AYO - 2021 March Concert Series

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THANKS TO OUR SUPPORTERS

Golden Supporters Lodge of the Liberal Arts Philip Galloway The Wallace Foundation And 1 anonymous Golden Supporter

Special Supporters Ruth Ell Alison Buchanan & Eric Johnston

And 1 anonymous Special Supporter

General Supporters Clive Aucott John Boscawen Anna Brooker Kerin Buttimore Nigel Chadwick Mark Close Gillian & Harold Coop John Duder Marcia Dwyer Fiona Ell Diana Gash Dora Green

Julia Griffiths & David Yates Judith Gust Diane & Mark Hall Danielle Hancock David Jorgensen Chris Kim Bob Kinnear Acer & Tina Lin Janis & Peter Metcalfe Tom Morton Elisabeth Wilson

And 17 anonymous General Supporters

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Whitianga Town Hall Saturday 20 March, 7pm Katikati War Memorial Hall Sunday 21 March, 2pm Howick - All Saints Anglican Church Friday 26 March 7.30pm Auckland Town Hall Sunday 28 March 2.30pm

PROGRAMME Copland Fanfare for the Common Man Vaughan Williams The Lark Ascending Soloist: Jim Wu, Violin Ravel Pavane for a Dead Princess INTERVAL Mussorgsky Pictures at an Exhibition

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MUSIC DIRECTOR Antun Poljanich Born in Croatia, Antun studied piano and theory at Dubrovnik School for Musical Education then studied conducting at the University of Ljubljana. Following post-graduate studies in Austria, he won a scholarship which took him to Leningrad for a three-year Master Course in Conducting at the Rimsky-Korsakov Conservatory. He has since worked with the Leningrad State Symphony Orchestra, the Veneto Philharmonia, the Slovene and Croatian National Orchestras and other prominent orchestras in Russia and Europe. Antun is the Orchestra’s fourth Music Director.

SOLOIST Jim Wu, Violin Starting the violin at the age of 7, Jim has received tuition from various teachers including Elizabeth Holowell, former senior lecturer in violin at the University of Auckland and Dimitri Atanassov, former concertmaster of the Auckland Philharmonia Orchestra and Cremonese luthier. Jim has played with various groups, including the Auckland Youth Orchestra, New Zealand Symphony Orchestra National Youth Orchestra, and Bach Musica NZ. A member of AYO since 2009, Jim has been the concertmaster for the past 6 years. In that time, he has been involved in two international tours to Europe, in 2011 and 2018, performing in various venues and festivals there, including the Festival of Young Artists Bayreuth and the Young Euro Classic Festival. As a soloist, Jim performed with AYO in 2014 and 2019, playing Bruch’s Violin Concerto and the Butterfly Lovers concerto by He & Chen. He has also performed with Bach Musica NZ, playing Bach’s Concerto for Violin and Oboe with Camille Wells. Jim holds an LTCL from Trinity College London and is currently working as an acoustic engineer for Agile Engineering Consultants.

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PROGRAMME NOTES Fanfare for the Common Man

Aaron Copland (1900-1990)

The Great Depression had a profound effect on Copland. Returning to America in 1925, after studying in Paris and determined to make his way as a professional composer, he immediately ran into a deeply conservative musical establishment which was totally unsympathetic to the modern avant-garde music which had made such an impression on him as a student. This, plus the onset of the Depression, caused him to rethink his position as an artist and led him to develop a style which would be more accessible to the general public in America. It also caused him to develop a sympathy for the working man, who had suffered so much from the unemployment created by the Depression, and the hardship endured as a result. Politically this drew him to the far left and caused him to support the Communist Party USA during the 1936 presidential election. With the entry of the United States into World War 2, the conductor Eugene Goossens decided to commission a series of fanfares from prominent American composers, dedicated to the servicemen and women fighting fascism and defending democracy. This initiative was inspired by a speech given by the vice president, Henry A Wallace, in which he had proclaimed the 20th century as the “Century of the Common Man.” Eighteen fanfares in all were written, but Copland’s is the only one which is still played today, and it was Copland who decided that his fanfare would be dedicated not only to the servicemen and women but to all the common people of America, hence its title. After the war Copland went on to support Wallace, who was standing for president in 1948 as leader of the left leaning Progressive Party. Copland’s political sympathies, together with his Jewish background and homosexuality, led to him being investigated by the FBI as a communist sympathiser during the McCarthy witch-hunts of the 1950s. His A Lincoln Portrait was withdrawn from the 1953 inaugural concert for President Eisenhower, and he was summoned to appear before McCarthy for questioning about his associations. He remained on the FBI list until 1975. Paradoxically, Fanfare for the Common Man, which is an affirmation of our common humanity, has come to be played on many official occasions, including those of a solemn nature and it has become the most famous fanfare in the world. The Lark Ascending

Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958)

Ralph Vaughan Williams was born into a wealthy and intellectually distinguished family. His mother was a Wedgewood, and a niece of Charles Darwin, and his father was a vicar. Both his uncles and his grandfather were judges. Although his love of music was evident at an early age, his abilities as a performer on the piano and violin were only average. His decision to leave Charterhouse, his public school, early to study at the Royal College of Music aroused some concern from his family. It had been expected that he would have stayed on to prepare for university. His aunt Etty, Darwin’s daughter, wrote about “the foolish boy” who was “a hopelessly bad musician but it will simply break his heart if he is told that he is too bad to make anything of it.” After two years at the Royal College of Music he did go on to take a degree in music at Cambridge as well as continuing to study privately. He then returned to the Royal College for further study, and as he enjoyed a modest private income, and was free of the burden of making a living, it must have seemed that he was in danger of becoming an eternal student. In 1899 he passed the examination for the degree of doctor of music at Cambridge but still felt unhappy about his technique as a composer.

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The journey he took to find his own voice was a long and tortuous one. He felt instinctively that he had to escape the influence of Brahms and Wagner, the two composers who dominated English and European music at the time, and he sought to find an authentic English voice by collecting and absorbing the idioms of English folksong and studying the music of the great Elizabethan composers. Finally, after being rejected by Elgar as a student he decided to approach Ravel, who had in the 1920s established himself as the most prominent French composer, and in 1907 went to France to study with him. It is an indication of Vaughan Williams’ essential humility that at that time he was 35 years of age and three years older than Ravel. On his return to England in 1908 he at last started to achieve recognition as a composer. His first masterpiece, the Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis, receiving critical acclaim on its premiere in 1910. The Lark Ascending was composed in 1914 at the outbreak of the First World War. Originally scored for violin and piano, he orchestrated it in 1920 and it received its first performance in 1921. A work of great originality, it made little impression at first but has, over the years, gradually become one of the most popular of all classical works, regularly topping the polls of favourite pieces in NZ Concert’s Settling the Score and Classic FM’s Hall of Fame. It seems to perfectly encapsulate the nostalgia for the lost world of Edwardian rural England. Curiously Vaughan Williams always regarded himself as a Londoner, and his favourite work was his London Symphony. Pavane pour une Infante Défunte Joseph Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) (Pavane for a Dead Princess) Ravel’s mother, whom he adored, was born in the Basque region of Spain but brought up in Madrid. He recalled listening to her singing Spanish folk songs to him as a little child and claimed that it was she who instilled in him his love of music; also his affinity with Spanish culture. He entered the Paris Conservatoire at the age of fourteen as a piano student but soon turned to composition as his principal study. His intense individuality, and his interest in music and composers not approved of by his professors, led him to being expelled from the Conservatoire at the age of twenty. Two years later he gained re-admission to study composition with Faure, the only teacher who seemed to recognise his abilities, but continued hostility from Theodore Dubois, the director of the Conservatoire, led to him being expelled again. He was allowed to continue attending Faure’s classes, but only as an observer. It was at this time that he composed the beautiful and haunting Pavane, which has become one of his most popular compositions, both as a piano solo and orchestral piece. It is likely that it was inspired by the equally beautiful Pavane which Faure composed in 1882, and as such can be seen as a tribute to the one teacher who believed in him. The pavane was a slow processional dance common in Europe during the 16 th century. Although associated with Spain, it was probably of Italian origin, the name being derived from the city of Padua. An alternative derivation is the Spanish word pavon, meaning peacock. The Dictionnaire de Trevoux supports this explanation, describing it as being “a grave kind of dance, borrowed from the Spaniards wherein the performers make a kind of wheel or tail before each other like that of a peacock, whence its name.” When asked about the title of his piece, Ravel was at pains to point out that “It is not a funeral lament for a dead child, but rather an evocation of the pavane that might have been danced by such a little princess as painted by Velazquez.” Ravel’s use of the word ‘défunte’ in the title, rather than ‘morte’ makes clear that the child is not in fact dead, but from a previous age in history.

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Pictures at an Exhibition

Modest Mussorgsky (1839 – 1881) Orchestrated by Maurice Ravel (1875 – 1937)

In 1873 the Russian artist Victor Hartmann died at the early age of 39. He was one of a group of artists striving to create a unique voice for Russian art. Mussorgsky, who shared this ideal, was an intimate friend of the artist, and when a year later an exhibition of Hartmann’s paintings, water colours, and drawings was held in Moscow, the composer was inspired to create a series of virtuoso piano pieces depicting in music, those paintings of Hartmann which had particularly attracted him, or elicited from him a musical response. Linking the pieces are “promenades”, which depict the composer wandering around the exhibition examining the pictures which interest him. The work did not appear in print until five years after Mussorgsky’s death, in a version edited by Rimsky-Korsakov, who had attempted, as he saw it, to tone down some of Mussorgsky’s rough edges. It was not until 1931 before the original version was published. Sadly, of the 400 works in the exhibition, only a handful have survived to the present day. Ravel was commissioned to orchestrate the work in 1922, by the conductor Koussevitzky. While remaining remarkably faithful to the piano score, Ravel creates colours and effects which perfectly illustrate the ”pictures,” showing not only a meticulous craftsmanship, but also an exceptional aural imagination perfectly in tune with Mussorgsky’s vision; an interpretation of one great artist by another. Promenade: This depicts the composer himself examining the exhibits in the exhibition. Gnomus: A portrayal of a dwarf, limping in a grotesque manner. Promenade. Il Vecchio Castello. (The Ancient Castle.) A minstrel sings, in the evening, before a castle in an Italian landscape. The minstrel is represented by a saxophone. Promenade. Tuileries: Children, with their nurses, are playing and quarrelling in the Paris gardens. Bydlo: This is a Polish ox-wagon with huge wheels. Promenade. Ballet des Poussins dans leurs Coques. (Ballet of the Chickens in their Shells.): A drawing of a scene from a ballet. Samuel Goldenburg and Schmule: A conversation between a rich and a poor Jew. The two pictures were owned by Mussorgsky himself. Limoges. Le Marche. (The Market Place.) The sounds of the female market traders bargaining and gossiping with each other. Catacombae. Sepulchrum Romanum. Hartmann depicts himself examining the catacombs of Paris with a lantern. Cum Mortuis in Lingua Mortua. (Speaking to the dead in a dead language.) Mussorgsky himself gave a description of this piece. “Hartmann’s creative spirit leads me towards the skulls (in the catacombs); he addresses them and they gradually become illuminated from within.” La Cabane sur des Pattes de Poule. (The Hut on Fowl’s Legs.) This was the abode of the legendary Witch of Russian folklore, Baba Yaga. Hartmann’s picture showed this in the form of a clock. Mussorgsky’s music also seems to depict the witch flying through the air in the mortar in which she would grind human bones to a paste. La Grande Porte de Kiev. (The Great Gate of Kiev.) This was an architectural design for a gate in the ancient Russian style. Programme notes by Alexander Cowdell © 2021

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AYO MEMBERS Governance Dame Catherine Tizard ONZ GCMG GCVO DBE QSO DStJ, Patron Michael McLellan, FTCL LRSM, President Alastair Clement, Vice-President

Executive Committee Alexander Cowdell Anne-Marie Forsyth Mary Lin Helen Lewis

Chairman Secretary Manager Treasurer

Antun Poljanich Rachael Brand Bryan Lin

Music Director Communications Assistant Manager

Player Representatives: James Brady, Tavite Tonga

Administration Alison Dunlop and Louise Roe Librarians

Honorary Members Alastair Clement Michael McLellan Anne Draffin

Cameron Stuart Lynn Pettit

Barrie Ross Lois Westwood

Subscribing Members Philippa Black Rachael Brand Alexander Cowdell Ian Cunningham Anne-Marie Forsyth Julie Goodyer

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Judith Gust Mark Hall Helen Lewis Acer & Tina Lin Mary Lin

Tom Morton Grant Reay Kevin & Jan Sutton And 1 Anonymous Subscriber


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special thanks to Franco Viganoni who generously gives his time and professional expertise in digitally recording our concerts using state-of-the-art electronics and a unique system of microphones. www.viganoni.com

The ongoing support of the following organisations is acknowledged with thanks:

ABOUT AYO Founded in 1948, the Auckland Youth Orchestra (AYO) is the premier regional youth orchestra in New Zealand and was the first youth orchestra established in the Southern Hemisphere, designed to bridge the gap between school orchestras and adult professional groups. AYO inspires young people to excel through their love of musical performance and provides them with a wide range of cultural experiences, thus shaping our leaders of tomorrow. AYO makes an important contribution to the cultural life of Auckland and NZ. AYO performs up to 12 concerts a year throughout the upper North Island region and has attracted full houses at their concerts in many locations. This endeavour requires large operating costs and AYO relies upon the generosity of our Sponsors, Subscribers, and Supporters. All grants and donations are helpful and appreciated.

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AYO PLAYERS Violin I ‡ Zosia Herlihy-O’Brien ‡ Kauri May Martin Qiang Darren Breeze Wenjia Li Tabitha Yates Bethany Yates Chisato Aida Daisy Chen Alan Qin Emma Ma Reuben Chung Sheena Lin Violin II #Bryan Lin Matilda Hol Athena Shiu Santiago Romano Annabel O’Rourke Michael Tran Justin Chan Kelly Siew Ollie Burton Ailis Su Joey Lee Sebastian Romano Nathan Choi Zac Turner Angeline Xiao Maggie Yang

Double Bass # Oliver Spalter Alicia Kidd Zazi Ndebele Kahnyell Talamaivao Legend ‡ Joint Concertmasters # Principal

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Viola # Jessie Anderson Jasper Lin Daniel Kim Irene Kim Tony Zhang Nicholas Newman Elise Ji Elena Bloksberg Hazel Watson-Smith Elisa Wu Cello #Damon Herlihy-O’Brien Eva Wu Claire Xu Vincent Chen Phoebe Qiu Max Wen Masha Pavlenko Wooyoung Wang Ben Lin Cindy Huang Eric Liang Tara Hurley Season Kan Flute # Anna Kexin Zhang Claire Huang Isobel Hegan Piccolo Alina Chen Oboe # Akari Ouchi George Guo (& Cor Anglais) Hannah Barber-Wilson Clarinet # Kiara Kong Olivia Littlejohn Jack Sloan Bass Clarinet Olivia Littlejohn

Bassoon # Sue Lynn Leong Daniel Huang Monica Dunn (Guest) Saxophone Tessa Frazer French Horn # Henry Close Max Glazier Evan Metcalfe Ella Riley Steven Yu Trumpet # Jake Krishnamurti James Brady James Liston Trombone # Daniel Nihotte Tavite Tonga Esther Simpson Euphonium Mark Bingham (Guest) Tuba # Lachlan Grant Timpani # Camryn Nel Percussion Michael Cai James Tang Naomi Kelly Amy Laithwaite Catherine Chang (Celeste) Harp Harrison Chau Ella Liang


DONATIONS If you marvel at the music produced by these young musicians, help us continue the work by making a donation either online (see our website) or via the buckets with ushers as you leave the concert (Auckland Town Hall concert only) All donations will be appreciated and, if your name and email address is included, you will receive a receipt for tax rebate purposes.

PLAY YOUR PART Our Executive Committee would welcome some new members. Please contact our Secretary, Anne-Marie Forsyth ayo@ayo.org.nz if you would like to investigate or discuss ways you could become involved in this enjoyable and rewarding work. Attend our concerts! Check our website regularly for concert information: ayo.org.nz Sign up to receive the Chairman’s e-newsletter on our website homepage Like us on Facebook: www.facebook.com/AYOrchestra Join us by emailing auditions@ayo.org.nz – auditions held in December

BECOME AN AYO SUPPORTER Our Supporters Scheme provides invaluable financial support in assisting us to balance our books. A donation of $60 or more will confer General Supporter status and, in appreciation of such support, we reserve seats for our General Supporters at the Auckland Town Hall concerts. Many of our Supporters appreciate being able to relax before the concert, knowing that seats are held for them. The names of our Supporters are also listed in our printed programmes as an acknowledgement (unless anonymity is requested). General Supporter >$ 60 Special Supporter >$ 500 Golden Supporter >$5,000 AYO is a registered charity and has IRD Donee Organisation status - a tax receipt is issued for all donations. See our website for easy ways to make donations or contact our Treasurer: treasurer@ayo.org.nz.

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ROLL OF HONOUR We are grateful to those who leave a bequest to AYO in their will and acknowledge again the gracious bequests received in the past from the estates of: 2019 2013 2005 1999

Beverley Alison Simmons Janetta McStay Moya Rea Norman W (Chip) Stevens

1995 1988 1987 1976

Alicia Griffin Patricia Emma Sara Cole Alwyn Olive Hutchinson Joan Rattray

© Photo by Dave Simpson Photography

Cover Art by Grace Gao © 2021 Cover Photography by Kenny Li © 2021 Auckland Youth Orchestra | Here Plays the Future ayo.org.nz

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