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Volume 110, Number 2

conser ation



contents 32

20 Tonle Sap: Floating Heart of Cambodia


Story and photos by Eleanor Brigss Saving Southeast Asia’s largest c olony of water birds.

Prairie Wolves in the Palmettos By Howard Youth The adaptable coyote pushes farther south in the Sunshine State.

Letter from the Field

26 12 Conservation Hotline

conservation Volume 110, Number 2

On the Cover: “Atelopus sp.13,” a tiny harlequin frog recently discovered in Ecuador, could go extinct before it can be described and formally named. Story on page 32.


wildlife conservation

Connecting the Dots By Alan Rabinowitz Saving the jaguar through-out its range.



Media Safari




Wild Places

Where are the Clowns? Story and photos by Charles Bergman Ecuador’s colorful harlequin frogs bring attention to South America’s vanishing amphibians

60 Online Resources



The Greatest Living Thing on Earth

Shopping Green/Classified

By Michael Tennesen The vast Amazon Basin is the site of a full-scale war over its vital natural resources.

52 Animal Kingdom

Wildlife Conservation is published six times a year by the Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY 10460. Copyright Wildlife Conservation Society, 2007. All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this magazine may be reproduced by any means without the written consent of Wildlife Conservation Magazine. National affiliate membership: $24.95 for one year. Foreign membership: $31.95 for one year – payable in U.S. funds only. Gift and foreign memberships must be prepaid. Join on-line at www. Single-copy prices: current issue $4.95, back issues $6.00, plus $1.00 postage. Periodicals postage paid at Bronx, NY and additional entry offices. U.S.A. newsstand distribution by Coast to Coast Newsstand Service, 5230 Finch Avenue, Suite One, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M1S 4Z9; POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Wildlife Conservation Magazine, 2300 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10460; or via email to; include both new and old mailing addresses. Web site

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conservation hotline C.J. Chivers

RARE CAT CAPTURE Just three days after catching a Siberian tiger in the Russian Far East, an international team led by WCS biologists captured another felid species, which carries the dubious distinction of being the world’s most endangered big cat: a Far Eastern leopard (below). One of only 30 left in the wild, the animal was captured in a trapline – a series of snares set out by scientists to temporarily catch big cats for genetic analysis. The 45-kilogram (100-pound) male was captured in Southwest Primorski Krai in


wildlife conservation

the southern Russian Far East less than 20 miles from the Chinese border. Before releasing the leopard, the team of scientists from WCS, the Institute of Biology and Soils of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Laboratory of Genomic Diversity of the National Cancer Institute conducted medical evaluations, and collected sperm samples to assess the animal’s ability to reproduce. Genetic analyses, in conjunction with other biomedical evaluations, will be used to determine whether leopards and tigers suffer

from the effects of inbreeding among closely related individuals, a common problem when wildlife populations are small. “This capture represents a milestone in our cooperative efforts to save the Far Eastern leopard and Siberian tiger from extinction,” says Dale Miquelle, director of WCS’s Russia Program. “With the information gained from these animals, and others to come, we will be in a much better position to determine appropriate conservation actions.”


The regional government of Kamchatka has announced that it intends to set aside more than six million acres of headwaters-to-ocean watershed as a refuge for wild salmon (right). The plan would protect large parcels of nearly pristine wilderness and some of the most productive salmon rivers (above) on Earth. Roughly the size of California, Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula produces from one-sixth to one-quarter of the Pacific Ocean’s wild salmon, making it one of the last sources of a culturally and economically important fish. The Wild Salmon Center, based in Portland, Oregon, spurred the plan, urging Russia not to repeat the mistakes in salmon management made by the United States and Canada. Many historic spawning and nursery areas in those countries long ago fell out of use as a result of pollution, dam-building, logging, development in estuaries, and over fishing. In addition, parasites and genetic mixing with escaped hatchery fish have caused alarm about the health of remaining salmon stocks. So far, the Kol and Kekhta rivers have been declared reserves, and seven more rivers in Kamchatka are under review. The government hopes to grant protection during 2007 or 2008. The plan is ambitious, and Russia’s endemic corruption could render the protection meaningless. Just weeks after the announcement, authorities arrested poachers with more than 18 tons of illegally harvested salmon eggs, sign of a thriving black market. “The question is, Will the Russian government have the resources – financial, personnel, and political – to properly manage these large protected areas?” says WCS fisheries scientist Dan Erickson.


connecting the dots saving the jaguar throughout its range.

by Alan Rabinowitz Two men dressed as jaguars circle each other and growl, trying to bring rain to a village on the Pacific coast of Mexico. A Mayan farmer in Belize finds jaguar tracks near his thatched hut, and ties his dog inside for the night. A Guahibo shaman in Venezuela paints his face with black spots, then snorts a powerful narcotic through a hollow jaguar bone. A cowboy in the Brazilian Pantanal examines the fresh remains of a cow, looking for characteristic puncture wounds or chipped vertebrae that will tell him a jaguar is prowling the area. These modern-day events, seemingly unrelated, are tied to a cultural heritage that thrived in pre-Columbian empires of the Americas. These are the people of the jaguar, connected by a powerful cultural thread binding them to their ancestors, to one another, and to the world’s third largest cat.

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The jaguar’s fossil history spans nearly 1.5 million years. A larger version of today’s cat once ranged as far north as Washington State. But as the species’ distribution and body size decreased over time, this secretive, robustly built cat entered the twentieth century roaming unbroken forests and shrub lands from the southwestern United States through the dry pampas of Argentina. The technology boom of the 1900s brought inventions such as the airplane, the tractor, the automobile, and the rocket, and created a huge demand for many of Earth’s natural resources as well as a greater ability to get at and extract these resources. The forests of the jaguar came under siege. By the 1960s, environmental degradation and decades of harvesting spotted cat skins for the North American and European fashion industries had decimated many jaguar populations. In 1969 alone, nearly 10,000 jaguar skins valued at more than $1.5 million were imported into the U.S. By the time most of the jaguar range countries outlawed the trade, during the 1970s, sharp declines in jaguar numbers were noted from areas where the cats had once been abundant. Meanwhile, Latin America’s human population was growing faster than that of any other region except Africa. Of the world’s four great cats—tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard—the jaguar is the least studied, the most elusive, and, in many ways, the most problematic. Until recently, scientists could not even guess at the cats’ numbers, but the people who encountered jaguars—usually through conflicts with livestock or pets—always believed there were too many. In fact, in most areas, jaguar numbers were steadily declining, as habitats were shrinking and prey populations were heavily hunted, forcing more jaguars into contact with people and livestock. In 1999, realizing that scientists knew little more about jaguars than when I had first studied them in the jungles of Belize 20 years


wildlife conservation

earlier, the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) held a workshop that brought together more than two dozen experts from throughout the jaguar’s range. Using Global Information System (GIS) technology, we developed detailed maps of existing jaguar habitat. We also pooled our knowledge to determine where good jaguar populations still existed, assess the most significant threats to the species, and devise a strategy to mitigate those threats and to protect important populations throughout the cat’s wide range. The bad news quickly became evident. During the last 100 years, more than half of the jaguar’s habitat had been obliterated. Central America had lost 65 percent of its forest cover, and Brazil 58 percent. The cats had disappeared from North America. Latin America had one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world, and the attitudes of local people had changed little. Jaguars were viewed as dangerous predators and inveterate cattle killers to be shot on sight. But there was also good news, and cause for optimism. Jaguar populations persisted in scores of areas from Mexico to Argentina, in habitat that was mostly intact, though often unprotected. We called these areas Jaguar Conservation Units (JCUs). And while livestock depredation and outright killing of jaguars remained two of the most persistent threats to jaguar survival, we now had the technology and methods to more accurately study jaguars and to help lessen conflicts with livestock. Out of that workshop, the WCS Jaguar Conservation Program was born. Within a few years, we had carried out exploratory surveys, population estimates, and ecological research in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil. We also launched experimental projects with ranchers to resolve jaguar-livestock issues in the Brazilian Pantanal, the Venezuelan llanos, the Beliz-

ean rain forest, and Mexico’s Sonoran Desert. A jaguar education curriculum was developed in Spanish, and a small grant program funded young nationals who wanted to help conserve their country’s jaguars and at the same time advance their careers. But the longer we worked on jaguars, the more reports of jaguar conflicts and the more requests for assistance from students, ranchers, local farmers, and government agencies crossed my desk. Jaguars were popping up in some unlikely sites, not always near designated JCUs. One day, I sat in my office pinpointing jaguar locations on a map of the cat’s range. Then, as if playing a game, I started connecting the dots. When I was finished, I realized what we all had been missing. My thoughts went back to 1997, when a study of the skull characteristics used for nearly a hundred years to separate jaguars into eight subspecies found that jaguars are, in fact, structurally alike throughout their range. Two years later, at the time of our workshop, DNA research conclusively showed that jaguars had not yet diverged into any discrete subspecies. The implication of such data is that jaguars, despite gross loss of habitat and continual persecution, are the only widely distributed large carnivore species in the world that has not fragmented into isolated, self-contained populations in any part of its range. There is only one jaguar out there. The question is, why? Simulation models show that, in a population of only 20 mammals, genetic exchange from just a few outside individuals per decade is enough to increase the probability of that population’s survival. The same experiment showed that in a population of 50 jaguars, genetic exchange from only one jaguar every 100 years preserved genetic integrity better than did a single, isolated population of 100 jaguars. Clearly, a few dispersing jaguars over a long period of time could maintain genetic continuity and prevent isolation between the populations.

In 1993, reports of jaguars occasionally swimming across the Panama Canal were borne out by track evidence on Barro Colorado Island. In 1996, a rancher in southern Arizona, thinking his dogs had cornered a puma, grabbed his camera and photographed a jaguar. That photograph led to the discovery of a small jaguar population in the Sonoran state of Mexico, which had been completely off the experts’ radar screen. We quickly realized that some jaguars were traveling long distances from Mexico into the seemingly inhospitable desert habitat of the southwestern U.S. This was no anomaly. State game agencies had decades of reports of regular, though infrequent, visits by jaguars to the United States-Mexico border. Sitting at my desk, I stared at the dots I had just connected. I thought about jaguars walking the beaches of Costa Rica, wandering the mangrove swamps of Mexico, moving through citrus plantations in Belize, crossing high mountain passes in the Andes, and living in the harsh Chaco region of Bolivia. Hunters believe that jaguars wander long distances through almost any kind of habitat. When the last jaguar was killed in California in 1955, American naturalist Aldo Leopold estimated the cat had traveled at least 500 miles from its home. Genetic uncertainty strongly affects extinction in animal populations. I realized that we had an unprecedented opportunity to guarantee the survival of the jaguar. While I had been focusing our efforts on JCUs—known jaguar populations in areas with relatively abundant prey and largely intact habitat—I had ignored the mostly humandominated landscapes between these sites. With no clear genetic divergence detected between populations throughout the cats’ range, I could

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Of the world’s four great cats—tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard—the jaguar is the least studied, the most elusive, and, in many ways, the most problematic.

assume that at least some jaguars were using these landscapes—dispersing through everything from citrus plantations to village gardens. We decided to refocus the WCS Jaguar Conservation Program and call it Paseo Tigre—the Path of the Jaguar—to connect the dots in the field, so to speak. The goal is lofty, but to settle for anything less is to cheat the jaguar out of its best chance for survival. The most important component of Paseo Tigre is still the JCUs. But in addition to identifying, surveying, and protecting these populations, whether on public or private lands, we want to know how jaguars move between the JCUs. We know what jaguars need: occasional access to water, some degree of forest cover, and prey species that can range from peccaries to armadillos. We also know that jaguars can live close to people, but they generally avoid large open areas and sites of high human density. A consensus among jaguar experts produced six landscape features that most affect jaguar presence and movement: habitat type, percent of tree and shrub cover, elevation, human densities, human settlements, and roads. This allowed us to map the broader landscape over which jaguars can potentially move throughout their range. Then we subdivided each landscape feature into categories (the percentage of tree or shrub cover, for example) in order to fine-tune the landscape and delineate the most highly probable dispersal corridors that jaguars actually use to travel between neighboring JCUs. By August 2005, after more than a year of work and consultation, the maps are finished. I sit mesmerized by the huge swath of green representing the potential landscape over which jaguars can move, and the narrower yellow corridors connecting JCUs. While

good jaguar habitat has decreased more than 50 percent during the last century, the potential for the dispersal of jaguars is still extensive, only 16 percent smaller than the cat’s historic range. And while jaguar numbers have decreased markedly, we know of at least 52 JCUs with more than 800,000 square miles of habitat. We already have completed more than 40 surveys. We have assisted cattle ranchers in four countries via ongoing outreach programs. And there are scores of passionate young grantees studying jaguars. My elation is short-lived, however. A closer look at the maps reveals serious potential holes in the animals’ dispersal routes. Jaguar movement through parts of Mexico, Panama, and Colombia is clearly a problem, and the connections to some crucial JCUs, such as the Brazilian Pantanal, are extremely tenuous. We need to immediately investigate these areas. There are years of fieldwork ahead: surveying, monitoring, and refining our data sets for the JCUs and the landscapes connecting them. Working closely with the WCS Latin America staff and other NGOs (non-governmental organizations), we must set up more protected areas, investigate land purchases and conservation easements, work with local communities within the jaguar corridors, incorporate jaguar education as part of school curricula, and bring the governments of 17 countries on board with the idea of formally recognizing jaguar corridors as part of strategic planning for national land-use policies. On a warm summer evening in New York City, I sit at dinner with Carlos Manuel Rodriguez Echandi, Minister of the Environment and Energy for the Republic of Costa Rica. A fervent conservationist and jaguar lover, he is a major force behind new protected areas and schemes to sustainably use his country’s natural resources. He listens intently as I lay out the idea of Paseo Tigre. When I finish, he leans back and looks thoughtful. He knows my unasked question, is it possible? “This is good,” he says finally, nodding his head and smiling. “With your help, Costa Rica will be the first to set this up. Then we will convince others that this must be done.” Alan Rabinowitz is director of the WCS Science and Exploration Program. In our October 2005 issue, he wrote about setting up the world’s largest tiger reserve in Myanmar.

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wildlife conservation


The adaptable coyote pushes farther south in the Sunshine State By Howard Youth Lean and tall with a shaved head, Troy Hershberger squats to inspect an almost perfectly round, two-foot-wide circle of sand. A white, silverdollar-size disk—a fatty acid scent bait—lies dead-center in the sand patch, emitting an odor that, while not easily detected by humans, screams “Fast food!” to local wild carnivores. This is Scent Station 23, one of 52 such patches Hershberger has set up across the wildlife paradise better known as the Avon Park Air Force Range. On the 106,000acre range, 60 miles southeast of Tampa, Florida, bombing practice, military maneuvers, cattle ranching, and conservation projects all occur in a mosaic of pine flatwoods, dry prairies, Florida scrub, cutthroat grass seeps, and wetlands abutting the Kissimmee River.remains of a cow, looking for characteristic puncture wounds or chipped vertebrae that will tell him a jaguar is prowling the area. These modern-day events, seemingly unrelated, are tied to a cultural heritage that thrived in pre-Columbian empires of the Americas. These are the people of the jaguar, connected by a powerful cultural thread binding them to their ancestors, to one another, and to the world’s third largest cat.

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Above: Coyotes fight while the is black female substantially wounded.


wildlife conservation

“This place is as close to pristine as this area of Florida gets these days,” says Hershberger, a biologist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Wildlife Services. Surrounding us are slash pine groves carpeted with spiny saw palmetto that bustle with bird sounds—brownheaded nuthatch squeaks, pine warbler trills, and eastern towhee drink-your-teas. With such varied habitat, it’s no wonder that within days of preparing the stations, Hershberger sees plenty of gray fox, bobcat, spotted skunk, and raccoon tracks in the sun-baked sand. But he also sees more and more signs of the new predator on the block. Tipping back the brim of his baseball cap, he points to two plum-size dimples in the sand. “Coyote tracks. See the oval profiles and how the front two toenails are so close together?” Range biologist Marian Lichtler kneels next to Hershberger and nods. The two work together at Avon Park to assess the collision risks posed by wildlife to Navy aircraft and how best to manage the property for its federal- and state-listed threatened and endangered species. These species include the rare Florida subspecies of grasshopper sparrow, the red-cockaded woodpecker, the Florida scrub jay, the Florida scrub lizard, and the Florida deer mouse. They want to know how the coyote will fit into the ecosystem. This is not the first scent survey staged on the property. Between 1999 and 2001, the same 52 locations averaged 25.2 percent visitation by coyotes—meaning about a quarter of the sites registered coyote tracks—well above averages in other parts of the state, except for the coyote-saturated northwest. On the first day of checking his 2006 baits, Hershberger was already up to 22.4 percent. (Later, he told me that on the fifth and last day of the survey, he registered a record 34.7 percent— coyotes had checked out more than one-third of the scent stations.) Biologist David Starr Jordan thumbnailed the coyote in 1929 in his Manual of the Vertebrate Animals of the Northeastern United States. “Coyote. Prairie Wolf. Common on the Great Plains, burrowing in the ground. A vagabond, dog-like animal, half bold and half timid, yet lazy all through.” At the time, people were sighting coyotes as far east as Illinois. A revision of Jordan’s book 77 years later would list the “vagabond” as living throughout the United States, except for Hawaii, across much of Canada, and as far south as Panama. And although it is risky

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to pin human traits on other animals, in the wake of one of the most rapid expansions of any carnivore, coyotes seem anything but lazy. For a century, they have been advancing their range, helped by deforestation, which provided the open areas and edges they favor, and by the eradication of the gray and the red wolf, their larger competitors. Along with the eastern cottontail, the white-tailed deer, and the raccoon, the coyote is one of the most widespread mammals in the East. And now, this adaptable animal is filling in the remaining gaps, with recent first appearances in Washington, D.C. and southern Florida. The coyote’s presence in the Sunshine State is news to many Floridians. “When we surveyed more than two hundred University of South Florida [USF] students, most didn’t know coyotes were in the state. Those that did had a negative attitude toward them,” says Denara Manning, a USF graduate student studying the diet and intestinal parasites of coyotes in Florida’s most urbanized county, Pinellas. Over the years, scattered reports of the escape or release of captive coyotes surfaced in Florida, but few dispute that the coyote’s proliferation can be traced to the forays of wild canid pioneers from Alabama and Georgia. By the late 1970s, coyotes had settled into the northern part of Florida. Today, they live in 65 of the state’s 67 counties. As happens with fish tales, the more people talk about coyotes moving in, the larger and more ominous they seem to grow. “A big

[eastern] coyote weighs thirty-five to forty pounds—a medium-size dog at best. It is not a wolf,” says Martin Main, a wildlife ecologist and associate professor at the University of Florida. Main often finds himself cutting the coyote down to size for Floridians worried about their new wild neighbors. The burning question is, Will the coyote turn into a big-time calf predator in central Florida’s cattle country? At Avon Park, Marian Lichtler doesn’t hear much about coyotes from the eight or nine ranchers who lease grazing allotments across much of the Air Force range. “They’re much more likely to come to me to complain about the ’gators or feral dogs taking calves rather than coyotes at this point,” she says. “So far, coyote attacks on Florida livestock are not commonplace. That could change as coyotes grow more abundant.” According to Main, however, “Coyotes will not be the death knell for the livestock industry.” But he adds, “They’re also not going to be eliminated.” It was Main who developed the scent-survey protocols Hershberger uses at Avon Park. Main devised this technique in an effort to map the coyote’s Florida-wide presence from 1997 to 2004. In talking to Florida ranchers, he documented increased reports of coyote attacks on cattle (primarily calves) from 1992 to 1997, with most attacks occurring between November and April, when cows calve in Florida pastures. Main agrees with other biologists who recommend that control

Along with the eastern cottontail, the white-tailed deer, and the raccoon, the coyote is one of the most widespread mammals in the East.


wildlife conservation

I think in general coyotes will bring some ecological balance to natural systems by helping to control ’possums, raccoons, foxes, and other smallersize predators. -Martin Main

efforts pinpoint problem coyotes rather than reverting to the “only good coyote is a dead coyote” attitude that is so common in the West. “A general widespread control effort would be ineffective and expensive,” he says. “If you’re not losing calves to coyotes and you kill coyotes holding territories, new coyotes will move in. These new coyotes may have already learned to kill calves.” Main believes coyotes have a role to play in Florida ecosystems, one that may affect other species for better or worse. “Anytime you have an opportunistic predator, if they have the opportunity to kill endangered species, it doesn’t matter, to them it looks like lunch,” says Main, who has gathered reports of coyotes killing burrowing owls and digging up sea turtle nests on northern Florida beaches. Although they do eat birds, coyotes may have less impact on their populations because the canids often occur at lower densities than do smaller predators. “I think in general coyotes will bring some ecological balance to natural systems by helping to control ’possums, raccoons, foxes, and other smaller-size predators,” says Main. Feral or house cats, for example, often wind-up on the coyote’s menu. “Florida has millions of free-ranging cats,” he adds. “We’re also a pipeline for many Neotropical migrant birds. For every exhausted bird that lands on the ground, there’s a hungry cat nearby. By killing cats, coyotes will probably help bird populations.” The ecological impact of the coyote’s quiet march into Florida may

not be clearly understood for decades. “It’s a huge ecological experiment in which we have the chance to get data from the start,” sums up Main. As information flows in from the efforts of biologists like Hershberger, the picture will come into sharper focus. Hershberger takes me to see Scent Station 16, positioned along a dirt road in the heart of one of Florida’s most threatened habitats, Florida scrub—a head-high, thick tangle of runner and scrub oak, wax myrtle, and gallberry. Oval coyote tracks pock the circular sand patch. A few feet away, Hershberger and Lichtler spot a scat bound with rabbit fur, probably left by a bobcat. “With this new coyote population coming in, it’ll be interesting to follow how this major predator may affect the ecosystem, especially the endangered species,” Hershberger says. With the scent stations up and running, he will soon turn his attention to detailed studies of the coyote’s diet and an investigation into which animals eat the eggs and young of the endangered Florida grasshopper sparrow, for which Avon Park is a last refuge. Is the coyote an added challenge to this struggling ground-nesting songbird, which is already saddled with habitat loss? As with many questions swirling around the stealthy, spreading coyote, accusations can be made, but answers come only with time. Maryland writer Howard Youth specializes in wildlife conservation issues and writes for a variety of publications.

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NEW YORK HALL OF SCIENCE Queens, New York 11368 www.nyscience.o

SPIRIT OF THE ISLANDS PHOTOGRAPHY Island Photography Focusing on Hawaii


WOLF P. WEBER Stock & Virtual Gallery

SAVE THE MANATEE CLUB The world’s leading nonprofit manatee conservation organization. For more information go to:


THE GROUNDED EAGLE FOUNDATION Raptor rehabilitation and conservation.

AFRICA SAFARI SPECIALISTS Safaris off the beaten track AFRICAN SILVER SAFARIS AMAZONIA EXPEDITIONS Customized itineraries offered from award-winning wilderness rainforest lodge

TRAVEL/TOURISM ADVENTURE CANADA Specializing in small ship expeditions to the Canadian Arctic, Greenland Arctic, Greenland, Scotland, Norway, and the Galapagos.




AFRICA ADVENTURE COMPANY AFRICAN HORIZONS Safaris and Tours AFRICAN PORTFOLIO Specialists in creating unique, educational and affordable tours and safaris for adventure and wildlife enthusiasts


RIVER ODYSSEYS WEST One- to six-day wilderness rafting and canoeing trips to Idaho, Montana & Oregon. SAFARI YELLOWSTONE AND GRAND TETON Yellowstone’s premier Wildlife Safari Company. 1-7 day private safaris. Wolves, Bears, Wildlife, Hikes, History and More! SOJOURNS IN NATURE Nature Tours & Photo Workshops SPRINGFIELD MISSOURI CONVENTION AND VISITORS BUREAU


WALKING SAFARIS – ZAMBIA Small (6) group walking safaris with top guides in the real Africa.

CHURCHILL NATURE TOURS Spring birdwatching, summer whale watching and fall polar bear safaris in marvellous Manitoba WWW.DELTA.COM DREAM TEAM Visit The Dolphins GO SOUTH ADVENTURES Galapagos, Machu Picchu, Costa Rica, Patagonia . . . and more. Your spirit, our adventures. INTERNATIONAL VENTURES INTREPID TRAVEL Small group eco-tours and adventures worldwide. 866-847-8192 KARIBA HOUSEBOAT SAFARIS Private guided walks with Black Rhinos in Matusadona National Park




BLUE CHAMELEON ADVENTURES Madagascar Ecotour Specialists BRONX TROLLEY TOUR Free Trolley Tour to Cultural Attractions in the Bronx

wildlife conservation

WEB DESIGN RAVEN CREATIVE Web Development & Content Management WEBB COMMUNICATIONS Web Site Development, E-commerce & Graphic Design



JACKSON ZOO Jackson, Mississippi

Potter Park Zoological Gardens Lansing, Michigan

JACKSONVILLE ZOO Jacksonville, Florida

Prospect Park Zoo Brooklyn, New York

JOHN BALL ZOO Grand Rapids, Michigan

Queens Zoo Queens, New York


Racine Zoological Gardens Racine, Wisconsin

London Zoo Zoological Society of London

Riverbanks Zoo & Gardens Columbia, South Carolina

Louisville Zoological Gardens Louisville, Kentucky

Riverside Zoo Scottsbluff, Nebraska

Miami Metrozoo Miami, Florida

Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Park Syracuse, New York

Micke Grove Zoo Lodi, California

Sacramento Zoo Sacramento, California

Montgomery Zoo Montgomery, Alabama

Saint Louis Zoo St. Louis, Missouri

EL PASO ZOO El Paso Texas

Naples Zoo at Caribbean Gardens

San Antonio Zoo San Antonio, Texas


New York Aquarium Brooklyn, New York


Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo Omaha, Nebraska

Tautphaus Park Zoo Idaho Falls, Idaho Whipsnade Wild Animal Park Zoological Society of London Wildlife Conservation Society Bronx, New York

Palm Beach Zoo at Dreher Park West Palm Beach, Florida



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Wildlife Redesign  

A redesign suggestion for the popular magazine Wildlife. The magazine includes a table of contents, feature articles, and online resources.

Wildlife Redesign  

A redesign suggestion for the popular magazine Wildlife. The magazine includes a table of contents, feature articles, and online resources.