THANKS TO OUR SUPPORTERS /
Golden Supporters Lodge of the Liberal Arts Philip Galloway The Wallace Foundation
Special Supporters Margaret Leman & Derek Neutze and 2 anonymous Special Supporters
General Supporters Ajay Anomi Alex Bartlett Rosemarie & Alex Biland Anna Brooker Alison Buchanan & Eric Johnston Kerin Buttimore Nigel Chadwick Mark Close Glenys & Michael Daniell Marcia Dwyer Riemke Ensing Bruce Fergusson David Foster Diana Gash Janet Gibbs
Julie Goodyer Judith Gust Diane & Mark Hall Bob Kinnear Acer Lin Margaret Malaghan Andrea McCracken Janis & Peter Metcalfe John Rive Gordon Skinner Cameron Stuart Mike & Sara Sullivan Tony Sullivan Jane Torrie & Gerard Robertson Elisabeth Wilson
And 11 anonymous General Supporters
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September 2018 Concert Series
Papakura â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Hawkins Theatre Saturday 8 September, 7.30pm
Auckland Town Hall Sunday 9 September, 2.30pm
Alexander Cowdell Persephone Haydn Trumpet Concerto in Eđ?&#x201E;Ź Soloist Jake Krishnamurti Interval Copland Appalachian Spring
MUSIC DIRECTOR Antun Poljanich Born in Croatia, Antun studied piano and theory at Dubrovnik School for Musical Education then studied conducting at the University of Ljubljana. Following postgraduate studies in Austria, he won a scholarship which took him to Leningrad for a three-year Master Course in Conducting at the Rimsky-Korsakov Conservatory. He has since worked with the Leningrad State Symphony Orchestra, the Veneto Philharmonia, the Slovene and Croatian National Orchestras and other prominent orchestras in Russia and Europe. Antun is the Orchestra’s fourth Musical Director.
Photo: Gloria Tian
SOLOIST Jake Krishnamurti Jake is 20 years old and is a third year student at the University of Auckland, pursuing a conjoint degree in classical trumpet performance and computer science. Jake’s interest in music began at the age of four, when his preschool teacher introduced him to the trumpet. Since then, he has been involved in many musical groups both at university and in the wider community. He earned his ABRSM music performance diploma in trumpet in 2014, and his trombone performance diploma the year after. In 2016, Jake played trumpet, cornet and flugelhorn in the Auckland Theatre Company’s production of Billy Elliot the Musical, and also performed with Josh Groban at Vector Arena as a featured trumpet soloist. More recently, Jake played trumpet in the Pop-up Globe’s performances of A Midsummer Night’s Dream and The Merchant of Venice. This is Jake’s second year as a member of the AYO and he is looking forward to performing the Haydn Trumpet Concerto for this programme.
PROGRAMME NOTES Persephone
Alexander Cowdell (1945)
The mythology of ancient Greece has had a deep and lasting influence on western European culture from the renaissance to the present day. In fact a real understanding of much western art is hardly possible without some knowledge of the mythology which gives meaning to so many art works. These myths seem to encapsulate the collective unconscious psyche of European nations in a way which transcends that of mere nationalism, to provide a common ground for understanding between all European cultures â&#x20AC;&#x201C; even in 2018. I perceive the legend of Persephone as a poetic metaphor not only for the duality which lies deep in the human psyche, but also for the unity which can exist in what seem at first irreconcilable opposites. The daughter of Demeter, the goddess of nature, Persephone spends half the year as the wife of Hades, god of the underworld, and the other half on earth. Her coming in springtime brings new life to the world. My composition can be perceived as a series of pictures, similar to the structure of some medieval paintings where disparate events are presented together and the viewer, after having seen each item separately is then left with an understanding of the whole. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Persephone descends into the underworld (Hades). Charon, the ferryman who carries the departed souls into Hades, crosses the river Styx. The departed souls enter Hades. Cerberus, the many headed guardian of Hades prevents the return of the souls to the living world. The souls sink back to seek the waters of Lethe which bring forgetfulness. The dead are judged, and those who are not condemned return to drink the waters of Lethe. The judging continues and the condemned souls descend into Tartarus for punishment. They bewail their fate. Persephone returns from the darkness to the light.
Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra 1. Allegro 2. Andante 3. Allegro (rondo)
Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
The trumpet is an instrument of great antiquity. Examples have been found in the tombs of the Pharaohs, which also indicates that the trumpetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s association with Royalty was established from its very beginning. It has long been prized for the nobility of its sound and its power, which made it valuable for use by the military both as a means of conveying
signals but also, in conjunction with drums, for inspiring courage in the face of the enemy. It was also, and still is, used as a means of announcing the presence of Royalty on important formal occasions by the means of fanfares. For this reason the Royal trumpeters have always held a special place in the hierarchy of musicians. Anton Weidinger, who was born in 1767 and for whom Haydn wrote his concerto, studied with the chief court trumpeter of the Imperial and Royal Court of Vienna, a position which he later attained himself. This not only provided him with a regular salary but also the security of a pension when his playing days were over, and as a result he did not suffer the constant financial anxiety which was the fate of so many eighteenth century musicians. He became a longstanding friend of Haydn, and must have been an outstanding player to have inspired such a wonderful concerto - all the more so when it is understood that the instrument for which it was written was not the trumpet we know today; nor was it the normal trumpet of the time, the natural trumpet, whose notes are limited to those of the harmonic series, something familiar to us all from the Last Post, which we hear every Anzac day. In order to devise a trumpet which could play melodies and even chromatic passages Weidinger experimented by boring holes into the instrument which could be opened and closed by keys. Although it was exceedingly difficult to play, and the sound was affected adversely, Weidinger obviously succeeded in convincing Haydn that it was worth the effort of writing a concerto for him to play. It was the last orchestral work that the 64 year old Haydn wrote and it has remained to this day the most played trumpet concerto in the repertoire. In 1818 the modern rotary valve trumpet was invented, removing the difficulties while preserving the quality of sound of the natural trumpet. By the 1830s it had swept throughout Europe, creating a revolution in the way composers wrote for the brass section of the orchestra. Weidinger, who died in 1852, must have witnessed these developments with amazement, living as he did long enough to hear the early operas of Wagner, and though his keyed trumpet was in the end a failed experiment, the concerto which it and he inspired, has remained his legacy to world of music and a witness to his vision of the trumpet as a solo instrument.
Aaron Copland (1900-1990)
Aaron Copland was born in 1900, and during his life witnessed and took part in the entire unfolding of American music in the 20 th century. He and George Gershwin were the first serious American composers to make an impact on the world at large, and Copland occupied a dominant place in the musical life of the USA throughout his career, not only as a composer but as a conductor, lecturer, author and music administrator. He was the youngest of five children of Lithuanian Jewish immigrants who had settled in Brooklyn, New York, where they ran a general store. The family lived in rooms above the shop. Coplandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mother was musical and arranged for all her children to learn music, but it was from his sister, who encouraged and supported him all her life, that Copland received his first piano lessons.
It was after attending a recital by Paderewski, when he was fifteen, that Copland suddenly decided he wanted to be a composer. After initially studying in New York, he went to France at the age of 21 to take up the opportunity of attending a Summer School of Music in Paris, offered by the French government to American musicians. He stayed on for three years, studying with the renowned teacher Nadia Boulanger and soaking up the heady ferment of Paris in the 1920s, a period of almost unprecedented creativity in all the arts. Returning to America in 1925, and supported by two Guggenheim scholarships, he set about establishing himself as a professional composer. He immediately ran into a deeply conservative musical establishment which was totally unsympathetic to the modern avantgarde music which had made such an impression on him in Paris. His piano concerto, which was premiered in 1927 by Koussevitzky and the Boston Symphony with himself as soloist, was unanimously slated by the critics, the Boston Evening Transcript describing it as â&#x20AC;Śâ&#x20AC;?a harrowing horror from beginning to end.â&#x20AC;? With the onset of the Great Depression, Copland sought to develop a style which would be more accessible to the general public and at the same time create music which would be unique to America. He did this by making use of the folk music which had been brought from Europe by the early settlers and pioneers, ballads and dances which had been preserved almost unchanged in the remote rural settlements such as the Appalachian Mountains for over two hundred years. He also simplified his harmonic language and created open textures and slow moving harmonies which came to be accepted as intrinsically American. This new populist style was very successful in winning him widespread recognition and in 1945 he won the Pulitzer Prize for his ballet Appalachian Spring. Despite this success, his homosexuality - together with his Jewish background and support of the communist party USA during the 1936 presidential election - brought him under suspicion as a communist sympathizer during the McCarthy witch hunts of the 1950s. He was investigated by the FBI and included on a list of 151 artists thought to have communist associations. His A Lincoln Portrait was withdrawn from the 1953 inaugural concert for President Eisenhower and he was summoned to appear before McCarthy for questioning about his associations. Amazingly he remained on the FBI list until 1975, when presumably he was no longer considered a threat to national security. The ballet Appalachian Spring was commissioned in 1942 by the choreographer and dancer Martha Graham and the patron Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge, and first performed in 1944. It was originally scored for a chamber orchestra of 13 instruments but after its successful debut the conductor Artur Rodzinski commissioned Copland to arrange the work into a suite for symphony orchestra. It tells the simple story of a young couple setting out on their life together, building a home in the wilderness. The other characters in the ballet are an itinerant preacher and an older pioneer woman. The musical inspiration for the work came from a book of Shaker songs and dances called The Gift to be Simple, and the famous Shaker dance, Simple Gifts, is quoted in full at the end of the work.
The orchestral suite is divided into eight sections. Copland describes each scene, as follows : 1. Very slowly. Introduction of the characters, one by one, in a suffused light. 2. Fast/Allegro. Sudden burst of unison strings in A major arpeggios starts the action. A sentiment both elated and religious gives the keynote to this scene. 3. Moderate/Moderato. Duo for the Bride and her Intended – scene of tenderness and passion. 4. Quite fast. The Revivalist and his flock. Folksy feeling – suggestions of square dances and country fiddlers. 5. Still faster/Subito Allegro. Solo dance of the Bride – presentiment of motherhood. Extremes of joy and fear and wonder. 6. Very slowly (as at first). Transition scene to music reminiscent of the introduction. 7. Calm and flowing/Doppio Movimento. Scenes of daily activity for the Bride and her Farmer husband. There are five variations on a Shaker theme. The theme, sung by a solo clarinet, was taken from a collection of Shaker melodies compiled by Edward D. Andrews, and published under the title "The Gift to Be Simple." The melody borrowed and used almost literally is called "Simple Gifts." 8. Moderate. Coda/Moderato - Coda. The Bride takes her place among her neighbours. At the end the couple are left "quiet and strong in their new house." Muted strings intone a hushed prayer-like chorale passage. The close is reminiscent of the opening music.
Jean Sibelius (1865-1957)
Until 1809 Finland was part of Sweden. It then became absorbed into the Russian Empire as an autonomous Grand Duchy. However Sweden remained the dominant culture and Swedish was the language spoken by the educated classes. It was Sibelius’s first language, and he did not start to learn Finnish until he attended a preparatory school in 1874. Towards the end of the nineteenth century a growing interest in Finland’s indigenous culture and literature led to the establishment of the first Finnish speaking secondary school, which Sibelius went on to attend, and where he became acquainted with the mythological epic, the Kalevala, which was to have such a significant influence on his subsequent creative work. His first large scale orchestral work, Kullervo, based on a character from the Kalevala, created a sensation at its first performance in 1892, and he was immediately recognized as a champion of Finnish nationalism. This growing Finnish nationalism led to a reaction from Russia and a crackdown on press freedom. This in turn led to a covert protest against censorship by the press, which organized in 1899 A Celebration of Finnish History, for which Sibelius was commissioned to compose the music. Finlandia was the last of the seven pieces he wrote for this occasion. It became immediately popular as a symbol of Finnish independence, though to avoid Russian censorship it was performed under a variety of titles such as Happy feelings at the awakening of Finnish Spring. The patriotic hymn which appears towards the end of the work was later arranged as an independent piece by Sibelius and it has become, with words added in 1941, one of Finland’s national songs. Programme notes by Alexander Cowdell © 2018
THANKS TO OUR SPONSORS We thank the organisations below for their generous support:
ABOUT AYO Founded in 1948, the Auckland Youth Orchestra (AYO) is the premier regional youth orchestra in New Zealand and was the first youth orchestra established in the Southern Hemisphere, designed to bridge the gap between school orchestras and adult professional groups. AYO inspires young people to excel through their love of musical performance and provides them with a wide range of cultural experiences, thus shaping our leaders of tomorrow. AYO makes an important contribution to the cultural life of Auckland and NZ. AYO performs up to 12 concerts a year throughout the upper North Island region and has attracted full houses at their concerts in many locations. This endeavour requires large operating costs and AYO relies upon the generosity of our Sponsors, Subscribers, and Supporters. All grants and donations are helpful and greatly appreciated. 2018 is a very special year for AYO – our 70th anniversary and Antun Poljanich’s 20th year as Music Director. To mark these milestones, the orchestra undertook a 2-week tour to Europe last month, visiting Vienna, Dobrna, Prague, Berlin, Bayreuth and Tübingen. This was an extraordinary experience for the 58 players – particularly the performance at Berlin’s famous Konzerthaus, at the invitation of the organisers of the Young Euro Classic Festival.
AYO MEMBERS Governance Dame Catherine Tizard ONZ GCMG GCVO DBE QSO DStJ, Patron Michael McLellan, FTCL LRSM, President Alastair Clement, Vice-President Margaret Leman, Vice-President
Executive Committee Alexander Cowdell Anne-Marie Forsyth Mary Lin Helen Lewis Rachael Brand
Chairman Secretary Manager Treasurer Communications
Antun Poljanich Gemma Nash Lachlan Grant Esther Hunter
Music Director Player Representative Player Representative Player Representative
Administration Alison Dunlop and Louise Roe Librarians
Honorary Members Alastair Clement Michael McLellan Anne Draffin
Cameron Stuart Margaret Leman
Barrie Ross Lois Westwood
Subscribing Members Clive Aucott Philippa Black Rachael Brand Bleau Bustenera Gillian & Harold Coop Alexander Cowdell Ian Cunningham Warren Drake John Duder
Anne-Marie Forsyth Judith Gust Diane & Mark Hall Helen Lewis Mary Lin Rod McLeay L. & A. Molon-Noblot T. McD. Morton Grant Reay
Mrs B Simmons Kevin & Jan Sutton Helen Taber Sarah Thompson
And 3 anonymous Subscribers
AYO PLAYERS Violin I ‡ Jim Wu #Gloria Tian #Zosia Herlihy-O’Brien Bryan Lin Angeline Xiao Mana Waiariki Kauri May Michael Luo Amber Edwards Tony Xutong Wang Sung-Min Jun Ye Li
Violin II # Weihong Li + Jason Yeung Genevieve Tang Joanna Sang Isabella Healy Emily Kamimura Santiago Romano Kelly Siew Reagan Luo John Yang
Viola # Jasper Lin + Jennifer Chen Nicholas Newman Elena Bloksberg Jessie Anderson Zahira Ali-Champion
Legend ‡ Concertmaster # Principal + Assistant Principal
Cello #Daniel Ng + Marcus Ho Phoebe Pierard Harrison Chau Ella McIntosh Benjamin Piper Anthony Shin
Double Bass # John Moon Robbie Brown Allyson Daval Santos Thomas Hall Flute # Anna Zhang Micah Sullivan Jacob Webster
Piccolo Micah Sullivan
Oboe # Noah Rudd Akari Ouchi
Clarinet # Emily Liston Clara Lui
French Horn # Henry Close Max Glazier Evan Metcalfe Sean Tang
Trumpet # Jake Krishnamurti Thomas Scott Benjamin Webster Caleb Probine
Trombone # Mark Li Alexander Botha David Paligora Esther Simpson
Tuba # Lachlan Grant
Timpani # Donovan Kelso
Percussion # Naomi Kelly Melissa Choo
Piano Tony Xutong Wang Bassoon # Charlotte Naden Ricky Shi Amanda Yong
Harp Rebecca Harris
PLAY YOUR PART Attend our concerts! Check our website regularly for concert information: ayo.org.nz Sign up to receive the Chairman’s e-newsletter on our website homepage Like us on Facebook: www.facebook.com/AYOrchestra Join us by emailing email@example.com Subscribe, support or sponsor us: ayo.org.nz/support-us
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special thanks to Franco Viganoni who generously gives his time and professional expertise in digitally recording our concerts using state-of-the-art electronics and a unique system of microphones. These recordings, which can be found on the AYO website, are a real reference, totally true, in phase and free from any electronic manipulations and effects. For further information, please visit www.viganoni.com and www.audiopronz.com.
EUROPE TOUR CONCERTS Six concerts were presented on the Europe Tour in Slovenia and Germany: 15 August 16 August 19 August 20 August 21 August 22 August
8pm 8pm 8pm 7pm 7pm 8pm
Dobrna - Hotel Terme Dobrna Dobrna - Murska Sobota Castle Berlin - Konzerthaus - Young Euro Classic Festival Bayreuth - Stadtkirche Bayreuth - Speinshart Monastery Tübingen - Sparkassen Carre
AUDITIONS FOR 2019 are being held in December Details are on our website. Register your interest at firstname.lastname@example.org
Cover art and programme design by Mary Lin © 2018 Auckland Youth Orchestra | Here Plays the Future www.ayo.org.nz