gain awareness for bigger events such as walls, and so on. We’d start with projects and then grow into a real movement to help reshape the way Beirut looks, and how people feel when they are living in a more rejuvenated


community.” Dihzahyners rallied together and proposed the first theme, and location of a first event in Sakiet El Janzir. The spark grew from there, and prompted more initiatives. The approach Dihzahyners take is far from the tactics of guerrilla gardeners, who weed and plant in the cover of the night. The collective, who purposefully adopts a group identity instead of using individuals’ names, conduct extensive research before dipping their paint brushes into pots of

watercolor-based paint. “We take into consideration venue, feel, environment, the condition of the stairs: are they more broken? Are they dirty? Is the concrete worn and torn so that it's hard for us to paint on? We even have to go about cleaning with brooms and brushes before applying the paint to make sure the ground and surrounding area is clean and ready for the paint to be applied, or else it will just peel off.” Blending anthropological approaches with Sherlock

Environment & Art Holmesian rigor the collective scout the area to be transformed: “We like to also stick to the feel of the place when we take into account our themes. Is it near a school? Is it an area of older residents with history and heritage? Is it a gloomy place that needs more neon/florescent colors? For the White Wall Initiatives, for example tied to Beirut Art Center that we were a part of in 2012, the stairs we had come across were in the middle of tall buildings, and a construction site, in addition to a beautifully painted wall

to its side that had different colored buildings and cityscapes painted on it. So to tie in with its surroundings, our stencil design for the staircase consisted of silhouettes of buildings.” According to Swiss Expressionist painter, designer, color theorist and Bauhaus member, Johannes Itten, “color is life; for a world without colors appears to us as dead. […]” In his book The Art of Color, published in 1961, he further maintains that: “colors are primordial ideas, children of the

aboriginal colorless light and its counterpart, colorless darkness... Light, that first phenomenon of the world, reveals to us the spirit and the living soul of the world through colors.” While purple is often associated with authority, power and sophistication, green is mentioned in the Holy Koran, whereby the residents of Janneh (Paradise) are dressed in this color, thought to be most refreshing to the eye and fitting in well with the garden. For Dihzahyners, the equation of color plus people equals happy, smiling, energetic faces and attitudes. “It brings people together, it turns people into friends. It gives people back a surge of positivity and hope.” Dizahyners maintain that the more populated Lebanon becomes, the more visually polluted it becomes, through the rise of construction and need to fill every nook and cranny with a building and this notion of breaking down then not building back up. “When people see a broken down area, they tend to neglect it even more, seeing no need to uplift it. And this just grows and grows, and the traffic and congestion grows, as well as the pollution. Public space is not being used in the right way nor is it being distributed in the right way.” Using a simple, clear analogy inspired by food, personal tastes and conviviality, Dihzahyners suggest that people in Lebanon need to understand that the space they use, whether their own private spaces or land, or public, needs to be established and built on in a way that affects the public on the whole in a positive way. “One person's idea of beauty certainly is not everyone's. It is as though you are distributing food to a group of people expecting them all to enjoy Í 137

Beirut is lucky to have these jedis of color, step by step adding value and joy to people’s lives reminding us that this is our city, we should take care of it.

the same meal in the same way, with a huge smile on their face, which is just not the case. However, how do you communicate this to the cook who perceives his dish to be of utmost perfection?” Dihzahyners clearly got their recipes right so far, as the group has successfully completed five Paint Ups, which they refer to as “volumes” and they keep growing in scale, exposure, taking on more and more sophisticated and intricate designs. In the process, the amount of helping hands has also increased, as Paint Ups generally are public events, open to anyone to join. Besides the five Paint Ups, Dihzahyners also created a stencil design at Bobo’s Pub in Hamra. The Paint Ups are located in Sakiet El Janzir, one on Bliss Street and the rest are all situated in the Mar Mikhael area. Among the projects concluded so far, the group admits being

particularly proud of Paint Up “Volume 4”, which gained the most love and attention and was the longest they worked on. “This one truly sparked a wave of Paint Up lovers and lit up the street of Mar Mikhael.” Starting off in a group of 12, the collective now counts around 20 members and attracts well over 50 painters to their events. Their Facebook Group “Paint Up” will soon reach 7000 likes. As word has spread and their interventions have become well-liked communal events, which filmmakers, researchers, members of the media, musicians have come to join, young and old, working alongside each other. After initially using paint the collective bought from money the personally pooled together, Colortek has in the meantime come on board and provides all material requirements. Dihahyners dream of spreading their initiatives throughout the streets of Í 139

Beirut and expand outside Beirut as well. “Having the support and encouragement for our projects we get from people is what makes this possible and gives us the energy we need to complete our projects.” According to Itten, the objective laws of form and color help to strengthen a person's powers and to expand his or her creative gift. In metropolis such as Beirut, where cars rule and public space is scarce, one tends to forget that cities are for children, mothers, fathers, students, the elderly, disabled people, lovers and visitors, traders and dreamers – all sorts of people. Beirut is lucky to have these jedis of color, step by step adding value and joy to people’s lives reminding us that this is our city, we should take care of it. 140

"The idea of eco-tourism is to establish a stronger bondage between man and nature in the form of education, participation and economic benefits, so that the natural environment is protected by the very people who live by it." - Saumitra Dutta Gupta

ECO-LIVING & ECO-TOURISM Magazine Environmental Protection in Lebanon..........................................142 By Elsa Sattout

Genetically Modified Foods.......................................................144 By Zeina Ghossooub El Asswad

The Nile Breeze Felucca....... 147 By Mia Ayoub Livingston


By Elsa Sattout

Environmental Protection in Lebanon Myth or Reality? Rootless beings, transient humans ‌ living an ephemeral life in eternally bleeding lands!

More than twenty years of efforts invested to protect the environment in Lebanon has led to more disparities and/or redundancies in terms of activities achieved and plans and strategies executed. Many public, private and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have led environmental protection and biodiversity conservation projects, but despite these noble efforts, we are still trapped in a vicious circle, exacerbating environmental degradation and resource depletion. Where do we stand today after having ratified numerous international environmental conventions, and despite many obstacles, put in motion activities managed by international and domestic agencies, and acquired aid to manage our natural heritage? Environmental resources, which are defined as public property under the Lebanese Constitution, including air, water, coastline, green cover and biodiversity, have been privatized. This rogue wave of privatization has even expanded to include cultural landscapes, human heritage and historical vestiges. On the other spectrum, we lobby fervently and create inspiring slogans to raise funds and gain technical and managerial support for various causes, but in the end, we are self-centered, and while we succeed in reaching our goals, we tend to forget the fundamental value of nature! Why? Are we on the right path when the values of our ecological footprints reflect a utilitarian culture vis-Ă -vis nature and humans alike? Do we have it in us to one day start caring for the intrinsic and existence values of both the human and non-human

components of our world? Is this scenario possible in a country where even an individual’s identity has been privatized? Humans tend to succumb to all aspects of subordination. They do not have a value unless they belong to a party, religious community or institution. How do we give birth to independent thinkers and responsible citizens, aiming at universal solidarity and social justice? How do we achieve this end when stereotyping takes over authentic social identities, when citizens are taken for granted and when their belongings are privatized? Is the importance of environmental protection a reality in this country? Or do we believe a myth that keeps societies, communities and even individual initiatives trapped in an illusion that fuels their existence and inflates their egos!? Should we reconsider new social dynamics to better protect the environment, help ventures focused on biodiversity protection succeed, encourage reforestation, restore effective nature reserves management, promote eco-tourism and incorporate sustainability measure that take into account the land, basic human value and the interconnectedness that exist in nature and in societies? Is it such a big challenge? It could be a dream, which could come true if human evolution is led by the rediscovery of true intrinsic values, acting independently of external forms, labels, trademarks, political figures, and so on; thereby, enabling it to create a new social dynamic governed by the awareness of the true values of the human and non-human worlds. 143



Eco-Living Interview with Zeina Ghossooub El Asswad

Genetically Modified Foods Blessing in Disguise? GM foods have raised many concerns throughout the past few years, including ethical concerns that humans are playing the role of the creator by manipulating gene sequences. Genetically modified (GM) foods are a new technology as such, not enough research has been done in order to draw a clear line about their safety. According to experts GM foods have many benefits, but on the other hand they may have many risks. Since GM foods are widely used, for now experts just hope that they will not have a detrimental effect on humanity. WE Magazine: What Are Genetically Modified Foods (GM)? Zeina Ghossoub El Asswad : Genetically Modified Organisms have been modified by altering their genetic material in a way that does not occur naturally. GM foods is a method of breeding that offers the opportunity to develop a wide variety of new crop cultivars. Cloning and DNA sequencing of specific genes is done in a way that allows for complete plants to be regenerated via cell and tissue culture. This way the increasing demand for food supply can be achieved. WE: What are the types of GM foods? Z.G.A: There are different types of GM foods. They include: herbicide tolerant, insect resistance, disease resistance, increased shelf life, altered nutritional value, better looking, and others. Each type has its own characteristics and works by producing an enzyme, producing a barrier, or altering the target enzyme. WE: What are the advantages of GM foods? Z.G.A: There are many benefits to GM foods and these include: foods

with higher nutrient value and a more palatable taste, faster growing plants, plants that are resistant to disease and drought and therefore require less resources and pesticides, increased supply of food with reduced cost and longer shelf life, foods that can be used as vaccines or other medications, and more foods with better traits for example potatoes that absorb less fat when fried. WE: What are the disadvantages of GM foods? Z.G.A: The problem lies in whether or not these foods may be harmful to humans and the environment. Not enough research has been done to predict the future consequences of GM foods, and there are some consequences we cannot predict altogether. GM foods may have genetic changes that could be harmful. Original organisms may become extinct if the genetic material of the GM foods is dominant over their own. This would result in a change in our natural environment and ecosystem. Another problem would be that the genetically modified plants may be less resistant to some pests and more susceptible



to others. At this point, we do not know enough about them to be able to predict. GM foods have the possibility of causing allergic reactions by transferring the protein allergen that has been introduced from another food. Scientists can test to see if the structure of the known allergen is similar to that of the genetically modified one. WE: What do the legal authorities say? Z.G.A: The FDA, the Food and Drug Administration, requires proof of safety from developers of foods and food products that contain allergens. The FDA has the authority to ensure the safety of all domestic and imported foods for man or other animals in the United States market. It ensures that all the products that have been put in the market place are safe for the consumer to use, this includes all the bioengineered foods

and the substances added to them. The substances that have been added to bioengineered food up till now have been described as safe and very similar in function to the proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in the natural organisms. Therefore they are presumed to be safe. WE: Where can we find genetically modified foods? Z.G.A: GM foods are found in almost 80% of conventional processed foods in the USA. In other words, they are taking over the market. Where? Here is a list of the most common foods containing GM foods: • Corn • Soybeans • Canola • Cotton • Sugar Beets • Alfalfa • Hawaiian Papaya • Zucchini • Yellow Crookneck Squash

• Products of GM plants such as honey.

WE: How can you avoid GM foods? Z.G.A: Here are some tips to having a GM foods free shopping cart; buy organic foods which are usually antiGM foods. Be sure to look at the labels; Look for GM foods in the labels, and look for a GM foods-free mark. You can also try to avoid the common GM foods such as soy, corn, and canola, although that may seem like a hard task. You may also be surprised by these GM products; Aspartame (Nutrasweet and Equal) which is partly genetically modified Meat, dairy products, fish, and eggs which are a result of GM foods fed animals or animals that have been injected with GM hormones. Make sure your restaurants avoid prepackaged mixtures and GM foods rich material.

By Mia Ayoub Livingston

The Nile Breeze Felucca The River Nile flowing through Egypt holds thousands of years of awe-inspiring history and secrets. It hosts a multitude of hidden pharaonic sights along its banks; ancient temples, tombs and quarries remaining untouched and unknown to many, and out of the prying eyes of most tourists. The Nile also boasts exceptional displays of nature and culture, with vast agricultural fields played amongst old mud-brick villages in direct view from the tranquil waters. One can only experience and discover this hidden corner of the Earth along with its fascinating, ancient structures on a felucca cruise. Ă?



The felucca is an old, traditional, wooden sailing boat. Predominantly used for the transportation of goods and people since the time of the pharaohs, it still graces the river banks today. More recently, the felucca has become a means of transport for locals and a popular attraction for tourists, who can board them for day trips in Cairo, Luxor and Aswan. The more adventurous have the option of a week-long trip, sailing between 148

Luxor and Aswan, sleeping and eating on the felucca with their guides. It is an excellent way to soak up the culture, to experience a different side of Egypt rarely seen or appreciated by the masses that visit the country every year. Far removed from the typical hustle and bustle of the towns and cities in Egypt, a felucca cruise allows the opportunity for complete immersion into peace and quiet; to indulge one’s senses with the calm,

serene waters and lush green banks of the Nile, the fresh air and cool breeze, the spectacular views and sunsets. One is also touched deeply by the warmth and hospitality of the people; their simple way of life and the harmony they maintain with their natural surroundings. The Nile Breeze, one of the biggest feluccas on the Nile, was the product of a trip taken between Luxor and Aswan by Nadim Ayoub over a


decade ago. “I thought that there was a lot of room for improvement. The felucca trip between Luxor and Aswan is a beautiful journey and had a lot of potential”. Ayoub identified a niche yet to be filled; something that could provide customers with a sense of the outdoors, the opportunity to be one with nature and to get close to the wealth of culture and fascinating history peppered along the river banks. Unlike any other felucca, the

Nile Breeze caters to customers who want the adventure of the outdoors, but with a few comforts. These include running water, a fridge, a toilet, an outdoor shower, power outlets, a fully equipped kitchen, as well as custom-made removable canvas dividers, creating private sleeping quarters on the boat for guests at night. The boat itself sleeps 10 people very comfortably, but can accommodate up to 12. It must be

said that the traditional felucca is much more primitive. It doesn’t offer any of these features, and is often much smaller. “I wanted to create something in between the dahabeya, a larger boat with private air conditioned bedrooms and bathrooms; and the traditional felucca, which is much more simple and in-tune with the outdoors and nature, a much more personal experience,” Ayoub explains. He and business partner Cherif Ebeid designed and built The Nile Breeze in 2004-2005, with a successful maiden voyage in 2006. “The design of the boat itself was a challenge, wanting to strike a delicate balance between comfort and space while keeping within the parameters of the traditional sailboat. It was of course important for us to keep it traditional.” The partners’ attention to detail is evident the moment you board the Nile Breeze, and clear that it is well maintained and cared for by the crew. Every inch was planned with comfort and tradition in mind. As a passenger on Nile Breeze, you can expect a trip of total relaxation. Losing track of the day and time, most passengers seem to quickly misplace any anxieties of routine, work related problems and stress associated with daily life. The Nile Breeze offers smooth sailing, a great escape from the real world. The cool water is perfect for a refreshing morning swim. The two kayaks available onboard are an ideal way to explore the smaller and more hidden parts of the Nile, out of reach and invisible to big boats. The chef onboard prepares exquisite Egyptian cuisine that caters to everyone’s taste, and you can choose to eat onboard or set up a table on land. A major advantage on the Nile Breeze is that Í 149

the passengers choose when and where they want to go and what they wish to see; whether one chooses to lounge in the sun on the boat, walk around the banks to explore the old villages, visit ancient monasteries by camel, take pictures of the fascinating pharaonic temples, or even bird watch on one of many of the islets along the Nile. The river is second home to the crew and they know its waters and banks inside out; they are always happy to recommend the sights worth seeing. The Nile Breeze usually makes the expedition between Luxor and Aswan. This stretch has a high concentration of ancient temples and monasteries, tombs and quarries. The innate beauty of the river and its wildlife, along with the myriad of ancient structures looming over its banks may seem unreal at first. However, once accustomed to the surroundings, it all becomes very hard to part with. With rave reviews and a constant ear to passenger feedback, the Nile Breeze has a steady record of satisfied guests, many of whom declare it to be one of the most remarkable trips they’ve ever taken. With this in mind, Nadim and Cherif are pursuing a new concept on the Nile Breeze; therapeutic cruises. Still in the embryonic stage, these cruises might include anything from acupuncture therapy to yoga and meditation, to homeopathic and detox courses. The sky is the limit. In the meantime, blessed with continuous sunshine and breeze no matter the season, the felucca continues her expeditions between Luxor and Aswan year round. Certainly a once-in-a-lifetime trip and one of the best ways to see Egypt, it is an experience that will stand out from many. 150





16/17 May 2013 Sustainable Urban & Transport Planning International Conference

3/6 June 2013 Sustainable Brands '13 www.sustainablebrands. com

13/16 August 2013 4th Colombian Meeting And International Conference On Air Quality And Public Health

3/5 september 2013 GulfSol 2013

San Diego, USA

Belgrade, Serbia 29/31 May 2013 9th See Congress & Exhibition On Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

Sofia, Bulgaria

3/7 June 2013 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition

Copenaghen, Denmark

Bogotรก, Colombia

Dubai, United Arab Emirates 22/27 septtember 2013 The 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems www.dubrovnik2013.sde

Dubrovnik,Croatia 29/31 May 2013 Smart Buildings SouthEast Europe - Building Automation Systems And Advanced Building Technologies

Sofia, Bulgaria May 31/Jun 02 2013 Resilient Cities 2013 Westphalia, Germany

4/7 June 2013 EcOrient 2013-The 2nd, International Trade Exhibition for Environmental Technologies, Sustainability, Alternative Energy, Water Technology and Clean Energy

30/ 4 September, October 2013 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition

Villepinte, France

Beirut, Lebanon 10/14 June 2013 18th Annual Contaminated and Hazardous Waste Site Management Course www.contaminatedsite. com

Ontario, Canada



















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